Sample records for aggregates by source

  1. Effect of carbon sources on the aggregation of photo fermentative bacteria induced by L-cysteine for enhancing hydrogen production. (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Ding, Jie; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Chao; Zhou, Xu; Ren, Nan-Qi


    Poor flocculation of photo fermentative bacteria resulting in continuous biomass washout from photobioreactor is a critical challenge to achieve rapid and stable hydrogen production. In this work, the aggregation of Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 was successfully developed in a photobioreactor and the effects of different carbon sources on hydrogen production and aggregation ability were investigated. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production by R. faecalis RLD-53 cultivated using different carbon sources were stimulated by addition of L-cysteine. The absolute ζ potentials of R. faecalis RLD-53 were considerably decreased with addition of L-cysteine, and aggregation barriers based on DLVO dropped to 15-43 % of that in control groups. Thus, R. faecalis RLD-53 flocculated effectively, and aggregation abilities of strain RLD-53 cultivated with acetate, propionate, lactate and malate reached 29.35, 32.34, 26.07 and 24.86 %, respectively. In the continuous test, hydrogen-producing activity was also promoted and reached 2.45 mol H2/mol lactate, 3.87 mol H2/mol propionate and 5.10 mol H2/mol malate, respectively. Therefore, the aggregation of R. faecalis RLD-53 induced by L-cysteine is independent on the substrate types, which ensures the wide application of this technology to enhance hydrogen recovery from wastewater dominated by different organic substrates.

  2. Photoacoustic ultrasound sources from diffusion-limited aggregates (United States)

    Patel, Krutik; Brubaker, Morgan; Kotlerman, Alexander; Salazar, Robert; Wolf, Eli; Weld, David M.


    Metallic diffusion-limited aggregate (DLA) films are well-known to exhibit near-perfect broadband optical absorption. We demonstrate that such films also manifest a substantial and relatively material-independent photoacoustic response, as a consequence of their random nanostructure. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the photoacoustic phenomena in DLA films and show that they can be used to create broadband air-coupled acoustic sources. These sources are inexpensive and simple to fabricate and work into the ultrasonic regime. We illustrate the device possibilities by building and testing an optically addressed acoustic phased array capable of producing virtually arbitrary acoustic intensity patterns in air.

  3. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  4. Dispersion and functionalization of nanoparticles synthesized by gas aggregation source: Opening new routes towards the fabrication of nanoparticles for bio-medicine (United States)

    Oprea, B.; Martínez, L.; Román, E.; Vanea, E.; Simon, S.; Huttel, Y.


    The need to find new nanoparticles for biomedical applications is pushing the limits of the fabrication methods. New techniques with versatilities beyond the extended chemical routes can provide new insight in the field. In particular gas aggregation sources offer the possibility to fabricate nanoparticles with controlled size, composition and structure out of thermodynamics. In this context, the milestone is the optimization of the dispersion and functionalization processes of nanoparticles once fabricated by these routes as they are generated in the gas phase and deposited on substrates in vacuum or ultra-high vacuum conditions. In the present work we propose a fabrication route in ultra-high vacuum that is compatible with the subsequent dispersion and functionalization of nanoparticles in aqueous media and, that is more remarkable, in one single step. In particular, we will present the fabrication of nanoparticles with a sputter gas aggregation source, using a Fe50B50 target, and their further dispersion and functionalization with polyethileneglycol (PEG). A characterization of these nanoparticles is carried out before and after PEG functionalization. During functionalization, significant boron dissolution occurs, which facilitates nanoparticle dispersion in the aqueous solution. The use of different complementary techniques allows us to prove the PEG attachment onto the surface of the nanoparticles creating a shell to make them biocompatible. The result is the formation of nanoparticles with a structure mainly composed by a metallic Fe core and an iron oxide shell, surrounded by a second PEG shell dispersed in aqueous solution. Relaxivitiy measurements of these PEG functionalized nanoparticles assessed their effectiveness as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) analysis. Therefore, this new fabrication route is a reliable alternative for the synthesis of nanoparticles for biomedicine. PMID:26640032

  5. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.


    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  6. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio


    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  7. Aggregate Formed by a Cationic Fluorescence Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Juan; SANG, Da-Yong; JI, Guo-Zhen


    The aggregation behavior of a cationic fluorescence probe 10-(4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxa-1-azacyclooctadecyl-methyl)anthracen-9-ylmethyl dodecanoate (1) was observed and studied by a fluorescence methodology in acidic and neutral conditions. By using the Py scale, differences between simple aggregates and micelles have been discussed. The stability of simple aggregates was discussed in terms of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. The absence of excimer emission of the anthrancene moiety of probe 1 in neutral condition was attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism instead of photodimerization.

  8. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang


    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...... either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation...

  9. Control of aggregation-induced emission by DNA hybridization


    Li, Shaoguang; Langenegger, Simon Matthias; Häner, Robert


    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was studied by hybridization of dialkynyl-tetraphenylethylene (DATPE) modified DNA strands. Molecular aggregation and fluorescence of DATPEs are controlled by duplex formation.

  10. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.


    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  11. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)


    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  12. Reinforcement of rubber by fractal aggregates (United States)

    Witten, T. A.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R. H.


    Rubber is commonly reinforced with colloidal aggregates of carbon or silica, whose structure has the scale invariance of a fractal object. Reinforced rubbers support large stresses, which often grow faster than linearly with the strain. We argue that under strong elongation the stress arises through lateral compression of the aggregates, driven by the large bulk modulus of the rubber. We derive a power-law relationship between stress and elongation λ when λgg 1. The predicted power p depends on the fractal dimension D and a second structural scaling exponent C. For diffusion-controlled aggregates this power p should lie beween 0.9 and 1.1 ; for reaction-controlled aggregates p should lie between 1.8 and 2.4. For uniaxial compression the analogous powers lie near 4. Practical rubbers filled with fractal aggregates should approach the conditions of validity for these scaling laws. On renforce souvent le caoutchouc avec des agrégats de carbone ou de silice dont la structure a l'invariance par dilatation d'un objet fractal. Les caoutchoucs ainsi renforcés supportent de grandes contraintes qui croissent souvent plus vite que l'élongation. Nous prétendons que, sous élongation forte, cette contrainte apparaît à cause d'une compression latérale des agrégats induite par le module volumique important du caoutchouc. Nous établissons une loi de puissance reliant la contrainte et l'élongation λ quand λgg 1. Cet exposant p dépend de la dimension fractale D et d'un deuxième exposant structural C. Pour des agrégats dont la cinétique de formation est limitée par diffusion, p vaut entre 0,9 et 1,1. Si la cinétique est limitée par le soudage local des particules, p vaut entre 1,8 et 2,4. Sous compression uniaxiale, les puissances homologues valent environ 4. Des caoutchoucs pratiques chargés de tels agrégats devraient approcher des conditions où ces lois d'échelle sont valables.

  13. Colonization of diatom aggregates by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    Abundance and vertical distribution of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were studied during a diatom bloom in the Benguela current. Video observations showed the occurrence of abundant Chaetoceros spp. aggregates colonized by N. scintillans. The diatom aggregates were formed by regular...

  14. Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate By Laterite Stone and Fine Aggregate by Quarry Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Rao


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concrete mix with partial replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust and simultaneous partial replacement of coarse aggregate by laterite stone aggregate respectively on compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and workability of concrete. Concrete mixes containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 25 % and 30%, replacement (by weight of fine aggregate with quarry dust and simultaneously 25% replacement of coarse aggregate (by weight with laterite stone were casted in lab and checked for compressive strength, split tensile strength ,flexure strength and workability .This replacement results in making the concrete more economically available.

  15. The Effects of Source Credibility Ratings in a Cultural Heritage Information Aggregator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.K.; Zhang, J.; Cramer, H.; Hardman, L.; Evers, V.


    State of the art web search applications allow the user to aggregate information from many sources. Because of this, users are confronted with having to assess the reliability of information from different sources. This paper reports on an empirical user study on the effect of displaying credibility

  16. On the formation of copper nanoparticles in nanocluster aggregation source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutka, Mikhail V.; Turkin, Anatoliy A.; Vainchtein, David I.; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.


    The influence of pressure and type of inert gas (Ar and Kr) on the morphology and size distribution of nanoparticles produced in a nanocluster source is studied experimentally. The experimental data are used to validate the model of cluster formation from a supersaturated atomic vapor in an inert bu

  17. Aggregation of organic matter by pelagic tunicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens); Deibel, D.


    Three genera of pelagic tunicates were fed concentrates of natural seston and an axenic diatom culture. Fresh and up to 4-day-old feces resemble flocculent organic aggregates containing populations of microorganisms, as described from highly productive parts of the ocean, and older feces resemble the nearly sterile flocculent aggregates which are ubiquitous in surface waters. Fresh feces consist of partially digested phytoplankton and other inclusions in an amorphous gelatinous matrix. After 18 to 36 h, a population of large bacteria develops in the matrix and in some of the remains of phytoplankton contained in the feces. From 48 to 96 h, protozoan populations arise which consume the bacteria and sometimes the remains of the phytoplankton in the feces. Thereafter only a sparse population of microorganisms remains, and the particles begin to fragment. Water samples taken in or below dense populations of salps and doliolids contained greater numbers of flocculent aggregates than did samples from adjacent stations.

  18. [Research methods of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates: a review]. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping


    To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.

  19. Opportunities for Price Manipulation by Aggregators in Electricity Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhi, Navid Azizan; Chen, Niangjun; Wierman, Adam


    Aggregators are playing an increasingly crucial role in the integration of renewable generation in power systems. However, the intermittent nature of renewable generation makes market interactions of aggregators difficult to monitor and regulate, raising concerns about potential market manipulation by aggregators. In this paper, we study this issue by quantifying the profit an aggregator can obtain through strategic curtailment of generation in an electricity market. We show that, while the problem of maximizing the benefit from curtailment is hard in general, efficient algorithms exist when the topology of the network is radial (acyclic). Further, we highlight that significant increases in profit are possible via strategic curtailment in practical settings.

  20. Face detection by aggregated Bayesian network classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.V.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    A face detection system is presented. A new classification method using forest-structured Bayesian networks is used. The method is used in an aggregated classifier to discriminate face from non-face patterns. The process of generating non-face patterns is integrated with the construction of the aggr

  1. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang


    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  2. Monitoring nanoparticle aggregation by optical procedures (United States)

    Chicea, Dan


    The traditional Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) produces the average size of the suspended particles from a recorded time series of the light scattered at a particular angle. A modified and simplified version of DLS was designed, tested and used in monitoring FE3O4 nanoparticle aggregation in aqueous suspensions. In addition two another simple and easy to implement optical procedures were tested aiming a qualitative monitoring of the nanoparticle aggregation process. One of them consists of monitoring the time variation of the scattered light intensity at a certain angle and fitting an analytic function on it and the other one in monitoring the refractive index of the aqueous suspension during nanofluid dilution. The results are presented and discussed.

  3. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment. The...

  4. Nanotubular J-aggregates covered by transparent silica nanoshells

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yan; Kirmse, Holm; Kirstein, Stefan; Rabe, Jürgen P


    Nanotubular J-aggregates of amphiphilic cyanine dyes exhibit highly attractive opto-electronic properties, reminiscent to natural light harvesting complexes. However, their photo-chemical and mechanical stabilities are limited. A robust transparent shell covering the J aggregates may alleviate these issues. Here, organic-inorganic hybrid nanotubes have been synthesized based on in-situ coating the nanotubular J-aggregates with silica through the sol-gel method. The growth of the shell is controlled by electrostatic adsorption of the silica precursors. The resulting silica nanoshells exhibit a regular superstructure that consists of ribbons that helically wind around the tubular aggregates. The molecular structure of the aggregates and hence their spectral properties remain unaffected by the silication process. The overall shell thickness can be controlled by the ratio and the absolute concentration of the precursors. The usage of a precursor containing diamine groups leads to the formation of bundles of the t...

  5. Temperature dependence of erythrocyte aggregation in vitro by backscattering nephelometry (United States)

    Sirko, Igor V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.


    We apply backscattering nephelometry technique to register the alterations of the scattering signal from a whole blood sample due to appearance or disappearance of different types of erythrocyte aggregates in stasis and under controlled shear stress. The measured parameters are: the characteristic times of linear and 3D aggregates formation, and the strength of aggregates of different types. These parameters depend on the sample temperature in the range of 2 divided by 50 degrees C. Temporal parameters of the aggregation process strongly increase at temperature 45 degrees C. For samples of normal blood the aggregates strength parameters do not significantly depend on the sample temperature, whereas for blood samples from patients suffering Sjogren syndrome we observe high increase of the strength of 3D and linear aggregates and decrease of time of linear aggregates formation at low temperature of the sample. This combination of parameters is opposite to that observed in the samples of pathological blood at room temperature. Possible reasons of this behavior of aggregation state of blood and explanation of the observed effects will be discussed.

  6. Anaerobic Nitrogen Turnover by Sinking Diatom Aggregates at Varying Ambient Oxygen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStief


    Full Text Available In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen (O2 levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient O2 levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40% air saturation (~100 µmol O2 L-1 and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient O2 levels. In incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2- (up to 10.7 nmol N h-1 per aggregate, N2 (up to 7.1 nmol N h-1, NH4+ (up to 2.0 nmol N h-1, and N2O (up to 0.2 nmol N h-1. Intriguingly, nitrate stored inside the diatom cells served as an additional, internal nitrate source for N2 production, which may partially uncouple anaerobic nitrate turnover by diatom aggregates from direct ambient nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient O2 levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular nitrate consumption during the sinking process, diatom aggregates may also be involved in the long-distance export of nitrate to the deep ocean.

  7. Aggregate distribution and associated organic carbon influenced by cover crops (United States)

    Barquero, Irene; García-González, Irene; Benito, Marta; Gabriel, Jose Luis; Quemada, Miguel; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá


    Replacing fallow with cover crops during the non-cropping period seems to be a good alternative to diminish soil degradation by enhancing soil aggregation and increasing organic carbon. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of replacing fallow by different winter cover crops (CC) on the aggregate distribution and C associated of an Haplic Calcisol. The study area was located in Central Spain, under semi-arid Mediterranean climate. A 4-year field trial was conducted using Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as CC during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.) under irrigation. All treatments were equally irrigated and fertilized. Maize was directly sown over CC residues previously killed in early spring. Composite samples were collected at 0-5 and 5-20 cm depths in each treatment on autumn of 2010. Soil samples were separated by wet sieving into four aggregate-size classes: large macroaggregates ( >2000 µm); small macroaggregates (250-2000 µm); microaggregates (53-250 µm); and Organic carbon associated to each aggregate-size class was measured by Walkley-Black Method. Our preliminary results showed that the aggregate-size distribution was dominated by microaggregates (48-53%) and the cover crops increased aggregate size resulting in a higher MWD (0.28 mm) in comparison with fallow (0.20 mm) in the 0-5 cm layer. Barley showed a higher MWD than fallow also in 5-20 cm layer. Organic carbon concentrations in aggregate-size classes at top layer followed the order: large macroaggregates > small macroaggregates > microaggregates > silt + clay size. Treatments did not influence C concentration in aggregate-size classes. In conclusion, cover crops improved soil structure increasing the proportion of macroaggregates and MWD being Barley more effective than Vetch at subsurface layer.

  8. Lysozyme Aggregation and Fibrillation Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis; Flanders, Bret; Schmit, Jeremy; Sorensen, Christopher


    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins provides a rich phase space with significant biomedical implications, including a link with several age-related diseases. We employed dynamic light scattering to monitor the aggregation of lysozyme, a model protein, from a monomeric state until the formation of micron-sized fibrils. For an aqueous lysozyme solution buffered at pH 2, the auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity was found to be well-fit by a single exponential function with decay time τ = 1/(2Dq^2) = 0.25 ms, which corresponds to a mean hydrodynamic radius (RH) of 2.2 nm, very likely generated by monomers. Ethanol (4% v/v final concentration) induced a partial unfolding, to RH = 4.6 nm. The subsequent addition of 70 mM KCl was found to shrink the size back to RH = 2.5 nm, as expected when a denatured protein refolds due to partial screening of the intramolecular repulsion. However, further aggregation was not observed. At pH 4, using a low-salt acetate buffer, more ethanol (10% v/v) was required to initiate unfolding, but once it occurred, larger aggregates formed. These results are consistent with the model that partial unfolding, which exposes beta-motif secondary structure, is a prerequisite for aggregation and fibrillation, but the aggregation fate depends on the protein charge state (pH) and screening (salt concentration).

  9. Aggregation of silica nanoparticles directed by adsorption of lysozyme. (United States)

    Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Meissner, Jens; Findenegg, Gerhard H


    The interaction of the globular protein lysozyme with silica nanoparticles of diameter 20 nm was studied in a pH range between the isoelectric points (IEPs) of silica and the protein (pH 3-11). The adsorption affinity and capacity of lysozyme on the silica particles is increasing progressively with pH, and the adsorbed protein induces bridging aggregation of the silica particles. Structural properties of the aggregates were studied as a function of pH at a fixed protein-to-silica concentration ratio which corresponds to a surface concentration of protein well below a complete monolayer in the complete-binding regime at pH > 6. Sedimentation studies indicate the presence of compact aggregates at pH 4-6 and a loose flocculated network at pH 7-9, followed by a sharp decrease of aggregate size near the IEP of lysozyme. The structure of the bridged silica aggregates was studied by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering. The structure factor S(q) derived from the scattering profiles displays characteristic features of particles interacting by a short-range attractive potential and can be represented by the square-well Percus-Yevick potential model, with a potential depth not exceeding 3k(B)T.

  10. Aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions investigated by magnetorelaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberbeck, D; Wiekhorst, F; Steinhoff, U; Trahms, L [Department 8.2 Biosignals, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)


    The aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is a decisive factor for their application in medicine and biotechnology. We extended the moment superposition model developed earlier for describing the Neel relaxation of an ensemble of immobilized particles with a given size distribution by including the Brownian relaxation mechanism. The resulting cluster moment superposition model is used to characterize the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in various suspensions in terms of mean cluster size, aggregate fraction, and size dispersion. We found that in stable ferrofluids 50%-80% of larger magnetic nanoparticles are organized in dimers and trimers. The scaling of the relaxation curves with respect to MNP concentration is found to be a sensitive indicator of the tendency of a MNP suspension to form large aggregates, which may limit the biocompatibility of the preparation. Scaling violation was observed in aged water based ferrofluids, and may originate from damaged MNP shells. In biological media such as foetal calf serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum we observed an aggregation behaviour which reaches a maximum at a specific MNP concentration. We relate this to agglutination of the particles by macromolecular bridges between the nanoparticle shells. Analysis of the scaling behaviour helps to identify the bridging component of the suspension medium that causes agglutination.

  11. Thermal Proprieties of Concrete Lightened by Wood Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Taoukil


    Full Text Available It is about an experimental study of the thermal proprieties of a concrete lightened by wood aggregates stemming from waste products of the carpentry work. We were especially interested in the comparison between the proprieties of concretes lightened by sawdust and those lightened by wood shavings. The determination of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of various samples allowed us to demonstrate that the incorporation of wood aggregates in the concrete increases considerably its thermal insulation capacity. Also, we found that, at equal mass percentage of wood aggregates, the concretes elaborated from shavings present thermal insulation capacities better than those obtained from sawdust. On other hand, we have examined the influence of the water content on the thermophysical properties of the studied concretes. So, we have demonstrated and confirmed that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the studied materials are strongly dependent on the water content.

  12. Priming effects in aggregate size fractions induced by glucose addition and grinding (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Pausch, Johanna; Kuzaykov, Yakov


    It is widely recognized that soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization can be accelerated (positive priming) or retarded (negative priming) by addition of easily available substrates to soil. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture, which contains numerous compounds with different degradability and turnover rates times. Nevertheless, so far, there is still lack of knowledge on identifying single fractions of the SOM as the source of C and N released by priming effects. The aim of this study was to determine the priming effect as related to different aggregate fractions, aggregate disruption and the amounts of substrate. In a 49 days incubation experiment, the soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions (>2 mm, 2-0.25 mm and 0.25 mm) than in the microaggregates (priming effect increased as added glucose increased in all intact aggregate size, and highest priming effect was observed in >2 mm fraction. However, the magnitude of priming effect response to glucose addition depended on the aggregate size after grinding. This study demonstrates that substrate amounts, aggregate fractionation and grinding can have obvious impacts on priming effect, indicating important implications for understanding SOM cycling and stability.

  13. Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water (United States)

    Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Catalysis of organic reactions by unfunctionalized surfactant aggregates (micelles, vesicles) in aqueous solution is largely determined by medium effects induced at the micellar binding sites and by entropy effects due to compartimentalization. The efficiency of these catalytic effects responds to c

  15. Breakup of small aggregates driven by turbulent hydrodynamic stress

    CERN Document Server

    Babler, Matthaus U; Lanotte, Alessandra S


    Breakup of small solid aggregates in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is studied theoretically and by using Direct Numerical Simulations at high Reynolds number, Re_{\\lambda} \\simeq 400. We show that turbulent fluctuations of the hydrodynamic stress along the aggregate trajectory play a key role in determining the aggregate mass distribution function. Differences between turbulent and laminar flows are discussed. A novel definition of the fragmentation rate is proposed in terms of the typical frequency at which the hydrodynamic stress becomes sufficiently high to cause breakup along each Lagrangian path. We also define an Eulerian proxy of the real fragmentation rate, based on the joint statistics of the stress and its time derivative, which should be easier to measure in any experimental set-up. Both our Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations define a clear procedure for the computation of the mass distribution function due to fragmentation. Contrary, previous estimates based only on single point statistic...

  16. Silver nanoparticle aggregation not triggered by an ionic strength mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botasini, Santiago; Mendez, Eduardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica Biologica, Universidad de la Republica, Laboratorio de Biomateriales (Uruguay)


    The synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles is a major goal in the industry to control their fate in aqueous solutions. The present work studies 10-20-nm silver nanoparticle aggregation triggered by the presence of chloride ions. The aggregation process was followed by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We found that the mechanism involved differs from the classic explanation of nanoparticle aggregation triggered by an increase in the ionic strength. Moreover, our results give evidence that even when nanoparticles are resistant to an increment of the total amount of ions, the formation of insoluble salts in the vicinity of the nanoparticle is enough to induce the aggregation. The presence of silver chloride around the silver nanoparticles was documented by an X-ray diffraction pattern and electrochemical methods because chloride anions are ubiquitous in real media; this alternative process jeopardized the development of many applications with silver nanoparticles that depend on the use of stable colloids.

  17. A Text Classifier Model for Categorizing Feed Contents Consumed by a Web Aggregator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O.D. Longe


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of using a Text Classifier to automatically categorize the content of web feeds consumed by a web aggregator. The pre-defined category of the feed to be consumed by the aggregator does not always match the content being consumed and categorizing the content using the pre-defined category of the feed curtails user experience as users would not see all the contents belonging to their category of interest. A web aggregator was developed and this was integrated with the SVM classifier to automatically categorize feed content being consumed. The experimental results showed that the text classifier performs well in categorizing the content of feed being consumed and it also affirmed the disparity in the pre-defined category of the source feed and appropriate category of the consumed content.

  18. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui


    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  19. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro by standardized extract of Wendtia calycina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Garcia Mesa


    Full Text Available Wendtia calycina (Griseb. Griseb., Vivianiaceae, is a Paraguayan herbaceous plant commonly known as burrito. Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside. From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water-soluble extract rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides (WSE has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. In this study, we investigated the effect of the WSE on human platelet aggregation in vitro induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, epinephrine (EPN, collagen (COL or arachidonic acid (AA. WSE, concentration-dependently, inhibited ADP and EP-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 were 0.82±0.15 mg/mL and 0.41±0.02 mg/mL, respectively. It did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thus suggesting a selectivity for the ADP-induced platelet activation pathways.

  20. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment (United States)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.


    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms

  1. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P


    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  2. Multi-scattering of electromagnetic waves by nanoshell aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ben Q., E-mail: [University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); Liu Changhong, E-mail: [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Electrical Engineering (China)


    A general analytical expression is derived for calculating the total scattering cross-section of an aggregate of nanoparticles. The approach is based on the far zone approximation and repeated use of recursive relations for Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials. In comparison with the existing formula for total scattering cross-section, the expression converges faster and makes it easier to analyze the terms that characterize the interactive coupling between nanoparticles during multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves. The expressions are valid for particle aggregates in which no two particles are in direct contact. Calculated results compare well with measurements for a nanoshell dimer. For a linear chain of particles with the chain axis parallel to the polarization direction of the electric field, analysis shows that the red-shift of resonance peaks results primarily from electrons in metal shells of two adjacent particles oscillating out-of-phase to cancel each other's radiation effects. Multi-scattering in aggregates with more complex arrangements may be explained by combining the effects of linear particle chains.

  3. Studies on Strength and Behaviors of Concrete by using Pond Ash as Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arumugam


    Full Text Available Common river sand is expensive due to excessive cost of transportation from natural resources. Also large scale depletion of these sources creates environmental problems. In such a situation the pond ash can be an economical alternative to the river sand. Pond ash can be defined as residue and by-product of thermal power plant stations to form fine particles less than 4.75 mm. Usually, Pond ash is used in a large scale for manufacturing of bricks. Use of pond ash as a fine aggregate in concrete mortar draws serious attention of researchers. This study reports the results of some experimental studies on the use of pond ash as Fine Aggregate (FA in concrete. Super plasticiser is used to increase the workability of concrete with lower water cement ratio. The percentage of pond ash added by weight was 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50, respectively as replacement of FA used in concrete. Experiments were carried out to determine the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strength with those of conventional concrete made with pond ash as fine aggregate. The various mechanical properties were studied and compared with natural fine aggregate. The test results obtained indicate that pond ash of marginal quantity as partial sand replacement has beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. The strength development for various percentages (0-50% replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash can easily be equated to the strength development of normal concrete with various ages. The properties of aggregates were also compared. Test result indicates that the workability of pond ash concrete is good and the strength characteristics are comparable to those of conventional concrete.

  4. Tsunami Size Distributions at Far-Field Locations from Aggregated Earthquake Sources (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.


    The distribution of tsunami amplitudes at far-field tide gauge stations is explained by aggregating the probability of tsunamis derived from individual subduction zones and scaled by their seismic moment. The observed tsunami amplitude distributions of both continental (e.g., San Francisco) and island (e.g., Hilo) stations distant from subduction zones are examined. Although the observed probability distributions nominally follow a Pareto (power-law) distribution, there are significant deviations. Some stations exhibit varying degrees of tapering of the distribution at high amplitudes and, in the case of the Hilo station, there is a prominent break in slope on log-log probability plots. There are also differences in the slopes of the observed distributions among stations that can be significant. To explain these differences we first estimate seismic moment distributions of observed earthquakes for major subduction zones. Second, regression models are developed that relate the tsunami amplitude at a station to seismic moment at a subduction zone, correcting for epicentral distance. The seismic moment distribution is then transformed to a site-specific tsunami amplitude distribution using the regression model. Finally, a mixture distribution is developed, aggregating the transformed tsunami distributions from all relevant subduction zones. This mixture distribution is compared to the observed distribution to assess the performance of the method described above. This method allows us to estimate the largest tsunami that can be expected in a given time period at a station.

  5. Consensus Formation in Science Modeled by Aggregated Bibliographic Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber


    Abstract: The level of consensus in science has traditionally been measured by a number of different methods. The variety is important as each method measures different aspects of science and consensus. Citation analytical studies have previously measured the level of consensus using the scientific...... journal as their unit of analysis. To produce a more fine grained citation analysis one needs to study consensus formation on an even more detailed level – i.e. the scientific document or article. To do so, we have developed a new technique that measures consensus by aggregated bibliographic couplings...

  6. Straight to the Source: Detecting Aggregate Objects in Astronomical Images with Proper Error Control. (United States)

    Friedenberg, David A; Genovese, Christopher R


    The next generation of telescopes, coming on-line in the next decade, will acquire terabytes of image data each night. Collectively, these large images will contain billions of interesting objects, which astronomers call sources. One critical task for astronomers is to construct from the image data a detailed source catalog that gives the sky coordinates and other properties of all detected sources. The source catalog is the primary data product produced by most telescopes and serves as an important input for studies that build and test new astrophysical theories. To construct an accurate catalog, the sources must first be detected in the image. A variety of effective source detection algorithms exist in the astronomical literature, but few if any provide rigorous statistical control of error rates. A variety of multiple testing procedures exist in the statistical literature that can provide rigorous error control over pixelwise errors, but these do not provide control over errors at the level of sources, which is what astronomers need. In this paper, we propose a technique that is effective at source detection while providing rigorous control on source-wise error rates. We demonstrate our approach with data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Satellite. Our method is competitive with existing astronomical methods, even finding two new sources that were missed by previous studies, while providing stronger performance guarantees and without requiring costly follow up studies that are commonly required with current techniques.

  7. Measurement of aggregate cohesion by tissue surface tensiometry. (United States)

    Butler, Christine M; Foty, Ramsey A


    Rigorous measurement of intercellular binding energy can only be made using methods grounded in thermodynamic principles in systems at equilibrium. We have developed tissue surface tensiometry (TST) specifically to measure the surface free energy of interaction between cells. The biophysical concepts underlying TST have been previously described in detail. The method is based on the observation that mutually cohesive cells, if maintained in shaking culture, will spontaneously assemble into clusters. Over time, these clusters will round up to form spheres. This rounding-up behavior mimics the behavior characteristic of liquid systems. Intercellular binding energy is measured by compressing spherical aggregates between parallel plates in a custom-designed tissue surface tensiometer. The same mathematical equation used to measure the surface tension of a liquid droplet is used to measure surface tension of 3D tissue-like spherical aggregates. The cellular equivalent of liquid surface tension is intercellular binding energy, or more generally, tissue cohesivity. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that tissue surface tension (1) predicts how two groups of embryonic cells will interact with one another, (2) can strongly influence the ability of tissues to interact with biomaterials, (3) can be altered not only through direct manipulation of cadherin-based intercellular cohesion, but also by manipulation of key ECM molecules such as FN and 4) correlates with invasive potential of lung cancer, fibrosarcoma, brain tumor and prostate tumor cell lines. In this article we will describe the apparatus, detail the steps required to generate spheroids, to load the spheroids into the tensiometer chamber, to initiate aggregate compression, and to analyze and validate the tissue surface tension measurements generated.

  8. Inactivation of enveloped virus by laser-driven protein aggregation. (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Chapa, Travis; Beatty, Wandy; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Yu, Dong; Achilefu, Samuel


    Ultrafast lasers in the visible and near-infrared range have emerged as a potential new method for pathogen reduction of blood products and pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanism of enveloped virus inactivation by this method is unknown. We report the inactivation as well as the molecular and structural effects caused by visible (425 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation on murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. Our results show that laser irradiation (1) caused a 5-log reduction in MCMV titer, (2) did not cause significant changes to the global structure of MCMV virions including membrane and capsid, as assessed by electron microscopy, (3) produced no evidence of double-strand breaks or crosslinking in MCMV genomic DNA, and (4) caused selective aggregation of viral capsid and tegument proteins. We propose a model in which ultrafast laser irradiation induces partial unfolding of viral proteins by disrupting hydrogen bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to aggregation of closely associated viral proteins and inactivation of the virus. These results provide new insight into the inactivation of enveloped viruses by visible femtosecond lasers at the molecular level, and help pave the way for the development of a new ultrafast laser technology for pathogen reduction.

  9. Fractal dimensions of soy protein nanoparticle aggregates determined by dynamic mechanical method (United States)

    The fractal dimension of the protein aggregates can be estimated by dynamic mechanical methods when the particle aggregates are imbedded in a polymer matrix. Nanocomposites were formed by mixing hydrolyzed soy protein isolate (HSPI) nanoparticle aggregates with styrene-butadiene (SB) latex, followe...

  10. Effect of water absorption by the aggregate on properties of high-strength lightweight concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punkki, J.


    Recently, high-strength lightweight concrete has become an interesting building material for the offshore oil industry. This doctoral thesis presents an experimental investigation of the effect of water absorption by three different types of lightweight aggregates. One type did not show any water absorption ability at all and so represented no problem to the concrete production. For the two other high-strength aggregates, which were of more conventional types, the water absorption depended not only on the properties of the aggregates, but also on the concrete mixing procedure and the properties of the fresh cement paste. When water absorbing lightweight aggregate was used in a dry condition, the workability of the concrete was significantly reduced by the water absorption of the aggregate. This effect was not present when prewetted aggregate was used. The water absorption by the lightweight aggregate also affected the early compressive strength of concrete. After one day, dry aggregate gave on the average 10 MPa higher compressive strength than did prewetted aggregate. The strength-density ratio was affected by the moisture condition of the aggregate. Dry lightweight aggregate gave 9 MPa higher compressive strength at a density of 2000 kg/m{sup 3} compared to that of prewetted aggregate. The water absorption by the lightweight also affected the microstructure of the hardened concrete. Dry lightweight aggregate gave a slightly better microstructure than normal weight aggregate. The results indicate that the use of prewetted aggregate adversely affected the transition zone between the aggregate and the cement paste. 69 refs., 58 figs., 42 tabs.

  11. Formation and Water Stability of Aggregates in Red Soils as Affected by Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The water stability of aggregates in various size classes separated from 18 samples of red soils under different managements,and the mechanisms responsible for the formation of waer-stable soil aggregates were studied.The results showed that the water stbility of soil aggregates declined with increasing size,especially for the low organic matter soils.Organic matter plays a key role in the formation of water-stable soil aggregates.The larger the soil aggregate size.the greater the impact of organic matter on the water stability of soil aggregates.Removal of organic matter markedly disintegrated the large water-stable aggregates(>2.0mm)and increased the small ones(2.0mm)were mainly glued up by organic mater,Both free oxides and organic matter contribute to the formation and water stability of aggregates in red soils.

  12. Modulation of the Gelation Efficiency of Fibrillar and Spherical Aggregates by Means of Thiolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Broersen, K.; Linden, E. van der; Martin, A.H.


    Fibrillar and spherical aggregates were prepared from whey protein isolate (WPI). These aggregates were thiolated to a substantial degree to observe any impact on functionality. Sulfur-containing groups were introduced on these aggregates which could be converted to thiol groups by deblocking. Chang

  13. Aggregation by Provenance Types: A Technique for Summarising Provenance Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Moreau


    Full Text Available As users become confronted with a deluge of provenance data, dedicated techniques are required to make sense of this kind of information. We present Aggregation by Provenance Types, a provenance graph analysis that is capable of generating provenance graph summaries. It proceeds by converting provenance paths up to some length k to attributes, referred to as provenance types, and by grouping nodes that have the same provenance types. The summary also includes numeric values representing the frequency of nodes and edges in the original graph. A quantitative evaluation and a complexity analysis show that this technique is tractable; with small values of k, it can produce useful summaries and can help detect outliers. We illustrate how the generated summaries can further be used for conformance checking and visualization.

  14. Microbial properties of soil aggregates created by earthworms and other factors: spherical and prismatic soil aggregates from unreclaimed post-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouz, J.; Kristufek, V.; Liveckova, M.; van Loo, D.; Jacobs, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L. [Charles University of Prague, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Environmental Studies


    Soil aggregates between 2 and 5 mm from 35- and 45-year-old unreclaimed post-mining sites near Sokolov (Czech Republic) were divided into two groups: spherical and prismatic. X-ray tomography indicated that prismatic aggregates consisted of fragments of claystone bonded together by amorphous clay and roots while spherical aggregates consisted of a clay matrix and organic fragments of various sizes. Prismatic aggregates were presumed to be formed by plant roots and physical processes during weathering of Tertiary mudstone, while earthworms were presumed to contribute to the formation of spherical aggregates. The effects of drying and rewetting and glucose addition on microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and counts of bacteria in these aggregates were determined. Spherical aggregates contained a greater percentage of C and N and a higher C-to-N ratio than prismatic ones. The C content of the particulate organic matter was also higher in the spherical than in the prismatic aggregates. Although spherical aggregates had a higher microbial respiration and biomass, the growth of microbial biomass in spherical aggregates was negatively correlated with initial microbial biomass, indicating competition between bacteria. Specific respiration was negatively correlated with microbial biomass. Direct counts of bacteria were higher in spherical than in prismatic aggregates. Bacterial numbers were more stable in the center than in the surface layers of the aggregates. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that bacteria often occurred as individual cells in prismatic aggregates but as small clusters of cells in spherical aggregates. Ratios of colony forming units (cultivatable bacteria) to direct counts were higher in spherical than in prismatic aggregates. Spherical aggregates also contained faster growing bacteria.

  15. Gelation process visualized by aggregation-induced emission fluorogens (United States)

    Wang, Zhengke; Nie, Jingyi; Qin, Wei; Hu, Qiaoling; Tang, Ben Zhong


    Alkaline-urea aqueous solvent system provides a novel and important approach for the utilization of polysaccharide. As one of the most important polysaccharide, chitosan can be well dissolved in this solvent system, and the resultant hydrogel material possesses unique and excellent properties. Thus the sound understanding of the gelation process is fundamentally important. However, current study of the gelation process is still limited due to the absence of direct observation and the lack of attention on the entire process. Here we show the entire gelation process of chitosan LiOH-urea aqueous system by aggregation-induced emission fluorescent imaging. Accompanied by other pseudo in situ investigations, we propose the mechanism of gelation process, focusing on the formation of junction points including hydrogen bonds and crystalline.

  16. Ralstonia insidiosa induces cell aggregation by Listeria monocytogenes (United States)

    Biofilm formation is an important strategy for foodborne bacterial pathogens to survive in stressful environments such as fresh produce processing facilities. Bacterial cell aggregation strongly promotes the initiation of microcolonies and the formation of biofilms on abiological surfaces. We previ...

  17. Raman studies of gluten proteins aggregation induced by dietary fibres. (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Miś, Antoni; Kowalski, Radosław; Gruszecki, Wiesław I


    Interactions between gluten proteins and dietary fibre preparations are crucial in the baking industry. The addition of dietary fibre to bread causes significant reduction in its quality which is influenced by changes in the structure of gluten proteins. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was applied to determine changes in the structure of gluten proteins modified by seven dietary fibres. The commercially available gluten proteins without starch were mixed with the fibres in three concentrations: 3%, 6% and 9%. The obtained results showed that all fibres, regardless of their origin, caused the same kind of changes i.e. decrease in the α-helix content with a simultaneous increase in the content of antiparallel-β-sheet. The results indicated that presence of cellulose was the probable cause of these changes, and lead to aggregation or abnormal folding of the gluten proteins. Other changes observed in the gluten structure concerning β-structures, conformation of disulphide bridges, and aromatic amino acid environment, depended on the fibres chemical composition.

  18. Mechanisms of sound seattering by biological targets and their aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gorska


    Full Text Available Natalia Gorska's thesis is based on a set of 9 papers published in scientific journals (Gorska & Klusek 1998, Gorska 2000, Gorska & Chu 2001a, b, Gorska & Ona 2003a, b and conference proceedings (Gorska & Klusek 1994, Gorska 1999, Gorska & Chu 2000, which broadly summarise her integrated research achievements in underwater acoustics from 1994 to 2003. She is the sole author of two of the articles (Gorska 1999, 2000, and is the first co-author, taking a leading part, in the others (Gorska & Klusek 1994, 1998, Gorska & Chu 2000, Gorska & Chu 200la, b, Gorska & Ona 2003a, b.     Her research objective was to work out the theoretical background to certain problems of sound scattering by biological targets - single individuals and aggregated layers of fish and zooplankton - in relation to environmental conditions in the sea. In the study she focused on acoustical extinction and backscattering, including the phenomenon of echo interference. In conjunction wit h the co-authors of papers Gorska & Ona 2003a, b, Gorska & Chu 2001a, b and Gorska & Chu 2000, she was able to apply and verify her theoretical results empirically.

  19. Determination of the aggregation number for micelles by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Rene; Westh, Peter


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has previously been applied to estimate the aggregation number (n), Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of micellization. However, some difficulties of micelle characterization by ITC still remain; most micelles have aggregation numbers...... insight into optimal design of titration protocols for micelle characterization. By applying the new method, the aggregation number of sodium dodecyl sulphate and glycochenodeoxycholate was determined at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC)...

  20. Cocoa pod husk, a new source of hydrolase enzymes for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate. (United States)

    Yusof, Faridah; Khanahmadi, Soofia; Amid, Azura; Mahmod, Safa Senan


    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a by-product of cocoa production obtained after removing the beans from the fruit. The analysis of CPH has shown that it contains high amounts of protein. This study is aimed to utilize this protein source in hydrolase enzyme production. In this study, seven hydrolase enzymes (amylase, fructosyltransferase, mannanase, glucosidase, glucanase, lipase and protease) were screened from CPH for the first time for feasible industrial production. Among these hydrolases, lipase was chosen for the next steps of experiments as it has a lot of applications in different industries. The extraction of high active lipase from CPH has been done under optimum conditions. The condition that was optimum for the three major factors was achieved using Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the highest enzyme activity of crude lipase from CPH. The optimum condition of extraction is used for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). For the production of immobilized biocatalyst, the technique of CLEA is considered as an effective technique for its industrially attractive advantages. Referring to the results of OFAT, CLEA-lipase was prepared in the best condition at the presence of 30 mM ammonium sulphate, 70 mM glutaraldehyde with 0.23 mM Bovine serum albumin as an additive. Immobilization effectively improved the stability of lipase against various organic solvents.

  1. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect. (United States)

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel; Lindner, Ariel B; Berry, Hugues


    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  2. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Coquel


    Full Text Available Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian. Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on

  3. Selection of Concrete Aggregate Source for Yuwa Hydropower Station%玉瓦水电站混凝土骨料料源选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    玉瓦水电站混凝土骨料料源有天然砂砾石料场、厂房基坑开挖料、洞挖料及人工骨料场,料源较多,单一料源及料源组合方案较复杂。针对该工程这一特点,需要通过对料源方案进行技术、经济比较选定,最终选择厂房基坑开挖料、洞挖料、人工骨料料场作为主体工程的混凝土骨料料源。%Concrete aggregate sources of Yuwa Hydropower Station include natural sand and gravel quarry,excavation materials from the foundation pit in the workshop,tunnel excavation material and manual aggregate quarry.Since there are many aggregate sources, single aggregate source and combination schemes are rather complicated. Aiming at this characteristic,technical and economic aggregate source schemes comparison is needed.Finally,excavation materials from the foundation pit in the workshop,tunnel excavation material and manual aggregate quarry are chosen as the concrete aggregate sources for main project.

  4. Connectivity of a large embayment and coastal fishery: spawning aggregations in one bay source local and broad-scale fishery replenishment. (United States)

    Hamer, P A; Acevedo, S; Jenkins, G P; Newman, A


    Ichthyoplankton sampling and otolith chemistry were used to determine the importance of transient spawning aggregations of snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) in a large embayment, Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia, as a source of local and broad-scale fishery replenishment. Ichthyoplankton sampling across five spawning seasons within PPB, across the narrow entrance to the bay and in adjacent coastal waters, indicated that although spawning may occur in coastal waters, the spawning aggregations within the bay were the primary source of larval recruitment to the bay. Otolith chemical signatures previously characterized for 0+ year C. auratus of two cohorts (2000 and 2001) were used as the baseline signatures to quantify the contribution that fish derived from reproduction in PPB make to fishery replenishment. Sampling of these cohorts over a 5 year period at various widely dispersed fishery regions, combined with maximum likelihood analyses of the chemistry of the 0+ year otolith portions of these older fish, indicated that C. auratus of 1 to 3+ years of age displayed both local residency and broad-scale emigration from PPB to populate coastal waters and an adjacent bay (Western Port). While the PPB fishery was consistently dominated (>70%) by locally derived fish irrespective of cohort or age, the contribution of fish that had originated from PPB to distant populations increased with age. At 4 to 5+ years of age, when C. auratus mature and fully recruit to the fishery, populations of both cohorts across the entire central and western Victorian fishery, including two major embayments and c. 800 km of coastal waters, were dominated (>70%) by fish that had originated from the spawning aggregations and nursery habitat within PPB. Dependence of this broadly dispersed fishery on replenishment from heavily targeted spawning aggregations within one embayment has significant implications for management and monitoring programmes.

  5. Natural aggregate totally replacement by mechanically treated concrete waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junak Jozef


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from the research focused on the utilization of crushed concrete waste aggregates as a partial or full replacement of 4/8 and 8/16 mm natural aggregates fraction in concrete strength class C 16/20. Main concrete characteristics such as workability, density and compressive strength were studied. Compressive strength testing intervals for samples with recycled concrete aggregates were 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The amount of water in the mixtures was indicative. For mixture resulting consistency required slump grade S3 was followed. Average density of all samples is in the range of 2250 kg/m3 to 2350 kg/m3. The highest compressive strength after 28 days of curing, 34.68 MPa, reached sample, which contained 100% of recycled material in 4/8 mm fraction and 60% of recycled aggregates in 8/16 mm fraction. This achieved value was only slightly different from the compressive strength 34.41 MPa of the reference sample.

  6. In vivo amyloid aggregation kinetics tracked by time-lapse confocal microscopy in real-time. (United States)

    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Espargaró, Alba; Ventura, Salvador; Sabate, Raimon


    Amyloid polymerization underlies an increasing number of human diseases. Despite this process having been studied extensively in vitro, aggregation is a difficult process to track in vivo due to methodological limitations and the slow kinetics of aggregation reactions in cells and tissues. Herein we exploit the amyloid properties of the inclusions bodies (IBs) formed by amyloidogenic proteins in bacteria to address the kinetics of in vivo amyloid aggregation. To this aim we used time-lapse confocal microscopy and a fusion of the amyloid-beta peptide (A β42) with a fluorescent reporter. This strategy allowed us to follow the intracellular kinetics of amyloid-like aggregation in real-time and to discriminate between variants exhibiting different in vivo aggregation propensity. Overall, the approach opens the possibility to assess the impact of point mutations as well as potential anti-aggregation drugs in the process of amyloid formation in living cells.

  7. Aggregation behavior modulation of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide by organic solvents in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Huiyong; Wu, Changzeng


    Material preparation in ionic liquids and environmental pollution control by ionic liquids are often closely dependent on the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in solution. In the present work, conductivity, fluorescence probe, and dynamic light scattering techniques have been used to study the effect of organic solvents on the aggregation behavior of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. It was shown that the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the ionization degree of the aggregates (α), and the standard Gibbs energy of aggregation (ΔG(m)°) of the ionic liquid increase, while its aggregation number (N(agg)) and aggregates' size decrease with increasing concentration of organic additives in water. These results have been discussed from the favorable interactions of alkyl chain of the ionic liquid with the mixed solvents. It is suggested that the solvophobic parameter, characterized quantitatively by Gibbs energy of transfer of hydrocarbon from gas into a given solvent, can be used to account for the effect of organic additives on the formation and growth of the ionic liquid aggregates in water. Aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous organic solutions can be modulated simply by the solvophobic parameters of hydrocarbon in the mixed solvents.

  8. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G


    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  9. Determination of aggregation thresholds of UV absorbing anionic surfactants by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Le Saux, Thomas; Varenne, Anne; Gareil, Pierre


    Aggregation of anionic surfactants was investigated by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis (FACCE), a method involving the continuous electrokinetic introduction of the surfactant sample into the separation capillary. This process results in a partial separation of the monomeric and aggregated forms without perturbing the monomer-aggregate equilibrium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) can then be easily derived from the height of the firstly detected migration front, corresponding to the monomeric form. This approach is exemplified with octyl and dodecylbenzenesulfonates and compared with conductimetry and surface tension measurements. FACCE turns out to be an effective method for the determination of CMC and intermediate aggregation phenomena with very small sample and short time requirements.

  10. Aggregate stability as affected by short and long-term tillage systems and nutrient sources of a hapludox in southern Brazil Efeitos de curto e de longo prazo da aplicação de sistemas de manejo do solo e de fontes de nutrientes sobre a estabilidade de agregados, em um nitossolo vermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga


    Full Text Available The ability of a soil to keep its structure under the erosive action of water is usually high in natural conditions and decreases under frequent and intensive cultivation. The effect of five tillage systems (NT = no-till; CP = chisel plowing and one secondary disking; CT = primary and two secondary distings; CTb = CT with crop residue burning; and CTr = CT with removal of crop residues from the field, combined with five nutrient sources (C = control, no nutrient application; MF = mineral fertilizers according to technical recommendations for each crop; PL = 5 Mg ha-1 y-1 fresh matter of poultry litter; CM = 60 m³ ha-1 y-1 slurry cattle manure; and SM = 40 m³ ha-1 y-1 slurry swine manure on wet-aggregate stability was determined after nine years (four sampled soil layers and on five sampling dates in the 10th year (two sampled soil layers of the experiment. The size distribution of the air-dried aggregates was strongly affected by soil bulk density, and greater values of geometric mean diameter (GMD AD found in some soil tillage or layer may be partly due to the higher compaction degree. After nine years, the GMD AD on the surface was greater in NT and CP compared to conventional tillage systems (CT, CTb and CTr, due to the higher organic matter content, as well as less soil mobilization. Aggregate stability in water, on the other hand, was affected by the low variation in previous gravimetric moisture of aggregates, which contributed to a high coefficient of variation of this attribute. The geometric mean diameter of water-stable aggregates (GMD WS was highest in the 0.00-0.05 m layer in the NT system, in the layers 0.05-0.10 and 0.12-0.17 m in the CT, and values were intermediate in CP. The stability index (SI in the surface layers was greater in treatments where crop residues were kept in the field (NT, CP and CT, which is associated with soil organic matter content. No differences were found in the layer 0.27-0.32 m. The effect of nutrient

  11. Laboratory Investigation Of Partial Replacement Of Coarse Aggregate By Plastic Chips And Cement By Human Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of plastic is increasing day by day, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. The suitability of recycled plastics as coarse aggregate in concrete and its advantage are discussed here. Experimental investigation was done using M20 mix and tests were carried out as per recommended procedures by relevant codes. As 100% replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA with plastic coarse aggregate (PCA is not feasible, partial replacement were examined. And also Hair is used as a fibred reinforcing material in concrete as partial replacement of cement. It has a high tensile strength which is equal to that of a copper wire with similar diameter. It is also available in abundance and at a very low cost. Tests were conducted to determine the properties of plastic aggregate and human hair such as density, specific gravity and crushing value. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes with various percentages of human hair i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement and with constant percentage of plastic aggregate as 20%.

  12. Uncertainty of soil erosion modelling using open source high resolution and aggregated DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Mondal


    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model (DEM is one of the important parameters for soil erosion assessment. Notable uncertainties are observed in this study while using three high resolution open source DEMs. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model has been applied to analysis the assessment of soil erosion uncertainty using open source DEMs (SRTM, ASTER and CARTOSAT and their increasing grid space (pixel size from the actual. The study area is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state, which is located in the central part of India and the area covered 20,558 km2. The actual resolution of DEMs is 30 m and their increasing grid spaces are taken as 90, 150, 210, 270 and 330 m for this study. Vertical accuracy of DEMs has been assessed using actual heights of the sample points that have been taken considering planimetric survey based map (toposheet. Elevations of DEMs are converted to the same vertical datum from WGS 84 to MSL (Mean Sea Level, before the accuracy assessment and modelling. Results indicate that the accuracy of the SRTM DEM with the RMSE of 13.31, 14.51, and 18.19 m in 30, 150 and 330 m resolution respectively, is better than the ASTER and the CARTOSAT DEMs. When the grid space of the DEMs increases, the accuracy of the elevation and calculated soil erosion decreases. This study presents a potential uncertainty introduced by open source high resolution DEMs in the accuracy of the soil erosion assessment models. The research provides an analysis of errors in selecting DEMs using the original and increased grid space for soil erosion modelling.

  13. Achieving Both Valid and Secure Logistic Regression Analysis on Aggregated Data from Different Private Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Rob; Fienberg, Stephen


    Preserving the privacy of individual databases when carrying out statistical calculations has a long history in statistics and had been the focus of much recent attention in machine learning In this paper, we present a protocol for computing logistic regression when the data are held by separate parties without actually combining information sources by exploiting results from the literature on multi-party secure computation. We provide only the final result of the calculation compared with other methods that share intermediate values and thus present an opportunity for compromise of values in the combined database. Our paper has two themes: (1) the development of a secure protocol for computing the logistic parameters, and a demonstration of its performances in practice, and (2) and amended protocol that speeds up the computation of the logistic function. We illustrate the nature of the calculations and their accuracy using an extract of data from the Current Population Survey divided between two parties.

  14. Petro-chemical features and source areas of volcanic aggregates used in ancient Roman maritime concretes (United States)

    Marra, F.; Anzidei, M.; Benini, A.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Gaeta, M.; Ventura, G.; Cavallo, A.


    We present and discuss data from petrographic observation at the optical microscope, electron microprobe analyses on selected glass shards, and trace-element analyses on 14 mortar aggregates collected at the ancient harbors and other maritime structures of Latium and Campania, spanning the third century BCE through the second CE, aimed at identify the volcanic products employed in the concretes and their area of exploitation. According to Latin author Vitruvius assertion about the ubiquitous use of Campanian pozzolan in the ancient Roman sea-water concretes, results of this study show a very selective and homogeneous choice in the material employed to produce the concretes for the different investigated maritime structures, evidencing three main pumice compositions, all corresponding to those of the products of the post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff activity of the Phlegraean Fields, and a systematic use of the local Neapolitan Yellow Tuff to produce the coarse aggregate of these concretes. However, mixing with local products of the Colli Albani volcanic district, located 20 km east of Rome, has been evidenced at two fishponds of Latium, in Punta della Vipera and Torre Astura. Based on these petrographic and geochemical data, we conclude that the selective use of pozzolan from Campania, rather than of unproved different chemical properties, was the consequence of a series of logistic, economic, industrial and historical reasons.

  15. A comparative STM study of Ru nanoparticles deposited on HOPG by mass-selected gas aggregation versus thermal evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Munksgård; Murphy, Shane; Strebel, Christian Ejersbo;


    HOPG surfaces using a gas-aggregation source and (2) nanoparticles were formed by e-beam evaporation of Ru films onto HOPG. The particles generated by the gas-aggregation source are round in shape with evidence of facets resolved on the larger particles. Annealing these nanoparticles when...... to a large extent on the state of the graphite support and the temperature. Ru deposition onto unsputtered HOPG is characterised by bimodal growth with large flat particles formed on the substrate terraces and smaller diameter particles aligned along the substrate steps. Evaporation onto sputtered HOPG......Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to compare the morphologies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly-oriented graphite surfaces using two different physical vapour deposition methods; (1) pre-formed mass-selected Ru nanoparticles with diameters between 2 nm and 15 nm were soft-landed onto...

  16. Aggregation behaviour of amphiphilic cyclodextrins: the nucleation stage by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Mazzaglia, Antonino; Ganazzoli, Fabio


    Summary Amphiphilically modified cyclodextrins may form various supramolecular aggregates. Here we report a theoretical study of the aggregation of a few amphiphilic cyclodextrins carrying hydrophobic thioalkyl groups and hydrophilic ethylene glycol moieties at opposite rims, focusing on the initial nucleation stage in an apolar solvent and in water. The study is based on atomistic molecular dynamics methods with a “bottom up” approach that can provide important information about the initial aggregates of few molecules. The focus is on the interaction pattern of amphiphilic cyclodextrin (aCD), which may interact by mutual inclusion of the substituent groups in the hydrophobic cavity of neighbouring molecules or by dispersion interactions at their lateral surface. We suggest that these aggregates can also form the nucleation stage of larger systems as well as the building blocks of micelles, vesicle, membranes, or generally nanoparticles thus opening new perspectives in the design of aggregates correlating their structures with the pharmaceutical properties. PMID:26734094

  17. Power System Aggregate Load Area Modelling by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Wei; Ji-Hong Wang; Q.H.Wu; Nan Lu


    This paper presents a new approach for deriving a power system aggregate load area model (ALAM). In this approach, an equivalent area load model is derived to represent the load characters for a particular area load of a power system network. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is employed to identify the unknown parameters of the generalised system, ALAM, based on the system measurement directly using a one-step scheme. Simulation studies are carried out for an IEEE 14-Bus power system and an IEEE 57-Bus power system. Simulation results show that the ALAM can represent the area load characters accurately under different operational conditions and at different power system states.

  18. Examination of Ataxin-3 (atx-3) Aggregation by Structural Mass Spectrometry Techniques: A Rationale for Expedited Aggregation upon Polyglutamine (polyQ) Expansion* (United States)

    Scarff, Charlotte A.; Almeida, Bruno; Fraga, Joana; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Radford, Sheena E.; Ashcroft, Alison E.


    Expansion of polyglutamine stretches leads to the formation of polyglutamine-containing neuronal aggregates and neuronal death in nine diseases for which there currently are no treatments or cures. This is largely due to a lack in understanding of the mechanisms by which expanded polyglutamine regions contribute to aggregation and disease. To complicate matters further, several of the polyglutamine-disease related proteins, including ataxin-3, have a multistage aggregation mechanism in which flanking domain self-assembly precedes polyglutamine aggregation yet is influenced by polyglutamine expansion. How polyglutamine expansion influences flanking domain aggregation is poorly understood. Here, we use a combination of mass spectrometry and biophysical approaches to investigate this issue for ataxin-3. We show that the conformational dynamics of the flanking Josephin domain in ataxin-3 with an expanded polyglutamine tract are altered in comparison to those exhibited by its nonexpanded counterpart, specifically within the aggregation-prone region of the Josephin domain (amino acid residues 73–96). Expansion thus exposes this region more frequently in ataxin-3 containing an expanded polyglutamine tract, providing a molecular explanation of why aggregation is accelerated upon polyglutamine expansion. Here, harnessing the power of ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry, oligomeric species formed during aggregation are characterized and a model for oligomer growth proposed. The results suggest that a conformational change occurs at the dimer level that initiates self-assembly. New insights into ataxin-3 fibril architecture are also described, revealing the region of the Josephin domain involved in protofibril formation and demonstrating that polyglutamine aggregation proceeds as a distinct second step after protofibril formation without requiring structural rearrangement of the protofibril core. Overall, the results enable the effect of polyglutamine expansion on

  19. Quantification of alginate by aggregation induced by calcium ions and fluorescent polycations. (United States)

    Zheng, Hewen; Korendovych, Ivan V; Luk, Yan-Yeung


    For quantification of polysaccharides, including heparins and alginates, the commonly used carbazole assay involves hydrolysis of the polysaccharide to form a mixture of UV-active dye conjugate products. Here, we describe two efficient detection and quantification methods that make use of the negative charges of the alginate polymer and do not involve degradation of the targeted polysaccharide. The first method utilizes calcium ions to induce formation of hydrogel-like aggregates with alginate polymer; the aggregates can be quantified readily by staining with a crystal violet dye. This method does not require purification of alginate from the culture medium and can measure the large amount of alginate that is produced by a mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture. The second method employs polycations tethering a fluorescent dye to form suspension aggregates with the alginate polyanion. Encasing the fluorescent dye in the aggregates provides an increased scattering intensity with a sensitivity comparable to that of the conventional carbazole assay. Both approaches provide efficient methods for monitoring alginate production by mucoid P. aeruginosa.

  20. Merging Knowledge Bases in Possibilistic Logic by Lexicographic Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Guilin; Liu, Weiru; Bell, David A


    Belief merging is an important but difficult problem in Artificial Intelligence, especially when sources of information are pervaded with uncertainty. Many merging operators have been proposed to deal with this problem in possibilistic logic, a weighted logic which is powerful for handling inconsistency and deal- ing with uncertainty. They often result in a possibilistic knowledge base which is a set of weighted formulas. Although possibilistic logic is inconsistency tolerant, it suers from the well-known "drowning effect". Therefore, we may still want to obtain a consistent possi- bilistic knowledge base as the result of merg- ing. In such a case, we argue that it is not always necessary to keep weighted informa- tion after merging. In this paper, we define a merging operator that maps a set of pos- sibilistic knowledge bases and a formula rep- resenting the integrity constraints to a clas- sical knowledge base by using lexicographic ordering. We show that it satisfies nine pos- tulates that generalize basic...

  1. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  2. Synthesis of supramolecular iron (III) complexes by cluster aggregation (United States)

    Seddon, Elisa Joy


    Biologically, iron is a ubiquitous and versatile metal, found in the active sites of proteins responsible for both oxygen and electron transport. Multinuclear iron-oxo proteins are either dinuclear, or contain many iron atoms; the [Fe2O] unit occurs in hemerythrin (Hr), ribonucleotide reductase, purple acid phosphatase (POP) and methane monooxygenase (MMO), whereas ferritin (Ft) can store up to 4500 iron atoms. Iron storage and transport are essential for protecting biological organisms from free iron, since free Fe(II) ions, will react with dioxygen to form destructive organic radicals, and free Fe(III) ions form insoluble iron hydroxide aggregates under physiological conditions. The tendency of iron to form molecular aggregates in systems containing water or alcohol, together with the fact that each iron atom possesses a large number of unpaired electrons (5 for high-spin FeIII) often results in products possessing large spin ground states (S). The current record-holder for iron is a Fe19 complex, with at least 33 unpaired electrons in the ground state (S = 33/2). Hence, iron is also important in the rapidly developing field of molecular magnetic materials. For these two reasons, the preparation of iron clusters with new topologies and properties has become a major goal of many synthetic inorganic groups, including our own. In this thesis work, synthetic and spectroscopic methods of inorganic coordination chemistry were used to achieve two different goals: firstly, to synthesize dinuclear iron complexes with the use of tetradentate ligands in order to study the magnetic interactions between the two metal centers; and secondly, to identify reactions and characterize the products whereby pre-formed iron oxide clusters undergo aggregation reactions to produce higher nuclearity products. The tetradentate ligands investigated were a bis-(beta-diketone) ligand L and a bis-bpy ligand L'. The reactions involving L and Fe(III) reagents produced complexes with a triple

  3. Amyloid-β peptide (1-42) aggregation induced by copper ions under acidic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yannan Bin; Xia Li; Yonghui He; Shu Chen; Juan Xiang


    It is well known that the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) induced by Cu2+ is related to incubation time,solution pH,and temperature.In this work,the aggregation of Aβ1-42 in the presence of Cu2+ under acidic conditions was studied at different incubation time and temperature (e.g.25 and 37℃).Incubation temperature,pH,and the presence of Cu2+ in Aβ solution were confirmed to alter the morphology of aggregation (fibrils or amorphous aggregates),and the morphology is pivotal for Aβ neurotoxicity and Alzheimer disease (AD) development.The results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the formation of Aβ fibrous morphology is preferred at lower pH,but Cu2+ induced the formation of amorphous aggregates.The aggregation rate of Aβ was increased with the elevation of temperature.These results were further confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy and it was found that the formation of β-sheet structure was inhibited by Cu2+ binding to Aβ.The result was consistent with AFM observation and the fibrillation process was restrained.We believe that the local charge state in hydrophilic domain of Aβ may play a dominant role in the aggregate morphology due to the strong steric hindrance.This research will be valuable for understanding of Aβ toxicity in AD.

  4. Amyloid-β peptide (1-42) aggregation induced by copper ions under acidic conditions. (United States)

    Bin, Yannan; Li, Xia; He, Yonghui; Chen, Shu; Xiang, Juan


    It is well known that the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) induced by Cu²⁺ is related to incubation time, solution pH, and temperature. In this work, the aggregation of Aβ₁₋₄₂ in the presence of Cu²⁺ under acidic conditions was studied at different incubation time and temperature (e.g. 25 and 37°C). Incubation temperature, pH, and the presence of Cu²⁺ in Aβ solution were confirmed to alter the morphology of aggregation (fibrils or amorphous aggregates), and the morphology is pivotal for Aβ neurotoxicity and Alzheimer disease (AD) development. The results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the formation of Aβ fibrous morphology is preferred at lower pH, but Cu²⁺ induced the formation of amorphous aggregates. The aggregation rate of Aβ was increased with the elevation of temperature. These results were further confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy and it was found that the formation of β-sheet structure was inhibited by Cu²⁺ binding to Aβ. The result was consistent with AFM observation and the fibrillation process was restrained. We believe that the local charge state in hydrophilic domain of Aβ may play a dominant role in the aggregate morphology due to the strong steric hindrance. This research will be valuable for understanding of Aβ toxicity in AD.

  5. Cell surface alterations during blood-storage characterized by artificial aggregation of washed red blood cells. (United States)

    Hessel, E; Lerche, D


    Aggregation measurement of washed human erythrocytes (RBC) were carried out in a NaCl-PBS solution under laminar shear conditions. Artificial aggregation of fresh and stored erythrocytes was caused by decreased pH and reduced ionic strength and characterized by collision efficiency alpha. Generally, the collision efficiency alpha of stored erythrocytes rises with the increased storage time. Such an aggregation technique might be useful to detect and quantify changes of the membrane and/or the surface structure due to aging and/or storage.

  6. Stabilizing Off-pathway Oligomers by Polyphenol Nanoassemblies for IAPP Aggregation Inhibition (United States)

    Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Kakinen, Aleksandr; Pilkington, Emily H.; Davis, Thomas P.; Chun Ke, Pu; Ding, Feng


    Experimental studies have shown that many naturally occurring polyphenols have inhibitory effect on the aggregation of several proteins. Here, we use discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations and high-throughput dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments to study the anti-aggregation effects of two polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol, on the aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin). Our DMD simulations suggest that the aggregation inhibition is caused by stabilization of small molecular weight IAPP off-pathway oligomers by the polyphenols. Our analysis indicates that IAPP-polyphenol hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking combined with hydrophobic interactions are responsible for the stabilization of oligomers. The presence of small oligomers is confirmed with DLS measurements in which nanometer-sized oligomers are found to be stable for up to 7.5 hours, the time frame within which IAPP aggregates in the absence of polyphenols. Our study offers a general anti-aggregation mechanism for polyphenols, and further provides a computational framework for the future design of anti-amyloid aggregation therapeutics.

  7. Inhibition of copper-mediated aggregation of human γD-crystallin by Schiff bases. (United States)

    Chauhan, Priyanka; Muralidharan, Sai Brinda; Velappan, Anand Babu; Datta, Dhrubajyoti; Pratihar, Sanjay; Debnath, Joy; Ghosh, Kalyan Sundar


    Protein aggregation, due to the imbalance in the concentration of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions is found to be allied with various physiological disorders. Copper is known to promote the oxidative damage of β/γ-crystallins in aged eye lens and causes their aggregation leading to cataract. Therefore, synthesis of a small-molecule 'chelator' for Cu(2+) with complementary antioxidant effect will find potential applications against aggregation of β/γ-crystallins. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of different Schiff bases and studied their Cu(2+) complexation ability (using UV-Vis, FT-IR and ESI-MS) and antioxidant activity. Further based on their copper complexation efficiency, Schiff bases were used to inhibit Cu(2+)-mediated aggregation of recombinant human γD-crystallin (HGD) and β/γ-crystallins (isolated from cataractous human eye lens). Among these synthesized molecules, compound 8 at a concentration of 100 μM had shown ~95% inhibition of copper (100 μM)-induced aggregation. Compound 8 also showed a positive cooperative effect at a concentration of 5-15 μM on the inhibitory activity of human αA-crystallin (HAA) during Cu(2+)-induced aggregation of HGD. It eventually inhibited the aggregation process by additional ~20%. However, ~50% inhibition of copper-mediated aggregation of β/γ-crystallins (isolated from cataractous human eye lens) was recorded by compound 8 (100 μM). Although the reductive aminated products of the imines showed better antioxidant activity due to their lower copper complexing ability, they were found to be non-effective against Cu(2+)-mediated aggregation of HGD.

  8. Problems on Solving Matrix Aggregation in Group Decision-Making by Glowworm Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Li


    Full Text Available Judgment matrix aggregation, as an important part of group decision-making, has been widely and deeply studied due to the universality and importance of group decision-making in the management field. For the variety of judgment matrix in group decision-making, the matrix aggregation result can be obtained by using the mode of glowworm swarm optimization. First, this paper introduces the basic principle of the glowworm swarm optimization (GSO algorithm and gives the improved GSO algorithm to solve the matrix aggregation problems. In this approach, the consistency ratio is introduced to the objective function of the glowworm swarm optimization, thus reducing the subjectivity and information loss in the aggregation process. Then, the improved GSO algorithm is applied to the solution of the deterministic matrix and the fuzzy matrix. The method optimization can provide an effective and relatively uniform aggregation method for matrix aggregation. Finally, through comparative analysis, it is shown that the method of this paper has certain advantages in terms of adaptability, accuracy, and stability to solving the matrix aggregation problems.

  9. Inhibition of protein aggregation in vitro and in vivo by a natural osmoprotectant. (United States)

    Ignatova, Zoya; Gierasch, Lila M


    Small organic molecules termed osmolytes are harnessed by a variety of cell types in a wide range of organisms to counter unfavorable physiological conditions that challenge protein stability and function. Using a well characterized reporter system that we developed to allow in vivo observations, we have explored how the osmolyte proline influences the stability and aggregation of a model aggregation-prone protein, P39A cellular retinoic acid-binding protein. Strikingly, we find that the natural osmolyte proline abrogates aggregation both in vitro and in vivo (in an Escherichia coli expression system). Importantly, proline also prevented aggregation of constructs containing exon 1 of huntingtin with extended polyglutamine tracts. Although compatible osmolytes are known to stabilize the native state, our results point to a destabilizing effect of proline on partially folded states and early aggregates and a solubilizing effect on the native state. Because proline is believed to act through a combination of solvophobic backbone interactions and favorable side-chain interactions that are not specific to a particular sequence or structure, the observed effect is likely to be general. Thus, the osmolyte proline may be protective against biomedically important protein aggregates that are hallmarks of several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. In addition, these results should be of practical importance because they may enable protein expression at higher efficiency under conditions where aggregation competes with proper folding.

  10. Laser fabrication of Au nanorod aggregates microstructures assisted by two-photon polymerization. (United States)

    Masui, Kyoko; Shoji, Satoru; Asaba, Kenji; Rodgers, Thomas C; Jin, Feng; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Kawata, Satoshi


    We demonstrate fabrication of Au nanorod aggregates microstructures by means of a femtosecond near-infrared laser. The laser light was tightly focused into colloidal Au nanorods dispersed in photopolymerizable metyl-methacrylate (MMA) compound to induce two-photon polymerization (TPP). TPP of MMA glued the nanorods together to form solid microstrucures of aggregates. The laser light excited a local surface plasmon, resulting in confinement of TPP in the vicinity of nanorods. Concurrenly occurring optical accumulation of nanorods created a unique mechanism for the formation of nanorod aggregates into desired microstructures. This technique would be a clue for a novel micro/nanofabrication method for plasmonic materials and devices.

  11. Reference intervals for platelet aggregation assessed by multiple electrode platelet aggregometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Peter; Villadsen, Kirsten; Hvas, Anne-Mette


    Abstract Introduction Analyses of platelet aggregation in hirudin whole blood using Multiplate® was validated. Reference intervals for the most commonly used agonists were established, and the association between platelet aggregation, age, gender and haematological values was analysed. Material...... and methods We included 121 healthy individuals to establish reference intervals and six healthy individuals for evaluation of the day-to-day variation. Platelet aggregation was evaluated on hirudin whole blood employing Multiplate® induced by arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen and ristocetin (RISTOlow...... reference interval is presented as 95% confidence interval suitable for any age and both sex. Day-to-day variation was

  12. Structure of Fullerene Aggregates in Pyridine/Water Solutions by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Aksenov, V L; Belushkin, A V; Mihailovic, D; Mrzel, A; Rosta, L; Serdyuk, I N; Timchenko, A A


    Results of small-angle neutron scattering experiments on fullerenes (Co_{60}) in pyridine/water solutions are reported. They confirm conclusions of the previous studies, in particular, dynamic light scattering experiments. Aggregates with characteristic radius of about 20 nm are formed in the solutions. The contrast variation using different combinations of protonated/deuterated components (water and pyridine) of the solutions points to the small pyridine content inside the aggregates. This fact testifies that the aggregates consist of a massive fullerene core covered by a thin pyridine shell.

  13. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))


    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  14. Fractal aggregates induced by liposome-liposome interaction in the presence of Ca2+. (United States)

    Sabín, J; Prieto, G; Ruso, J M; Sarmiento, F


    We present a study of the fractal dimension of clusters of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) formed by egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphocholine (DPPC) induced by Ca2+ . Fractal dimensions were calculated by application of two methods, measuring the angular dependency of the light scattered by the clusters and following the evolution of the cluster size. In all cases, the fractal dimensions fell in the range from 2.1 to 1.8, corresponding to two regimes: diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) and reaction-limited cluster aggregation (RLCA). Whereas DMPC clusters showed a typical transition from the RLCA to the DLCA aggregation, EYPC exhibited an unusual behaviour, since the aggregation was limited for a higher concentration than the critical aggregation concentration. The behaviour of DPPC was intermediate, with a transition from the RLCA to the DLCA regimes with cluster sizes depending on Ca2+ concentration. Studies on the reversibility of the aggregates show that EYPC and DPPC clusters can be re-dispersed by dilution with water. DMPC does not present reversibility. Reversibility is evidence of the existence of secondary minima in the DLVO potential between two liposomes. To predict these secondary minima, a correction of the DLVO model was necessary taking into account a repulsive force of hydration.

  15. In-cell aggregation of a polyglutamine-containing chimera is a multistep process initiated by the flanking sequence. (United States)

    Ignatova, Zoya; Thakur, Ashwani K; Wetzel, Ronald; Gierasch, Lila M


    Toxicity in amyloid diseases is intimately linked to the nature of aggregates, with early oligomeric species believed to be more cytotoxic than later fibrillar aggregates. Yet mechanistic understanding of how aggregating species evolve with time is currently lacking. We have explored the aggregation process of a chimera composed of a globular protein (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein, CRABP) and huntingtin exon 1 with polyglutamine tracts either above (Q53) or below (Q20) the pathological threshold using Escherichia coli cells as a model intracellular environment. Previously we showed that fusion of the huntingtin exon 1 sequence with >40Q led to structural perturbation and decreased stability of CRABP (Ignatova, Z., and Gierasch, L. M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 12959-12967). Here we report that the Q53 chimera aggregates in cells via a multistep process: early stage aggregates are spherical and detergent-soluble, characteristics of prefibrillar aggregates, and appear to be dominated structurally by CRABP, in that they can promote aggregation of a CRABP variant but not oligoglutamine aggregation, and the CRABP domain is relatively sequestered based on its protection from proteolysis. Late stage aggregates appear to be dominated by polyGln; they are fibrillar, detergent-resistant, capable of seeding aggregation of oligoglutamine but not the CRABP variant, and show relative protection of the polyglutamine-exon1 domain from proteolysis. These results point to an evolution of the dominant sequences in intracellular aggregates and may provide molecular insight into origins of toxic prefibrillar aggregates.

  16. A novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication (United States)

    Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, R. M.; Wragg, J.


    Regulatory authorities need to establish rapid, cost-effective methods to measure soil physical indicators - such as aggregate stability - which can be applied to large numbers of soil samples to detect changes of soil quality through monitoring. Limitations of sieve-based methods to measure the stability of soil macro-aggregates include: i) the mass of stable aggregates is measured, only for a few, discrete sieve/size fractions, ii) no account is taken of the fundamental particle size distribution of the sub-sampled material, and iii) they are labour intensive. These limitations could be overcome by measurements with a Laser Granulometer (LG) instrument, but this technology has not been widely applied to the quantification of aggregate stability of soils. We present a novel method to quantify macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability. We measure the difference between the mean weight diameter (MWD; μm) of aggregates that are stable in circulating water of low ionic strength, and the MWD of the fundamental particles of the soil to which these aggregates are reduced by sonication. The suspension is circulated rapidly through a LG analytical cell from a connected vessel for ten seconds; during this period hydrodynamic forces associated with the circulating water lead to the destruction of unstable aggregates. The MWD of stable aggregates is then measured by LG. In the next step, the aggregates - which are kept in the vessel at a minimal water circulation speed - are subject to sonication (18W for ten minutes) so the vast majority of the sample is broken down into its fundamental particles. The suspension is then recirculated rapidly through the LG and the MWD measured again. We refer to the difference between these two measurements as disaggregation reduction (DR) - the reduction in MWD on disaggregation by sonication. Soil types with more stable aggregates have larger values of DR. The stable aggregates - which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the

  17. Fractals of Silica Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhinhongLi; DongWu; Yuhansun; JunWang; YiLiu; BaozhongDong; Zhinhong


    Silica aggregates were prepared by base-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol.Polyethylene glycol(PEG) was used as organic modifier.The sols were characterized using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation as X-ray source.The structure evolution during the sol-gel process was determined and described in terms of the fractal geometry.As-produced silica aggregates were found to be mass fractals.The fractl dimensions spanned the regime 2.1-2.6 corresponding to more branched and compact structures.Both RLCA and Eden models dominated the kinetic growth under base-catalyzed condition.

  18. Problems on Solving Matrix Aggregation in Group Decision-Making by Glowworm Swarm Optimization


    Yaping Li


    Judgment matrix aggregation, as an important part of group decision-making, has been widely and deeply studied due to the universality and importance of group decision-making in the management field. For the variety of judgment matrix in group decision-making, the matrix aggregation result can be obtained by using the mode of glowworm swarm optimization. First, this paper introduces the basic principle of the glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm and gives the improved GSO algorithm to ...

  19. Inhibiting platelets aggregation could aggravate the acute infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Gao, Yaping; Dong, Jie; Mu, Chunhua; Lu, Qiang; Shao, Ningsheng; Yang, Guang


    Several fibrinogen binding proteins (Fibs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Most Fibs can promote the aggregation of platelets during infection, but the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) is an exception. It is reported that Efb can specifically bind fibrinogen and inhibit the aggregation of platelet with its N terminal. However, the biological significance of platelet aggregation inhibition in the infection caused by S. aureus is unclear until now. Here, we demonstrated that the persistence and aggregation of platelets were important for killing S. aureus in whole blood. It was found that the N terminal of Efb (EfbN) and platelets inhibitors could increase the survival of S. aureus in whole blood. The study in vivo also showed that EfbN and platelets inhibitors could reduce the killing of S. aureus and increase the lethality rate of S. aureus in the acute infection mouse model.

  20. Selective inhibition of aggregation/fibrillation of bovine serum albumin by osmolytes: Mechanistic and energetics insights (United States)

    Dasgupta, Moumita


    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is an important transport protein of the blood and its aggregation/fibrillation would adversely affect its transport ability leading to metabolic disorder. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of fibrillation/aggregation of BSA and design of suitable inhibitor molecules for stabilizing its native conformation, are of utmost importance. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the effect of osmolytes (proline, hydroxyproline, glycine betaine, sarcosine and sorbitol) on heat induced aggregation/fibrillation of BSA at physiological pH (pH 7.4) have been studied employing a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, Rayleigh scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Formation of fibrils by BSA under the given conditions was confirmed from increase in fluorescence emission intensities of Thioflavin T over a time period of 600 minutes and TEM images. Absence of change in fluorescence emission intensities of 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) in presence of native and aggregated BSA signify the absence of any amorphous aggregates. ITC results have provided important insights on the energetics of interaction of these osmolytes with different stages of the fibrillar aggregates of BSA, thereby suggesting the possible modes/mechanism of inhibition of BSA fibrillation by these osmolytes. The heats of interaction of the osmolytes with different stages of fibrillation of BSA do not follow a trend, suggesting that the interactions of stages of BSA aggregates are osmolyte specific. Among the osmolytes used here, we found glycine betaine to be supporting and promoting the aggregation process while hydroxyproline to be maximally efficient in suppressing the fibrillation process of BSA, followed by sorbitol, sarcosine and proline in the following order of their decreasing potency: Hydroxyproline> Sorbitol> Sarcosine> Proline> Glycine betaine. PMID:28207877

  1. Formation of pseudoisocyanine J-aggregates in poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers by electrospinning. (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa M; Ozen, Bengisu; Ozçelik, Serdar


    Submicrometer diameter, light emitting fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) doped with pseudoisocyanine (1,1'-diethyl-2,2'-cyanine bromide, PIC) dye were prepared by electrospinning. A horizontal setup was employed with a stationary collector consisting of two parallel-positioned metal strips separated by a void gap. Formation of uniaxially aligned and randomly deposited fibers in electrospun films was confirmed by microscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is used to evaluate spectral properties of both types of fibers doped with PIC. While PIC molecules were individually dispersed in PVA solution, they assemble into J-aggregates upon electrospinning when the weight fraction of PIC molecules is above 2.5 wt %. The formation of J-aggregates was observed in both randomly deposited and uniaxially aligned electrospun fibers. Moreover, the fibers aligned uniaxially showed a high degree of polarized emission (PLparallel/PLperpendicular=10), arising from the orientation of J-aggregates along the fiber axis. On the other hand, isotropic emission of J-aggregates was observed from the fibers deposited randomly. As a conclusion, electrospinning was found to be an efficient and a practical method to form highly oriented J-aggregates dispersed into polymer fibers. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time formation of J-aggregates (a bottom-up approach) and electrospinning (a top-down approach) is successfully combined.

  2. Aggregation pattern transitions by slightly varying the attractive/repulsive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Cheng

    Full Text Available Among collective behaviors of biological swarms and flocks, the attractive/repulsive (A/R functional links between particles play an important role. By slightly changing the cutoff distance of the A/R function, a drastic transition between two distinct aggregation patterns is observed. More precisely, a large cutoff distance yields a liquid-like aggregation pattern where the particle density decreases monotonously from the inside to the outwards within each aggregated cluster. Conversely, a small cutoff distance produces a crystal-like aggregation pattern where the distance between each pair of neighboring particles remains constant. Significantly, there is an obvious spinodal in the variance curve of the inter-particle distances along the increasing cutoff distances, implying a legible transition pattern between the liquid-like and crystal-like aggregations. This work bridges the aggregation phenomena of physical particles and swarming of organisms in nature upon revealing some common mechanism behind them by slightly varying their inter-individual attractive/repulsive functions, and may find its potential engineering applications, for example, in the formation design of multi-robot systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  3. Improvement and enhancement of antibladder carcinoma cell effects of heteronemin by the nanosized hyaluronan aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang HH


    Full Text Available Han Hsiang Huang,1 Shyh Ming Kuo,2 Yi-Jhen Wu,2 Jui-Hsin Su3 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, 3National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan Abstract: The effects against tumors exerted by marine active compounds have been highlighted and investigated. Polymeric nanoparticles made from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules such as hyaluronan (HA and chitosan (CHI are able to aggregate the compounds to enhance their activities against tumor cells and reduce the toxicity on normal cells. Here, we extensively examined the antitumor activities and the mechanisms of HA/CHI nanoparticles-aggregated heteronemin (HET extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of pure HET toward T24 bladder carcinoma cells is ~0.28 µg/mL. Pure HET from 0.2 to 0.8 µg/mL and HA nanoparticles-aggregated HET at 0.1 and 0.2 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability. Compared to pure HET, HA nanoparticles/HET aggregates showed much weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 normal fibroblasts. HET dose-dependently suppressed cancer cell migration as HA/CHI nanoparticles-aggregated HET displayed stronger migration-inhibitory effects than pure HET. Flow cytometric analysis showed that pure HET increased early/total apoptosis and JC-1 monomer fluorescence, while HA/CHI nanoparticles-aggregated HET induced higher apoptosis and JC-1 monomer rates than pure HET, suggesting that aggregation of HA nanoparticles offers HET stronger apoptosis-inducing capacity through mitochondrial depolarization. Western blot analysis showed that HA nanoparticles-aggregated HET further increased mitochondrial-associated, caspase-dependent and caspase-independent, as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors in comparison with pure HET. These data indicated that pure HET possesses cytotoxic

  4. Cataract-causing defect of a mutant γ-crystallin proceeds through an aggregation pathway which bypasses recognition by the α-crystallin chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Moreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transparency of the eye lens depends upon maintenance of the native state of the γ- and β-crystallins, which is aided by the abundant chaperones αA- and αB-crystallin. Mature onset cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide, involves the polymerization of covalently damaged or partially unfolded crystallins into light-scattering aggregates. A number of single amino acid substitutions and truncations of γ-crystallins result in congenital cataract in both humans and mice, though in many cases the coupling between the protein alterations and the accumulation of aggregates is poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have studied the aggregation properties and chaperone interactions of human γD-crystallin carrying substitutions of two buried core mutants, I90F and V75D, which cause congenital cataract in mice. The in vitro aggregation pathway competing with productive refolding was not altered by either substitution. Furthermore, this aggregation pathway for both mutant proteins--originating from a partially folded intermediate--was efficiently suppressed by αB-crystallin. Thus the cataract pathology was unlikely to be associated with a direct folding defect. The native state of wild-type human γD-crystallin exhibited no tendency to aggregate under physiological conditions. However both I90F and V75D native-like proteins exhibited slow (days aggregation to high molecular weight aggregates under physiological conditions. The perturbed conformation of I90F was recognized and bound by both αA and αB chaperones. In contrast, the aggregation derived from the perturbed state of V75D was not suppressed by either chaperone, and the aggregating species were not bound by the chaperone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The cataract phenotype of I90F in mice may be due to premature saturation of the finite α- crystallin pool. The V75D aggregation pathway and its escape from chaperone surveillance and aggregation suppression

  5. Determination of the Degree of Gravel Aggregate-Bitumencoverage by Multi-Directional Reflectance Measurements (United States)

    Mulsow, C.


    The paper describes the determination of the percentage area of bitumen on partly covered aggregate. This task is a typical issue in material testing in road construction. The asphalt components bitumen and aggregate are subjected to defined mechanical stress in the presence of water in order to test the affine properties of the components. The degree to which the bitumen separates from the aggregate surface serves as an indicator for the quality of the affinity. Until now, examiners have been judging the coverage degree of samples by visual rating. Several research projects attempted to replace the error-prone subjective assessment by automatic procedures. These procedures analyse the different chromaticities of aggregate and bitumen in RGB images. However, these approaches as a whole are not reliable enough because of the rather specific requirements that are made on the environmental conditions when the picture is taken (illumination, exclusion of extraneous light) and also on the lab assistant (manual definition of training areas, management of camera and illumination parameters). Moreover, the analysis is not suitable for all types of rock because of the necessary difference in colour between bitumen and aggregate (e.g. dark rock samples). Contrary to previous approaches, the new multi-directional reflectance measurements use the different surface characteristics of bitumen and aggregate instead of the chromaticities as separation criteria. These differences are made visible by directional lighting with a laser. The diffuse reflection from the aggregate surface and the directional reflection from the optically smoother bitumen produce definitely distinguishable brightnesses in the image. Thus the colour of the material is of no significance. The approach was used in a procedure and assessed. The paper presents the method itself, approaches for the elimination of reflections and first results. Moreover, the measuring principle is compared with existing

  6. Aggregation of phospholipid vesicles induced by the ribosome inactivating protein saporin. (United States)

    Hao, Q; Yan, L; Yang, H; Zhang, Y; Gao, G; Yao, Q; Li, Q


    Saporin-S6(SO-6) is a single chain ribosome inactivating protein, which can inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating eukaryotic ribosomes. The interaction of SO-6 with phospholipid model systems was described. SO-6 can specifically interact with negatively-charged phospholipid vesicles and it induces the aggregation of the lipid vesicles. The kinetics of the vesicle aggregation induced by SO-6 was studied. The saturating protein/lipid molar ratio was determined to be 1:100 based on titration experiments. The aggregation is dependent on the temperature in a range that was many times higher than the phase transition temperature of the phospholipid. The effect of pH on the aggregation of the vesicles can not be explained by simple deprotonation of side chain amino groups of the protein, and may be related to conformational changes of the protein. The maintenance of physiological ionic strength was required for the aggregation of SO-6 with vesicles. Finally, the interaction was prompted by Ca2+ ions, and was totally inhibited by EDTA, which suggests that SO-6 may interact with phospholipid vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

  7. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation. (United States)

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura; Fabrizio, Monica


    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO₃ with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight.

  8. Outward Motion of Porous Dust Aggregates by Stellar Radiation Pressure in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tazaki, Ryo


    We study the dust motion at the surface layer of protoplanetary disks. Dust grains in surface layer migrate outward due to angular momentum transport via gas-drag force induced by the stellar radiation pressure. In this study, we calculate mass flux of the outward motion of compact grains and porous dust aggregates by the radiation pressure. The radiation pressure force for porous dust aggregates is calculated using the T-Matrix Method for the Clusters of Spheres. First, we confirm that porous dust aggregates are forced by strong radiation pressure even if they grow to be larger aggregates in contrast to homogeneous and spherical compact grains to which efficiency of radiation pressure becomes lower when their sizes increase. In addition, we find that the outward mass flux of porous dust aggregates with monomer size of 0.1 $\\mu$m is larger than that of compact grains by an order of magnitude at the disk radius of 1 AU, when their sizes are several microns. This implies that large compact grains like calcium-a...

  9. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid) (United States)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.


    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  10. Observation of fine particle aggregating behavior induced by high intensity conditioning using high speed CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The aggregating behavior between bubbles and particles induced by high intensity conditioning (HIC) was studied using high speed CCD technique. Bubble size measurement was conducted, and the attachment behavior between bubbles and particles in HIC cell and flotation cell were observed. The results show that in HIC cell, high intensity conditioning creates an advantage environment for the formation of small size bubble due to hydrodynamic cavitations, and these fine bubbles have high probability of bubble-particle collision,which will enhance fine particle flotation. The bubble-particle attachment experiments indicate that in high intensity conditioning cell, a lot of fine bubbles are produced in situ on the surface of fine particles, and most of fine particles are aggregated under the bridging action of fine bubbles. The observation of bubble-particle interaction in flotation cell illustrates that aggregates created by HIC can be loaded more easily by big air bubble in flotation cell than those created by normal conditioning.

  11. Enhancing Nanoparticle-Based Visible Detection by Controlling the Extent of Aggregation (United States)

    Lim, Seokwon; Koo, Ok Kyung; You, Young Sang; Lee, Yeong Eun; Kim, Min-Sik; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Kang, Dong Hyun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Young Jin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram


    Visible indication based on the aggregation of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) is highly advantageous for rapid on-site detection of biological entities, which even untrained persons can perform without specialized instrumentation. However, since the extent of aggregation should exceed a certain minimum threshold to produce visible change, further applications of this conventional method have been hampered by insufficient sensitivity or certain limiting characteristics of the target. Here we report a signal amplification strategy to enhance visible detection by introducing switchable linkers (SLs), which are designed to lose their function to bridge NPs in the presence of target and control the extent of aggregation. By precisely designing the system, considering the quantitative relationship between the functionalized NPs and SLs, highly sensitive and quantitative visible detection is possible. We confirmed the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method by detecting the presence of 20 fM of streptavidin and fewer than 100 CFU/mL of Escherichia coli.

  12. Effect of alginate on the aggregation kinetics of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs): bridging interaction and hetero-aggregation induced by Ca(2.). (United States)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi


    The stability of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) is expected to play a key role in the environmental risk assessment of nanotoxicity in aquatic systems. In this study, the effect of alginate (model polysaccharides) on the stability of CuO NPs in various environmentally relevant ionic strength conditions was investigated by using time-resolved dynamic light scattering. Significant aggregation of CuO NPs was observed in the presence of both monovalent and divalent cations. The critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) were 54.5 and 2.9 mM for NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2, respectively. The presence of alginate slowed nano-CuO aggregation rates over the entire NaNO3 concentration range due to the combined electrostatic and steric effect. High concentrations of Ca(2+) (>6 mM) resulted in stronger adsorption of alginate onto CuO NPs; however, enhanced aggregation of CuO NPs occurred simultaneously under the same conditions. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the bridging interaction of alginate with Ca(2+) might be an important mechanism for the enhanced aggregation. Furthermore, significant coagulation of the alginate molecules was observed in solutions of high Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating a hetero-aggregation mechanism between the alginate-covered CuO NPs and the unabsorbed alginate. These results suggested a different aggregation mechanism of NPs might co-exist in aqueous systems enriched with natural organic matter, which should be taken into consideration in future studies. Graphical abstract Hetero-aggregation mechanism of CuO nanoparticles and alginate under high concentration of Ca(2.)

  13. Anti-aggregation dispersion of ultrafine particles by electro-static technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The dispersion of ultrafine particles in the air can be achieved by mechanical method or surface modification. In this work, the electrostatic technique was first employed for anti-aggregation of ultrafine particles. When the relative humidity of the air is within the region of 70%-75%, effective storage time of ultrafine particles can reach 72 h after treatment by the electrostatic technique. The experi-mental results showed that this technique imparted ultrafine particles much more pronounced anti-aggregation property. In the dry air, the critical diameter of ultrafine particles anti-aggregated by the electrostatic technique is the function of particle property and charging field intensity. The critical diameter is inversely proportional to the square of the charging field intensity.

  14. Lunar dust characterization by polarimetric signature. I. Negative polarization branch of sphere aggregates of various porosities

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, D T


    Context. In support of NASA's exploration program and the return to the Moon, the polarimetric signature of dispersed individual Lunar regolith dust grains is studied to enable the characterization of the dust exopsheric environment by remote, in-situ, and standoff sensing. Aims. We explore the value of the negative polarization branch (NPB) as a signature for characterizing individual grains to determine if it can be used in the same way as for surfaces of planets and atmosphereless bodies. Results. Calculations show that polarization phase curves for spherical grains exhibit a sharp transition over a narrow range of size parameter between two distinct regimes, one typical of Rayleigh scattering and another dominated by a large NPB. The linear polarimetric signature observed for aggregates is a composite of a) the polarization induced by individual grains composing the aggregate and b) the polarization due to the aggregate as a whole dust grain. The weight of each component varies depending on the porosity o...

  15. Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications (United States)

    Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, Holger; Mueller, Gerhard J.


    We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

  16. Stabilization of individual tubular J-aggregates by poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Berlepsch, H; Kirstein, S; Hania, R; Didraga, C; Pugzlys, A; Bottcher, C


    The changes in the optical properties and morphology of J-aggregates fonned by the 3,3'-bis(3-carboxypropyl)5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1'-dioctylbenzimidacarbocyanine dye (C8O3) in aqueous solution that are induced by the addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were investigated by optical spectroscopy a

  17. Cylindrical aggregates of chlorophylls studied by small-angle neutron scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, D.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbus, MO (United States); Katz, J.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    Neutron small-angle scattering has demonstrated tubular chlorophyll aggregates formed by self-assembly of a variety of chlorophyll types in nonpolar solvents. The size and other properties of the tubular aggregates can be accounted for by stereochemical properties of the chlorophyll molecules. Features of some of the structures are remarkably similar to light harvesting chlorophyll complexes in vivo, particularly for photosynthetic bacteria. These nanotube chlorophyll structures may have applications as light harvesting biomaterials where efficient energy transfer occurs from an excited state which is highly delocalized.

  18. Activation of alpha chymotrypsin by three phase partitioning is accompanied by aggregation. (United States)

    Rather, Gulam Mohmad; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Halling, Peter James; Gupta, Munishwar Nath


    Precipitation of alpha chymotrypsin in the simultaneous presence of ammonium sulphate and t-butanol (three phase partitioning) resulted in preparations which showed self aggregation of the enzyme molecules. Precipitation with increasing amounts of ammonium sulphate led to increasing size of aggregates. While light scattering estimated the hydrodynamic diameter of these aggregates in the range of 242-1124 nm; Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) gave the value as 130-462 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 showed extensive aggregation in these preparations. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the aggregates had irregular shapes. All the aggregates had about 3× higher catalytic activity than the native enzyme. These aggregates did not differ in λ(max) of fluorescence emission which was around 340 nm. However, all the aggregates showed higher fluorescence emission intensity. Far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism also showed no significant structural changes as compared to the native molecule. Interestingly, HPLC gel filtration (on a hydroxylated silica column) gave 14 nm as the diameter for all preparations. Light scattering of preparations in the presence of 10% ethylene glycol also dissociated the aggregates to monomers of 14 nm. Both these results indicated that hydrophobic interactions were the driving force behind this aggregation. These results indicate: (1) Even without any major structural change, three phase partitioning led to protein molecules becoming highly prone to aggregation. (2) Different methods gave widely different estimates of sizes of aggregates. It was however possible to reconcile the data obtained with various approaches. (3) The nature of the gel filtration column is crucial and use of this technique for refolding and studying aggregation needs a rethink.

  19. Activation of alpha chymotrypsin by three phase partitioning is accompanied by aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulam Mohmad Rather

    Full Text Available Precipitation of alpha chymotrypsin in the simultaneous presence of ammonium sulphate and t-butanol (three phase partitioning resulted in preparations which showed self aggregation of the enzyme molecules. Precipitation with increasing amounts of ammonium sulphate led to increasing size of aggregates. While light scattering estimated the hydrodynamic diameter of these aggregates in the range of 242-1124 nm; Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA gave the value as 130-462 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 showed extensive aggregation in these preparations. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the aggregates had irregular shapes. All the aggregates had about 3× higher catalytic activity than the native enzyme. These aggregates did not differ in λ(max of fluorescence emission which was around 340 nm. However, all the aggregates showed higher fluorescence emission intensity. Far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism also showed no significant structural changes as compared to the native molecule. Interestingly, HPLC gel filtration (on a hydroxylated silica column gave 14 nm as the diameter for all preparations. Light scattering of preparations in the presence of 10% ethylene glycol also dissociated the aggregates to monomers of 14 nm. Both these results indicated that hydrophobic interactions were the driving force behind this aggregation. These results indicate: (1 Even without any major structural change, three phase partitioning led to protein molecules becoming highly prone to aggregation. (2 Different methods gave widely different estimates of sizes of aggregates. It was however possible to reconcile the data obtained with various approaches. (3 The nature of the gel filtration column is crucial and use of this technique for refolding and studying aggregation needs a rethink.

  20. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation (United States)

    Hritcu, Doina; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.


    The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  1. Stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates affected by application of apatite, lime, and charcoal. (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Ma, Kaiqiang; Fan, Yuchao; Peng, Xinhua; Mao, Jingdong; Zhou, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhongbin; Zhou, Jing


    Only a few studies have been reported on the stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates after soil treatments to reduce the availability of heavy metals. In this study, apatite (22.3 t ha(-1)), lime (4.45 t ha(-1)), and charcoal (66.8 t ha(-1)) were applied to a heavy metal-contaminated soil for 4 years. The stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates were investigated by dry and wet sieving. No significant change in the dry mean weight diameter was observed in any treatments. Compared with the control, three-amendment treatments significantly increased the wet mean weight diameter, but only charcoal treatment significantly increased the wet aggregate stability. The soil treatments increased the content of soil organic carbon, and the fraction 0.25-2 mm contained the highest content of soil organic carbon. Amendments' application slightly increased soil total Cu and Cd, but decreased the concentrations of CaCl2 -extractable Cu and Cd except for the fraction 2 and 0.25-2 mm contained the highest concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd, accounted for about 74.5-86.8 % of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd in soil. The results indicated that amendments' application increased the wet soil aggregate stability and decreased the available Cu and Cd. The distribution of available heavy metals in wet soil aggregates was not controlled by soil aggregate stability, but possibly by soil organic carbon.

  2. Nitric oxide inhibited the melanophore aggregation induced by extracellular calcium concentration in snakehead fish, Channa punctatus. (United States)

    Biswas, Saikat P; Palande, Nikhil V; Jadhao, Arun G


    We studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) and extra-cellular Ca(2+) on the melanophores in Indian snakehead teleost, Channa punctatus. Increase of Ca(2+) level in the external medium causes pigment aggregation in melanophores. This pigment-aggregating effect was found to be inhibited when the external medium contained spontaneous NO donor, sodium nitro prusside (SNP) at all the levels of concentration tested. Furthermore, it has been observed that SNP keeps the pigment in dispersed state even after increasing the amount of Ca(2+). In order to test whether NO donor SNP causes dispersion of pigments or not is checked by adding the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N-omega-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) in the medium. It has been noted that the inhibitor L-NNA blocked the effect of NO donor SNP causing aggregation of pigments. In that way NO is inhibiting the effect of extracellular Ca(2+), keeping the pigment dispersed.

  3. Chirality generated by flows in pseudocyanine dye J-aggregates: revisiting 40 years old reports. (United States)

    El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Arteaga, Oriol; Canillas, Adolf; Crusats, Joaquim; Llorens, Joan; Ribo, Josep M


    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in J-aggregates of cyanine dyes has a long history in chemical literature. In 1976, Honda and Hada claimed that they had achieved chiral induction (CD) by stirring J-aggregates of pseudocyanine. However, this report is controversial, as the combinations of linear dichroism and birefringence can lead to artifactual circular dichroic signals that are unrelated to molecular chirality. A Mueller matrix spectroscopy study, with an approach for the application of a gradient of the shear rate (solution layer between a rotating and a fixed disk) that differs from the simple vortex stirring used in the original report, shows that true CD can be induced in the sample. The phenomenon is discussed, taking into account the flow dynamics that allows the alignment of the aggregate particles and the gradient of shear rates that determines their folding/torsion, which leads to a chiral excitonic transition.

  4. Analysis of the End-by-Hop Protocol for Secure Aggregation in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    -by-Hop protocol for securing in-network aggregation for sensor nodes was presented. The solution was claimed to be secure and efficient and to provide the possibility of trading off bandwidth against computation time on the server. In this paper, we disprove these claims. We describe several attacks against......In order to save bandwidth and thus battery power, sensor network measurements are sometimes aggregated en-route while being reported back to the querying server. Authentication of the measurements then becomes a challenge if message integrity is important for the application. At ESAS 2007, the End...... the proposed solution and point out shortcomings in the original complexity analysis. In particular, we show that the proposed solution is inferior to a naive solution without in-network aggregation both in security and in efficiency....

  5. Assessing magnetic nanoparticle aggregation in polymer melts by dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Bermúdez, Sergio [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 9000 Mayaguez, PR 00681 PR (United States); Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1006 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32603 (United States); Orange, François [Department of Physics and Nanoscopy Facility, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Guinel, Maxime J.-F. [Department of Physics and Nanoscopy Facility, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)


    Aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer melts was assessed using dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements. Magnetic nanocomposites consisting of polybutadiene/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and polystyrene/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} mixtures were prepared using different techniques and characterized using dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements. The presence of nanoparticle aggregates determined using magnetic measurements was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy examinations. The results were in good agreement with predictions from the Flory–Huggins interaction parameters. - Highlights: • Oleic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were dispersed in polymer melts. • MNPs dispersed well in polybutadiene but not in polystyrene. • Dynamic magnetic susceptibility (DMS) measurements assessed presence of aggregates. • DMS predictions were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. • The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter correlated with MNP dispersion.

  6. Non-cell autonomous cell death caused by transmission of Huntingtin aggregates in Drosophila. (United States)

    Babcock, Daniel T; Ganetzky, Barry


    Recent evidence indicates that protein aggregates can spread between neurons in several neurodegenerative diseases but much remains unknown regarding the underlying mechanisms responsible for this spreading and its role in disease progression. We recently demonstrated that mutant Huntingtin aggregates spread between cells within the Drosophila brain resulting in non-cell autonomous loss of a pair of large neurons in the posterior protocerebrum. However, the full extent of neuronal loss throughout the brain was not determined. Here we examine the effects of driving expression of mutant Huntingtin in Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) by using a marker for cleaved caspase activity to monitor neuronal apoptosis as a function of age. We find widespread caspase activity in various brain regions over time, demonstrating that non-cell autonomous damage is widespread. Improved understanding of which neurons are most vulnerable and why should be useful in developing treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases that involve transcellular spreading of aggregates.

  7. Packing of non-spherical aggregate particles by DEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; He, H.


    Loose random and dense random mono-size paclby the discrete element modelling (DEM) for eight types of polyhedral grains, for ellipses with different aspect ratio, for cubes and for spheres. Focus was on density, sphericity of the grains and average value and frequency

  8. Consensus formation in science modeled by aggregated bibliographic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber


    The level of consensus in science has traditionally been measured by a number of different methods. The variety is important as each method measures different aspects of science and consensus. Citation analytical studies have previously measured the level of consensus using the scientific journal...

  9. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilised by metal-chelator and the controlled formation of close-packed aggregates by them

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Bhattacharya; Aasheesh Srivastava


    Nanoparticles have properties that can be fine-tuned by their size as well as shape. Hence, there is significant current interest in preparing nano-materials of small size dispersity and to arrange them in close-packed aggregates. This manuscript describes ways of synthesising gold nanoparticles using a metal-chelator derivative 1, as stabiliser. Controlled synthesis conditions lead to formation of nanoparticles thereby indicating the ability of 1 to act as efficient stabiliser. The nanoparticles formed were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed the formation of dense aggregates of nanoparticles. This can be ascribed to the inter-particle hydrogen bonding possible by the carboxylic acid moiety of 1 that leads to aggregation. The aggregation can be controlled by the pH of the solution employed for dispersing the particles.

  10. The Inverse Bagging Algorithm: Anomaly Detection by Inverse Bootstrap Aggregating

    CERN Document Server

    Vischia, Pietro


    For data sets populated by a very well modeled process and by another process of unknown probability density function (PDF), a desired feature when manipulating the fraction of the unknown process (either for enhancing it or suppressing it) consists in avoiding to modify the kinematic distributions of the well modeled one. A bootstrap technique is used to identify sub-samples rich in the well modeled process, and classify each event according to the frequency of it being part of such sub-samples. Comparisons with general MVA algorithms will be shown, as well as a study of the asymptotic properties of the method, making use of a public domain data set that models a typical search for new physics as performed at hadronic colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  11. Elimination of Ferromagnetic Particles Aggregation for Investigation by Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.S. Kuzema


    Full Text Available It has been described the device for sample preparation of highly dispersed ferromagnetic powders including micropowders for permanent magnets, magnetic carriers, machine and mechanism components’ wear products contained in lubricants for investigation of these materials by light and electron microscopy. The device eliminates the coalescence of ferromagnetic particles and improves reliability of the results of such objects investigation. The technique of such device application has been described and exemplified for various materials investigation.

  12. Erythrocyte aggregation under high pressure studied by laser photometry and mathematical analysis. (United States)

    Toyama, Yoshiharu; Yoshida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Takao; Dobashi, Toshiaki


    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on erythrocyte aggregation have been studied by laser photometry and analysis based on a phenomenological theory. Samples were prepared by suspending swine erythrocytes in their own plasma. A high-pressure vessel consisting of a stainless-steel block with a hole to hold a sample cell and two sapphire windows to allows the passage of a He-Ne laser beam was used in the experimental setup. The suspension was stirred at 1500 rpm to disperse the erythrocytes homogeneously. Immediately after reducing the stirring rate from 1500 rpm to 300 rpm, the transmitted light intensity (I) was recorded every 10 ms under a high pressure of 40-200 MPa. The value of I increased with time (t) owing to erythrocyte aggregation. From the phenomenological theory, the equation ΔI(t)=ΔIeq[1-e(-Kt)/(1-B(1-e(-Kt)))] was derived for the change in the transmitted light intensity (ΔI) due to erythrocyte aggregation, where ΔIeq is the transmitted light intensity in the steady state, K is a time constant and B is a constant that represents the ratio of the number of interaction sites on erythrocyte aggregates at time t to that in the steady state. The observed time courses of ΔI obtained at all pressures could be closely fitted to the theoretical equation. ΔIeq roughly increased with increasing pressure. On the other hand, K and B abruptly decreased above 120 MPa. The growth rate of aggregates decreased above 120 MPa. These results suggest a change in the mechanism of erythrocyte aggregation at approximately 120 MPa. We discuss the physical meaning of the parameters.

  13. Distinct role of hydration water in protein misfolding and aggregation revealed by fluctuating thermodynamics analysis. (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun


    Protein aggregation in aqueous cellular environments is linked to diverse human diseases. Protein aggregation proceeds through a multistep process initiated by conformational transitions, called protein misfolding, of monomer species toward aggregation-prone structures. Various forms of aggregate species are generated through the association of misfolded monomers including soluble oligomers and amyloid fibrils. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms and driving forces involved in the misfolding and subsequent association has been a central issue for understanding and preventing protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and type II diabetes. In this Account, we provide a thermodynamic perspective of the misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics. This approach "dissects" the conventional thermodynamic characterization of the end states into the one of the fluctuating processes connecting them, and enables one to analyze variations in the thermodynamic functions that occur during the course of protein conformational changes. The central quantity in this approach is the solvent-averaged effective energy, f = Eu + Gsolv, comprising the protein potential energy (Eu) and the solvation free energy (Gsolv), whose time variation reflects the protein dynamics on the free energy landscape. Protein configurational entropy is quantified by the magnitude of fluctuations in f. We find that misfolding of the Aβ monomer when released from a membrane environment to an aqueous phase is driven by favorable changes in protein potential energy and configurational entropy, but it is also accompanied by an unfavorable increase in solvation free energy. The subsequent dimerization of the misfolded Aβ monomers occurs in two steps. The first step, where two widely separated monomers come into contact distance, is driven by water-mediated attraction, that is, by a

  14. A new monitoring method for electrochemical aggregates by impedance spectroscopy (United States)

    Kurzweil, P.; Fischle, H.-J.

    A variant of ac impedance spectroscopy is applied to monitor and control electrochemical cells and appliances without need for reference values and knowledge of control points in advance. Electrolyzers, fuels cells, energy stores, sensors and electrochemical reactors are steered to an optimum operating state by continuous evaluation of capacitance and the derivatives thereof. Dry and humid electrode-electrolyte interfaces are distinguished with the aid of the low-frequency impedance. The problem is solved in order to determine electrolyte concentrations unambiguously from electrolyte resistance, although the conductivity of the solution has a maximum and changes nonlinearly with the concentration.

  15. Force generation by the growth of amyloid aggregates. (United States)

    Herling, Therese W; Garcia, Gonzalo A; Michaels, Thomas C T; Grentz, Wolfgang; Dean, James; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Gang, Hongze; Müller, Thomas; Kav, Batuhan; Terentjev, Eugene M; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J


    The generation of mechanical forces are central to a wide range of vital biological processes, including the function of the cytoskeleton. Although the forces emerging from the polymerization of native proteins have been studied in detail, the potential for force generation by aberrant protein polymerization has not yet been explored. Here, we show that the growth of amyloid fibrils, archetypical aberrant protein polymers, is capable of unleashing mechanical forces on the piconewton scale for individual filaments. We apply microfluidic techniques to measure the forces released by amyloid growth for two systems: insulin and lysozyme. The level of force measured for amyloid growth in both systems is comparable to that observed for actin and tubulin, systems that have evolved to generate force during their native functions and, unlike amyloid growth, rely on the input of external energy in the form of nucleotide hydrolysis for maximum force generation. Furthermore, we find that the power density released from growing amyloid fibrils is comparable to that of high-performance synthetic polymer actuators. These findings highlight the potential of amyloid structures as active materials and shed light on the criteria for regulation and reversibility that guide molecular evolution of functional polymers.

  16. A comparative STM study of Ru nanoparticles deposited on HOPG by mass-selected gas aggregation versus thermal evaporation (United States)

    Nielsen, R. M.; Murphy, S.; Strebel, C.; Johansson, M.; Nielsen, J. H.; Chorkendorff, I.


    Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to compare the morphologies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly-oriented graphite surfaces using two different physical vapour deposition methods; (1) pre-formed mass-selected Ru nanoparticles with diameters between 2 nm and 15 nm were soft-landed onto HOPG surfaces using a gas-aggregation source and (2) nanoparticles were formed by e-beam evaporation of Ru films onto HOPG. The particles generated by the gas-aggregation source are round in shape with evidence of facets resolved on the larger particles. Annealing these nanoparticles when they are supported on unsputtered HOPG resulted in the sintering of smaller nanoparticles, while larger particles remained immobile. Nanoparticles deposited onto sputtered HOPG surfaces were found to be stable against sintering when annealed. The size and shape of nanoparticles deposited by e-beam evaporation depend to a large extent on the state of the graphite support and the temperature. Ru deposition onto unsputtered HOPG is characterised by bimodal growth with large flat particles formed on the substrate terraces and smaller diameter particles aligned along the substrate steps. Evaporation onto sputtered HOPG results in the formation of 2 nm round particles with a narrow size distribution. Finally, thermal deposition onto both sputtered and unsputtered HOPG at 660 °C results in larger particles showing a flat Ru(0 0 0 1) top facet.

  17. Achieving fairness by aggregate power allocation in opportunistic cooperation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianfei; Zhong Zhangdui; Ai Bo


    Within a wireless opportunistic network, one of the lucky users gets an opportunity to utilize the whole radio resource. However some of the unlucky users keep silent during an unexpected period resulting from severe wireless environment and imperfect scheduling algorithms. An opportunistic cooperation protocol is proposed that can achieve equivalent performance measured in terms of outage probability, in which scheme the opportunistic user helps to relay what need retransmitting indicated by the destination and selects the appropriate power allocation to pursue fairness. The proposed scheme deploys superposition coding and successive interference cancellation at relay and destination, respectively. To improve the spectral efficiency, the modified cooperation architecture involves two opportunistic users which work in turn. The simulation results demonstrate that the protocol obtains better performance compared with the conventional methods.

  18. Enzymatic biofilm digestion in soil aggregates facilitates the release of particulate organic matter by sonication (United States)

    Büks, Frederick; Kaupenjohann, Martin


    The stability of soil aggregates against shearing and compressive forces as well as water-caused dispersion is an integral marker of soil quality. High stability results in less compaction and erosion and has been linked to enhanced water retention, dynamic water transport and aeration regimes, increased rooting depth, and protection of soil organic matter (SOM) against microbial degradation. In turn, particulate organic matter is supposed to support soil aggregate stabilization. For decades the importance of biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) regarding particulate organic matter (POM) occlusion and aggregate stability has been canonical because of its distribution, geometric structure and ability to link primary particles. However, experimental proof is still missing. This lack is mainly due to methodological reasons. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop a method of enzymatic biofilm detachment for studying the effects of EPSs on POM occlusion. The method combines an enzymatic pre-treatment with different activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, DNAse and lipase with a subsequent sequential ultrasonic treatment for disaggregation and density fractionation of soils. POM releases of treated samples were compared to an enzyme-free control. To test the efficacy of biofilm detachment the ratio of bacterial DNA from suspended cells and the remaining biofilm after enzymatic treatment were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Although the enzyme treatment was not sufficient for total biofilm removal, our results indicate that EPSs may attach POM within soil aggregates. The tendency to additional POM release with increased application of enzymes was attributed to a slight loss in aggregate stability. This suggests that an effect of agricultural practices on soil microbial populations could influence POM occlusion/aggregate stability and thereby carbon cycle/soil quality.

  19. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.


    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  20. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen affected by residue placement, crop species, and nitrogen fertilization (United States)

    High variability in soil and climatic conditions results in limited changes in soil aggregate-21 associated C and N levels as affected by management practices during a crop growing season in 22 the field. We evaluated the effects of crop species (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea 23 [Pisum sa...

  1. Visualizing tributyltin (TBT) in bacterial aggregates by specific rhodamine-based fluorescent probes. (United States)

    Jin, Xilang; Hao, Likai; She, Mengyao; Obst, Martin; Kappler, Andreas; Yin, Bing; Liu, Ping; Li, Jianli; Wang, Lanying; Shi, Zhen


    Here we present the first examples of fluorescent and colorimetric probes for microscopic TBT imaging. The fluorescent probes are highly selective and sensitive to TBT and have successfully been applied for imaging of TBT in bacterial Rhodobacter ferrooxidans sp. strain SW2 cell-EPS-mineral aggregates and in cell suspensions of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 by using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  2. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.


    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of th

  3. HAF, hepatoma aggregation factor produced by Streptomyces sp. strain No. A-6143. (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Nakano, N; Nagatomi, Y; Tominaga, H; Nakazono, N; Itai, M; Uyeda, M; Shibata, M


    We searched for a new cell aggregation factor for hepatoma AH109A cells, and found one we called HAF in the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain No. A-6143 isolated from a soil sample. HAF was purified by salting-out with ammonium sulfate. DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and hydroxylapatite column chromatography, HAF was glycoprotein which had a molecular weight of about 73,000. HAF was stable from pH 6 to 8 at 37 degrees C and up to 40 degrees C at pH 8.0 and the aggregation activity of HAF was maximum around pH 8 at 30 degrees C. The activity was not influenced by some saccharides, but it was inhibited by EDTA and EGTA: moreover HAF activity was restored by the addition of calcium ions. HAF aggregated hepatoma AH136B and COS-7 cells as well as hepatoma AH109A cells, but it was inert to other cancer cells and human erythrocytes. These properties proved that HAF is completely different from other aggregation factors for cancer cells so far reported.

  4. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...

  5. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by polyaspartoyl L-arginine and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-ye WANG; Zhi-yu TANG; Min DONG; Xiao-yan LIU; Shi-qi PENG


    AIM: To observe the oral anti-platelet efficacy and the potential action mechanism of polyaspartoyl L-arginine (PDR), a new L-arginine rich compound. METHODS: Platelet aggregation was conducted by Born's method;bleeding time was determined using tail's bleeding time in mice; platelet adhesion was carried out with glass bottle method; nitric oxide (NO) was tested with Griess' method; and cAMP, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-PGF1a were assessed with commercial kits. RESULTS: The inhibition by PDR (15-60 mg/kg ig or 10 mg/kg iv) of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen or thrombin at 1 h after oral administration or at 20 min after iv injection for rats (P<0.01), and its (15 mg/kg, ig) inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation for rabbits during 6 h after administration were observed. PDR (15-60 mg/kg) prolonged the bleeding time of mice (P<0.05) and (30 mg/kg) increased NO concentration in plasma. On the other hand PDR did not change the contents of cAMP in platelet and TXB2 or 6-keto-PGF1a in plasma. CONCLUSION: PDR is a novel, oral effective platelet aggregation inhibitor and its action mechanism possibly related to increasing NO generation.

  6. Observation of flow variation in capillaries of artificial blood vessel by producing microbubble aggregations. (United States)

    Masuda, Kohji; Shigehara, Nobuhiko; Koda, Ren; Watarai, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio


    Microbubbles form their aggregations between the neighboring microbubbles by the effect of secondary Bjerknes force under ultrasound exposure. However, because of the difficulty to reproduce a capillary-mimicking artificial blood vessel, the behavior of aggregations in a capillary has not been predicted. Thus we prepared artificial blood vessels including a capillary model, which was made of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by grayscale lithography method, with minimum diameter of the path of 0.5 mm. By using this model we investigated the possibility of artificial embolization, where the microbubble aggregations might block entire vessels not to penetrate flow in downstream. Confirming that the sizes of flown aggregation were greater than the section area of the minimum path in the capillary model, we investigated the probability of path block in it. As the results we confirmed the probability increased in proportion to sound pressure and inversely to flow velocity. We are going to investigate with more kinds of parameters to enhance the possibility of artificial embolization.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Waste Glass Powder on ASR Expansion Induced by Waste Glass Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Liu


    Full Text Available Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP on alkali-silica reaction (ASR expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with the China Test Code SL352-2006. The potential of WGP to control the ASR expansion is determined in terms of mean diameter, specific surface area, content of WGP and curing temperature. Two mathematical models are developed to estimate the inhibitory efficiency of WGP. These studies show that there is ASR risk with an ASR expansion rate over 0.2% when the sand contains more than 30% glass aggregate. However, WGP can effectively control the ASR expansion and inhibit the expansion rate induced by the glass aggregate to be under 0.1%. The two mathematical models have good simulation results, which can be used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of WGP on ASR risk.

  8. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D L; Walsh, J L; Iza, F; Kong, M G [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shama, G [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  9. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet (United States)

    Bayliss, D. L.; Walsh, J. L.; Shama, G.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.


    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  10. Structural Mechanisms of Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation Suppression by the Synthetic Chaperonin-like CCT5 Complex Explained by Cryoelectron Tomography* (United States)

    Darrow, Michele C.; Sergeeva, Oksana A.; Isas, Jose M.; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G.; King, Jonathan A.; Langen, Ralf; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah


    Huntington disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by functional deficits and loss of striatal neurons, is linked to an expanded and unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). This DNA sequence translates to a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product, leading to mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein aggregation. The aggregation of mHTT is inhibited in vitro and in vivo by the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin. Recently, a novel complex comprised of a single type of TRiC subunit has been reported to inhibit mHTT aggregation. Specifically, the purified CCT5 homo-oligomer complex, when compared with TRiC, has a similar structure, ATP use, and substrate refolding activity, and, importantly, it also inhibits mHTT aggregation. Using an aggregation suppression assay and cryoelectron tomography coupled with a novel computational classification method, we uncover the interactions between the synthetic CCT5 complex (∼1 MDa) and aggregates of mutant huntingtin exon 1 containing 46 glutamines (mHTTQ46-Ex1). We find that, in a similar fashion to TRiC, synthetic CCT5 complex caps mHTT fibrils at their tips and encapsulates mHTT oligomers, providing a structural description of the inhibition of mHTTQ46-Ex1 by CCT5 complex and a shared mechanism of mHTT inhibition between TRiC chaperonin and the CCT5 complex: cap and contain. PMID:25995452

  11. Structural Mechanisms of Mutant Huntingtin Aggregation Suppression by the Synthetic Chaperonin-like CCT5 Complex Explained by Cryoelectron Tomography. (United States)

    Darrow, Michele C; Sergeeva, Oksana A; Isas, Jose M; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; King, Jonathan A; Langen, Ralf; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah


    Huntington disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by functional deficits and loss of striatal neurons, is linked to an expanded and unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). This DNA sequence translates to a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product, leading to mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein aggregation. The aggregation of mHTT is inhibited in vitro and in vivo by the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin. Recently, a novel complex comprised of a single type of TRiC subunit has been reported to inhibit mHTT aggregation. Specifically, the purified CCT5 homo-oligomer complex, when compared with TRiC, has a similar structure, ATP use, and substrate refolding activity, and, importantly, it also inhibits mHTT aggregation. Using an aggregation suppression assay and cryoelectron tomography coupled with a novel computational classification method, we uncover the interactions between the synthetic CCT5 complex (∼ 1 MDa) and aggregates of mutant huntingtin exon 1 containing 46 glutamines (mHTTQ46-Ex1). We find that, in a similar fashion to TRiC, synthetic CCT5 complex caps mHTT fibrils at their tips and encapsulates mHTT oligomers, providing a structural description of the inhibition of mHTTQ46-Ex1 by CCT5 complex and a shared mechanism of mHTT inhibition between TRiC chaperonin and the CCT5 complex: cap and contain.

  12. α-Synuclein aggregation, seeding and inhibition by scyllo-inositol. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; McLaurin, JoAnne


    Recent literature demonstrates the accelerated aggregation of α-synuclein, a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), by the presence of preformed fibrillar conformers in vitro. Furthermore, these preformed fibrillar seeds are suggested to accelerate pathological induction in vivo when injected into the brains of mice. Variation in the results of in vivo studies is proposed to be caused by α-synuclein conformational variants. To investigate the impact of amino acid sequence on seeding efficiency, human and mouse α-synuclein seeds, which vary at 7 amino acid residues, were generated and cross-seeding kinetics studied. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we confirmed that mouse α-synuclein aggregated more rapidly than human α-synuclein. Subsequently, we determined that seeding of human and mouse α-synuclein was more rapid in the presence of seeds generated from the same species. In addition, an established amyloid inhibitor, scyllo-inositol, was examined for potential inhibitory effects on α-synuclein aggregation. TEM analysis of protein:inhibitor assays demonstrated that scyllo-inositol inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein, suggesting the therapeutic potential of the small molecule in PD.

  13. Sequestration of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase to Aggregates Formed by Mutant Huntingtin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junchao WU; Fang LIN; Zhenghong QIN


    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been reported to interact with proteins containing the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential contributions of the polyQ and polyproline (polyP) domains to the co-localization of mutant huntingtin (htt) and GAPDH. Overexpression of N-terminal htt (1-969 amino acids) with 100Q and 46Q (htt1-969-100Q and httl-969-46Q, mutant htt) in human mammary gland carcinoma MCF-7 cells formed more htt aggregates than that of htt1-969-18Q (wild-type htt). The co-localization of GAPDH with htt aggregates was found in the cells expressing mutant but not wild-type htt. Deletion of the polyp region in the N-terminal htt had no effect on the co-localization of GAPDH and mutant htt aggregates. These results suggest that the polyQ domain, but not the polyp domain, plays a role in the sequestration of GAPDH to aggregates by mutant htt. This effect might contribute to the dysfunction of neurons caused by mutant htt in Huntington's disease.

  14. Heparin promotes suspension adaptation process of CHO-TS28 cells by eliminating cell aggregation. (United States)

    Li, Ling; Qin, Jun; Feng, Qiang; Tang, Hao; Liu, Rong; Xu, Liqing; Chen, Zhinan


    While heparin has been shown to eliminate cell aggregation in suspension adaptations of insect and HEK293 cells for virus-based cell cultures, the role of heparin in long period serum-free suspension adaptation of the anchorage-dependent Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines remains inconclusive. In this paper, we explore the potential application of heparin in suspension adaptation of CHO cell line which produces an anti-human chimeric antibody cHAb18. Heparin showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of CHO-TS28 cell-to-cell adhesion, with a significant inhibitory effect occurring when the concentration exceeded 250 μg/ml (P cell aggregation elimination role at all concentrations (P cell growth and antibody secretion, with the highest cell density ((99.83 ± 12.21) × 10(4) cells/ml, P = 0.034) and maximum antibody yield ((9.46 ± 0.94) mg/l, P cell aggregates were effectively dispersed by 250 μg/ml heparin and a single-cell suspension culture process was promoted. In suspension adapted CHO-TS28 cells, cell growth rates and specific antibody productivity were maintained; while antigen-binding activity improved slightly. Together, our results show that heparin may promote suspension adaptation of anchorage-depended CHO cells by resisting cell aggregation without reducing cell growth, antibody secretion, and antigen-binding activity.

  15. The aggregation behavior of native collagen in dilute solution studied by intrinsic fluorescence and external probing (United States)

    Wu, Kun; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying


    The aggregation behavior of type I collagen in acid solutions with the concentrations covering a range of 0.06-1.50 mg/mL was studied utilizing both of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the phenylalanine and tyrosine residues and the external probing of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate (ANS). FRET at 0.30 mg/mL showed the distance among collagen monomers was within 10 nm without the obvious aggregates formed. The predominance of tyrosine fluorescence in FRET in the range of 0.45-0.75 mg/mL identified the existence of collagen aggregates companied with the formation of hydrophobic microdomains revealed by the change of the fluorescence of ANS. The blue-shift of tyrosine fluorescence from 303 to 293 nm for 0.90-1.50 mg/mL dedicated the formation of high order aggregates. The results from the two-phase diagrams of the intrinsic fluorescence for the guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding of collagen confirmed these conclusions. By the two-dimensional correlation analysis for the intrinsic fluorescence of collagen solutions of 0.45, 0.75 and 1.05 mg/mL, the probable characteristic fluorescence peaks for the interactions of proline-aromatic (CH ˜ π) among the collagen molecules were found at 298 and 316 nm.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai


    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane. PMID:27612497

  17. Mechanisms of xenogeneic baboon platelet aggregation and phagocytosis by porcine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Baboons receiving xenogeneic livers from wild type and transgenic pigs survive less than 10 days. One of the major issues is the early development of profound thrombocytopenia that results in fatal hemorrhage. Histological examination of xenotransplanted livers has shown baboon platelet activation, phagocytosis and sequestration within the sinusoids. In order to study the mechanisms of platelet consumption in liver xenotransplantation, we have developed an in vitro system to examine the interaction between pig endothelial cells with baboon platelets and to thereby identify molecular mechanisms and therapies. METHODS: Fresh pig hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal and aortic endothelial cells were isolated by collagenase digestion of livers and processing of aortae from GTKO and Gal+ MGH-miniature swine. These primary cell cultures were then tested for the differential ability to induce baboon or pig platelet aggregation. Phagocytosis was evaluated by direct observation of CFSE labeled-platelets, which are incubated with endothelial cells under confocal light microscopy. Aurintricarboxylic acid (GpIb antagonist blocking interactions with von Willebrand factor/vWF, eptifibatide (Gp IIb/IIIa antagonist, and anti-Mac-1 Ab (anti-α(Mβ(2 integrin Ab were tested for the ability to inhibit phagocytosis. RESULTS: None of the pig cells induced aggregation or phagocytosis of porcine platelets. However, pig hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal and aortic endothelial cells (GTKO and Gal+ all induced moderate aggregation of baboon platelets. Importantly, pig liver sinusoidal endothelial cells efficiently phagocytosed baboon platelets, while pig aortic endothelial cells and hepatocytes had minimal effects on platelet numbers. Anti-MAC-1 Ab, aurintricarboxylic acid or eptifibatide, significantly decreased baboon platelet phagocytosis by pig liver endothelial cells (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Although pig hepatocytes and aortic endothelial cells directly caused

  18. The response of farmland bird communities to agricultural intensity as influenced by its spatial aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Teillard

    Full Text Available The shape of the relationship between biodiversity and agricultural intensity determines the range of intensities that should be targeted by conservation policies to obtain the greatest environmental benefits. Although preliminary evidence of this relationship exists, the influence of the spatial arrangement of intensity on biodiversity remains untested. We conducted a nationwide study linking agricultural intensity and its spatial arrangement to a farmland bird community of 22 species. Intensity was described with a continuous indicator based on Input Cost per hectare, which was relevant for both livestock and crop production. We used the French Breeding Bird Survey to compute several descriptors of the farmland bird community along the intensity gradient and tested for the significance of an interaction effect between intensity and its spatial aggregation on these descriptors. We found that the bird community was comprised of both winner and loser species with regard to intensity. The community composition descriptors (trophic level, specialisation, and specialisation for grassland indices displayed non-linear relationships to intensity, with steeper slopes in the lower intensity range. We found a significant interaction effect between intensity and its spatial aggregation on the grassland specialisation index of the bird community; the effect of agricultural intensity was strengthened by its spatial aggregation. We suggest that an opportunity to improve the effectiveness of conservation policies exists by targeting measures in areas where intensity is moderate to low and aggregated. The effect of the aggregation of agricultural intensity on biodiversity should be considered in other scales and taxa when developing optimal policy targeting and intensity allocation strategies.

  19. Guidance to Achieve Accurate Aggregate Quantitation in Biopharmaceuticals by SV-AUC. (United States)

    Arthur, Kelly K; Kendrick, Brent S; Gabrielson, John P


    The levels and types of aggregates present in protein biopharmaceuticals must be assessed during all stages of product development, manufacturing, and storage of the finished product. Routine monitoring of aggregate levels in biopharmaceuticals is typically achieved by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) due to its high precision, speed, robustness, and simplicity to operate. However, SEC is error prone and requires careful method development to ensure accuracy of reported aggregate levels. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) is an orthogonal technique that can be used to measure protein aggregation without many of the potential inaccuracies of SEC. In this chapter, we discuss applications of SV-AUC during biopharmaceutical development and how characteristics of the technique make it better suited for some applications than others. We then discuss the elements of a comprehensive analytical control strategy for SV-AUC. Successful implementation of these analytical control elements ensures that SV-AUC provides continued value over the long time frames necessary to bring biopharmaceuticals to market.

  20. Transfection efficiency influenced by aggregation of DNA/polyethylenimine max/magnetic nanoparticle complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Satoshi, E-mail:; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Yokohama National University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Tomitaka, Asahi [University of Washington, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Yamada, Tsutomu [Yokohama National University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Kami, Daisuke [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Cardiac Supports (Japan); Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takemura, Yasushi [Yokohama National University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan)


    Gene delivery using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is known as magnetofection and is an efficient non-viral gene delivery system. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (primary diameter = 29 nm) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (primary diameter = 20-30 nm) coated with deacylated linear polyethylenimine (PEI max) were prepared and conjugated with DNA. The dependency of transfection efficiency on the weight of MNPs, viability of HeLa cells, and size of DNA/PEI max/MNP complexes was evaluated. Transfection efficiency initially increased with the weight of the complexes; however, it decreased with further increase in weight. In contrast, cell viability increased with further increase in weight. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the decline in transfection efficiency at higher weights was not attributable to cytotoxicity of DNA/PEI max/MNP complexes. The DNA/PEI max/MNP complexes aggregated because of DNA binding and pH interaction with the medium. Aggregation depending on the weight of MNPs was confirmed. The number of complexes was estimated from the size distribution. In addition, the dependency of the transfection efficiency on aggregation was assessed with respect to cellular endocytic pathways using the complexes. The complexes were internalized through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which was a size-dependent pathway. This study reveals that decreased transfection efficiency was associated with the extent of aggregation, which was induced by high weight of MNPs.

  1. Structural formation of huntingtin-like aggregates probed by small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Christopher B [ORNL; Perevozchikova, Tatiana [ORNL; Berthelier-Jung, Valerie M [ORNL


    In several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington s disease (HD), aspects concerning the earliest of protein structures that form along the aggregation pathway have increasingly gained attention since these particular species are likely to be neurotoxic. We used time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to probe in solution these transient structures formed by peptides having the N-terminal sequence context of mutant huntingtin (Htt) exon 1. We obtained snapshots of the formed aggregates as the kinetic reaction ensued to yield quantitative information on their size and mass. At the early stage, small precursor species with an initial radius of gyration (Rg) of 16.1 5.9 and average mass of a dimer to trimer were monitored. Structural growth was treated as two modes with a transition from three-dimensional early aggregate formation to two-dimensional fibril growth and association. Our SANS results on the internal structure of the mature fibrils demonstrate loose packing with about 1 peptide per 4.75 -sheet repeat distance, which is shown to be quantitatively consistent with a -helix model. This research provides new insights into the structures forming along the pathway of Htt exon 1 aggregation and should assist in determining the role that precursors play in neuronal toxicity.

  2. Electricity generation by intermittent sources (United States)

    Wagner, F.


    This paper deals with the production of electricity by wind and photovoltaic (PV) power mostly in Germany. The German data of 2012 are scaled to a 100% supply of the electricity consumption by renewable sources. Wind and PV power are mixed in a ratio which minimises back-up energy. The 100%, optimal mix data are used to identify the powers to be installed, the accumulating backup and surplus energies, the size of storage to replace thermal back-up power, the possibilities of demand-side-management, and the specific CO2 production. The benefits of using an EU-wide field of renewable energies (RES) instead of the national one are quantified and the interconnection capacities specified. Finally, the costs of installing RES are discussed. The conclusion is that a 100% supply by RES may not be meaningful. Large-scale supply by RES alone has deficiencies and it will remain a major task for science and technology to either improve such a system or find a suitable replacement.

  3. Electricity generation by intermittent sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the production of electricity by wind and photovoltaic (PV power mostly in Germany. The German data of 2012 are scaled to a 100% supply of the electricity consumption by renewable sources. Wind and PV power are mixed in a ratio which minimises back-up energy. The 100%, optimal mix data are used to identify the powers to be installed, the accumulating backup and surplus energies, the size of storage to replace thermal back-up power, the possibilities of demand-side-management, and the specific CO2 production. The benefits of using an EU-wide field of renewable energies (RES instead of the national one are quantified and the interconnection capacities specified. Finally, the costs of installing RES are discussed. The conclusion is that a 100% supply by RES may not be meaningful. Large-scale supply by RES alone has deficiencies and it will remain a major task for science and technology to either improve such a system or find a suitable replacement.

  4. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T., E-mail:; Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)


    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  5. Morphology, ultrastructure and functional role of antennal sensilla in off-host aggregation by the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. (United States)

    Olson, Joelle F; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A; Mesce, Karen A


    After blood feeding on a host, bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, assemble in aggregation sites away from the host. Off-host aggregation is mediated by a combination of mechanical and chemical stimuli associated with bug feces. Partial antennectomies indicated removal of flagellomeres did not affect aggregation, but removal of the whole pedicel or its distal half significantly reduced (P Cimex hemipterus F. The existence of both olfactory and gustatory sensilla on the distal half of the pedicel suggests those sensilla may be the sensory basis of off-host aggregation behavior.

  6. Ischemic Postconditioning Protects Neuronal Death Caused by Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion via Attenuating Protein Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Liang, Jihang Yao, Guangming Wang, Ying Wang, Boyu Wang, Pengfei Ge


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of ischemic postconditioning on protein aggregation caused by transient ischemia and reperfusion and to clarify its underlying mechanism.Methods: Two-vessel-occluded transient global ischemia rat model was used. The rats in ischemic postconditioning group were subjected to three cycles of 30-s/30-s reperfusion/clamping after 15min of ischemia. Neuronal death in the CA1 region was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and number of live neurons was assessed by cell counting under a light microscope. Succinyl-LLVY-AMC was used as substrate to assay proteasome activity in vitro. Protein carbonyl content was spectrophotometrically measured to analyze protein oxidization. Immunochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to observe the distribution of ubiquitin in the CA1 neurons. Western blotting was used to analyze the quantitative alterations of protein aggregates, proteasome, hsp70 and hsp40 in cellular fractions under different ischemic conditions.Results: Histological examination showed that the percentage of live neurons in the CA1 region was elevated from 5.21%±1.21% to 55.32%±5.34% after administration of ischemic postconditioning (P=0.0087. Western blotting analysis showed that the protein aggregates in the ischemia group was 32.12±4.87, 41.86±4.71 and 34.51±5.18 times higher than that in the sham group at reperfusion 12h, 24h and 48h, respectively. However, protein aggregates were alleviated significantly by ischemic postconditioning to 2.84±0.97, 13.72±2.13 and 14.37±2.42 times at each indicated time point (P=0.000032, 0.0000051 and 0.0000082. Laser scanning confocal images showed ubiquitin labeled protein aggregates could not be discerned in the ischemic postconditioning group. Further study showed that ischemic postconditioning suppressed the production of carbonyl derivatives, elevated proteasome activity that was damaged by ischemia and reperfusion, increased the expression

  7. Detection of Gold Nanoparticles Aggregation Growth Induced by Nucleic Acid through Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (United States)

    Gary, Ramla; Carbone, Giovani; Petriashvili, Gia; De Santo, Maria Penelope; Barberi, Riccardo


    The gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation growth induced by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is studied by laser scanning confocal and environmental scanning electron microscopies. As in the investigated case the direct light scattering analysis is not suitable, we observe the behavior of the fluorescence produced by a dye and we detect the aggregation by the shift and the broadening of the fluorescence peak. Results of laser scanning confocal microscopy images and the fluorescence emission spectra from lambda scan mode suggest, in fact, that the intruding of the hydrophobic moiety of the probe within the cationic surfactants bilayer film coating GNPs results in a Förster resonance energy transfer. The environmental scanning electron microscopy images show that DNA molecules act as template to assemble GNPs into three-dimensional structures which are reminiscent of the DNA helix. This study is useful to design better nanobiotechnological devices using GNPs and DNA. PMID:26907286

  8. Detection of Gold Nanoparticles Aggregation Growth Induced by Nucleic Acid through Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramla Gary


    Full Text Available The gold nanoparticle (GNP aggregation growth induced by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is studied by laser scanning confocal and environmental scanning electron microscopies. As in the investigated case the direct light scattering analysis is not suitable, we observe the behavior of the fluorescence produced by a dye and we detect the aggregation by the shift and the broadening of the fluorescence peak. Results of laser scanning confocal microscopy images and the fluorescence emission spectra from lambda scan mode suggest, in fact, that the intruding of the hydrophobic moiety of the probe within the cationic surfactants bilayer film coating GNPs results in a Förster resonance energy transfer. The environmental scanning electron microscopy images show that DNA molecules act as template to assemble GNPs into three-dimensional structures which are reminiscent of the DNA helix. This study is useful to design better nanobiotechnological devices using GNPs and DNA.

  9. Diarrhea-associated biofilm formed by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and aggregative Citrobacter freundii: a consortium mediated by putative F pili

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    Araújo Ana CG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC are enteropathogenic strains identified by the aggregative adhesion (AA pattern that share the capability to form biofilms. Citrobacter freundii is classically considered as an indigenous intestinal species that is sporadically associated with diarrhea. Results During an epidemiologic study focusing on infantile diarrhea, aggregative C. freundii (EACF and EAEC strains were concomitantly recovered from a severe case of mucous diarrhea. Thereby, the occurrence of synergic events involving these strains was investigated. Coinfection of HeLa cells with EACF and EAEC strains showed an 8-fold increase in the overall bacterial adhesion compared with single infections (P traA were capable of forming bacterial aggregates only in the presence of EACF. Scanning electronic microscopy analyses revealed that bacterial aggregates as well as enhanced biofilms formed by EACF and traA-positive EAEC were mediated by non-bundle forming, flexible pili. Moreover, mixed biofilms formed by EACF and traA-positive EAEC strains were significantly reduced using nonlethal concentration of zinc, a specific inhibitor of F pili. In addition, EAEC strains isolated from diarrheic children frequently produced single biofilms sensitive to zinc. Conclusions Putative F pili expressed by EAEC strains boosted mixed biofilm formation when in the presence of aggregative C. freundii.

  10. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Langer, William H.


    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  11. Zinc induces unfolding and aggregation of dimeric arginine kinase by trapping reversible unfolding intermediate. (United States)

    Liu, Taotao; Wang, Xicheng


    Arginine kinase plays an important role in the cellular energy metabolism of invertebrates. Dimeric arginine kinase (dAK) is unique in some marine invertebrates. The effects of Zn²(+) on the unfolding and aggregation of dAK from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were investigated. Our results indicated that Zn²(+) caused dAK inactivation accompanied by conformational unfolding, the exposure of hydrophobic surface, and aggregation. Kinetic studies showed the inactivation and unfolding of dAK followed biphasic kinetic courses. Zn²(+) can affect unfolding and refolding of dAK by trapping the reversible intermediate. Our study provides important information regarding the effect of Zn²(+) on metabolic enzymes in marine invertebrates.

  12. Excitation transfer pathways in excitonic aggregates revealed by the stochastic Schr\\"odinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Abramavicius, Vytautas


    We derive the stochastic Schr\\"odinger equation for the system wave vector and use it to describe the excitation energy transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates. We suggest a quantum-measurement based method of estimating the excitation transfer time. Adequacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by performing calculations on a model system. The theory is then applied to study the excitation transfer dynamics in a photosynthetic pigment-protein Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) aggregate using both the Debye spectral density and the spectral density obtained from earlier molecular dynamics simulations containing strong vibrational high-frequency modes. The obtained results show that the excitation transfer times in the FMO system are affected by the presence of the vibrational modes, however the transfer pathways remain the same.

  13. PPM1A regulates antiviral signaling by antagonizing TBK1-mediated STING phosphorylation and aggregation.

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    Zexing Li


    Full Text Available Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA and ERIS is critical in protecting the host against DNA pathogen invasion. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of STING remains unclear. Here, we show that PPM1A negatively regulates antiviral signaling by targeting STING in its phosphatase activity-dependent manner, and in a line with this, PPM1A catalytically dephosphorylates STING and TBK1 in vitro. Importantly, we provide evidence that whereas TBK1 promotes STING aggregation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, PPM1A antagonizes STING aggregation by dephosphorylating both STING and TBK1, emphasizing that phosphorylation is crucial for the efficient activation of STING. Our findings demonstrate a novel regulatory circuit in which STING and TBK1 reciprocally regulate each other to enable efficient antiviral signaling activation, and PPM1A dephosphorylates STING and TBK1, thereby balancing this antiviral signal transduction.

  14. Discrepancies over the onset of surfactant monomer aggregation interpreted by fluorescence, conductivity and surface tension methods

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    Maria de Fátima Carvalho Costa


    Full Text Available Molecular probe techniques have made important contributions to the determination of microstructure of surfactant assemblies such as size, stability, micropolarity and conformation. Conductivity and surface tension were used to determine the critical aggregation concentration (cac of polymer-surfactant complexes and the critical micellar concentration (cmc of aqueous micellar aggregates. The results are compared with those of fluorescent techniques. Several surfactant systems were examined, 1-butanol-sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS mixtures, solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide-SDS, poly(vinylpyrrolidone-SDS and poly(acrylic acid-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes. We found differences between the cac and cmc values obtained by conductivity or surface tension and those obtained by techniques which use hydrophobic probe.

  15. Aggregation mechanism of Pd nanoparticles in L-cysteine aqueous solution studied by NEXAFS and AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, C., E-mail: [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ogawa, S.; Mizutani, T. [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kutluk, G.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Yagi, S. [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)


    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for L-cysteine under water environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on Si wafer by gas evaporation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the Pd NPs/Si has been dipped into L-cysteine aqueous solution, the L-cysteine has selectively adsorbed on Pd NPs surface and existed as the L-cysteine thiolate, atomic S and L-cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moreover, the aggregation of Pd NPs occurs by the migration of Pd NPs on Si and the cross-linked reaction between L-cysteine thiolate molecules adsorbed on Pd NPs. - Abstract: We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) from the point of microscopic view. Thus, as the basic research for the biocompatibility, we have investigated the adsorbates on the Pd NPs surface and the aggregation mechanism for the Pd NPs on Si substrate after dipping into L-cysteine aqueous solution by means of NEXAFS measurement and AFM observation. The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on the Si wafer by the gas evaporation method. Judging from the results of NEXAFS measurement, it is clear that the L-cysteine thiolate and atomic S exist on the Pd NPs surface. The results of AFM observation show that the Pd NPs aggregate. It is thought that the aggregation of the Pd NPs occurs by both the migration of the Pd NPs on Si wafer and the cross-linked reaction.

  16. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists inhibit platelet adhesion and aggregation by nitric oxide release. (United States)

    Kalinowski, Leszek; Matys, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa; Buczko, Włodzimierz; Malinski, Tadeusz


    This study investigated the process of nitric oxide (NO) release from platelets after stimulation with different angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonists and its effect on platelet adhesion and aggregation. Angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets was compared with that in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by using a highly sensitive porphyrinic microsensor. In vitro and ex vivo effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on platelet adhesion to collagen and thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced aggregation were evaluated. Losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan alone caused NO release from platelets and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner in the range of 0.01 to 100 micro mol/L, which was attenuated by NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. The angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists had more than 70% greater potency in NO release in platelets than in endothelial cells. The degree of inhibition of platelet adhesion (collagen-stimulated) and aggregation (U46619-stimulated) elicited by losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan, either in vitro or ex vivo, closely correlated with the NO levels produced by each of these drugs alone. The inhibiting effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on collagen-stimulated adhesion and U46619-stimulated aggregation of platelets were significantly reduced by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Neither the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, the cyclooxygenase synthase inhibitor indomethacin, nor the selective thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist SQ29,548 had any effect on angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets and endothelial cells. The presented studies clearly indicate a crucial role of NO in the arterial antithrombotic effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists.

  17. Construction aggregates (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.


    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  18. Calsequestrin-1 Regulates Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry by Inhibiting STIM1 Aggregation

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    Lane Zhang


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Stromal interacting molecule-1 (STIM1 aggregation and redistribution to plasma membrane to interact with Orai1 constitute the core mechanism of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Previous study has revealed that calsequestrin-1 (CSQ1 regulates SOCE in HEK293 cells through interacting with STIM1 and inhibiting STIM1/Orai1 interaction. Here, we further investigate how CSQ1/STIM1 interaction affects SOCE. Methods: Using confocal microscopy, STIM1 aggregation and co-localizations with CSQ1 or Orai1 upon Ca2+ store depletion by thapsigargin were measured and quantified by Imaris software in HeLa cells transfected with different CSQ1 mutants. The interactions of CSQ1/STIM1 and STIM1/Orai1, and internal Ca2+ changes were detected by co-immunoprecipitation and Fura2, respectively. Results: Wt-CSQ1 overexpression significantly reduced STIM1 clustering in the perimembrane and cytosolic regions, whereas over-expression of a C-terminal amino acid 362-396 deletion mutant (C35 did not. Consistently, a significant depression of SOCE, increased CSQ1 monomerization and CSQ1/STIM1 interaction, and a reduced STIM1/Orai1 association were observed in wt-CSQ1 but not in C35-transfected cells. Additionally, mutant lacking C-terminal AA 388-396 deletion exerted weaker potency in inhibiting STIM1 aggregation and association with Orai1 than wt-CSQ1. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that CSQ1 monomers suppress SOCE by interacting with STIM1 and attenuating STIM1 aggregation via its C-terminal amino acid 362-396.

  19. Detection of Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates by the ADAM® Image Cytometer


    Jung, Bo Kyeung; Cho, Chi Hyun; Moon, Kyung Chul; sung Hur, Dae; YOON, Jeong-Ah; Yoon, Soo-Young


    Background: Inappropriate platelet activation is known to be associated with various thrombotic disorders. Platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), whose formation is mediated by platelet surface P-selectin (CD62P), can be used as a reliable marker to detect platelet activation. Previous studies have generally detected PMAs through flow cytometry-based approaches. Recently, the ADAM® image cytometer (Nanoentek Inc., Seoul, Korea) was developed for image-based cellular analysis. In this study, we ...

  20. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li


    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  1. The study of amorphous aggregation of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by dynamic light scattering. (United States)

    Panyukov, Yuliy; Yudin, Igor; Drachev, Vladimir; Dobrov, Evgeny; Kurganov, Boris


    The kinetics of heat-induced and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide induced amorphous aggregation of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein in Na(+)/Na(+) phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, have been studied using dynamic light scattering. In the case of thermal aggregation (52 degrees C) the character of the dependence of the hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) on time indicates that at certain instant the population of aggregates is split into two components. The size of the aggregates of one kind remains practically constant in time, whereas the size of aggregates of other kind increases monotonously in time reaching the values characteristic of aggregates prone to precipitation (R(h)=900-1500 nm). The construction of the light scattering intensity versus R(h) plots shows that the large aggregates (the start aggregates) exist in the system at the instant the initial increase in the light scattering intensity is observed. For thermal aggregation the R(h) value for the start aggregates is independent of the protein concentration and equal to 21.6 nm. In the case of the surfactant-induced aggregation (at 25 degrees C) no splitting of the aggregates into two components is observed and the size of the start aggregates turns out to be much larger (107 nm) than on the thermal aggregation. The dependence of R(h) on time for both heat-induced aggregation and surfactant-induced aggregation after a lapse of time follows the power law indicating that the aggregation process proceeds in the kinetic regime of diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation. Fractal dimension is close to 1.8. The molecular chaperone alpha-crystallin does not affect the kinetics of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein thermal aggregation.

  2. Differential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced granulocyte aggregation and prostanoid production by emoxypin. (United States)

    Kubatiev, A; Turgiev, A; Smirnov, L; Pomoynetsky, V; Dumaev, K


    Emoxypin is known to be an effective membrane-stabilizing 3-oxy-pyridine derivative. We attempted to evaluate its influence on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced granulocyte aggregation and prostanoid production. Granulocytes isolated from rabbit venous blood by dextran sedimentation and Pezcoll gradient centrifugation were stirred in the aggregometer cuvette with emoxypin (5mM), indomethacin (50 microM) or their solvents at 37 degrees C for 2 min. Then S. typhimurium LPS (200 micrograms/ml) was added and the aggregation was traced for 5 min. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2), prostaglandins (PG) E, F2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha were determined in supernatants radioimmunochemically. Indomethacin did not affect the pattern of aggregation, whereas emoxypin virtually precluded the response. Granulocytes incubated with LPS produced by the 15th sec and 5th min 1.3 and 2.5 times as much TxB2 respectively as did the intact cells (p less than 0.01). LPS had no effect on PGE production. Fifteen-sec contact of granulocytes with LPS had no significant influence on the formation of PGF2 alpha and its 13,14-dihydro-15-keto metabolite. The amount of PGF2 alpha released into the medium by the end of the 5th min of incubation with LPS was 1.5 times higher than in the control (p less than 0.05); the level of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha was decreased 1.6 times (p less than 0.01). Emoxypin abolished totally LPS-induced TxB2 and PGF2 alpha production. We conclude that aggregation and eicosanoid production are independent manifestations of LPS-induced rabbit granulocyte activation.

  3. Generation of chimeras by aggregation of embryonic stem cells with diploid or tetraploid mouse embryos. (United States)

    Artus, Jérôme; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina


    From the hybrid creatures of the Greek and Egyptian mythologies, the concept of the chimera has evolved and, in modern day biology, refers to an organism comprises of at least two populations of genetically distinct cells. Mouse chimeras have proven an invaluable tool for the generation of genetically modified strains. In addition, chimeras have been extensively used in developmental biology as a powerful tool to analyze the phenotype of specific mutations, to attribute function to gene products and to address the question of cell autonomy versus noncell autonomy of gene function. This chapter describes a simple and economical technique used to generate mouse chimeras by embryo aggregation. Multiple aggregation combinations are described each of which can be tailored to answer particular biological questions.

  4. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

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    R.K. Mishra


    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  5. Super stretchable hydrogel achieved by non-aggregated spherulites with diameters <5 nm (United States)

    Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin; Liang, Rui; Weng, Lu-Tao; Zhang, Lina


    The scope of hydrogel applications can be greatly expanded by the improvement of mechanical properties. However, enhancement of nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) has been severely limited because the size of crosslinking nanoparticles is too large, at least in one dimension. Here we report a new strategy to synthesize non-aggregated spherulite nanoparticles, with diameters hydrogel. The stress and stretch ratio at rupture of our NC gel are 430 and 121 KPa with only 40-p.p.m. nanoparticle content. The NC gel containing 200-p.p.m. nanoparticles can revert to 90% of its original size after enduring 100-MPa compressive stress. Our results demonstrate that the suppression of nanoparticle size without aggregation helps to establish a super stretchable and high-toughness hydrogel network at very low inorganic content.

  6. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning. (United States)

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng


    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in undifferentiated state.

  7. Tricyclic pyrone compounds prevent aggregation and reverse cellular phenotypes caused by expression of mutant huntingtin protein in striatal neurons

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    McMurray Cynthia T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion mutation in the coding region of a novel gene. The mechanism of HD is unknown. Most data suggest that polyglutamine-mediated aggregation associated with expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mhtt contributes to the pathology. However, recent studies have identified early cellular dysfunctions that preclude aggregate formation. Suppression of aggregation is accepted as one of the markers of successful therapeutic approaches. Previously, we demonstrated that tricyclic pyrone (TP compounds efficiently inhibited formation of amyloid-β (Aβ aggregates in cell and mouse models representing Alzheimer's Disease (AD. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether TP compounds could prevent aggregation and restore early cellular defects in primary embryonic striatal neurons from animal model representing HD. Results TP compounds effectively inhibit aggregation caused by mhtt in neurons and glial cells. Treatment with TP compounds also alleviated cholesterol accumulation and restored clathrin-independent endocytosis in HD neurons. Conclusion We have found that TP compounds not only blocked mhtt-induced aggregation, but also alleviated early cellular dysfunctions that preclude aggregate formation. Our data suggest TP molecules may be used as lead compounds for prevention or treatment of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including HD and AD.

  8. Modeling compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete by Artificial Neural Network, Model Tree and Non-linear Regression

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    Neela Deshpande


    Full Text Available In the recent past Artificial Neural Networks (ANN have emerged out as a promising technique for predicting compressive strength of concrete. In the present study back propagation was used to predict the 28 day compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC along with two other data driven techniques namely Model Tree (MT and Non-linear Regression (NLR. Recycled aggregate is the current need of the hour owing to its environmental friendly aspect of re-use of the construction waste. The study observed that, prediction of 28 day compressive strength of RAC was done better by ANN than NLR and MT. The input parameters were cubic meter proportions of Cement, Natural fine aggregate, Natural coarse Aggregates, recycled aggregates, Admixture and Water (also called as raw data. The study also concluded that ANN performs better when non-dimensional parameters like Sand–Aggregate ratio, Water–total materials ratio, Aggregate–Cement ratio, Water–Cement ratio and Replacement ratio of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates, were used as additional input parameters. Study of each network developed using raw data and each non dimensional parameter facilitated in studying the impact of each parameter on the performance of the models developed using ANN, MT and NLR as well as performance of the ANN models developed with limited number of inputs. The results indicate that ANN learn from the examples and grasp the fundamental domain rules governing strength of concrete.

  9. Modulation of invasive phenotype by interstitial pressure-driven convection in aggregates of human breast cancer cells.

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    Joe Tien

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of elevated pressure on the invasive phenotype of patterned three-dimensional (3D aggregates of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We found that the directionality of the interstitial pressure profile altered the frequency of invasion by cells located at the surface of an aggregate. In particular, application of pressure at one end of an aggregate suppressed invasion at the opposite end. Experimental alteration of the configuration of cell aggregates and computational modeling of the resulting flow and solute concentration profiles revealed that elevated pressure inhibited invasion by altering the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid near the surface of the aggregate. Our data reveal a link between hydrostatic pressure, interstitial convection, and invasion.

  10. Cheetah interspecific SCNT followed by embryo aggregation improves in vitro development but not pluripotent gene expression. (United States)

    Moro, L N; Hiriart, M I; Buemo, C; Jarazo, J; Sestelo, A; Veraguas, D; Rodriguez-Alvarez, L; Salamone, D F


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of domestic cat (Dc, Felis silvestris) oocytes to reprogram the nucleus of cheetah (Ch, Acinonyx jubatus) cells by interspecies SCNT (iSCNT), by using embryo aggregation. Dc oocytes were in vitro matured and subjected to zona pellucida free (ZP-free) SCNT or iSCNT, depending on whether the nucleus donor cell was of Dc or Ch respectively. ZP-free reconstructed embryos were then cultured in microwells individually (Dc1X and Ch1X groups) or in couples (Dc2X and Ch2X groups). Embryo aggregation improved in vitro development obtaining 27.4, 47.7, 16.7 and 28.3% of blastocyst rates in the Dc1X, Dc2X, Ch1X and Ch2X groups, respectively (P<0.05). Moreover, aggregation improved the morphological quality of blastocysts from the Dc2X over the Dc1X group. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ch1X and Ch2X blastocysts had significantly lower relative expression of OCT4, CDX2 and NANOG than the Dc1X, Dc2X and IVF control groups. The OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and CDX2 genes were overexpressed in Dc1X blastocysts, but the relative expression of these four genes decreased in the Dc2X, reaching similar relative levels to those of Dc IVF blastocysts. In conclusion, Ch blastocysts were produced using Dc oocytes, but with lower relative expression of pluripotent and trophoblastic genes, indicating that nuclear reprogramming could be still incomplete. Despite this, embryo aggregation improved the development of Ch and Dc embryos, and normalized Dc gene expression, which suggests that this strategy could improve full-term developmental efficiency of cat and feline iSCNT embryos.

  11. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P2Y12 Induction by Oligochitosan Accelerates Platelet Aggregation (United States)

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Hussein, Abdul Rahim; Ujang, Zanariah


    Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpiibiiia) is a receptor detected on platelets. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activates gpiibiiia and P2Y12, causing platelet aggregation and thrombus stabilization during blood loss. Chitosan biomaterials were found to promote surface induced hemostasis and were capable of activating blood coagulation cascades by enhancing platelet aggregation. Our current findings show that the activation of the gpiibiiia complex and the major ADP receptor P2Y12 is required for platelet aggregation to reach hemostasis following the adherence of various concentrations of chitosan biomaterials [7% N,O-carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC) with 0.45 mL collagen, 8% NO-CMC, oligochitosan (O-C), and oligochitosan 53 (O-C 53)]. We studied gpiibiiia and P2Y12 through flow cytometric analysis and western blotting techniques. The highest expression of gpiibiiia was observed with Lyostypt (74.3 ± 7.82%), followed by O-C (65.5 ± 7.17%). Lyostypt and O-C resulted in gpiibiiia expression increases of 29.2% and 13.9%, respectively, compared with blood alone. Western blot analysis revealed that only O-C 53 upregulated the expression of P2Y12 (1.12 ± 0.03-fold) compared with blood alone. Our findings suggest that the regulation of gpiibiiia and P2Y12 levels could be clinically useful to activate platelets to reach hemostasis. Further, we show that the novel oligochitosan is able to induce the increased expression of gpiibiiia and P2Y12, thus accelerating platelet aggregation in vitro. PMID:25247182

  12. Active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide ELK16 in Escherichia coli

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    Zhou Bihong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs could be biologically active. In particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, D-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active IBs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP1, or the human β-amyloid peptide Aβ42(F19D. As active IBs may have many attractive advantages in enzyme production and industrial applications, it is of considerable interest to explore them further. Results In this paper, we report that an ionic self-assembling peptide ELK16 (LELELKLK2 was able to effectively induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli when attached to the carboxyl termini of four model proteins including lipase A, amadoriase II, β-xylosidase, and green fluorescent protein. These aggregates had a general appearance similar to the usually reported cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs under transmission electron microscopy or fluorescence confocal microscopy. Except for lipase A-ELK16 fusion, the three other fusion protein aggregates retained comparable specific activities with the native counterparts. Conformational analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of newly formed antiparallel beta-sheet structures in these ELK16 peptide-induced inclusion bodies, which is consistent with the reported assembly of the ELK16 peptide. Conclusions This has been the first report where a terminally attached self-assembling β peptide ELK16 can promote the formation of active inclusion bodies or active protein aggregates in E. coli. It has the potential to render E. coli and other recombinant hosts more efficient as microbial cell factories for protein production. Our observation might

  13. Noncovalent pegylation by dansyl-poly(ethylene glycol)s as a new means against aggregation of salmon calcitonin. (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit


    During all stages of protein drug development, aggregation is one of the most often encountered problems. Covalent conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), also called PEGylation, to proteins has been shown to reduce aggregation of proteins. In this paper, new excipients based on PEG are presented that are able to reduce aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Several PEG polymers consisting of a hydrophobic dansyl-headgroup attached to PEGs of different molecular weights have been synthesized and characterized physicochemically. After addition of dansyl-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) 2 kDa to a 40 times molar excess of sCT resulted in an increase in dansyl-fluorescence and a decrease in 90° light scatter suggesting possible interactions. The aggregation of sCT in different buffer systems in presence or absence of the different dansyl-PEGs was measured by changes in Nile red fluorescence and turbidity. Dansyl-mPEG 2 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio to sCT strongly reduced aggregation. Reduction of sCT aggregation was also measured for the bivalent dansyl-PEG 3 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio. Dansyl-mPEG 5 kDa deteriorated sCT aggregation. Potential cytotoxicity and hemolysis were investigated. This paper shows that dansyl-PEGs are efficacious in reducing aggregation of sCT.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman Hardiman


    Full Text Available Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types of binder were used, conventional 60/70 pen bitumen, and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS modified bitumen. The amount of binder lost through drainage after three hours at the maximum mixing temperature were measured in duplicate for mixes of different maximum sizes and binder contents. The maximum mixing temperature adopted depends on the types of binder used. The retained binder is plotted against the initial mixed binder content, together with the line of equality where the retained binder equals the mixed binder content. The results indicate the significant contribution of using SBS modified bitumen to increase the target bitumen binder content. Their significance is discussed in terms of target binder content, the critical binder content, the maximum mixed binder content and the maximum retained binder content values obtained from the binder drainage test. It was concluded that increasing maximum aggregate sizes decrease the maximum retained binder content, critical binder content, target binder content, maximum mixed binder content, and mixed content for both binders, but however for all mixtures, SBS is the highest.

  15. Alkali silica reaction in concrete induced by mortar adhered to recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etxeberria, M.


    Full Text Available The durability of recycled concrete must be determined before this material can be used in construction. In this paper the alkali-silica reaction in recycled concrete is analyzed. The recycled concrete is made with recycled aggregates, composed by original limestone aggregates and adhered mortar with reactive silica sand, and high alkali content cement. Due to the manufacturing process used for concrete production and the high water absorption capacity of recycled aggregates, cement accumulation happens in the interface (ITZ. The concentration of alkalis on the surface of recycled aggregates- ITZ and the presence of reactive sand in the mortar adhering to the recycled aggregate induce an alkali-silica reaction in 6-month concrete. The existence of this reaction is confirmed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and EDX analysis. The mechanical properties of 6-month recycled concrete were similar to those values at 28-days of curing.

    La durabilidad del hormigón fabricado con árido reciclado es necesario determinarla antes de su utilización como material de construcción. En este artículo se analiza la reacción álcali-sílice manifestada en el hormigón fabricado con árido reciclado procedente de hormigón (compuesto de árido original calizo y mortero adherido de arena sílice reactiva, y cemento de alto contenido en álcalis. Debido al proceso de fabricación del hormigón y la alta capacidad de absorción del árido reciclado se produce una acumulación del cemento en la Interfase (ITZ. Debido al contacto directo de los álcalis del cemento con la arena sílice reactiva se produce una reacción álcali sílice a los 6 meses de edad del hormigón. Se realiza un análisis mediante microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental (ESEM y sistema analítico de EDX. Se determina que las propiedades mecánicas del hormigón reciclado a 6 meses son similares a las obtenidas a los 28 días de curado.

  16. Light scattering by fractal dust aggregates: I. Angular dependence of scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Tazaki, Ryo; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kataoka, Akimasa; Nomura, Hideko


    In protoplanetary disks, micron-sized dust grains coagulate to form highly porous dust aggregates. Because the optical properties of these aggregates are not completely understood, it is important to investigate how porous dust aggregates scatter light. In this study, the light scattering properties of porous dust aggregates were calculated using a rigorous method, the T-matrix method, and the results were then compared with those obtained using the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) theory and Mie theory with the effective medium approximation (EMT). The RGD theory is applicable to moderately large aggregates made of nearly transparent monomers. This study considered two types of porous dust aggregates, ballistic cluster-cluster agglomerates (BCCAs) and ballistic particle-cluster agglomerates (BPCAs). First, the angular dependence of the scattered intensity was shown to reflect the hierarchical structure of dust aggregates; the large-scale structure of the aggregates is responsible for the intensity at small scatteri...

  17. Colonization of marine snow aggregates by invertebrate zooplankton : Abundance, scaling, and possible role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas


    I compiled literature observations of abundances of invertebrate zooplankters associated with marine snow aggregates in the euphotic zone. Abundances, normalized with ambient concentrations of colonizers, scale with equivalent aggregate radius raised to power 2.27. Different taxonomic groups show...

  18. A Soluble Aggregated Thermophile Metalloaminopeptidase Produced by an Alcalophile Strain of Bacillus halodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dabonné


    Full Text Available H4 strain isolated from Lake Bogoria was found to be Bacillus halodurans. The Bacteria produced an extracellular peptidase activity toward substrates Ile-pNA, Met-pNA and Val-pNA. It also hydrolyzed small peptides. A purification procedure including ion-exchange chromatography ion exchange DEAE and sizeexclusion chromatography followed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrymalide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE revealed the aggregated form of the enzyme. The three substrates are hydrolyzed by a single catalytic site. The enzyme inactivated by bestatin, and 1,10-phenanthroline is a metalloaminopeptidase whose activity is maximal at pH 9.0 and 65ºC.

  19. Aggregation and attachment responses of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis—impact of substrate composition, time scale and source of mussel seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Hansen, Benni Winding


    Survival after transplantation of mussel seeds is crucial for the production output of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in bottom cultures. Hence, an understanding of the interactions between bed formation, habitat structure and performance of mussel seed of different origins can contribute...... to an optimization of the production. The effect of substrate composition and timing of formation of a mussel bed in relation to aggregation and attachment of mussels were investigated with mussel seeds obtained from two different sources: mussel seed dredged from a natural mussel bed and mussel seed collected from...

  20. Degradable polymeric nanoparticles by aggregation of thermoresponsive polymers and ``click'' chemistry (United States)

    Dworak, Andrzej; Lipowska, Daria; Szweda, Dawid; Suwinski, Jerzy; Trzebicka, Barbara; Szweda, Roza


    This study describes a novel approach to the preparation of crosslinked polymeric nanoparticles of controlled sizes that can be degraded under basic conditions. For this purpose thermoresponsive copolymers containing azide and alkyne functions were obtained by ATRP of di(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (D) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (A) followed by post polymerization modification. The amino groups of A were reacted with propargyl chloroformate or 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate, which led to two types of copolymers. Increasing the temperature of aqueous solutions of the mixed copolymers caused their aggregation into spherical nanoparticles composed of both types of chains. Their dimensions could be controlled by changing the concentration and heating rate of the solutions. Covalent stabilization of aggregated chains was performed by a ``click'' reaction between the azide and alkyne groups. Due to the presence of a carbamate bond the nanoparticles undergo pH dependent degradation under mild basic conditions. The proposed procedure opens a route to new carriers for the controlled release of active species.This study describes a novel approach to the preparation of crosslinked polymeric nanoparticles of controlled sizes that can be degraded under basic conditions. For this purpose thermoresponsive copolymers containing azide and alkyne functions were obtained by ATRP of di(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (D) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (A) followed by post polymerization modification. The amino groups of A were reacted with propargyl chloroformate or 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate, which led to two types of copolymers. Increasing the temperature of aqueous solutions of the mixed copolymers caused their aggregation into spherical nanoparticles composed of both types of chains. Their dimensions could be controlled by changing the concentration and heating rate of the solutions. Covalent

  1. Topological Self-Similar Networks Introduced by Diffusion-Limited Aggregation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; PEI Wen-Jiang; LI Tao; CHEUNG Yiu-Ming; HE Zhen-Ya


    @@ We propose a model for growing fractal networks based on the mechanisms learned from the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model in fractal geometries in the viewpoint of network.By studying the DLA network,our model introduces multiplicative growth,aging and geographical preferential attachment mechanisms,whereby featuring topological self-similar property and hierarchical modularity.According to the results of theoretical analysis and simulation,the degree distribution of the proposed model shows a mixed degree distribution (i.e.,exponential and algebraic degree distribution) and the fractal dimension and clustering coefficient can be tuned by changing the values of parameters.

  2. The aggregation behavior of zinc-free insulin studied by small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.; Hansen, S.; Bauer, R.


    that the diameter of the aggregates is 40 Angstrom at pH 11 and 10 mM NaCl, independent of the protein concentration. The largest diameter of about 120 Angstrom is found for pH 8, 100 mM NaCl, and a protein concentration of 10 mg/ml. Estimates of the pair distance distribution functions, free of inter...... to an equilibrium model recently introduced by Kadima et al. (1993). The neutron scattering results agree well with the predictions of this model except that broader mass distributions are suggested by neutron scattering....

  3. Low-dose aspirin (ASA) renders human platelets more vulnerable to inhibition of aggregation by prostacyclin (PGI2). (United States)

    Philp, R B; Paul, M L


    Pre-treatment of human, platelet-rich plasma with concentrations of aspirin that produced 50% or less inhibition of aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid or adenosine diphosphate, significantly increased the % inhibition of platelet aggregation by a low concentration of authentic prostacyclin or by prostacyclin-like activity generated by incubation of rat aorta rings in human platelet-poor plasma. Similarly a single aspirin tablet (325 mg) taken orally by human volunteers significantly increased the sensitivity of their platelets to inhibition of aggregation by authentic prostacyclin (8.1 X 10(-10) M) for 2-48 h after ingestion. Statistical significance was lost at 72 h but the trend was still evident. These results support the contention that low doses of aspirin may be efficacious in the therapy of arterial thromboembolism since this could preserve some arterial prostacyclin-generating activity which might be sufficient to inhibit adhesion and aggregation of the aspirin-treated platelets.

  4. Tillage practices in the conterminous United States, 1989-2004-Datasets Aggregated by Watershed (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.


    This report documents the methods used to aggregate county-level tillage practices to the 8-digit hydrologic unit (HU) watershed. The original county-level data were collected by the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). The CTIC collects tillage data by conducting surveys about tillage systems for all counties in the United States. Tillage systems include three types of conservation tillage (no-till, ridge-till, and mulch-till), reduced tillage, and intensive tillage. Total planted acreage for each tillage practice for each crop grown is reported to the CTIC. The dataset includes total planted acreage by tillage type for selected crops (corn, cotton, grain sorghum, soybeans, fallow, forage, newly established permanent pasture, spring and fall seeded small grains, and 'other' crops) for 1989-2004. Two tabular datasets, based on the 1992 enhanced and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD), are provided as part of this report and include the land-cover area-weighted interpolation and aggregation of acreage for each tillage practice in each 8-digit HU watershed in the conterminous United States for each crop. Watershed aggregations were done by overlying the 8-digit HU polygons with a raster of county boundaries and a raster of either the enhanced 1992 or the 2001 NLCD for cultivated land to derive a county/land-cover area weighting factor. The weighting factor then was applied to the county-level tillage data for the counties within each 8-digit HU and summed to yield the total acreage of each tillage type within each 8-digit HU watershed.

  5. Stripping in hot mix asphalt produced by aggregates from construction and demolition waste. (United States)

    Pérez, I; Pasandín, A R; Gallego, J


    This paper analyses the effect of water on the durability of hot asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris. Indirect tensile stress tests were carried out to evaluate stripping behaviour. The mixtures tested were fabricated with 0, 20, 40 and 60% recycled aggregates. Two types of natural aggregates were used: schist and calcite dolomite. An increase in the percentage of recycled aggregates was found to produce a decrease in the tensile stress ratio of the hot asphalt mixtures. To study this phenomenon, two and three factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with indirect tensile stress being used as the dependent variable. The factors studied were the percentage of recycled aggregates (0, 20, 40 and 60%), the moisture state (dry, wet) and the type of natural aggregate (schist, calcite). On the basis of the ANOVA results, it was found that the most important factor affecting resistance was the moisture state (dry, wet) of the specimens. The percentage of recycled aggregate also affected indirect tensile stress, especially in the dry state. The type of natural aggregate did not have a significant effect on indirect tensile stress. The hot asphalt mixture specimens made with different percentages of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris and of natural quarry aggregates showed poor stripping behaviour. This stripping behaviour can be related to both the poor adhesion of the recycled aggregates and the high absorption of the mortar of cement adhered to them.

  6. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars. (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung


    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  7. Tillage Practices in the Conterminous United States, 1989-2004--Datasets by Aggregated Watershed; ds573_tillage_lu01 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is an aggregation of county-level tillage practices to the 8-digit hydrologic unit watershed. The original county-level data were collected by the...

  8. Tillage Practices in the Conterminous United States, 1989-2004--Datasets Aggregated by Watershed; tillage_lu92e (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is an aggregation of county-level tillage practices to the 8-digit hydrologic unit watershed. The original county-level data were collected by the...

  9. Asymmetric and symmetric bolaform supra-amphiphiles: formation of imine bond influenced by aggregation. (United States)

    Wang, Guangtong; Wu, Guanglu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi


    A series of bolaform supra-amphilphiles with different symmetries were fabricated through dynamic benzoic imine bond formation. The pH dependence of imine formations of these supra-amphiphiles were characterazied. We found that the extent of the imine formation of these supra-amphiphies were different. The supra-amphiphiles with a poorer symmetry always exhibited a lower imine formation at a given pH. Therefore, the varied extent of imine bond formation indicate the different aggregations of these supra-amphilphiles, which are controlled by the molecular symmetry of the supra-amphiphiles.

  10. Abrupt growth of large aggregates by correlated coalescences in turbulent flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bec, Jeremie; Saw, Ewe Wei; Homann, Holger


    Smoluchowski's coagulation kinetics is here shown to fail when the coalescing species are dilute and transported by a turbulent flow. The intermittent Lagrangian motion involves correlated violent events that lead to an unexpected rapid occurrence of the largest particles. This new phenomena is here quantified in terms of the anomalous scaling of turbulent three-point motion, leading to significant corrections in macroscopic processes that are critically sensitive to the early-stage emergence of large embryonic aggregates, as in planet formation or rain precipitation.

  11. Muscle imaging in patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Giorgio; D'Amico, Adele; Monforte, Mauro;


    involvement in this disease, upper and lower girdles and lower limbs were imaged in five patients with mutations in STIM1, and the scans were compared with two patients with tubular aggregate myopathy not caused by mutations in STIM1. A common pattern of involvement was found in STIM1-mutated patients......, although with variable extent and severity of lesions. In the upper girdle, the subscapularis muscle was invariably affected. In the lower limbs, all the patients showed a consistent involvement of the flexor hallucis longus, which is very rarely affected in other muscle diseases, and a diffuse involvement...

  12. Tryptophan-mPEGs: novel excipients that stabilize salmon calcitonin against aggregation by non-covalent PEGylation. (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit


    Protein aggregation, which is triggered by various factors, is still one of the most prevalent problems encountered during all stages of protein formulation development. In this publication, we present novel excipients, tryptophan-mPEGs (Trp-mPEGs) of 2 and 5 kDa molecular weight and suggest their use in protein formulation. The synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of the excipients are described. Possible cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the Trp-mPEGs were examined. Turbidity, 90° static light scatter, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence after staining the samples with Nile Red and fluorescence microscopy were used to study the inhibitory effect of the Trp-mPEGs on the aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in different buffer systems and at various molar ratios. Aggregation of sCT was reduced significantly with increasing concentrations of Trp-mPEG 2 kDa. A 10-fold molar excess of Trp-mPEG 2 kDa suppressed almost completely the aggregation of sCT in 10mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6) for up to 70 h. Trp-mPEG 5 kDa also reduced the aggregation of sCT, though less pronounced than Trp-mPEG 2 kDa. Low aggregation of sCT was measured after approximately 10 days in 10mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 5, with a 10-fold molar excess of Trp-mPEG 2 kDa. This paper shows that Trp-mPEGs are potent excipients in reducing the aggregation of sCT. Trp-mPEGs are superior to dansyl-PEGs concerning the stabilization of sCT in a harsh environment, wherein sCT is prone to aggregation. Trp-mPEGs might therefore also be used for stabilization of other biopharmaceuticals prone to aggregation.

  13. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff


    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  14. Aggregation of sea urchin phagocytes is augmented in vitro by lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J Majeske

    Full Text Available Development of protocols and media for culturing immune cells from marine invertebrates has not kept pace with advancements in mammalian immune cell culture, the latter having been driven by the need to understand the causes of and develop therapies for human and animal diseases. However, expansion of the aquaculture industry and the diseases that threaten these systems creates the need to develop cell and tissue culture methods for marine invertebrates. Such methods will enable us to better understand the causes of disease outbreaks and to develop means to avoid and remedy epidemics. We report a method for the short-term culture of phagocytes from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, by modifying an approach previously used to culture cells from another sea urchin species. The viability of cultured phagocytes from the purple sea urchin decreases from 91.6% to 57% over six days and phagocyte morphology changes from single cells to aggregates leading to the formation of syncytia-like structures. This process is accelerated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide suggesting that phagocytes are capable of detecting this molecular pattern in culture conditions. Sea urchin immune response proteins, called Sp185/333, are expressed on the surface of a subset of phagocytes and have been associated with syncytia-like structures. We evaluated their expression in cultured phagocytes to determine their possible role in cell aggregation and in the formation of syncytia-like structures. Between 0 and 3 hr, syncytia-like structures were observed in cultures when only ~10% of the cells were positive for Sp185/333 proteins. At 24 hr, ~90% of the nuclei were Sp185/333-positive when all of the phagocytes had aggregated into syncytia-like structures. Consequently, we conclude that the Sp185/333 proteins do not have a major role in initiating the aggregation of cultured phagocytes, however the Sp185/333 proteins are associated with the clustered

  15. Experimental Study of Active Path Block in a Multi-Bifurcated Flow by Microbubble Aggregation (United States)

    Shigehara, Nobuhiko; Demachi, Fumi; Koda, Ren; Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Kohji; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio


    We previously reported our attempts at the active control of microbubble aggregations using acoustic radiation force, which propels microbubbles and adjusts the size of aggregations. However, because we used simple-shape artificial blood vessels, the behavior of aggregations in a small channel, e.g., the probability to obstruct the bloodstream, and the possibility of embolization, has not been predicted. Thus, we designed and fabricated a multi-bifurcated artificial blood vessel to apply to the production and active control of microbubble aggregations. Then, we introduced two kinds of ultrasound transducers for producing and propelling aggregations. First, we produced aggregations in a flow to measure their size and investigate their variation according to the emission duration of ultrasound. Then, we control the aggregations in an artificial blood vessel to verify their controllability. When ultrasound was stopped, the aggregations flaked off the vessel wall and flowed downstream, were propelled to the desired path, and finally were caught at a narrow path. We verified the same experiment under similar parameters to calculate the probability of realizing a path block. When the flow velocity was 20 mm/s, almost 50% of the aggregations were induced to flow through the desired path and a maximum probability of realizing a path block of 86% was achieved with the formation of aggregations.

  16. Water stable aggregates of Japanese Andisol as affected by hydrophobicity and drying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.


    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity is a property of soils that reduces their affinity for water, which may help impeding the pressure build-up within aggregates, and reducing aggregate disruption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of soil hydrophobicity and drying temperature to water stability of aggregates while preventing the floating of dry aggregates using unhydrophobized and hydrophobized surface Andisol. Soil was hydrophobized using stearic acid into different hydrophobicities. Hydrophobicity was determined using sessile drop contact angle and water drop penetration time (WDPT. Water stability of aggregates (%WSA was determined using artificially prepared model aggregates. The %WSA increased as the contact angle and WDPT increased. Contact angle and WDPT, which provided maximum %WSA showing less than 1 s of floating, was around 100° and 5 s, respectively. Although the %WSA gradually increased with increasing contact angle and WDPT above this level, high levels of hydrophobicity initiated aggregate floating, which would cause undesirable effects of water repellency. Heating at 50°C for 5 h d-1 significantly affected %WSA and hydrophobicity in hydrophobized samples, but did not in unhydrophobized samples. The results indicate that the contact angle and wetting rate (WDPT are closely related with the water stability of aggregates. The results further confirm that high levels of hydrophobicities induce aggregate floating, and the drying temperature has differential effects on hydrophobicity and aggregate stability depending on the hydrophobic materials present in the soil.

  17. Investigation of the Interfacial Transition Zone between Aggregate-Cement Paste by AC Impedance Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Lijuan; HOU Lirong; WANG Yuhua; SUN Guowen


    Three different types and sizes of coarse aggregate were chosen, and the alternating current (AC) impedance of cement paste samples with and without aggregate was measured at different curing ages. Based on Song’s equivalent circuit model, the electrical properties from the AC impedance results were obtained, and the resistance of connected pores RCCP was used to characterize the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). The results show that the RCCP of concrete sample with aggregate is lower than that of cement paste sample, which indicates that the introduction of aggregate in cement paste makes the ITZ porous. Furthermore, for the same type of aggregate, an increase in particle size leads to a more porous ITZ, which accounts for the “water effect” and a larger aggregate would accumulate a thicker water iflm around it. In addition, for the same size of aggregate, the physical interaction between aggregate and cement paste is dominant in early age, and the microstructure of the ITZ around limestone aggregate is denser, which mainly depends on its rough surface and high water absorption. However, the microstructures of the ITZ around granite and basalt aggregates are denser in later age, which may be due to their higher chemical activity, and the chemical interaction between them and cement paste resulting in the generation of more hydrates. AC impedance spectroscopy thus proves to be powerful for evaluation of the microstructure of the ITZ.

  18. Prefoldin Protects Neuronal Cells from Polyglutamine Toxicity by Preventing Aggregation Formation* (United States)

    Tashiro, Erika; Zako, Tamotsu; Muto, Hideki; Itoo, Yoshinori; Sörgjerd, Karin; Terada, Naofumi; Abe, Akira; Miyazawa, Makoto; Kitamura, Akira; Kitaura, Hirotake; Kubota, Hiroshi; Maeda, Mizuo; Momoi, Takashi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Kinjo, Masataka; Ariga, Hiroyoshi


    Huntington disease is caused by cell death after the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts longer than ∼40 repeats encoded by exon 1 of the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone composed of six subunits, PFD1–6, and prevents misfolding of newly synthesized nascent polypeptides. In this study, we found that knockdown of PFD2 and PFD5 disrupted prefoldin formation in HTT-expressing cells, resulting in accumulation of aggregates of a pathogenic form of HTT and in induction of cell death. Dead cells, however, did not contain inclusions of HTT, and analysis by a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicated that knockdown of PFD2 and PFD5 also increased the size of soluble oligomers of pathogenic HTT in cells. In vitro single molecule observation demonstrated that prefoldin suppressed HTT aggregation at the small oligomer (dimer to tetramer) stage. These results indicate that prefoldin inhibits elongation of large oligomers of pathogenic Htt, thereby inhibiting subsequent inclusion formation, and suggest that soluble oligomers of polyQ-expanded HTT are more toxic than are inclusion to cells. PMID:23720755

  19. Supramolecular catalysis with extended aggregates and gels: inversion of stereoselectivity caused by self-assembly. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Llansola, Francisco; Miravet, Juan F; Escuder, Beatriu


    L-Proline-L-valine dipeptide derivatives, which self-assemble in toluene, have been studied as stereoselective catalysts in the conjugate addition of cyclohexanone to trans-beta-nitrostyrene. Remarkable effects on the stereoselectivity are observed associated to the aggregation of the catalyst. Outstanding differences were observed between the catalytic activity of compound 1, which forms supramolecular gels in toluene, and compound 2, which is not a gelator. In the former case, the enantioselectivity of the reaction was almost insensitive to changes in catalyst concentration and temperature, but in the case of compound 2, the catalytic activity was very much affected by those variables. Structural studies indicate that the results can be rationalized by taking into account significant conformational changes experienced by the catalytic L-proline derivatives associated with the aggregation process. The results highlight that catalyst self-assembly is a very important issue to consider in the stereoselective outcome of organocatalytic reactions. Especially relevant is the fact that the use of supramolecular gels as organocatalysts emerges as a technique that affords reliable and constant stereoselectivity in different conditions with the added value of easy catalyst recovery.

  20. The emergence of urban land use patterns driven by dispersion and aggregation mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Decraene

    Full Text Available We employ a cellular-automata to reconstruct the land use patterns of cities that we characterize by two measures of spatial heterogeneity: (a a variant of spatial entropy, which measures the spread of residential, business, and industrial activity sectors, and (b an index of dissimilarity, which quantifies the degree of spatial mixing of these land use activity parcels. A minimalist and bottom-up approach is adopted that utilizes a limited set of three parameters which represent the forces which determine the extent to which each of these sectors spatially aggregate into clusters. The dispersion degrees of the land uses are governed by a fixed pre-specified power-law distribution based on empirical observations in other cities. Our method is then used to reconstruct land use patterns for the city state of Singapore and a selection of North American cities. We demonstrate the emergence of land use patterns that exhibit comparable visual features to the actual city maps defining our case studies whilst sharing similar spatial characteristics. Our work provides a complementary approach to other measures of urban spatial structure that differentiate cities by their land use patterns resulting from bottom-up dispersion and aggregation processes.

  1. Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data (United States)

    Adamaki, Angeliki K.; Roberts, Roland G.


    We investigate the seismicity rate behaviour in and around Greece during 2009, seeking significant changes in rate preceding larger events. For individual larger events it is difficult to clearly distinguish precursory rate changes from other, possibly unrelated, variations in seismicity. However, when we aggregate seismicity data occurring within a radius of 10 km and in a 50-day window prior to earthquakes with, e.g. magnitude ≥3.5, the resulting aggregated time series show a clearly increasing trend starting 2-3 weeks prior to the "mainshock" time. We apply statistical tests to investigate if the observed behaviour may be simply consistent with random (poissonian) variations, or, as some earlier studies suggest, with clustering in the sense that high activity rates at some time may imply increased rates later, and thus (randomly) greater probability of larger coming events than for periods of lower seismicity. In this case, rate increases have little useful predictive power. Using data from the entire catalogue, the aggregated rate changes before larger events are clearly and strongly statistically significant and cannot be explained by such clustering. To test this we choose events at random from the catalogue as potential "mainshocks". The events preceding the randomly chosen earthquakes show less pronounced rate increases compared to the observed rate changes prior to larger events. Similar behaviour is observed in data sub-sets. However, statistical confidence decreases for geographical subsets containing few "mainshocks" as it does when data are weighted such that "mainshocks" with many preceding events are strongly downweighted relative to those with fewer. The analyses suggest that genuine changes in aggregated rate do occur prior to larger events and that this behaviour is not due to a small number of mainshocks with many preceding events dominating the analysis. It does not automatically follow that it will be possible to routinely observe precursory

  2. Changes of conformation and aggregation state induced by binding of lanthanide ions to insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程驿; 李荣昌; 王夔


    To clarify the mechanism of lanthanide ions (Ln3+) on the across-membrane transport of insulin and subsequent reducing blood glucose, the interactions of Ln3+ with Zn-insulin and Zn-free insulin are investigated by spectroscopic methods. The results reveal that the binding of Ln3+ to insulin can induce its structure changes from secondary to quaternary structure, depending on the Ln3+ concentration. In the lower concentration, it triggers the conformational changes of insulin monomer in the binding region with insulin receptor (B(24-30)). It would affect insulin-insulin receptor interaction. Moreover, Ln3+ binding promotes the assembly of insulin monomer from dimer to polymer. The potency of Ln3+ in inducing insulin's aggregation is stronger than that of Zn2+. Furthermore, the aggregation can be reversed partly by EDTA-treatment, indicating that it is not due to denaturation. Similar to Zn2+ effect, Ln3+ can stabilize insulin hexamer in a certain range of concentration, but is stronger than the former.

  3. Changes of conformation and aggregation state induced by binding of lanthanide ions to insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程驿; 李荣昌; 王夔


    To clarify the mechanism of lanthanide ions (Ln3+) on the across-membrane transport of insulin and subsequent reducing blood glucose, the interactions of Ln3+with Zn-insulin and Zn-free insulin are investigated by spectroscopic methods. The results reveal that the binding of Ln3+ to insulin can induce its structure changes from secondary to quaternary structure, depending on the Ln3+ concentration. In the lower concentration, it triggers the conformational changes of insulin monomer in the binding region with insulin receptor (B(24-30)). It would affect insulin-insulin receptor interaction. Moreover, Ln3+ binding promotes the assembly of insulin monomer from dimer to polymer. The potency of Ln3+ in inducing insulin’s aggregation is stronger than that of Zn2+. Furthermore, the aggregation can be reversed partly by EDTA-treatment, indicating that it is not due to denaturation. Similar to Zn2+ effect, Ln3+ can stabilize insulin hexamer in a certain range of concentration, but is stronger than the former.

  4. Reduced aggregation and cytotoxicity of amyloid peptides by graphene oxide/gold nanocomposites prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water. (United States)

    Li, Jingying; Han, Qiusen; Wang, Xinhuan; Yu, Ning; Yang, Lin; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chen


    A novel and convenient method to synthesize the nanocomposites combining graphene oxides (GO) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is reported and their applications to modulate amyloid peptide aggregation are demonstrated. The nanocomposites produced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in water show good biocompatibility and solubility. The reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides by the nanocomposites is confirmed by Thioflavin T fluorescence and atomic force microscopy. The cell viability experiments reveals that the presence of the nanocomposites can significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the amyloid peptides. Furthermore, the depolymerization of peptide fibrils and inhibition of their cellular cytotoxicity by GO/AuNPs is also observed. These observations suggest that the nanocomposites combining GO and AuNPs have a great potential for designing new therapeutic agents and are promising for future treatment of amyloid-related diseases.

  5. Fluorescence study on the aggregation of collagen molecules in acid solution influenced by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. (United States)

    Ding, Cuicui; Zhang, Min; Li, Guoying


    The effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the aggregation of collagen molecules with collagen concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/mL was studied by fluorescence techniques. On one hand, both the synchronous fluorescence spectra and fluorescence emission spectra showed that there was no change in the fluorescence intensity of collagen intrinsic fluorescence when 30% HPMC was added, while it decreased obviously when HPMC content ≥ 50%. From the two-dimensional fluorescence correlation analysis, it was indicated that collagen molecules in 0.25 and 0.5mg/mL collagen solutions were more sensitive to HPMC than those in 1.0mg/mL collagen solution. On the other hand, the pyrene fluorescence and the fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that HPMC inhibited the collagen aggregation for 0.25 and 0.5mg/mL collagen, but promoted it for 1.0mg/mL collagen. The atomic force microscopy images further confirmed the effect of HPMC on collagen with different initial states.

  6. [Pollutant distribution in organo-mineral aggregates in topsoils from a site contaminated by organochlorine pesticides]. (United States)

    Cong, Xin; Xue, Nan-dong; Liang, Gang; Wang, Shi-jie; Zhu, Shu-quan; Li, Fa-sheng


    Four different soil particle-size fractions that is clay, silt, fine sand and coarse sand ( 200 microm) from the topsoils in an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) field were separated by physical method to characterize the OCPs distribution in soils and to study the effect of organic matter and mineral composition in different separates on pollutants distribution. The results show that the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in silt with 463.1 mg x kg(-1) and 1225.6 mg x kg(-1) are higher than those in coarse sand, 157.8 mg x kg(-1) and 384.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There is a significant correlationship between IgKoc. and the contents of HCHs and DDTs in clay. The analysis on X-ray diffraction of organo-mineral aggregates demonstrates that clay and silt have a much higher content of the clay minerals than those in coarse sand within the contaminated soils. There are some differences with different particle-size fractions in the content and composition of the clay minerals in organo-mineral aggregates, which affect the OCP distribution in soils to some extents. The results also suggest that the distribution of HCHs and DDTs in the particle with more pollutants in the site is similar to that in airborne particles. So the environmental behavior of OCPs in topsoils from the contaminated site should be paid more attention especially in ambient air-soil interaction.

  7. Breakup of Finite-Size Colloidal Aggregates in Turbulent Flow Investigated by Three-Dimensional (3D) Particle Tracking Velocimetry. (United States)

    Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang


    Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude.

  8. Suppression of Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and pulmonary metastasis by a single-chain antibody variable region fragment. (United States)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Morioka, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya


    Almost all highly metastatic tumor cells possess high platelet aggregating abilities, thereby form large tumor cell-platelet aggregates in the microvasculature. Embolization of tumor cells in the microvasculature is considered to be the first step in metastasis to distant organs. We previously identified the platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed on the surfaces of highly metastatic tumor cells and named as Aggrus. Aggrus was observed to be identical to the marker protein podoplanin (alternative names, T1α, OTS-8, and others). Aggrus is frequently overexpressed in several types of tumors and enhances platelet aggregation by interacting with the platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Here, we generated a novel single-chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) by linking the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the neutralizing anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody MS-1 with a flexible peptide linker. Unfortunately, the generated KM10 scFv failed to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, we performed phage display screening and finally obtained a high-affinity scFv, K-11. K-11 scFv was able to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Moreover, K-11 scFv prevented the formation of pulmonary metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that K-11 scFv may be useful as metastasis inhibitory scFv and is expected to aid in the development of preclinical and clinical examinations of Aggrus-targeted cancer therapies.

  9. Publicly Verifiable Private Aggregation of Time-Series Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakondi, B.G.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Hartel, P.H.; Jonker, W.


    Aggregation of time-series data offers the possibility to learn certain statistics over data periodically uploaded by different sources. In case of privacy sensitive data, it is desired to hide every data provider's individual values from the other participants (including the data aggregator). Exist

  10. Passage number affects the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells as judged by tetraploid embryo aggregation. (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Jia, Qing; Di, Ke-Qian; Gao, Shu-Min; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Yan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Li-Ze


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the number of passages affected the developmental pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells as measured by the attainment of adult fertile mice derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell/tetraploid embryo complementation. Thirty-six newborns were produced by the aggregation of tetraploid embryos and hybrid ES cells after various numbers of passages. These newborns were entirely derived from ES cells as judged by microsatellite DNA, coat-color phenotype, and germline transmission. Although 15 survived to adulthood, 17 died of respiratory failure, and four were eaten by their foster mother. From the 15 mice that reached adulthood and that could reproduce, none arose from ES cells at passage level 15 or more. All 15 arose from cells at passages 3-11. Our results demonstrate that the number of passages affects the developmental pluripotency of ES cells.

  11. The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on formation of ZrO{sub 2} electrolyte thin films by electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, E.G., E-mail: [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 106 Amundsen Street, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Street, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Efimov, A.A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskii per., 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Safronov, A.P. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 106 Amundsen Street, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Street, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    The paper presents the results of the studies of electrically stabilized nonaqueous suspensions of ZrO{sub 2} stabilized by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (YSZ) nanoparticles with an average diameter of 11 nm for the formation of green films of electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells. Nanoparticles were de-aggregated to different degrees, which were provided by the ultrasonic treatment and the centrifugation, and monitored by the dynamic light scattering. YSZ green thin films were obtained by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on dense lanthanum strontium manganite cathodes using suspensions with the average diameter of aggregates: 107; 66; 53 nm. To investigate the possibilities of EPD we used the model drying of the same suspensions cast upon the same substrates. It was shown that the structure and the morphology of the green films obtained by EPD was different compared to the films prepared by the model drying of the suspension. The drying of the stable suspension resulted in the formation of loose aggregates on the surface. The efficient packing of electrically stabilized particles was prevented by the forces of electrostatic repulsion between them. In the case of EPD the electrocoagulation of particles near the cathode takes place with the formation of dense aggregates. As a result, uncharged spherical aggregates with an average size of about 100–200 nm settle on the surface of the cathode and pack into a uniform dense coating suitable for the subsequent sintering of a gas-tight coating for the solid YSZ electrolyte. - Highlights: • Impact of nanoparticle aggregation on the electrophoretic deposition is studied. • Sedimentation of stabilized particles results in formation of loose aggregates. • The formation of dense layer is facilitated by electrocoagulation of particles.

  12. Nonlinear Absorption Spectroscopy of Porphyrin J-aggregates in Aqueous Solution: Evidence for Control of Degree of Association by Light-Induced Force (United States)

    Shirakawa, Masayuki; Nakata, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Masaya; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji


    Spectroscopic evidence was obtained for molecular aggregation states to be controlled by the irradiation of light, which is off-resonant below the peak absorption energies of both monomers and well-grown J-aggregates. In low (undersaturated)-concentration aqueous solutions of porphyrin molecules (tetraphenyl porphyrin tetrasulfonic acid; TPPS) where the monomer absorbance dominates, irradiation with a 532 nm laser induces a decrease in the monomer absorbance and an increase in the aggregate absorbance. The increase in the absorbance of J-aggregates occurs in a broad spectral range associated with the increase in the number of not only variously sized oligomer aggregates but also aggregates structurally different from well-grown stable J-aggregates. In high-concentration solutions where the J-aggregate absorbance dominates, a blue shift of the absorption peak of J-aggregates is induced at the same 532 nm irradiation, corresponding to a decrease in the aggregation number or in the association energy. By contrast, for spin-coated polymer films of monomers and J-aggregates where molecules are immobile, these features are not observed. It is remarkable that the gradient force potential is smaller by more than seven orders of magnitude than the kinetic energy of the thermal motion of the molecule at room temperature, but the absorption change in solution indicating the increase in the number of aggregates is as large as ΔA ˜ 10-3 in magnitude.

  13. Solving frictional contact problems by two aggregate-function-based algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suyan He; Hongwu Zhang; Xingsi Li; Ron Marshall


    Three dimensional frictional contact problems are formulated as linear complementarity problems based on the parametric variational principle. Two aggregate-functionbased algorithms for solving complementarity problems are proposed. One is called the self-adjusting interior point algorithm, the other is called the aggregate function smoothing algorithm. Numerical experiment shows the efficiency of the proposed two algorithms.

  14. Controlling the aggregation and gelation of ß-lactoglobulin by the addition of its peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosters, H.A.


    In this thesis the effects of peptides, or protein hydrolysates on the heat-induced aggregation and gelation of (concentrated) protein systems were studied. First, it was investigated if specific peptides could influence the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of intact proteins solutions, and

  15. The effect of oil type on network formation by protein aggregates into oleogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oil type on the network formation of heat-set protein aggregates in liquid oil. The gelling properties of such aggregates to structure oil into so-called ‘oleogels’ are related to both the particle-particle and particle-solvent interactions. To ch

  16. Soil aggregation and the stabilization of organic carbon as affected by erosion and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cammeraat, E.L.H.; Cerli, C.; Kalbitz, K.


    The importance of soil aggregation in determining the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) during erosion, transportation and deposition is poorly understood. Particularly, we do not know how aggregation contributes to the often-observed accumulation of SOC at depositional sites. Our objective was

  17. Isolation and catalytic competence of different animal liver microsomal fractions prepared by calcium-aggregation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawalkar Pradnya


    Full Text Available Rat, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig liver microsomes were prepared, using the calcium-aggregation method. The mean specific spectral cytochrome P450 content obtained for rat, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig liver microsomes were 0.547, 0.394, 0.677, and 0.378 nmol cytochrome P450/mg protein, respectively. All the microsomal samples showed the ability to biotransform p-nitrophenol to p-nitrocatechol. The mean rate of formation of p-nitrocatechol by rat, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig liver microsomes was 0.272, 0.247, 0.497 and 0.424 nmole/min/nmole cytochrome 450, respectively. This method circumvents the need of an ultracentrifuge for isolation of microsomes, by the conventional differential centrifugation method.

  18. Source Estimation by Full Wave Form Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjögreen, Björn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing; Petersson, N. Anders [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing


    Given time-dependent ground motion recordings at a number of receiver stations, we solve the inverse problem for estimating the parameters of the seismic source. The source is modeled as a point moment tensor source, characterized by its location, moment tensor components, the start time, and frequency parameter (rise time) of its source time function. In total, there are 11 unknown parameters. We use a non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm to minimize the full waveform misfit between observed and computed ground motions at the receiver stations. An important underlying assumption of the minimization problem is that the wave propagation is accurately described by the elastic wave equation in a heterogeneous isotropic material. We use a fourth order accurate finite difference method, developed in [12], to evolve the waves forwards in time. The adjoint wave equation corresponding to the discretized elastic wave equation is used to compute the gradient of the misfit, which is needed by the non-linear conjugated minimization algorithm. A new source point moment source discretization is derived that guarantees that the Hessian of the misfit is a continuous function of the source location. An efficient approach for calculating the Hessian is also presented. We show how the Hessian can be used to scale the problem to improve the convergence of the non-linear conjugated gradient algorithm. Numerical experiments are presented for estimating the source parameters from synthetic data in a layer over half-space problem (LOH.1), illustrating rapid convergence of the proposed approach.

  19. Stochastic structural model of rock and soil aggregates by continuum-based discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yuannian; ZHAO; Manhong; LI; Shihai; J.G.; Wang


    This paper first presents a stochastic structural model to describe the random geometrical features of rock and soil aggregates. The stochastic structural model uses mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape to construct the microstructures of aggregates,and introduces two types of structural elements (block element and jointed element) and three types of material elements (rock element, soil element, and weaker jointed element)for this microstructure. Then, continuum-based discrete element method is used to study the deformation and failure mechanism of rock and soil aggregate through a series of loading tests. It is found that the stress-strain curve of rock and soil aggregates is nonlinear, and the failure is usually initialized from weaker jointed elements. Finally, some factors such as mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape are studied in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with in situ test. Therefore, current model is effective for simulating the mechanical behaviors of rock and soil aggregates.

  20. A Robust Damage-Reporting Strategy for Polymeric Materials Enabled by Aggregation-Induced Emission. (United States)

    Robb, Maxwell J; Li, Wenle; Gergely, Ryan C R; Matthews, Christopher C; White, Scott R; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S


    Microscopic damage inevitably leads to failure in polymers and composite materials, but it is difficult to detect without the aid of specialized equipment. The ability to enhance the detection of small-scale damage prior to catastrophic material failure is important for improving the safety and reliability of critical engineering components, while simultaneously reducing life cycle costs associated with regular maintenance and inspection. Here, we demonstrate a simple, robust, and sensitive fluorescence-based approach for autonomous detection of damage in polymeric materials and composites enabled by aggregation-induced emission (AIE). This simple, yet powerful system relies on a single active component, and the general mechanism delivers outstanding performance in a wide variety of materials with diverse chemical and mechanical properties.

  1. Deterioration of limestone aggregate mortars by liquid sodium in fast breeder reactor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Haneefa, K., E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F.C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)


    Highlights: • Limestone mortars were exposed to liquid sodium exposure at 550 °C. • Micro-analytical techniques were used to characterize the exposed specimens. • The performance of limestone mortar was greatly influenced by w/c. • The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars were identified. - Abstract: Hot liquid sodium at 550 °C can interact with concrete in the scenario of an accidental spillage of sodium in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. To protect the structural concrete from thermo-chemical degradation, a sacrificial layer of limestone aggregate concrete is provided over it. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms of thermo-chemical interaction between the hot liquid sodium and limestone mortars at 550 °C for a duration of 30 min in open air. The investigation involves four different types of cement with variation of water-to-cement ratios (w/c) from 0.4 to 0.6. Comprehensive analysis of experimental results reveals that the degree of damage experienced by limestone mortars displayed an upward trend with increase in w/c ratios for a given type of cement. Performance of fly ash based Portland pozzolana cement was superior to other types of cements for a w/c of 0.55. The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars during hot liquid sodium interactions include alterations in cement paste phase, formation of sodium compounds from the interaction between solid phases of cement paste and aggregate, modifications of interfacial transition zone (ITZ), decomposition of CaCO{sub 3}, widening and etching of rhombohedral cleavages, and subsequent breaking through the weakest rhombohedral cleavage planes of calcite, staining, ferric oxidation in grain boundaries and disintegration of impurity minerals in limestone.

  2. Magnetospheric ULF waves driven by external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Agapitov, Oleksiy


    The multi-spacecraft missions (Cluster and THEMIS) observations allowed to collect large data base for Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves properties, their localization, and sources. Mainly here we focused on these recent results. Studying of the source and characteristics of ULF waves can help in the understanding of the interaction and energy transport from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Here we present peculiarities of ULF waves generated by different solar wind phenomenon: surface magnetopause instability, magnetosphere cavity modes and solar wind dynamic pressure sudden impulses (SI) penetration into the magnetosphere. Permanent observations of ULF waves involve existence of the permanent source and, as the previous studies showed, the contributions to Pc4-Pc5 ULF wave power from the external sources are larger than the contribution from internal magnetosphere sources. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) can generate on the magnetosphere flanks classical ULF resonant waves with spatially localized ampl...

  3. Aggregations in Flatworms. (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.


    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Wu


    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  5. Glycosylation analysis of an aggregated antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells in bioreactor culture. (United States)

    Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi


    N-Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies contributes not only to their biological function, but also to their stability and tendency to aggregate. Here, we investigated the impact of the glycosylation status of an aggregated antibody that accumulated during the bioreactor culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that there was no apparent difference in the glycosylation patterns of monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregated forms of the antibody. In contrast, lectin binding assays, which enable the total amounts of specific sugar residues to be detected, showed that both galactose and fucose residues in dimers and large aggregates were reduced to 70-80% of the amount in monomers. These results strongly suggest that the lack of N-linked oligosaccharides, a result of deglycosylation or aglycosylation, occurred in a proportion of the dimeric and large aggregated components. The present study demonstrates that glycosylation heterogeneities are a potential cause of antibody aggregation in cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells, and that the lack of N-glycosylation promotes the formation of dimers and finally results in large aggregates.

  6. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function. (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T


    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  7. Blockade of the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates by EGCG3"Me in the alloxan-induced diabetic kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs has been linked to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that carbonyl stress induces the formation of amino-carbonyl cross-links and sharply increases the content of β-sheet-rich structures, which is the seed of insoluble aggregates formation, and tea catechin (--epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG can reverse this process in vitro and in vivo. In this study, methylated derivative (--epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl-gallate (EGCG3"Me was hypothesized to neutralize carbonyl stress mediating the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein (IUP aggregates, and reduce the early development of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate (200 mg/kg/d twice and administering EGCG3"Me by gavage for 15 d. Reagent case and western blot results showed that, in diabetic kidneys, the carbonyl proteins in the serum increased; and in insoluble protein fraction, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins, IUP aggregates and p62 accumulated; FT-IR study demonstrated that the lipid content, anti-parallel β-sheet structure and aggregates increased. EGCG3"Me treatment could effectively reverse this process, even better than the negative control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EGCG3"Me exhibiting anti-β-sheet-rich IUP aggregate properties, maybe represents a new strategy to impede the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic complications.

  8. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organo-phosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃扶; 吴瑾光; 俞致健; 王笃金; 徐光宪


    Three acidic extractants (Ⅰ) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP),(Ⅱ) 2-ethylhexyl phos-phonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (KEHPEHE) and (Ⅲ) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanlde-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems.Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) re-suits on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n -heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP.The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent,by which the mixed solvent was formed,increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates.Aggregates formed from the ianthamde ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable.In the case of naphthenic acid,PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mix

  9. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten


    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  10. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  11. Mechanisms of removing pollutants from aqueous solutions by microorganisms and their aggregates: a review. (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Li, Tianling; Yang, Linzhang


    With the public's enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign measures based on microorganisms and microbial aggregates have become more accepted as methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. In this review, the application of microorganisms and microbial aggregates for removing pollutants from aqueous solutions is introduced and described based on mechanisms such as assimilation, adsorption, and biodegradation. The advantages of and future studies regarding the use of microorganisms and microbial aggregates to remove pollutants are discussed. Due to the limitation of a single microorganism species in adapting to heterogeneous conditions, this review demonstrates that the application of microbial aggregates consisting of multiple photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms, is a promising method of removing multiple pollutants from complex wastewaters and warrants further research.

  12. Benthic life in the pelagic: Aggregate encounter and degradation rates by pelagic harpacticoid copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Kiørboe, Thomas; Takahashi, K.


    We measured field abundances, feeding rates, swimming behavior, and particle colonization of two harpacticoids, the pelagic Microsetella norvegica and the semibenthic Amonardia normanni, to examine (1) if aggregates have a significant role in harpacticoid nutrition and (2) if harpacticoids...

  13. Permeability of collapsed cakes formed by deposition of fractal aggregates upon membrane filtration. (United States)

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Sangho


    We have investigated, theoretically, the physical properties of cake layers formed from aggregates to obtain a better understanding of membrane systems used in conjunction with coagulation/flocculation pretreatment. We developed a model based on fractal theory and incorporated a cake collapse effect to predict the porosity and permeability of the cake layers. The floc size, fractal dimension, and transmembrane pressure were main parameters that we used in these model calculations. We performed experiments using a batch cell device and a confocal laser-scanning microscope to verify the predicted specific cake resistances and porosities under various conditions. Based on the results of the model, the reduction in inter-aggregate porosity is more important than that in intra-aggregate porosity during the cake collapsing process. The specific cake resistance decreases upon increasing the aggregate size and decreasing the fractal dimensions. The modeled porosities and specific cake resistances of the collapsed cake layer agreed reasonably well with those obtained experimentally.

  14. Levels of Supramolecular Chirality of Polyglutamine Aggregates Revealed by Vibrational Circular Dichroism


    Kurouski, Dmitry; Kar, Karunakar; Wetzel, Ronald; Dukor, Rina K.; Lednev, Igor K.; Nafie, Laurence A.


    Polyglutamine (PolyQ) aggregates are a hallmark of several severe neurodegenerative diseases, expanded CAG-repeat diseases in which inheritance of an expanded polyQ sequence above a pathological threshold is associated with a high risk of disease. Application of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) reveals that these PolyQ fibril aggregates exhibit a chiral supramolecular organization that is distinct from the supramolecular organization of previously observed amyloid fibrils. PolyQ fibrils g...

  15. Milk protein suspensions enriched with three essential minerals: Physicochemical characterization and aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool. (United States)

    Lombardi, Julia; Spelzini, Darío; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano; Risso, Patricia; Boeris, Valeria


    Structural changes of casein micelles and their aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool isolated from Bacillus spp. in the presence of calcium, magnesium or zinc were investigated. The effect of cations on milk protein structure was studied using fluorescence and dynamic light scattering. In the presence of cations, milk protein structure rearrangements and larger casein micelle size were observed. The interaction of milk proteins with zinc appears to be of a different nature than that with calcium or magnesium. Under the experimental conditions assayed, the affinity of each cation for some groups present in milk proteins seems to play an important role, besides electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, the lowest aggregation times were achieved at the highest calcium and zinc concentrations (15 mM and 0.25 mM, respectively). The study found that the faster the aggregation of casein micelles, the less compact the gel matrix obtained. Cation concentrations affected milk protein aggregation kinetics and the structure of the aggregates formed.

  16. Aggregation of gold nanoparticles followed by methotrexate release enables Raman imaging of drug delivery into cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgadas, C. V.; Sharma, C. P.; Paul, W.; Rekha, M. R. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Biosurface Technology Division (India); Sreenivasan, K., E-mail: [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing (India)


    This study refers an aqueous synthesis of methotrexate (MTX)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNPs), their interaction with HepG2 cells, and the use of Raman imaging to observe cellular internalization and drug delivery. GNPs of average size 3.5-5 nm were stabilized using the amine terminated bifunctional biocompatible copolymer and amended by conjugating MTX, an anticancer drug. The nanoparticles were released MTX at a faster rate in acidic pH and subsequently found to form aggregates. The Raman signals of cellular components were found to be enhanced by the aggregated particles enabling the mapping to visualize site-specific drug delivery. The methodology seems to have potential in optimizing the characteristics of nanodrug carriers for emptying the cargo precisely at specified sites.Graphical AbstractDrug release induced particle aggregation enhances Raman signals to aid in imaging.

  17. Formation of oriented nickel aggregates in rutile single crystals by Ni implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, M.M., E-mail: [CFMC, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Fac. Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, R.C. da [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinto, J.V. [CFMC, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Borges, R.P. [CFMC, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Casaca, A. [CFMC, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa—ISEL, R. Cons. Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Godinho, M. [CFMC, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Fac. Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)


    The magnetic and electrical properties of Ni implanted single crystalline TiO{sub 2} rutile were studied for nominal implanted fluences between 0.5×10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and 2.0×10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} with 150 keV energy, corresponding to maximum atomic concentrations between 9 at% and 27 at% at 65 nm depth, in order to study the formation of metallic oriented aggregates. The results indicate that the as implanted crystals exhibit superparamagnetic behavior for the two higher fluences, which is attributed to the formation of nanosized nickel clusters with an average size related with the implanted concentration, while only paramagnetic behavior is observed for the lowest fluence. Annealing at 1073 K induces the aggregation of the implanted nickel and enhances the magnetization in all samples. The associated anisotropic behavior indicates preferred orientations of the nickel aggregates in the rutile lattice consistent with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry—channelling results. Electrical conductivity displays anisotropic behavior but no magnetoresistive effects were detected. - Author-Highlights: • Ni nano-aggregates were grown on TiO{sub 2} using Ni implantation with different fluences. • In the as implanted state, the aggregates size is a function of the implanted fluence. • Ni aggregates are oriented within the rutile structure-2 orientations are proposed.

  18. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve


    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  19. Structural insight into host recognition by aggregative adherence fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Berry


    Full Text Available Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC is a leading cause of acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide. A recently emerged Shiga-toxin-producing strain of EAEC resulted in significant mortality and morbidity due to progressive development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The attachment of EAEC to the human intestinal mucosa is mediated by aggregative adherence fimbria (AAF. Using X-ray crystallography and NMR structures, we present new atomic resolution insight into the structure of AAF variant I from the strain that caused the deadly outbreak in Germany in 2011, and AAF variant II from archetype strain 042, and propose a mechanism for AAF-mediated adhesion and biofilm formation. Our work shows that major subunits of AAF assemble into linear polymers by donor strand complementation where a single minor subunit is inserted at the tip of the polymer by accepting the donor strand from the terminal major subunit. Whereas the minor subunits of AAF have a distinct conserved structure, AAF major subunits display large structural differences, affecting the overall pilus architecture. These structures suggest a mechanism for AAF-mediated adhesion and biofilm formation. Binding experiments using wild type and mutant subunits (NMR and SPR and bacteria (ELISA revealed that despite the structural differences AAF recognize a common receptor, fibronectin, by employing clusters of basic residues at the junction between subunits in the pilus. We show that AAF-fibronectin attachment is based primarily on electrostatic interactions, a mechanism not reported previously for bacterial adhesion to biotic surfaces.

  20. Depletion induced encapsulation by dumbbell-shaped patchy colloids stabilize microspheres against aggregation. (United States)

    Wolters, Joost Robert; Verweij, Joanne E; Avvisati, Guido; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K


    In this paper, we demonstrate the stabilization of polystyrene microspheres by encapsulating them with dumbbell-shaped colloids with a sticky and a non-sticky lobe. Upon adding a depletant, an effective short ranged attraction is induced between the microspheres and the smaller, smooth lobes of the dumbbells, making those specifically sticky, whereas the interaction with the larger lobes of the dumbbells is considerably less attractive due to their rough surface, which reduces the overlap volume and leaves them non-sticky. The encapsulation of the microspheres by these rough-smooth patchy dumbbells is investigated using a combination of experiments and computer simulations, both resulting in partial coverage of the template particles. For larger microspheres, the depletion attraction is stronger, resulting in a larger fraction of dumbbells that are attached with both lobes to the surface of microspheres. We thus find a template curvature dependent orientation of the dumbbells. In the Monte Carlo simulations, the introduction of such a small, curvature dependent attraction between the rough lobes of the dumbbells resulted in an increased coverage. However, kinetic constraints imposed by the dumbbell geometry seem to prevent optimal packing of the dumbbells on the template particles under all investigated conditions in experiments and simulations. Despite the incomplete coverage, the encapsulation by dumbbell particles does prevent aggregation of the microspheres, thus acting as a colloid-sized steric stabilizer.

  1. UV-light effects on cytochrome c modulated by the aggregation state of phenothiazines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G dos Santos

    Full Text Available The present study shows the factors that modulate the photodamage promoted by phenothiazines. Cytochrome c was irradiated with UV light for 120 min, over a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0, in the absence and in the presence of different concentrations of thioridazine (TR and fluphenazine (FP. In the absence of phenothiazines, the maximal rate of a Soret band blue shift (nm/min from 409 to 406 nm was obtained at pH 4.0 (0.028 nm/min. The presence of phenothiazines at the concentration range 10-25 µmol/L amplified and accelerated a cytochrome c blue shift (409 to 405 nm, at a rate = 0.041 nm/min. Above 25 µmol/L, crescent concentrations of phenothiazines contributed to cytochrome c protection with (maximal at 2500 µmol/L. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed the formation of nanostructures. The pH also influenced the effect of low phenothiazine concentrations on cytochrome c. Thus, the predominance of phenothiazine-promoted cytochrome c damage or protection depends on a balance of the following factors: the yield of photo-generated drug cation radicals, which is favored by acidic pH; the stability of the cation radicals, which is favored by the drug aggregation; and the cytochrome c structure, modulated by the pH.

  2. Nanoscale understanding of thermal aggregation of whey protein pretreated by transglutaminase. (United States)

    Wang, Wan; Zhong, Qixin; Hu, Zhixiong


    Nanoscale structures of whey protein isolate (WPI) pretreated by microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) and subsequent heating were studied in this work and were correlated to zeta-potential, surface hydrophobicity, thermal denaturation properties, and macroscopic turbidity and viscosity. Dispersions of 5% w/v WPI were pretreated by individual or sequential steps of preheating at 80 °C for 15 min and mTGase, used at 2.0-10.2 U/g WPI for 1-15 h, before adjustment of the pH to 7.0 and to 0-100 mM NaCl for heating at 80 °C for 15 and 90 min. The zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity of WPI increased after all pretreatment steps. Preheating increased cross-linking reactivity of WPI by mTGase, corresponding to significantly increased denaturation temperature. Particle size analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that structures of sequentially pretreated WPI remained stable after heating at 100 mM NaCl, corresponding to transparent dispersions. Conversely, WPI pretreated by one step aggregated at only 100 mM NaCl and resulted in turbid dispersions. Besides reporting a practical approach to produce transparent beverages, nanoscale phenomena in the present study are important for understanding whey protein structures in relevant applications.

  3. Reversal of a full-length mutant huntingtin neuronal cell phenotype by chemical inhibitors of polyglutamine-mediated aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Marcy E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder triggered by an expanded polyglutamine tract in huntingtin that is thought to confer a new conformational property on this large protein. The propensity of small amino-terminal fragments with mutant, but not wild-type, glutamine tracts to self-aggregate is consistent with an altered conformation but such fragments occur relatively late in the disease process in human patients and mouse models expressing full-length mutant protein. This suggests that the altered conformational property may act within the full-length mutant huntingtin to initially trigger pathogenesis. Indeed, genotype-phenotype studies in HD have defined genetic criteria for the disease initiating mechanism, and these are all fulfilled by phenotypes associated with expression of full-length mutant huntingtin, but not amino-terminal fragment, in mouse models. As the in vitro aggregation of amino-terminal mutant huntingtin fragment offers a ready assay to identify small compounds that interfere with the conformation of the polyglutamine tract, we have identified a number of aggregation inhibitors, and tested whether these are also capable of reversing a phenotype caused by endogenous expression of mutant huntingtin in a striatal cell line from the HdhQ111/Q111 knock-in mouse. Results We screened the NINDS Custom Collection of 1,040 FDA approved drugs and bioactive compounds for their ability to prevent in vitro aggregation of Q58-htn 1–171 amino terminal fragment. Ten compounds were identified that inhibited aggregation with IC50 HdhQ111/Q111 striatal cells. Conclusions At least some compounds identified as aggregation inhibitors also prevent a neuronal cellular phenotype caused by full-length mutant huntingtin, suggesting that in vitro fragment aggregation can act as a proxy for monitoring the disease-producing conformational property in HD. Thus, identification and testing of compounds that

  4. Dynamics of aggregate stability and soil organic C distribution as affected by climatic aggressiveness: a mesocosm approach (United States)

    Pellegrini, Sergio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Costanza Andrenelli, Maria; Barbetti, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Tomozeiu, Rodica; Razzaghi, Somayyeh; Vignozzi, Nadia


    In the framework of a research project aimed at evaluating the adaptation scenarios of the Italian agriculture to the current climate change, a mesocosm experiment under controlled conditions was set up for studying the dynamics of soil aggregate stability and organic C in different size fractions. Three alluvial loamy soils (BOV - Typic Haplustalfs coarse-loamy; CAS - Typic Haplustalfs fine-loamy; MED - Typic Hapludalfs fine-loamy) along a climatic gradient (from dryer to moister pedoclimatic conditions) in the river Po valley (northern Italy), under crop rotation for animal husbandry from more than 40 years, were selected. The Ap horizons (0-30cm) were taken and placed in 9 climatic chambers under controlled temperature and rainfall. Each soil was subjected to three different climate scenarios in terms of erosivity index obtained by combining Modified Fournier and Bagnouls-Gaussen indexes: i) typical (TYP), the median year of each site related to the 1961-1990 reference period; ii) maximum aggressive year (MAX) observed in the same period, and iii) the simulated climate (SIM), obtained by projections of climate change precipitation and temperature for the period 2021-2050 as provided by the IPCC-A1B emission scenario. In the climatic chambers the year climate was reduced to six months. The soils were analyzed for particle size distribution, aggregate stability by wet and dry sieving, and organic C content at the beginning and at the end of the trial. The soils showed different behaviour in terms of aggregate stability and dynamics of organic C in the diverse size fractions. The soils significantly differed in terms of initial mean weight diameter (MWD) (CAS>MED>BOV). A general reduction of MWD in all sites was observed at the end of the experiment, with the increase of the smallest aggregate fractions (0.250-0.05 mm). In particular, BOV showed the maximum decrease of the aggregate stability and MED the lowest. C distribution in aggregate fractions significantly

  5. Inhibition of Human Transthyretin Aggregation by Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Compounds: A Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mauricio T. R. Lima


    Full Text Available Transthyretin (TTR is a homotetrameric protein that circulates in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF whose aggregation into amyloid fibrils has been associated with at least two different amyloid diseases: senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA and familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP. In SSA aggregates are composed of WT-TTR, while in FAP more than 100 already-described variants have been found in deposits. Until now, TTR-related diseases have been untreatable, although a new drug called Tafamidis has been approved only in Europe to specifically treat V30M patients. Thus, new strategies are still necessary to treat FAP caused by other variants of TTR. TTR has two channels in the dimer interface that bind to the hormone thyroxin and that have been used to accommodate anti-amyloidogenic compounds. These compounds stabilize the tetramers, rendering TTR less amyloidogenic. Here, we investigated the effects of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds—sulindac (SUL, indomethacin (IND and lumiracoxib (LUM—as tetramer stabilizers and aggregation inhibitors. WT-TTR and the very aggressive TTR variant L55P were used as models. These compounds were able to stabilize TTR against high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, increasing the ΔGf by several kcal. They were also effective in inhibiting WT-TTR and L55P acid- or HHP-induced aggregation; in particular, LUM and IND were very effective, inhibiting almost 100% of the aggregation of both proteins under certain conditions. The species formed when aggregation was performed in the presence of these compounds were much less toxic to cells in culture. The crystal structures of WT-TTR bound to the three compounds were solved at high resolution, allowing the identification of the relevant protein:drug interactions. We discuss here the ligand-binding features of LUM, IND and SUL to TTR, emphasizing the critical interactions that render the protein more stable and less amyloidogenic.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vardharajula


    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS of microbial origin with novel functionality, reproducible physico-chemical properties, are important class of polymeric materials. EPS are believed to protect bacterial cells from dessication, produce biofilms, thus enhancing the cells chances of bacterial colonizing special ecological niches. In rhizosphere, EPS are known to be useful to improve the moisture-holding capacity. Three Bacillus spp. strains identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens strain HYD-B17; B. licheniformis strain HYTAPB18; B. subtilis strain RMPB44 were studied for the ability to tolerate matric stress and produce EPS under different water potentials. EPS production in all the three Bacillus spp strains increased with increasing water stress indicating correlation between drought stress tolerance and EPS production. Among the isolates, strain HYD-17 showed highest production of EPS. The exopolysaccharide composition of the three strains was further analyzed by HPLC. Drought stress influenced the ratio of sugars in EPS and glucose was found as major sugar in strains HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 whereas raffinose was major sugar found in strain HYD-B17. Inoculation of EPS producing Bacillus spp. strains in soil resulted in good soil aggregation under drought stress conditions at different incubation periods. This study shows that exposure to water stress conditions affects the composition and ratios of sugars in EPS produced by Bacillus spp. strains HYD-B17, HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 influencing abiotic stress tolerance of the microorganisms.

  7. Protein aggregate myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M


    Full Text Available Protein aggregate myopathies (PAM are an emerging group of muscle diseases characterized by structural abnormalities. Protein aggregate myopathies are marked by the aggregation of intrinsic proteins within muscle fibers and fall into four major groups or conditions: (1 desmin-related myopathies (DRM that include desminopathies, a-B crystallinopathies, selenoproteinopathies caused by mutations in the, a-B crystallin and selenoprotein N1 genes, (2 hereditary inclusion body myopathies, several of which have been linked to different chromosomal gene loci, but with as yet unidentified protein product, (3 actinopathies marked by mutations in the sarcomeric ACTA1 gene, and (4 myosinopathy marked by a mutation in the MYH-7 gene. While PAM forms 1 and 2 are probably based on impaired extralysosomal protein degradation, resulting in the accumulation of numerous and diverse proteins (in familial types in addition to respective mutant proteins, PAM forms 3 and 4 may represent anabolic or developmental defects because of preservation of sarcomeres outside of the actin and myosin aggregates and dearth or absence of other proteins in these actin or myosin aggregates, respectively. The pathogenetic principles governing protein aggregation within muscle fibers and subsequent structural sarcomeres are still largely unknown in both the putative catabolic and anabolic forms of PAM. Presence of inclusions and their protein composition in other congenital myopathies such as reducing bodies, cylindrical spirals, tubular aggregates and others await clarification. The hitherto described PAMs were first identified by immunohistochemistry of proteins and subsequently by molecular analysis of their genes.

  8. In situ study of nucleation and aggregation phases for nanoparticles grown by laser-driven methods (United States)

    Barberio, M.; Antici, P.


    In the last decades, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies have become fundamental and irreplaceable in many fields of science and technology. When used in applications, their properties depend on many factors such as size, shape, internal structure and composition. For this, exact knowledge of their structural features is essential when developing fabrication technologies and searching for new types of nanostructures or nanoparticles with specific properties. For the latter, the knowledge of the precise temporal evolution of the growth processes is fundamental when it comes to industrial production and applications. Here we present a method to control, with very high precision, the starting of the aggregation phase during the Laser Ablation in solution growth process. This is obtained by monitoring the optical absorption of the colloidal solution. We apply this control method on the most popular metallic nanoparticle materials (Ag, Al, Co, and Ti) and verify the technique using morphological analysis conducted by AFM and SEM microscopy. The experimental results are explained in terms of Mie extinction theory and Thermal Model for Laser Ablation.

  9. Mucin biopolymers prevent bacterial aggregation by retaining cells in the free-swimming state (United States)

    Caldara, Marina; Friedlander, Ronn S.; Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Aizenberg, Joanna; Foster, Kevin R.; Ribbeck, Katharina


    Summary Many species of bacteria form surface-attached communities known as biofilms. Surrounded in secreted polymers, these aggregates are difficult to both prevent and eradicate, posing problems for medicine and industry [1, 2]. Humans play host to hundreds of trillions of microbes that live adjacent to our epithelia and we are typically able to prevent harmful colonization. Mucus, the hydrogel overlying all wet epithelia in the body, can prevent bacterial contact with the underlying tissue. The digestive tract, for example, is lined by a firmly adherent mucus layer that is typically devoid of bacteria, followed by a second, loosely adherent layer that contains numerous bacteria [3]. Here, we investigate mucus's role as a principle arena for host-microbe interactions. Using defined in vitro assays, we found that mucin biopolymers, the main functional constituents of mucus, promote the motility of planktonic bacteria, and prevent their adhesion to underlying surfaces. The deletion of motility genes, however, allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to overcome the dispersive effects of mucus and form suspended antibiotic-resistant flocs, which mirror the clustered morphology of immotile natural isolates found in the cystic fibrosis lung mucus [4, 5]. Mucus may offer new strategies to target bacterial virulence, such as the design of anti-biofilm coatings for implants. PMID:23142047

  10. Research on Marketing Cooperation System Based on Multi-Agent Services Aggregation Driven by Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong ZHOU


    Full Text Available The web service has great significance and value since it represents a large industrial sector and huge trade interests, but the function of a single web service is too small to satisfy the need of service requestor, so it is necessary to combine a mount of simple services to satisfy the complex and dynamic requirement in practice, then the problem of web services composition is one of the research hotspot. This paper generalized the primary interaction processes between enterprise and customer in marketing, encapsulated the special function for marketing works as the agent, and considered the marketing as the cooperation process of agents focusing on requirements, and based on that a multi-agent based marketing cooperation system (MAMCS is established and the agent ontology is designed according to JADE, finally the negotiation mechanism is built. The method of multi-agent services aggregation driven by requirement supposed in this paper can improve the utilizing effect of service, reduce the difficulty of services composition, and realize the automatic purpose of services composition. Moreover, by combining the merits of agent technique the initiation and intelligence of the services are improved, that safeguard the best interests of the service providers due to they have an option on requirements.

  11. In situ study of nucleation and aggregation phases for nanoparticles grown by laser-driven methods (United States)

    Barberio, M.; Antici, P.


    In the last decades, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies have become fundamental and irreplaceable in many fields of science and technology. When used in applications, their properties depend on many factors such as size, shape, internal structure and composition. For this, exact knowledge of their structural features is essential when developing fabrication technologies and searching for new types of nanostructures or nanoparticles with specific properties. For the latter, the knowledge of the precise temporal evolution of the growth processes is fundamental when it comes to industrial production and applications. Here we present a method to control, with very high precision, the starting of the aggregation phase during the Laser Ablation in solution growth process. This is obtained by monitoring the optical absorption of the colloidal solution. We apply this control method on the most popular metallic nanoparticle materials (Ag, Al, Co, and Ti) and verify the technique using morphological analysis conducted by AFM and SEM microscopy. The experimental results are explained in terms of Mie extinction theory and Thermal Model for Laser Ablation. PMID:28195194

  12. Triggering of inflammasome by aggregated α-synuclein, an inflammatory response in synucleinopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Codolo

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. It is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain. Another feature is represented by the formation in these cells of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB, principally constituted by fibrillar α-synuclein (αSyn. This protein is considered a key element in the aetiology of a group of neurodegenerative disorders termed synucleinopathies, which include PD, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are not completely clear. It is established that the inflammatory process plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and/or progression of PD; moreover, it is known that aggregated αSyn, released by neurons, activates microglia cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β. IL-1β is one of the strongest pro-inflammatory cytokines; it is produced as an inactive mediator, and its maturation and activation requires inflammasome activation. In particular, the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by a wide variety of stimuli, among which are crystallized and particulate material. In this work, we investigated the possibility that IL-1β production, induced by fibrillar αSyn, is involved the inflammasome activation. We demonstrated the competence of monomeric and fibrillar αSyn to induce synthesis of IL-1β, through TLR2 interaction; we found that the secretion of the mature cytokine was a peculiarity of the fibrillated protein. Moreover, we observed that the secretion of IL-1β involves NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The latter relies on the phagocytosis of fibrillar αSyn, followed by increased ROS production and cathepsin B release into the cytosol. Taken together, our data support the notion that fibrillar αSyn, likely released by neuronal degeneration, acts as an endogenous trigger inducing a strong inflammatory response in PD.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The induction of aggregate formation of cationic polysoaps ((CL)-Copol C1-12), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and n-dodecylmethyldiallylammonium bromide (DMDAAB) by low concentrations of Methyl Orange (10(-5)-10(-4) M) and anionic surfactants (conce

  14. Differential inhibition of tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation by the nicotinate aspirin prodrug (ST0702) and aspirin (United States)

    Medina, Carlos; Harmon, Shona; Inkielewicz, Iwona; Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Jones, Michael; Cantwell, Paula; Bazou, Despina; Ledwidge, Mark; Radomski, Marek W; Gilmer, John F


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) facilitates cancer cell invasion, angiogenesis and the formation of metastatic foci. TCIPA can be modulated by pharmacological inhibitors of MMP-2 and ADP; however, the COX inhibitor aspirin did not prevent TCIPA. In this study, we have tested the pharmacological effects of a new group of isosorbide-based aspirin prodrugs on TCIPA. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TCIPA was induced in human platelets by mixing with human adenocarcinoma or fibrosarcoma cells under no flow and flow conditions. The release of gelatinases and P-selectin expression during TCIPA were studied by zymography and flow cytometry respectively. KEY RESULTS Tumour cells caused platelet aggregation. This aggregation resulted in the release of MMP-2 and a significant up-regulation of P-selectin on platelets, indicative of platelet activation. Pharmacological modulation of TCIPA revealed that ST0702, one of the aspirin prodrugs, down-regulated TCIPA while aspirin was ineffective. The deacetylated metabolite of ST0702, 5-nicotinate salicylate (ST0702 salicylate), down-regulated both ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation and TCIPA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results show that ST0702 was an effective inhibitor of TCIPA in vitro. Its deacetylated metabolite may contribute to the effects of ST0702 by inhibiting ADP-mediated TCIPA. PMID:22122360

  15. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P


    adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human......, but not the class I-negative parental line, 221, showed homotypic aggregation in response to an HLA-G specific mAb (87G) and a broad reacting class I-specific mAb (IOT2). Both cell lines responded with aggregation to anti-class II mAb (TU35). The anti-class I mAb, W6/32, had no effect on all cell lines tested...... and two anti-beta 2-microglobulin mAb had variable, weak effects. The aggregation response was an active, temperature-sensitive process which was almost totally abrogated by azide and by cytochalasins B and E, but unaffected by colchicine, EDTA, aphidicolin, actinomycin D and protein tyrosine kinase...

  16. Effect of Dentin Bonding Agent on the Prevention of Tooth Discoloration Produced by Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari


    Full Text Available Objective. Determination of the effect of dentin bonding agent (DBA on the prevention of tooth discoloration produced by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Methods. 50 teeth were endodontically treated and after removal of 3 mm of obturating materials were divided into five groups. In white MTA (WMTA and grey MTA (GMTA groups, these materials were placed in root canal below the orifice. In DBA + WMTA and DBA + GMTA groups, DBAs were applied in the access cavity. Then, 3 mm of WMTA and GMTA was placed. The last 10 teeth served as control. All of teeth were restored and color measurement was recorded for each specimen at this time and 6 months later. Results. The mean tooth discoloration in WMTA and GMTA groups was significantly more than DBA + WMTA and DBA + GMTA groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between DBA + WMTA and DBA + GMTA groups and control group. Conclusion. Application of DBA before MTA may prevent tooth discoloration.

  17. Understanding Packing Patterns in Crystals by Analysis of Small Aggregates: A Case Study of CS2. (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Verma, Rahul; Gadre, Shridhar R


    The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) of the CS2 molecule, in conjunction with the cluster building algorithm, is utilized for generating trial geometries of medium-sized (CS2)n (n = 5-8) aggregates. MESP features suggest crossed, parallel stacked, T-shaped and L-shaped geometries for CS2 clusters. These initial geometries are subjected to geometry optimization employing second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) theory, with correlation consistent aug-cc-pvDZ (aDZ) basis set. Single-point energies at MP2/aTZ levels are calculated for the estimation of binding energies at complete basis set (CBS) limit. The minimal nature of the reported structures is confirmed by doing vibrational frequency run at MP2/aDZ level of theory using the molecular tailoring approach (MTA). The two- and three-body interaction energies are computed for clusters with n = 5, 6, and 7 and these are suggestive of change in contact patterns with increasing n. Such an analysis is found to offer a qualitative explanation of the packing pattern found in the crystal structure.

  18. Experimental Investigation of CFRP Confined Columns Damaged by Alkali Aggregate Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Radziah Abdullah


    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer is the most effective repair material in use to enhance the strength and ductility of deteriorated reinforced concrete columns. Often, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP provides passive confinement to columns until the dilation and cracking of concrete occurs. In the case of concrete suspected of Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR where concrete undergoes expansion, FRP wrap provides active confinement to the expanded concrete. In this study, the performance of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP wrapped columns damaged by AAR is evaluated based on the number of FRP layers and the time of the polymer application which provides two types of confinement: active or passive. The columns were tested under axial compression to evaluate the residual strength of the columns in comparison with unwrapped columns. The results reveal that the strength of the wrapped columns is enhanced with an increase in the number of CFRP layers. The strength of the columns under passive confinement is higher than the columns under active confinement. Under active confinement, early CFRP wrapping leads to improvement in the strength of the columns.

  19. Tripeptide SQL Inhibits Platelet Aggregation and Thrombus Formation by Affecting PI3K/Akt Signaling. (United States)

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; He, Zhi-long; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi


    Centipede has been prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries for several hundred years. Previously, a new antiplatelet tripeptide SQL (H-Ser-Gln-Leu-OH) was isolated and characterized from centipede. In this study, we investigated its antithrombotic activities in vivo and underlying mechanism. It was found that SQL inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate, thrombin, epinephrine, and collagen and attenuated thrombus formation in both the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis model and arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. It did not prolong the bleeding time in mice even at the dose of 10 mg/kg that showed potent antithrombosis effects. Molecular docking revealed that SQL binds PI3Kβ with the binding free energy of -24.341 kcal/mol, which is close to that of cocrystallized ligand (-24.220 kcal/mol). Additionally, SQL displayed inhibition on the late (180 seconds) but did not influence the early (60 seconds) Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in the immunoblot assay. These results suggest that SQL inhibits thrombus formation in vivo and that SQL inhibits PI3K-mediated signaling or even the PI3K itself in platelets. This study may help elucidate the mechanism for centipede treating cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Spiking neurons can discover predictive features by aggregate-label learning. (United States)

    Gütig, Robert


    The brain routinely discovers sensory clues that predict opportunities or dangers. However, it is unclear how neural learning processes can bridge the typically long delays between sensory clues and behavioral outcomes. Here, I introduce a learning concept, aggregate-label learning, that enables biologically plausible model neurons to solve this temporal credit assignment problem. Aggregate-label learning matches a neuron's number of output spikes to a feedback signal that is proportional to the number of clues but carries no information about their timing. Aggregate-label learning outperforms stochastic reinforcement learning at identifying predictive clues and is able to solve unsegmented speech-recognition tasks. Furthermore, it allows unsupervised neural networks to discover reoccurring constellations of sensory features even when they are widely dispersed across space and time.

  1. Triblock polyphiles through click chemistry: self-assembled thermotropic cubic phases formed by micellar and monolayer vesicular aggregates. (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoping; Kong, Leiyang; Dai, Heng; Cheng, Xiaohong; Liu, Feng; Tschierske, Carsten


    Three series of triblock polyphiles consisting of a rigid 4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole or 1,4-diphenyl-1,2,3-triazole core with three lipophilic and flexible alkoxyl chains at one end and a polar glycerol group at the opposite end were synthesized by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click reactions. Their mesophase behavior was studied by polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and XRD. Depending on alkyl chain length and core length, a transition from hexagonal columnar to Pm3n-type cubic phases was observed. In the cubic phases, the molecules are organized as spherical objects. Remarkably, compounds with a longer core unit have a higher tendency to form these cubic phases, and their stability is strongly enhanced over those of the compounds with a shorter core, despite longer cores having a smaller cone angle and therefore being expected to disfavor the formation of spherical objects. There is a large difference in the number of molecules involved in the spherical aggregates formed by compounds with long and short cores. Whereas the aggregates in the cubic phases of the compounds with short rod units are small and could be regarded as micellar, the long-core compounds form much larger aggregates which are regarded as a kind of monolayer vesicular aggregate.

  2. Aggregation of surface mine soil by interaction between VAM fungi and lignin degradation products of lespedeza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, F.M. (USDA Forest Service, Berea, KY (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory)


    The external mycelium of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus was effective in aggregating a sandy loam minesoil. The polysaccharide nature of the soil binding agent on hyphal surfaces and on the surfaces of sand particles in contact with the hyphae within the aggregate was demonstrated with the periodic acid-Schiff reagent staining reaction. A possible stabilizing mechanism for macroaggregates was proposed that involves a coupling reaction between glucosamines in the hyphal walls of the fungus with phenolic compounds released during lignin degradation of sericea lespedeza root tissue. 28 refs.

  3. Study of β-amyloid adsorption and aggregation on graphite by STM and AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been applied to the direct study of the adsorption and aggregation of β-amyloid(1-42)(Aβ42) on the hydrophobic graphite surface. It was found that Aβ42 were preferentially adsorbed on graphite defects such as the edges. Aβ42 peptides self-assembled into intermediate protofibrils, which in turn self-associated to form fibrils. Usually, two or more fibrils intertwined to form the helical structure. These results will provide an important clue to studying the aggregation process of β-amyloid.

  4. Vascular pentraxin 3 controls arterial thrombosis by targeting collagen and fibrinogen induced platelets aggregation (United States)

    Bonacina, F.; Barbieri, S.S.; Cutuli, L.; Amadio, P.; Doni, A.; Sironi, M.; Tartari, S.; Mantovani, A.; Bottazzi, B.; Garlanda, C.; Tremoli, E.; Catapano, A.L.; Norata, G.D.


    Aim The long pentraxin PTX3 plays a non-redundant role during acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and in the orchestration of tissue repair and remodeling during vascular injury, clotting and fibrin deposition. The aim of this work is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective role of PTX3 during arterial thrombosis. Methods and results PTX3 KO mice transplanted with bone marrow from WT or PTX3 KO mice presented a significant reduction in carotid artery blood flow following FeCl3 induced arterial thrombosis (− 80.36 ± 11.5% and − 95.53 ± 4.46%), while in WT mice transplanted with bone marrow from either WT or PTX3 KO mice, the reduction was less dramatic (− 45.55 ± 1.37% and − 53.39 ± 9.8%), thus pointing to a protective effect independent of a hematopoietic cell's derived PTX3. By using P-selectin/PTX3 double KO mice, we further excluded a role for P-selectin, a target of PTX3 released by neutrophils, in vascular protection played by PTX3. In agreement with a minor role for hematopoietic cell-derived PTX3, platelet activation (assessed by flow cytometric expression of markers of platelet activation) was similar in PTX3 KO and WT mice as were haemostatic properties. Histological analysis indicated that PTX3 localizes within the thrombus and the vessel wall, and specific experiments with the N-terminal and the C-terminal PTX3 domain showed the ability of PTX3 to selectively dampen either fibrinogen or collagen induced platelet adhesion and aggregation. Conclusion PTX3 interacts with fibrinogen and collagen and, by dampening their pro-thrombotic effects, plays a protective role during arterial thrombosis. PMID:26976330

  5. Frozen-state storage stability of a monoclonal antibody: aggregation is impacted by freezing rate and solute distribution. (United States)

    Miller, Maria A; Rodrigues, Miguel A; Glass, Matthew A; Singh, Satish K; Johnston, Keith P; Maynard, Jennifer A


    Freezing of protein solutions perturbs protein conformation, potentially leading to aggregate formation during long-term storage in the frozen state. Macroscopic protein concentration profiles in small cylindrical vessels were determined for a monoclonal antibody frozen in a trehalose-based formulation for various freezing protocols. Slow cooling rates led to concentration differences between outer edges of the tank and the center, up to twice the initial concentration. Fast cooling rates resulted in much smaller differences in protein distribution, likely due to the formation of dendritic ice, which traps solutes in micropockets, limiting their transport by convection and diffusion. Analysis of protein stability after more than 6 months storage at either -10°C or -20°C [above glass transition temperature (T'g )] or -80°C (below T'g ) revealed that aggregation correlated with the cooling rate. Slow-cooled vessels stored above T'g exhibited increased aggregation with time. In contrast, fast-cooled vessels and those stored below T'g showed small to no increase in aggregation at any position. Rapid entrapment of protein in a solute matrix by fast freezing results in improved stability even when stored above T'g . © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1194-1208, 2013.

  6. [A study of phonon vibration like modes for aggregation structure in silicate melts by high temperature Raman spectrum]. (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Cang; Li, Ru-Bi; Shang, Tong-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian-Hua; You, Jing-Lin


    Silicate melts are special fractal dimension system that is metastable state of near-way order and far-way disorder. In this paper, the size of nanometer aggregation structure and the frequences of phonon vibration like mode in the low dimension silicate series (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and Na2-Al2O3-SiO2 series) synthesized via high temperature melting and sol gel methods were measured by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low wavenumber Raman spectrum (LWRS) and high temperature Raman spectrum (HTRS in situ measuring). The nanometer self-similarity aggregation structure(it's size is about a few nm to a few tens nm) and phonic phonon vibration like modes of low temperature silicate gel, high temperature silicate melts and it's quenching glasses phases were obtained. So a quantitative method by HTRS for measuring the aggregation size in the high temperature melts was established. The results showed that the aggregation size of the silicate melts is smaller at high temperature than at room temperature and the number of bridge oxygen in one Si-O tetrahedron in network structure units is decreasing at high temperature. This study work provides important theory and information for deliberating geochemistry characteristic, crystallization & evolution of natural magma and enhancing performance of low dimension silicate matelials.

  7. Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Proteins and Age Reset in Yeast Are Regulated by Vac17-Dependent Vacuolar Functions

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    Sandra Malmgren Hill


    Full Text Available Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan. The link between damage asymmetry and vesicle trafficking can be explained by a direct interaction between aggregates and vesicles. We also show that the protein disaggregase Hsp104 interacts physically with endocytic vesicle-associated proteins, such as the dynamin-like protein, Vps1, which was also shown to be required for Vac17-dependent sequestration of protein aggregates. These data demonstrate that two physiognomies of aging—reduced endocytosis and protein aggregation—are interconnected and regulated by Vac17.

  8. Fundamental Study on the Development of Structural Lightweight Concrete by Using Normal Coarse Aggregate and Foaming Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee


    Full Text Available Structural lightweight concrete (SLWC has superior properties that allow the optimization of super tall structure systems for the process of design. Because of the limited supply of lightweight aggregates in Korea, the development of structural lightweight concrete without lightweight aggregates is needed. The physical and mechanical properties of specimens that were cast using normal coarse aggregates and different mixing ratios of foaming agent to evaluate the possibility of creating structural lightweight concrete were investigated. The results show that the density of SLWC decreases as the dosage of foaming agent increases up to a dosage of 0.6%, as observed by SEM. It was also observed that the foaming agent induced well separated pores, and that the size of the pores ranged from 50 to 100 μm. Based on the porosity of concrete specimens with foaming agent, compressive strength values of structural lightweight foam concrete (SLWFC were obtained. It was also found that the estimated values from proposed equations for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of SLWFC, and values obtained by actual measurements were in good agreement. Thus, this study confirms that new structural lightweight concrete using normal coarse aggregates and foaming agent can be developed successfully.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the effect of zidovudine, efavirenz, and ritonavir on insulin aggregation by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares of infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Aluja, Idoia; Ruisanchez, Itziar [Analytical and Organic Chemistry Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Larrechi, M. Soledad, E-mail: [Analytical and Organic Chemistry Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of insulin can be changed via interaction with antiretroviral drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemical interaction promotes the formation of aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This drug effect was evaluated by MCR-ALS coupled to IR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of aggregates was favourable if drugs were able to form hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher drug concentrations favoured formation of amorphous aggregates. - Abstract: Quantification of the effect of antiretroviral drugs on the insulin aggregation process is an important area of research due to the serious metabolic diseases observed in AIDS patients after prolonged treatment with these drugs. In this work, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to infrared monitoring of the insulin aggregation process in the presence of three antiretroviral drugs to quantify their effect. To evidence concentration dependence in this process, mixtures at two different insulin:drug molar ratios were used. The interaction between insulin and each drug was analysed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. In all cases, the aggregation process was monitored during 45 min by infrared spectroscopy. The aggregates were further characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MCR-ALS provided the spectral and concentration profiles of the different insulin-drug conformations that are involved in the process. Their feasible band boundaries were calculated using the MCR-BANDS methodology. The kinetic profiles describe the aggregation pathway and the spectral profiles characterise the conformations involved. The retrieved results show that each of the three drugs modifies insulin conformation in a different way, promoting the formation of aggregates. Ritonavir shows the strongest promotion of aggregation, followed by efavirenz and zidovudine. In the studied concentration range, concentration

  10. Mercury(II) binds to both of chymotrypsin's histidines, causing inhibition followed by irreversible denaturation/aggregation. (United States)

    Stratton, Amanda; Ericksen, Matthew; Harris, Travis V; Symmonds, Nick; Silverstein, Todd P


    The toxicity of mercury is often attributed to its tight binding to cysteine thiolate anions in vital enzymes. To test our hypothesis that Hg(II) binding to histidine could be a significant factor in mercury's toxic effects, we studied the enzyme chymotrypsin, which lacks free cysteine thiols; we found that chymotrypsin is not only inhibited, but also denatured by Hg(II). We followed the aggregation of denatured enzyme by the increase in visible absorbance due to light scattering. Hg(II)-induced chymotrypsin precipitation increased dramatically above pH 6.5, and free imidazole inhibited this precipitation, implicating histidine-Hg(II) binding in the process of chymotrypsin denaturation/aggregation. Diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) blocked chymotrypsin's two histidines (his40 and his57 ) quickly and completely, with an IC50 of 35 ± 6 µM. DEPC at 350 µM reduced the hydrolytic activity of chymotrypsin by 90%, suggesting that low concentrations of DEPC react with his57 at the active site catalytic triad; furthermore, DEPC below 400 µM enhanced the Hg(II)-induced precipitation of chymotrypsin. We conclude that his57 reacts readily with DEPC, causing enzyme inhibition and enhancement of Hg(II)-induced aggregation. Above 500 µM, DEPC inhibited Hg(II)-induced precipitation, and [DEPC] >2.5 mM completely protected chymotrypsin against precipitation. This suggests that his40 reacts less readily with DEPC, and that chymotrypsin denaturation is caused by Hg(II) binding specifically to the his40 residue. Finally, we show that Hg(II)-histidine binding may trigger hemoglobin aggregation as well. Because of results with these two enzymes, we suggest that metal-histidine binding may be key to understanding all heavy metal-induced protein aggregation.

  11. Decreasing α-synuclein aggregation by methanolic extract of Centella asiatica in zebrafish Parkinson's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnul Khotimah


    Conclusions: C. asiatica has a potential to be developed as an anti-Parkinson's disease treatment due to its capability for minimized the sign of Parkinson's such as α-synuclein aggregation and expression, increasing motility and dopamine as well.

  12. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell


    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  13. Comparison of Tooth Discoloration Induced by Calcium-Enriched Mixture and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (United States)

    Rouhani, Armita; Akbari, Majid; Farhadi-faz, Aida


    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tooth discoloration induced by calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods and Materials: Forty five endodontically treated human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into three groups (n=15) after removing the coronal 3 mm of the obturating materials. In the MTA group, white MTA plug was placed in pulp chamber and coronal zone of the root canal. In CEM cement group, CEM plug was placed in the tooth in the same manner. In both groups, a wet cotton pellet was placed in the access cavity and the teeth were temporarily sealed. After 24 h the teeth were restored with resin composite. In the negative control group the teeth were also restored with resin composite. The color change in the cervical third of teeth was measured with a colorimeter and was repeated 3 times for each specimen. The teeth were kept in artificial saliva for 6 months. After this period, the color change was measured again. Data were collected by Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*a*b color values, and corresponding ΔE values were calculated. The results were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test with the significance level defined as 0.05. Results: There was no significant differences between CEM group and control group in mean discoloration. The mean tooth discoloration in MTA group was significantly greater than CEM and control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the result of the present study CEM cement did not induce tooth discoloration after six months. Therefore it can be used in vital pulp therapy of esthetically sensitive teeth. PMID:27471526

  14. Enhanced Molecular Recognition between Nucleobases and Guanine-5'-monophosphate-disodium (GMP) by Surfactant Aggregates in Aqueous Solution. (United States)

    Liu, Zhang; Wang, Dong; Cao, Meiwen; Han, Yuchun; Xu, Hai; Wang, Yilin


    Only specific base pairs on DNA can bind with each other through hydrogen bonds, which is called the Watson-Crick (W/C) pairing rule. However, without the constraint of DNA chains, the nucleobases in bulk aqueous solution usually do not follow the W/C pairing rule anymore because of the strong competitive effect of water and the multi-interaction edges of nucleobases. The present work applied surfactant aggregates noncovalently functionalized by nucleotide to enhance the recognition between nucleobases without DNA chains in aqueous solution, and it revealed the effects of their self-assembling ability and morphologies on the recognition. The cationic ammonium monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric surfactants DTAB, 12-3-12, and 12-3-12-3-12 were chosen. The surfactants with guanine-5'-monophosphate-disodium (GMP) form micelles, vesicles, and fingerprint-like and plate-like aggregates bearing the hydrogen-bonding sites of GMP, respectively. The binding parameters of these aggregates with adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine(C) indicate that the surfactants can promote W/C recognitions in aqueous solution when they form vesicles (GMP/DTAB) or plate-like aggregates (GMP/12-3-12) with proper molecular packing compactness, which not only provide hydrophobic environments but also shield non-W/C recognition edges. However, the GMP/12-3-12 micelles with loose molecular packing, the GMP/12-3-12 fingerprint-like aggregates where the hydrogen bond sites of GMP are occupied by itself, and the GMP/12-3-12-3-12 vesicles with too strong self-assembling ability cannot promote W/C recognition. This work provides insight into how to design self-assemblies with the performance of enhanced molecule recognition.

  15. Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis severity in rabbits is reduced by IgG Fabs interfering with aggregation substance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Schlievert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is a significant cause of infective endocarditis, an infection of the heart endothelium leading to vegetation formation (microbes, fibrin, platelets, and host cells attached to underlying endothelial tissue. Our previous research determined that enterococcal aggregation substance (AS is an important virulence factor in causation of endocarditis, although endocarditis may occur in the absence of AS production. Production of AS by E. faecalis causes the organism to form aggregates through AS binding to enterococcal binding substance. In this study, we assessed the ability of IgGs and IgG Fabs against AS to provide protection against AS+ E. faecalis endocarditis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When challenged with AS+ E. faecalis, 10 rabbits actively immunized against AS+ E. faecalis developed more significant vegetations than 9 animals immunized against AS⁻E. faecalis, and 9/10 succumbed compared to 2/9 (p<0.005, suggesting enhanced aggregation by IgG contributes significantly to disease. IgG antibodies against AS also enhanced enterococcal aggregation as tested in vitro. In contrast, Fab fragments of IgG from rabbits immunized against purified AS, when passively administered to rabbits (6/group immediately before challenge with AS+E. faecalis, reduced total vegetation (endocarditis lesion microbial counts (7.9 x 10⁶ versus 2.0 x 10⁵, p = 0.02 and size (40 mg versus 10, p = 0.05. In vitro, the Fabs prevented enterococcal aggregation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data confirm the role of AS in infective endocarditis formation and suggest that use of Fabs against AS will provide partial protection from AS+E. faecalis illness.

  16. Neutrophil Cathepsin G, but Not Elastase, Induces Aggregation of MCF-7 Mammary Carcinoma Cells by a Protease Activity-Dependent Cell-Oriented Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yui


    Full Text Available We previously found that a neutrophil serine protease, cathepsin G, weakens adherence to culture substrates and induces E-cadherin-dependent aggregation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through its protease activity. In this study, we examined whether aggregation is caused by degradation of adhesion molecules on the culture substrates or through an unidentified mechanism. We compared the effect of treatment with cathepsin G and other proteases, including neutrophil elastase against fibronectin- (FN- coated substrates. Cathepsin G and elastase potently degraded FN on the substrates and induced aggregation of MCF-7 cells that had been subsequently seeded onto the substrate. However, substrate-bound cathepsin G and elastase may have caused cell aggregation. After inhibiting the proteases on the culture substrates using the irreversible inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, we examined whether aggregation of MCF-7 cells was suppressed. PMSF attenuated cell aggregation on cathepsin G-treated substrates, but the effect was weak in cells pretreated with high concentrations of cathepsin G. In contrast, PMSF did not suppress cell aggregation on elastase-treated FN. Moreover, cathepsin G, but not elastase, induced aggregation on poly-L-lysine substrates which are not decomposed by these enzymes, and the action of cathepsin G was nearly completely attenuated by PMSF. These results suggest that cathepsin G induces MCF-7 aggregation through a cell-oriented mechanism.

  17. Non-native plants and soil microbes: potential contributors to the consistent reduction in soil aggregate stability caused by the disturbance of North American grasslands. (United States)

    Duchicela, Jessica; Vogelsang, Keith M; Schultz, Peggy A; Kaonongbua, Wittaya; Middleton, Elizabeth L; Bever, James D


    • Soil aggregate stability is an important ecosystem property that is altered by anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the generalization of these alterations and the identification of the main contributors are limited by the absence of cross-site comparisons and the application of inconsistent methodologies across regions. • We assessed aggregate stability in paired remnant and post-disturbance grasslands across California, shortgrass and tallgrass prairies, and in manipulative experiments of plant composition and soil microbial inoculation. • Grasslands recovering from anthropogenic disturbance consistently had lower aggregate stability than remnants. Across all grasslands, non-native plant diversity was significantly associated with reduced soil aggregate stability. A negative effect of non-native plants on aggregate stability was also observed in a mesocosm experiment comparing native and non-native plants from California grasslands. Moreover, an inoculation study demonstrated that the degradation of the microbial community also contributes to the decline in soil aggregate stability in disturbed grasslands. • Anthropogenic disturbance consistently reduced water-stable aggregates. The stability of aggregates was reduced by non-native plants and the degradation of the native soil microbial community. This latter effect might contribute to the sustained decline in aggregate stability following anthropogenic disturbance. Further exploration is advocated to understand the generality of these potential mechanisms.

  18. Spherical TiO2 aggregates with different building units for dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Su, Xunjia; Hou, Genliang; Bi, Song; Xiao, Zhou; Jia, Haipeng


    Tailoring the architectures of spherical TiO2 aggregates is crucial to obtain superior photovoltaic properties and promote their application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we synthesized spherical TiO2 aggregates using different building units, including nanocrystallites, nanorods, nanosheets, and nanotubes, via a hydrothermal method, and studied the effect of the building units on the performances of DSSCs. The aggregates assembled by uniform nanosheet and nanotube building units were synthesized with the use of spherical TiO2 nanorod aggregates as titanium sources in an alkaline hydrothermal reaction. Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, the spherical TiO2 aggregates possess higher surface area, more efficient light scattering ability, and better electron transport properties. Among the four types of spherical TiO2 aggregates; the nanorod, nanotube, and nanosheet aggregates demonstrate better electron transport properties than the nanocrystallite aggregates; the nanotube and nanosheet aggregates exhibit more efficient light scattering than the nanocrystallite and nanorod aggregates; and the nanotube aggregates show the highest surface area. Thus the DSSC based on nanotube aggregates exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 7.48%, which is 16.0%, 9.7%, and 19.5% higher than those of the DSSCs based on the nanosheet, nanorod, and nanocrystallite aggregates, respectively.

  19. Properties of Cement Mortar by Use of Hot-Melt Polyamides as Substitute for Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongzhou Yuan


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on use of hot-melt polyamide (HMP to prepare mortar specimens with improved crack healing and engineering properties. The role of HMP in the crack repairing of cement mortar subjected to several rounds of heat treatment was investigated. Compatibility between HMP and hydraulic cement was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR technology. Mortar specimens were prepared using standard cement mortar mixes with HMP at 1%, 3% and 5% (by volume for fine aggregate substitute. After curing for 28 days, HMP specimens were subjected to heating at temperature of 160 °C for one, two, and three days and then natural cooling down to ambient temperature. Mechanical and durability properties of the heated HMP mortars were evaluated and compared with those of the corresponding mortars without heating. The microscopic observation of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ of HMP mortar was conducted through environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Results reveal that incorporation of HMP improves the workability of the HMP/cement binder while leading to decrease in compressive strength and durability. The heated HMP mortars after exposure to heating for one, two, and three days exhibit no obvious change in compressive strength while presenting notable increase in flexural strength and durability compared with the corresponding mortars without heating. The XRD, FTIR and ESEM analyses indicate that no obvious chemical reaction occurs between HMP and hydraulic cement, and thus the self-repairing for interfacial micro-crack in HMP/cement composite system is ascribed to the physical adhesion of HMP to cement matrix rather than the chemical bonding between them.

  20. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, Miriam M.; Zhang, Cheng; Tan, Howe-Siang, E-mail: [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Akhtar, Parveen; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H., E-mail: [Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 521, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)


    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Q{sub y} band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240–270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet–singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  1. Perturbation of thermal unfolding and aggregation of human IgG1 Fc fragment by Hofmeister anions. (United States)

    Zhang-van Enk, Jian; Mason, Bruce D; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Le; Hamouda, Wael; Huang, Gang; Liu, Dingjiang; Remmele, Richard L; Zhang, Jifeng


    The thermal unfolding and subsequent aggregation of the unglycosylated Fc fragment of a human IgG1 antibody (Fc) were studied in the salt solutions of Na(2)SO(4), KF, KCl and KSCN at pH 4.8 and 7.2 below and at its pI of 7.2, respectively, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), far ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD), size exclusion chromatography (SE-HPLC) and light scattering. First, our experimental results demonstrated that the thermal unfolding of the C(H)2 domain of the Fc was sufficient to induce aggregation. Second, at both pH conditions, the anions (except F(-)) destabilized the C(H)2 domain where the effectiveness of SO(4)(2-) > SCN(-) > Cl(-) > F(-) was more apparent at pH 4.8. In addition, the thermal stability of the C(H)2 domain was less sensitive to the change in salt concentration at pH 7.2 than at pH 4.8. Third, at pH 4.8 when the Fc had a net positive charge, the anions accelerated the aggregation reaction with SO(4)(2-) > SCN(-) > Cl(-) > F(-) in effectiveness. But these anions slowed down the aggregation kinetics at pH 7.2 with similar effectiveness when the Fc was net charge neutral. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of the anion on destabilizing the C(H)2 domain could be attributed to its ability to perturb the free energy for both of the native and unfolded states. The effect of the anions on the kinetics of the aggregation reaction could be interpreted based on the modulation of the electrostatic protein-protein interactions by the anions.

  2. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy. (United States)

    Enriquez, Miriam M; Akhtar, Parveen; Zhang, Cheng; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H; Tan, Howe-Siang


    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Qy band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240-270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet-singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  3. Love waves excited by a moving source (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Yu. M.


    The study analyzes the characteristics of surface Love waves excited by the moment of an oscillating torsional force with a point of action that moves uniformly and rectilinearly along the free flat boundary of a medium having the structure of a "layer on a half-space." The azimuthal-angular distribution of the amplitude and Doppler shift in frequency of the wave modes is studied as a function of the motion velocity of a vibrating source and the parameters of the medium.

  4. Soluble aggregates of the amyloid-β peptide are trapped by serum albumin to enhance amyloid-β activation of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Velasquez Francisco J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. As a result, synthetic molecules capable of inhibiting Aβ self-assembly could serve as therapeutic agents and endogenous molecules that modulate Aβ self-assembly may influence disease progression. However, increasing evidence implicating a principal pathogenic role for small soluble Aβ aggregates warns that inhibition at intermediate stages of Aβ self-assembly may prove detrimental. Here, we explore the inhibition of Aβ1–40 self-assembly by serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, and the influence of this inhibition on Aβ1–40 activation of endothelial cells for monocyte adhesion. Results It is demonstrated that serum albumin is capable of inhibiting in a dose-dependent manner both the formation of Aβ1–40 aggregates from monomeric peptide and the ongoing growth of Aβ1–40 fibrils. Inhibition of fibrillar Aβ1–40 aggregate growth is observed at substoichiometric concentrations, suggesting that serum albumin recognizes aggregated forms of the peptide to prevent monomer addition. Inhibition of Aβ1–40 monomer aggregation is observed down to stoichiometric ratios with partial inhibition leading to an increase in the population of small soluble aggregates. Such partial inhibition of Aβ1–40 aggregation leads to an increase in the ability of resulting aggregates to activate endothelial cells for adhesion of monocytes. In contrast, Aβ1–40 activation of endothelial cells for monocyte adhesion is reduced when more complete inhibition is observed. Conclusion These results demonstrate that inhibitors of Aβ self-assembly have the potential to trap small soluble aggregates resulting in an elevation rather than a reduction of cellular responses. These findings provide further support that small soluble aggregates possess high levels of physiological activity and underscore the importance of

  5. Weighted Markov Chain Based Aggregation of Bio-molecule Orderings. (United States)

    Sengupta, Debarka; Maulik, Ujjwal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra


    The scope and effectiveness of rank aggregation have already been established in contemporary bioinformatics research. Rank aggregation helps in meta analysis of putative results collected from different analytic or experimental sources. For example, we often receive considerably differing ranked lists of genes or microRNAs from various target prediction algorithms or microarray studies. Sometimes combining them all, in some sense, yields more effective ordering of the set of objects. Also, assigning a certain level of confidence to each source of ranking is a natural demand of aggregation. Assignment of weights to the sources of orderings can be performed by experts. Several rank aggregation approaches like those based on Markov chains (MC), evolutionary algorithms etc., exist in the literature. Markov chains, in general are faster than the evolutionary approaches. Unlike the evolutionary computing approaches Markov chains have not been used for weighted aggregation scenarios. This is because of the absence of a formal framework of weighted Markov chain. In this article we propose the use of a modified version of MC4 (one of the Markov chains proposed by Dwork et al., 2001), followed by the weighted analog of local Kemenization for performing rank aggregation, where the sources of rankings can be prioritized by an expert.

  6. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas


    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  7. An unexpected restructuring of combustion soot aggregates by subnanometer coatings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Fan, Xiaolong; Shaltout, Tasneem; Qiu, Chong; Ma, Yan; Goldman, Andrew; Khalizov, Alexei F.


    We investigated the effect of thin polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coatings on the structure of soot aggregates. Soot aerosol from an inverted diffusion burner was size classified, thermally denuded, coated with six different PAHs, and then characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light scattering, and mass-mobility measurements. Contrary to our expectation, significant restructuring was observed in the presence of subnanometer layers of pyrene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene. These PAHs remained in subcooled liquid state in thin films, whereby the liquid layer acted as a lubricant, reducing the force required to initiate the restructuring. Thin layers of PAH of higher melting temperatures (perylene, anthracene, and triphenylene) presumably remained solid because these chemicals induced lesser structural changes. Our results suggest that some of the intrinsic PAH generated during incomplete combustion may induce significant restructuring of soot aggregates, even when present in small quantities, altering the properties and atmospheric impacts of combustion aerosols.

  8. Levels of Supramolecular Chirality of Polyglutamine Aggregates Revealed by Vibrational Circular Dichroism (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Kar, Karunakar; Wetzel, Ronald; Dukor, Rina K.; Lednev, Igor K.; Nafie, Laurence A.


    Polyglutamine (PolyQ) aggregates are a hallmark of several severe neurodegenerative diseases, expanded CAG-repeat diseases in which inheritance of an expanded polyQ sequence above a pathological threshold is associated with a high risk of disease. Application of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) reveals that these PolyQ fibril aggregates exhibit a chiral supramolecular organization that is distinct from the supramolecular organization of previously observed amyloid fibrils. PolyQ fibrils grown from monomers with Q repeats 35 and above (Q≥35) exhibit approximately 10-fold enhancement of the same VCD spectrum compared to the already enhanced VCD of fibrils formed from Q repeats 30 and below (Q≤30). PMID:23583713

  9. Solving an aggregate production planning problem by using multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripon Kumar Chakrabortty


    Full Text Available In hierarchical production planning system, Aggregate Production Planning (APP falls between the broad decisions of long-range planning and the highly specific and detailed short-range planning decisions. This study develops an interactive Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA approach for solving the multi-product, multi-period aggregate production planning (APP with forecasted demand, related operating costs, and capacity. The proposed approach attempts to minimize total costs with reference to inventory levels, labor levels, overtime, subcontracting and backordering levels, and labor, machine and warehouse capacity. Here several genetic algorithm parameters are considered for solving NP-hard problem (APP problem and their relative comparisons are focused to choose the most auspicious combination for solving multiple objective problems. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed approach to real APP decision problems. Consequently, the proposed MOGA approach yields an efficient APP compromise solution for large-scale problems.

  10. Inhibition of the Crystal Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate by Algae Sulfated Polysaccharide In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Mei WU; Jian Ming OUYANG; Sui Ping DENG; Ying Zhou CEN


    The influence of sulfated polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme on the morphology and phase compositions of urinary crystal calcium oxalate was investigated in vitro by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. SPS maybe is a potential inhibitor to CaOxa urinary stones by inhibiting the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), preventing the aggregation of COM, and inducing the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals.

  11. Aggregate stability and associated C and N in a silty loam soil as affected by organic material inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Pan; SUI Peng; GAO Wang-sheng; WANG Bin-bin; HUANG Jian-xiong; YAN Peng; ZOU Juan-xiu; YAN Ling-ling; CHEN Yuan-quan


    To make recycling utilization of organic materials produced in various agricultural systems, ifve kinds of organic materials were applied in a ifeld test, including crop straw (CS), biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), wine residue (WR), pig manure (PM), with a mineral fertilizer (CF) and a no-fertilizer (CK) treatment as a control. Our objectives were:i) to quantify the effects of organic materials on soil C and N accumulation;i ) to evaluate the effects of organic materials on soil aggregate stability, along with the total organic carbon (TOC), and N in different aggregate fractions;and i i) to assess the relationships among the organic material components, soil C and N, and C, N in aggregate fractions. The trial was conducted in Wuqiao County, Hebei Province, China. The organic materials were incorporated at an equal rate of C, and combined with a mineral fertilizer in amounts of 150 kg N ha-1, 26 kg P ha-1 and 124 kg K ha-1 respectively during each crop season of a wheat-maize rotation system. The inputted C quantity of each organic material treatment was equivalent to the total amount of C contained in the crop straw harvested in CS treatement in the previous season. TOC, N, water-stable aggregates, and aggregate-associated TOC and N were investigated. The results showed that organic material incorpora-tion increased soil aggregation and stabilization. On average, the soil macroaggregate proportion increased by 14%, the microaggregate proportion increased by 3%, and mean-weight diameter (MWD) increased by 20%. TOC content fol owed the order of PM>WR>MR>BR>CS>CK>CF;N content fol owed the order WR>PM>MR>BR>CS>CF>CK. No signiifcant correlation was found between TOC, N, and the quality of organic material. Soil silt and clay particles contained the largest part of TOC, whereas the smal macroaggregate fraction was the most sensitive to organic materials. Our results indicate that PM and WR exerted better effects on soil C and N accumulation, fol owed by MR

  12. Accelerated Settling of Marine Particulate Matter by ’Marine Snow’ Aggregates. (United States)


    this material arrives at both depths within the same sampling interval indicates that these gelatinous zooplankton remains settle at more than 175 m day...of the remains of plankton , sinking in some stages of disintegration..." For the purpose of this paper, flocs, flakes, fecal matter, aggregates, large...Enlargement of (a). The excellent preservation of the coccoliths indicates rapid vertical transport. Scale bar is 2pm. c) Fragment of planktonic

  13. Cell Surface Binding and Internalization of Aβ Modulated by Degree of Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Bateman


    Full Text Available The amyloid peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, are generated through endoproteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Here we have developed a model to investigate the interaction of living cells with various forms of aggregated Aβ40/42. After incubation at endosomal pH 6, we observed a variety of Aβ conformations after 3 (Aβ3, 24 (Aβ24, and 90 hours (Aβ90. Both Aβ4224 and Aβ4024 were observed to rapidly bind and internalize into differentiated PC12 cells, leading to accumulation in the lysosome. In contrast, Aβ40/4290 were both found to only weakly associate with cells, but were observed as the most aggregated using dynamic light scattering and thioflavin-T. Internalization of Aβ40/4224 was inhibited with treatment of monodansylcadaverine, an endocytosis inhibitor. These studies indicate that the ability of Aβ40/42 to bind and internalize into living cells increases with degree of aggregation until it reaches a maximum beyond which its ability to interact with cells diminishes drastically.

  14. Iron promotes the toxicity of amyloid beta peptide by impeding its ordered aggregation. (United States)

    Liu, Beinan; Moloney, Aileen; Meehan, Sarah; Morris, Kyle; Thomas, Sally E; Serpell, Louise C; Hider, Robert; Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A; Crowther, Damian C


    We have previously shown that overexpressing subunits of the iron-binding protein ferritin can rescue the toxicity of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide in our Drosophila model system. These data point to an important pathogenic role for iron in Alzheimer disease. In this study, we have used an iron-selective chelating compound and RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous ferritin to further manipulate iron in the brain. We confirm that chelation of iron protects the fly from the harmful effects of Aβ. To understand the pathogenic mechanisms, we have used biophysical techniques to see how iron affects Aβ aggregation. We find that iron slows the progression of the Aβ peptide from an unstructured conformation to the ordered cross-β fibrils that are characteristic of amyloid. Finally, using mammalian cell culture systems, we have shown that iron specifically enhances Aβ toxicity but only if the metal is present throughout the aggregation process. These data support the hypothesis that iron delays the formation of well ordered aggregates of Aβ and so promotes its toxicity in Alzheimer disease.

  15. The pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloid Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling (United States)

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue-hu; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi


    Aim: Psm2, one of the pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids isolated from whole Selaginella moellendorffii plants, has shown a potent antiplatelet activity. In this study, we further evaluated the antiplatelet effects of Psm2, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human platelet aggregation in vitro and rat platelet aggregation ex vivo were investigated. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation was measured using a light transmission aggregometer. The antithrombotic effects of Psm2 were evaluated in arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiplatelet activity of Psm2, ELISAs, Western blotting and molecular docking were performed. The bleeding risk of Psm2 administration was assessed in a mouse tail cutting model, and the cytotoxicity of Psm2 was measured with MTT assay in EA.hy926 cells. Results: Psm2 dose-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, U4619, thrombin and collagen with IC50 values of 0.64, 0.37, 0.35 and 0.87 mg/mL, respectively. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) administered to rats significantly inhibited platelet aggregation ex vivo induced by ADP. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/mL, iv) administered to rats with the A–V shunt dose-dependently decreased the thrombus formation. Psm2 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and collagen with IC50 values of 84.5 and 96.5 mg/mL, respectively, but did not affect the binding of fibrinogen to GPIIb/IIIa. Furthermore, Psm2 inhibited AktSer473 phosphorylation, but did not affect MAPK signaling and Src kinase activation. Molecular docking showed that Psm2 bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase β (PI3Kβ) with a binding free energy of −13.265 kcal/mol. In addition, Psm2 did not cause toxicity in EA.hy926 cells and produced only slight bleeding in a mouse tail cutting model. Conclusion: Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling. Psm2 may be a lead compound or drug candidate that could be developed for the

  16. Turnover of subsoil organic carbon controlled by substrate limitation and aggregation? (United States)

    Dietrich, Patrick; Don, Axel; Helfrich, Mirjam


    Subsoils (>30 cm depth) store more than 50% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC) and subsoil SOC is characterised by high mean residence times compared to topsoil SOC. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the turnover of SOC in the subsoil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature, substrate limitation and aggregation disturbance on subsoil SOC turnover. We assumed that temperature limits SOC turnover in subsoil, but the temperature response of SOC is obscured by an increasing stabilization of organic material with soil depth. In a laboratory incubation experiment the production of CO2 from undisturbed and disturbed soil samples and disturbed soil samples with added 13C labelled roots were investigated at two different temperatures (10 and 20° C). Soil samples were taken from 2-12 cm (depth 1), 30-60 cm (depth2) and 130-160 cm (depth 3) in a deciduous forest from a podzolic Cambisol and were placed in microcosms with an inner diameter of 14.2 cm and a height of 20 cm for depth 1 and 40 cm for depth 2 and 3. The microcosms were incubated for 30 days at 60% of water holding capacity. The incubation experiment showed an average increase of 80-150% in CO2 production for disturbed and undisturbed samples in depth 1 and depth 2 with increasing temperature. However, this was not observed in depth 3. This temperature influence was not found in the disturbed samples with added substrate. Instead, the increase in CO2 production of the labelled samples from depth 2 and 3 had a lag time of 5 to 8 days compared to samples from depth 1. Reasons for this delayed reaction on substrate might be dormant microorganisms in the subsoil at the beginning of the incubation experiment or spatial separation of microorganisms and the labelled substrate. Disturbance of the samples from depth 1 and 2 initially increase the CO2 production, but this effect was minor after day 15. Contrary to expectation, the CO2 production in depth 3 was greater

  17. Preparation of Cross-Linked Glucoamylase Aggregates Immobilization by Using Dextrin and Xanthan Gum as Protecting Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Li


    Full Text Available In this paper glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized by using a modified version of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA. The co-aggregates were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde; meanwhile dextrin and xanthan gum as protecting agents were added, which provides high affinity with the enzyme molecules. The immobilized glucoamylase was stable over a broad range of pH (3.0–8.0 and temperature (55–75 °C; dependence shows more catalytic activity than a free enzyme. The thermostability, kinetic behavior, and first-order inactivation rate constant (ki were investigated. The two types of protector made the immobilized glucoamylase more robust than the free form. Both of the immobilized enzymes have excellent recyclability, retaining over 45% of the relative activity after 24 runs. In addition, immobilized enzymes reduced only 40% of the initial activity after three months by the storability measure, indicating high activity.

  18. Prolongation of bleeding time and inhibition of platelet aggregation by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G; Boss, A H; Ødum, Niels


    Platelet aggregation and bleeding time was measured in 43 cerebrovascular patients participating in a controlled double-blind study of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. In 19 patients with satisfactory inhibition of the platelet aggregation obtained by 50 to 70 mg acetylsalicylic acid per day...... the bleeding time averaged 11.2 minutes in contrast to 7.0 minutes in the placebo group, p less than 0.001. This study confirms our previous findings of platelet inhibition by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The prolongation of the bleeding time demonstrates that we...... are dealing not merely with an in vitro phenomenon but with a significant in vivo effect. The study provides the rationale for clinical evaluations of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in stroke prophylaxis....

  19. Effect of the surfactant Tween 80 on the detachment and dispersal of Salmonella enterica Thompson single cells and aggregates from cilantro leaves as revealed by image analysis (United States)

    Biofilms formed by human enteric pathogens on plants are a great concern to the produce industry. Salmonella enterica has the ability to form biofilms and large aggregates on leaf surfaces, including on cilantro leaves. Aggregates that remained attached after rigorous washing of cilantro leaves and ...

  20. [Aluminum dissolution and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of copper by aggregates of paddy soil]. (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Dao-Yuan; Qin, Chao; Li, Yu-Jiao; Dong, Chang-Xun


    Size fractions of soil aggregates in Lake Tai region were collected by the low-energy ultrasonic dispersion and the freeze-desiccation methods. The dissolution of aluminum and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of Cu2+ and changes of the dissolution of aluminum at different pH in the solution of Cu2+ by aggregates were studied by the equilibrium sorption method. The results showed that in the process of Cu2+ sorption by aggregates, the aluminum was dissoluted and the pH decreased. The elution amount of aluminum and the decrease of pH changed with the sorption of Cu2+, both increasing with the increase of Cu2+ sorption. Under the same conditions, the dissolution of aluminum and the decrease of pH were in the order of coarse silt fraction > silt fraction > sand fraction > clay fraction, which was negatively correlated with the amount of iron oxide, aluminum and organic matter. It suggested that iron oxide, aluminum and organic matters had inhibitory and buffering effect on the aluminum dissolution and the decrease of pH during the sorption of Cu2+.

  1. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.


    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  2. Hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ping; HU Yue-hua; LIU Run-Qing


    The hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite in cationic surfactant suspension was investigated by sedimentation test, zeta potential measurement and SEM observation. SEM images reveal that kaolinite particles show the self-aggregation of edge-face in acidic media, the aggregation of edge-face and edge-edge in neutral media, and the dispersion in alkaline media due to electrostatic repulsion. In the presence of the dodecylammonium acetate cationic surfactant and in neutral and alkaline suspension, the hydrophobic aggregation of face-face is demonstrated. The zeta potential of kaolinite increases with increasing the concentration of cationic surfactant. The small and loose aggregation at a low concentration but big and tight aggregation at a high concentration is presented At pH=7 alkyl quarterly amine salt CTAB has the best hydrophobic aggregation among three cationic surfactants, namely, dodecylammonium acetate, alkyl quarterly amine salts 1227 and CTAB.

  3. Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.


    In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.

  4. Selenite Reduction by Anaerobic Microbial Aggregates: Microbial Community Structure, and Proteins Associated to the Produced Selenium Spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela


    Certain types of anaerobic granular sludge, which consists of microbial aggregates, can reduce selenium oxyanions. To envisage strategies for removing those oxyanions from wastewater and recovering the produced elemental selenium (Se0), insights into the microbial community structure and synthesis of Se0 within these microbial aggregates are required. High-throughput sequencing showed that Veillonellaceae (c.a. 20%) and Pseudomonadaceae (c.a.10%) were the most abundant microbial phylotypes in selenite reducing microbial aggregates. The majority of the Pseudomonadaceae sequences were affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas. A distinct outer layer (∼200 μm) of selenium deposits indicated that bioreduction occurred in the outer zone of the microbial aggregates. In that outer layer, SEM analysis showed abundant intracellular and extracellular Se0 (nano)spheres, with some cells having high numbers of intracellular Se0 spheres. Electron tomography showed that microbial cells can harbor a single large intracellular sphere that stretches the cell body. The Se0 spheres produced by the microorganisms were capped with organic material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of extracted Se0 spheres, combined with a mathematical approach to analyzing XPS spectra from biological origin, indicated that proteins and lipids were components of the capping material associated to the Se0 spheres. The most abundant proteins associated to the spheres were identified by proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins or peptide sequences capping the Se0 spheres were identified as periplasmic outer membrane porins and as the cytoplasmic elongation factor Tu protein, suggesting an intracellular formation of the Se0 spheres. In view of these and previous findings, a schematic model for the synthesis of Se0 spheres by the microorganisms inhabiting the granular sludge is proposed.

  5. Selenite Reduction by Anaerobic Microbial Aggregates: Microbial Community Structure, and Proteins Associated to the Produced Selenium Spheres (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Lens, Piet N. L.; Saikaly, Pascal E.


    Certain types of anaerobic granular sludge, which consists of microbial aggregates, can reduce selenium oxyanions. To envisage strategies for removing those oxyanions from wastewater and recovering the produced elemental selenium (Se0), insights into the microbial community structure and synthesis of Se0 within these microbial aggregates are required. High-throughput sequencing showed that Veillonellaceae (c.a. 20%) and Pseudomonadaceae (c.a.10%) were the most abundant microbial phylotypes in selenite reducing microbial aggregates. The majority of the Pseudomonadaceae sequences were affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas. A distinct outer layer (∼200 μm) of selenium deposits indicated that bioreduction occurred in the outer zone of the microbial aggregates. In that outer layer, SEM analysis showed abundant intracellular and extracellular Se0 (nano)spheres, with some cells having high numbers of intracellular Se0 spheres. Electron tomography showed that microbial cells can harbor a single large intracellular sphere that stretches the cell body. The Se0 spheres produced by the microorganisms were capped with organic material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of extracted Se0 spheres, combined with a mathematical approach to analyzing XPS spectra from biological origin, indicated that proteins and lipids were components of the capping material associated to the Se0 spheres. The most abundant proteins associated to the spheres were identified by proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins or peptide sequences capping the Se0 spheres were identified as periplasmic outer membrane porins and as the cytoplasmic elongation factor Tu protein, suggesting an intracellular formation of the Se0 spheres. In view of these and previous findings, a schematic model for the synthesis of Se0 spheres by the microorganisms inhabiting the granular sludge is proposed. PMID:27199909

  6. Selenite reduction by anaerobic microbial aggregates: Microbial community structure, and proteins associated to the produced selenium spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGonzalez-Gil


    Full Text Available Certain types of anaerobic granular sludge, which consists of microbial aggregates, can reduce selenium oxyanions. To envisage strategies for removing those oxyanions from wastewater and recovering the produced elemental selenium (Se0, insights into the microbial community structure and synthesis of Se0 within these microbial aggregates are required. High-throughput sequencing showed that Veillonellaceae (c.a. 20 % and Pseudomonadaceae (c.a.10 % were the most abundant microbial phylotypes in selenite reducing microbial aggregates. The majority of the Pseudomonadaceae sequences were affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas. A distinct outer layer (~200 m of selenium deposits indicated that bioreduction occurred in the outer zone of the microbial aggregates. In that outer layer, SEM analysis showed abundant intracellular and extracellular Se0 (nano spheres, with some cells having high numbers of intracellular Se0 spheres. Electron tomography showed that microbial cells can harbor a single large intracellular sphere that stretches the cell body. The Se0 spheres produced by the microorganisms were capped with organic material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis of extracted Se0 spheres, combined with a mathematical approach to analyzing XPS spectra from biological origin, indicated that proteins and lipids were components of the capping material associated to the Se0 spheres. The most abundant proteins associated to the spheres were identified by proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins or peptide sequences capping the Se0 spheres were identified as periplasmic outer membrane porins and as the cytoplasmic elongation factor Tu protein, suggesting an intracellular formation of the Se0 spheres. In view of these and previous findings, a schematic model for the synthesis of Se0 spheres by the microorganisms inhabiting the granular sludge is proposed.

  7. Templated Aggregation of TAR DNA-binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) by Seeding with TDP-43 Peptide Fibrils. (United States)

    Shimonaka, Shotaro; Nonaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Genjiro; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Hasegawa, Masato


    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been identified as the major component of ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aggregation of TDP-43 to amyloid-like fibrils and spreading of the aggregates are suggested to account for the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 aggregation, we attempted to identify the amino acid sequence required for the aggregation. By expressing a series of deletion mutants lacking 20 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region in SH-SY5Y cells, we established that residues 274-313 in the glycine-rich region are essential for aggregation. In vitro aggregation experiments using synthetic peptides of 40 amino acids from this sequence and adjacent regions showed that peptides 274-313 and 314-353 formed amyloid-like fibrils. Transduction of these fibrils induced seed-dependent aggregation of TDP-43 in cells expressing wild-type TDP-43 or TDP-43 lacking nuclear localization signal. These cells showed different phosphorylated C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 and different trypsin-resistant bands. These results suggest that residues 274-353 are responsible for the conversion of TDP-43 to amyloid-like fibrils and that templated aggregation of TDP-43 by seeding with different peptides induces various types of TDP-43 pathologies, i.e. the peptides appear to act like prion strains.

  8. Simulation of Deformation and Aggregation of Two Red Blood Cells in a Stenosed Microvessel by Dissipative Particle Dynamics. (United States)

    Xiao, Lanlan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Shuo; Fu, Bingmei


    The motion of two red blood cells in a stenosed microvessel was simulated using dissipative particle dynamics. The effects of intercellular interaction, red blood cell deformability and the initial cell orientation on the deformation and aggregation of the RBCs and on the flow resistance were investigated. The red blood cell membrane was treated as a three-dimensional coarse-grained network model and the intercellular interaction was modeled by the Morse potential based on a depletion-mediated assumption. It is shown that the flow resistance increases dramatically when the red blood cells enter into the stenosis and decreases rapidly as RBCs move away from the stenosis. Particularly, for a pair of stiffer red blood cells with the initial inclination angle of 90°, the maximum value of the flow resistance is larger; while a higher flow resistance can also come from a stronger aggregation. For a pair of stiffer red blood cells moving parallel to the main flow, when their positions are closer to the vessel wall at the upstream of the stenosis, the flow resistance increases due to the migration to the vessel center at the stenosis. In addition, for a pair of red blood cells with the initial inclination angle of 0°, the flow resistance from the aggregate formed by a pair of red blood cells with a larger deformation is higher.

  9. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  10. Viscosity affected by nanoparticle aggregation in Al2O3-water nanofluids. (United States)

    Duan, Fei; Kwek, Dingtian; Crivoi, Alexandru


    An investigation on viscosity was conducted 2 weeks after the Al2O3-water nanofluids having dispersants were prepared at the volume concentration of 1-5%. The shear stress was observed with a non-Newtonian behavior. On further ultrasonic agitation treatment, the nanofluids resumed as a Newtonian fluids. The relative viscosity increases as the volume concentrations increases. At 5% volume concentration, an increment was about 60% in the re-ultrasonication nanofluids in comparison with the base fluid. The microstructure analysis indicates that a higher nanoparticle aggregation had been observed in the nanofluids before re-ultrasonication.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Andreasen, Susanne SH; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier


    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED PLATELET-LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATES - A MARKER FOR PLATELET ACTIVATION. I Tarnow1, LH Olsen2, SHS Andreasen2, SG Moesgaard2, CE Rasmussen2, AT Kristensen1, T Falk2. 1Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences and 2Animal and Veterinary Basic...... Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and changes in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. CHF in dogs has been associated with plasma markers of hypercoagulability, however...

  12. Decreasing a-synuclein aggregation by methanolic extract of Centella asiatica in zebrafish Parkinson’s model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husnul; Khotimah; Mulyohadi; Ali; Sutiman; Bambang; Sumitro; Mochamad; Aris; Widodo


    Objective: To observe the effects of Centella asiatica(C. asiatica) methanolic extract on a-synuclein aggregation and its expression in rotenone-exposed zebra fish.Methods: Zebra fish(Danio rerio) were exposed to 5 m g/L rotenone for 28 days and coincubated with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 m g/mL of C. asiatica methanolic extract. The medium was changed every 48 h for maintain the concentration of rotenone and extract. After 28 days zebra fish were sacrificed on the ice block and protein was isolated from zebra fish brain for ELISA of dopamine and Western blotting of a-synuclein. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to observe the a-synuclein expressions from histopathological preparation of zebra fish brain. The head were soaked in 10% formaline for less than 24 h and embedded onto paraffin block, then sliced for immunohistochemistry using anti a-synuclein antibody. We also measured zebra fish motility for 5 min in each week.Results: C. asiatica has important bioactive compounds such as asiaticoside that has antiin flammatory and antioxidant properties. It may inhibit cascade reaction due to oxidative stress induced by rotenone. Decreasing reactive oxygen species proposed probability of radical attack to a-synuclein protein that caused aggregation and increase of its expression.The motility of zebra fish was also maintained in C. asiatica groups due to the increasing dopamine level in rotenone-induced zebra fish. High level of reactive oxygen species inactivated enzyme for dopamine synthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase, and oxidized dopamine itself. Oxidized dopamine increased a-synuclein aggregation. Thus, the dopamine level decreased in rotenone-induced zebra fish, but C. asiatica increased dopamine level.Conclusions: C. asiatica has a potential to be developed as an anti-Parkinson’s disease treatment due to its capability for minimized the sign of Parkinson’s such as a-synuclein aggregation and expression, increasing motility and dopamine as well.

  13. Decreasingα-synuclein aggregation by methanolic extract of Centella asiatica in zebraifsh Parkinson’s model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husnul Khotimah; Mulyohadi Ali; Sutiman Bambang Sumitro; Mochamad Aris Widodo


    Objective:To observe the effects of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) methanolic extract onα-synuclein aggregation and its expression in rotenone-exposed zebrafish. Methods: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 5 µg/L rotenone for 28 days and co-incubated with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 µg/mL of C. asiatica methanolic extract. The medium was changed every 48 h for maintain the concentration of rotenone and extract. After 28 days zebrafish were sacrificed on the ice block and protein was isolated from zebrafish brain for ELISA of dopamine and Western blotting of α-synuclein. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to observe the α-synuclein expressions from histopathological preparation of zebrafish brain. The head were soaked in 10%formaline for less than 24 h and embedded onto paraffin block, then sliced for immunohistochemistry using antiα-synuclein antibody. We also measured zebrafish motility for 5 min in each week. Results:C. asiatica has important bioactive compounds such as asiaticoside that has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It may inhibit cascade reaction due to oxidative stress induced by rotenone. Decreasing reactive oxygen species proposed probability of radical attack toα-synuclein protein that caused aggregation and increase of its expression. The motility of zebrafish was also maintained in C. asiatica groups due to the increasing dopamine level in rotenone-induced zebrafish. High level of reactive oxygen species inactivated enzyme for dopamine synthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase, and oxidized dopamine itself. Oxidized dopamine increasedα-synuclein aggregation. Thus, the dopamine level decreased in rotenone-induced zebrafish, but C. asiatica increased dopamine level. Conclusions: C. asiatica has a potential to be developed as an anti-Parkinson's disease treatment due to its capability for minimized the sign of Parkinson’s such asα-synuclein aggregation and expression, increasing motility and dopamine as well.

  14. Investigation of cyclooxygenase and signaling pathways involved in human platelet aggregation mediated by synergistic interaction of various agonists. (United States)

    Khan, Nadia; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Sadek, Bassem


    In the present study, the mechanism(s) of synergistic interaction of various platelet mediators such as arachidonic acid (AA) when combined with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) on human platelet aggregation were examined. The results demonstrated that 5-HT had no or negligible effect on aggregation but it did potentiate the aggregation response of AA. Similarly, the combination of subeffective concentrations of ADP and AA exhibited noticeable rise in platelet aggregation. Moreover, the observed synergistic effect of AA with 5-HT on platelets was inhibited by different cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, namely ibuprofen and celecoxib, with half maximal inhibitory effect (IC50) values of 18.0 ± 1.8 and 15.6 ± 3.4 μmol/L, respectively. Interestingly, the synergistic effect observed for AA with 5-HT was, also, blocked by the 5-HT receptor blockers cyproheptadine (IC50=22.0 ± 7 μmol/L), ketanserin (IC50=152 ± 23 μmol/L), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (U73122; IC50=6.1 ± 0.8 μmol/L), and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=3.8 ± 0.5 μmol/L). Likewise, the synergism of AA and ADP was, also, attenuated by COX inhibitors (ibuprofen; IC50=20 ± 4 μmol/L and celecoxib; IC50=24 ± 7 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor (U73122; IC50=3.7 ± 0.3 μmol/L), and MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; IC50=2.8 ± 1.1 μmol/L). Our observed data demonstrate that the combination of subthreshold concentrations of agonists amplifies platelet aggregation and that these synergistic effects largely depend on activation of COX/thromboxane A2, receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels, Gq/PLC, and MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, our data revealed that inhibition of COX pathways by using both selective and/or non-selective COX inhibitors blocks not only AA metabolism and thromboxane A2 formation, but also its binding to Gq receptors and activation of receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels in platelets. Overall, our results show that PLC and MAPK inhibitors proved

  15. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry: A case study on bile salts. (United States)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René


    The aggregation number (n), thermodynamic potentials (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) for 6 natural bile salts were determined on the basis of both original and previously published isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data. Different procedures to estimate parameters of micelles with ITC were compared to a mass-action model (MAM) of reaction type: n⋅S⇌Mn. This analysis can provide guidelines for future ITC studies of systems behaving in accordance with this model such as micelles and proteins that undergo self-association to oligomers. Micelles with small aggregation numbers, as those of bile salts, are interesting because such small aggregates cannot be characterized as a separate macroscopic phase and the widely applied pseudo-phase model (PPM) is inaccurate. In the present work it was demonstrated that the aggregation number of micelles was constant at low concentrations enabling determination of the thermodynamic potentials by the MAM. A correlation between the aggregation number and the heat capacity was found, which implies that the dehydrated surface area of bile salts increases with the aggregation number. This is in accordance with Tanford's principles of opposing forces where neighbouring molecules in the aggregate are better able to shield from the surrounding hydrophilic environment when the aggregation number increases.

  16. Reduction in soil aggregation in response to dust emission processes (United States)

    Swet, Nitzan; Katra, Itzhak


    Dust emission by aeolian (wind) soil erosion depends on the topsoil properties of the source area, especially on the nature of the aggregates where most dust particles are held. Although the key role of soil aggregates in dust emission, the response of soil aggregation to aeolian processes and its implications for dust emission remain unknown. This study focuses on aggregate size distribution (ASD) analyses before and after in-situ aeolian experiments in semiarid loess soils that are associated with dust emission. Wind tunnel simulations show that particulate matter (PM) emission and saltation rates depend on the initial ASD and shear velocity. Under all initial ASD conditions, the content of saltator-sized aggregates (63-250 μm) increased by 10-34% due to erosion of macro-aggregates (> 500 μm), resulting in a higher size ratio (SR) between the saltators and macro-aggregates following the aeolian erosion. The results revealed that the saltator production increases significantly for soils that are subjected to short-term (anthropogenic) disturbance of the topsoil. The findings highlight a decrease in soil aggregation for all initial ASD's in response to aeolian erosion, and consequently its influence on the dust emission potential. Changes in ASD should be considered as a key parameter in dust emission models of complex surfaces.

  17. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice. (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef


    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  18. Heat-denatured lysozyme aggregation and gelation as revealed by combined dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and light scattering measurements. (United States)

    Giugliarelli, A; Sassi, P; Paolantoni, M; Onori, G; Cametti, C


    The dielectric behavior of native and heat-denatured lysozyme in ethanol-water solutions was examined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 2 GHz, using frequency-domain dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Because of the conformational changes on unfolding, dielectric methods provide information on the denaturation process of the protein and, at protein concentration high enough, on the subsequent aggregation and gelation. Moreover, the time evolution of the protein aggregation and gelation was monitored measuring, by means of dynamic light scattering methods, the diffusion coefficient of micro-sized polystyrene particles, deliberately added to the protein solution, which act as a probe of the viscosity of the microenvironment close to the particle surface. All together, our measurements indicate that heat-induced denaturation favors, at high concentrations, a protein aggregation process which evolves up to the full gelation of the system. These findings have a direct support from IR measurements of the absorbance of the amide I band that, because of the unfolding, indicate that proteins entangle each other, producing a network structure which evolves, in long time limit, in the gel.

  19. Effect of phosphate buffer on aggregation kinetics of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles induced by monovalent and divalent electrolytes. (United States)

    Afshinnia, K; Baalousha, M


    The attachment efficiency (α) is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nanoparticle (NPs) aggregation behavior and has been a topic of discussion of several papers in the past few years. The importance of α is because it is one of the key parameters that can be used to model NP environmental fate and behavior. This study uses UV-vis and laser Doppler electrophoresis to monitor the aggregation behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNPs) induced by Na(+) and Ca(2+) as counter ions in the presence and absence of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) as a surrogate of natural organic matter and different concentrations of phosphate buffer (0-1mM). Results demonstrate that phosphate buffer, which serves to maintain pH nearly constant over the course of a reaction, is an important determinant of NP aggregation behavior. Increasing phosphate buffer concentration results in a decrease in the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of cit-AgNPs to lower counter ion concentration and an increase of α at the same counter ion concentration, both in the absence and presence of SRFA. SRFA stabilizes AgNPs and increases the CCC to higher counter ion concentrations. The outcome of this study can be used to rationalize the variation in α and CCC values reported in the literature for NPs with similar physicochemical properties, where different α and CCC values are reported when different types of buffers and buffer concentrations are used in different studies.

  20. Aggregation behavior of amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers studied by FCS and EPR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Kurzbach, Dennis; Koynov, Kaloian; Hinderberger, Dariush; Zentel, Rudolf


    A combined study of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy gave a unique picture of p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers in aqueous solutions, ranging from the size of micelles and aggregates to the composition of the interior of these self-assembled systems. P(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers have shown high potential as brain drug delivery systems, and a detailed study of their physicochemical properties can help to elucidate their mechanism of action. Applying two complementary techniques, we found that the self-assembly behavior as well as the strength of hydrophobic attraction of the amphiphilic copolymers can be tuned by the hydrophobic LMA content or the presence of hydrophobic molecules or domains. Studies on the dependence of the hydrophobic lauryl side chain content on the aggregation behavior revealed that above 5 mol % laury side-chain copolymers self-assemble into intrachain micelles and larger aggregates. Above this critical alkyl chain content, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers can solubilize the model drug domperidone and exhibit the tendency to interact with model cell membranes.

  1. Formation of rod-like nanostructure by aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with improved performances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weijuan Zhang; Wenkai Chang; Baozhen Cheng; Zenghe Li; Junhui Ji; Yang Zhao; Jun Nie


    To improve the performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based devices, many efforts have been made to prepare nanostructures with composite of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanorods. In this work, a novel rod-like TiO2 nanostructure was obtained via a controllable hydrolysis process. Morphology and structure analysis showed that the rod-like nanostructure was a well-aligned aggregate of nearly spherical TiO2 nanoparticles. Rod-like TiO2 nanoparticle aggregates were fabricated on a primary TiO2 nanoparticle-based layer without the use of template, and formed a hierarchical TiO2 composite film together. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 film with rod-like nanoparticle aggregates was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue. The antibacterial activity of fabricated hierarchical TiO2 film was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus. The photoelectrochemical property of this film as the photoanode in assemble dye-sensitized solar cell was also tested. Compared with randomly distributed nanoparticle-based TiO2 film, the hierarchical TiO2 film exhibited improved performance of photocatalysis, antibacterial activity and photoelectric conversion.

  2. Stabilization/solidification of incinerator fly ash for the manufacture of artificial aggregate by cementitious granulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, F.; Cioffi, R. [Univ. Pathenope of Naples (Italy). Dept. of Technology; Montagnaro, F.; Santoro, L. [Univ. Federico 2 of Naples (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Di Giacomo, C.; Roncone, A. [Extra Group Co., Citta Sant' Angelo (Italy)


    This paper presented the results of a study in which municipal, hospital, and industrial waste ash from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces was used in a stabilization/solidification granulation process with cement, lime, and coal fly ash as binder components. The ash from the incineration plant was classified as hazardous. The granulation process was conducted with a range of waste ash mixtures in order to determine the appropriate waste ash percentage for the safe manufacture of artificial aggregates. Waste ash content ranging from 50 to 70 per cent was incorporated within the binding matrix. A 2-step granulation process was then conducted with a pure binder in order to encapsulate the granules from the initial process within an outer shell. The granules obtained from the processes were tested to assess their physico-mechanical and leaching properties. Concrete mixtures were then prepared with some of the artificial aggregates made using the granulation process. Results of the study demonstrated that the granules were suitable for the manufacture of concrete blocks. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering (United States)

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.


    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. PMID:25287913

  4. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus. (United States)

    Landi, G T; Romero, S A; Santos, A D


    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  5. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Laboratorio de Materiais Magneticos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  6. Early stages of salmon calcitonin aggregation: effect induced by ageing and oxidation processes in water and in the presence of model membranes. (United States)

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Colone, Marisa; Bombelli, Cecilia; Chistolini, Pietro; Valvo, Luisa; Diociaiuti, Marco


    The natural ageing- and hydrogen peroxide-induced aggregation of salmon calcitonin were studied in water and in the presence of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes. The early stages of the aggregation process at low protein concentration were investigated by means of Circular Dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and conventional and immunogold labelling Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In buffered water solution, salmon calcitonin showed a two-stage conformational variation related to fibril formation and phase-separation of larger aggregates. A first stage, characterised by small conformational changes but a decrease in dichroic band intensity, was followed by a second stage, 6 days after, leading to higher conformational variations and aggregations. Salmon calcitonin showed a distinct modification in the secondary structure and aggregate morphology in the presence of hydrogen peroxide with respect to natural ageing, indicating that the two aggregation processes (natural and chemical-induced) followed a distinct mechanism. The oxidised forms of the peptide were separated by liquid chromatography. The same study was performed in the presence of DPPC liposomes. The results obtained by conventional and immunogold labelling TEM evidenced that salmon calcitonin in buffered water solution essentially does not enter the liposomes but forms around them a fibril network characterised by the same conformational changes after 6 days. The oxidised sample in the presence of liposomes showed a "fibrils hank", separated from liposomes. The presence of liposomes did not affect either the aggregation or the conformational modifications yet observed by TEM and CD in water solution.

  7. Hierarchical organization in aggregates of protein molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer


    The aggregation of proteins into small clusters is studied by atomic force and electron microscopy. Scaling laws and fractal behaviour in the growth of the aggregates and in the correlation between aggregates is seen. A phase diagram of the aggregation process where the protonic concentration...

  8. Roles of Mac-1 and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrins in leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation: stabilization by Mac-1 and inhibition by GpIIb/IIIa blockers. (United States)

    Patko, Zsofia; Csaszar, Albert; Acsady, Gyorgy; Peter, Karlheinz; Schwarz, Meike


    Circulating platelet-leukocyte hetero-aggregates play an important role in acute cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions. The association involves the receptor families of selectins and integrin. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1) in hetero-aggregate formation and search for a counter-receptor on platelets ready to interact with Mac-1. As a model of leukocytes, Mac-1 presenting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to evaluate the role of Mac-1 in hetero-aggregate formation. The amount of CHO cell-bound active and inactive platelets was measured by flow cytometry, while the counter-receptors on platelets were identified via using blocking antibodies. We observed significant platelet adhesion on Mac-1-bearing cells when platelet-rich plasma or activated platelets were present. Inactive platelets did not adhere to Mac-1-bearing cells. Addition of fibrinogen, a ligand of Mac-1 significantly increased platelet binding. CD40L was demonstrated to act similarly on Mac-1. Inhibition of platelet GpIIb/IIIa completely abolished CHO cell-platelet aggregation. In our study, we have shown for the first time that Mac-1 mediates the formation of hetero-aggregates without selectin tethering when Mac-1 ligands such as fibrinogen or CD40L are present and blockers of platelet GpIIb/IIIa are able to diminish this interaction.

  9. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani


    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A summary analysis of the economic theory and practice indicates the fact that the attempts to establish and delimit the importance of the economic-financial last resorts to the effects produced in macro and micro-economy have not lead to infallible truth. The goal of these last resorts is to organize an economic system in difficulty, to try to minimize its imperfections and non-functionalities. The society development has brought along the need to improve these attempts, so that together with other administrative methods to produce viable and productive solutions for the economy progress. This paper aims at emphasizing the advantages of using monetary aggregates, as well as their limitations under the direct influence of monetary factors, considering that these indicators are commonly used in many models of monetary analysis, especially in Neo-Keynesian ones.

  11. Plastic shrinkage of mortars with shrinkage reducing admixture and lightweight aggregates studied by neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrzykowski, Mateusz, E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Münch, Beat [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Weiss, Jason [Purdue University, School of Civil Engineering, West Lafayette (United States); Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Lura, Pietro [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zurich (Switzerland)


    Water transport in fresh, highly permeable concrete and rapid water evaporation from the concrete surface during the first few hours after placement are the key parameters influencing plastic shrinkage cracking. In this work, neutron tomography was used to determine both the water loss from the concrete surface due to evaporation and the redistribution of fluid that occurs in fresh mortars exposed to external drying. In addition to the reference mortar with a water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.30, a mortar with the addition of pre-wetted lightweight aggregates (LWA) and a mortar with a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) were tested. The addition of SRA reduced the evaporation rate from the mortar at the initial stages of drying and reduced the total water loss. The pre-wetted LWA released a large part of the absorbed water as a consequence of capillary pressure developing in the fresh mortar due to evaporation.

  12. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem.......Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...

  13. DNA packaging induced by micellar aggregates: a novel in vitro DNA condensation system. (United States)

    Ghirlando, R; Wachtel, E J; Arad, T; Minsky, A


    Evidence for a conceptually novel DNA packaging process is presented. X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and circular dichroism measurements indicate that in the presence of positively charged micellar aggregates and flexible anionic polymers, such as negatively charged polypeptides or single-stranded RNA species, a complex is formed in which DNA molecules are partially embedded within a micellar scaffold and partially condensed into highly packed chiral structures. Based on studies of micelle-DNA and micelle-flexible anionic polymer systems, as well as on the known effects of a high charge density upon the micellar organization, a DNA packaging model is proposed. According to this model, the DNA induces the elongation of the micelles into rodlike aggregates, forming a closely packed matrix in which the DNA molecules are immobilized. In contrast, the flexible anionic polymers stabilize clusters of spherical micelles which are proposed to effect a capping of the rodlike micelles, thus arresting their elongation and creating surfactant-free segments of the DNA that are able to converge and collapse. Thus, unlike other in vitro DNA packaging systems, in which condensation follows encounters between charge-neutralized DNA molecules, a prepackaging phase where the DNA is immobilized within a matrix is proposed in this case. Cellular and nuclear membranes have been implicated in DNA packaging processes in vivo, and negatively charged polyelectrolytes were shown to be involved in the processes. These observations, combined with the basic tenets of the DNA condensation system described here, allow for the progression to the study of more elaborate model systems and thus might lead to insights into the nature and roles of the intricate in vivo DNA-membrane complexes.

  14. The secondary and aggregation structural changes of BSA induced by trivalent chromium: A biophysical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingmao [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Liu, Yan, E-mail: [The State Key Lab of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Cao, Huan [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Song, Ling [The State Key Lab of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China)


    Trivalent chromium Cr(III), which was originally considered to be innocuous as a nutriment, has been suspected to induce some abnormalities in human body recently. In the present work, the effects of Cr(III) on the structural state of BSA were comprehensively investigated through a series of appropriate methods in combination, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), UV–vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime analysis, resonance light scattering (RLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) methods. XPS accurately described the binding activity of Cr(III) with protein C, N and O atoms. The structural analysis according to FTIR and CD methods showed that the Cr(III) binding altered BSA conformation with a major reduction of α-helix. RLS and DLS analyses demonstrated that the presence of Cr(III) with low concentration could induce the aggregation structural changes of BSA. UV–vis absorption, EEMS and synchronous fluorescence suggested that the interaction between Cr(III) and BSA induced a slight unfolding of the polypeptide backbone and altered the microenvironments of Trp and Tyr residues in BSA. This research is helpful for understanding the structure-function relationship involved in metal ion-protein bioconjugate process. - Highlights: • The effect of Cr(III) on the conformational state of BSA was comprehensively studied. • XPS described the binding activity of Cr(III) with protein C, N and O atoms. • FTIR and CD data revealed secondary structural alteration in BSA. • Cr(III) complexation induced microenvironmental changes of Trp and Tyr. • RLS, DLS and EEMS presented the aggregational states of Cr(III)–BSA complex.

  15. Investigating Mutations to Reduce Huntingtin Aggregation by Increasing Htt-N-Terminal Stability and Weakening Interactions with PolyQ Domain (United States)

    Mazza-Anthony, Cody; Waldispühl, Jérôme


    Huntington's disease is a fatal autosomal genetic disorder characterized by an expanded glutamine-coding CAG repeat sequence in the huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 gene. The Htt protein associated with the disease misfolds into toxic oligomers and aggregate fibril structures. Competing models for the misfolding and aggregation phenomena have suggested the role of the Htt-N-terminal region and the CAG trinucleotide repeats (polyQ domain) in affecting aggregation propensities and misfolding. In particular, one model suggests a correlation between structural stability and the emergence of toxic oligomers, whereas a second model proposes that molecular interactions with the extended polyQ domain increase aggregation propensity. In this paper, we computationally explore the potential to reduce Htt aggregation by addressing the aggregation causes outlined in both models. We investigate the mutation landscape of the Htt-N-terminal region and explore amino acid residue mutations that affect its structural stability and hydrophobic interactions with the polyQ domain. Out of the millions of 3-point mutation combinations that we explored, the (L4K E12K K15E) was the most promising mutation combination that addressed aggregation causes in both models. The mutant structure exhibited extreme alpha-helical stability, low amyloidogenicity potential, a hydrophobic residue replacement, and removal of a solvent-inaccessible intermolecular side chain that assists oligomerization. PMID:28096892

  16. A new algorithm for EEG source reconstruction based on LORETA by contracting the source region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new method is presented for EEG source reconstruction based on multichannel surface EEG recordings. From the low-resolution tomography obtained by the low resolution electromagnetic tomography algorithm (LORETA), this method acquires the source tomography, which has high-resolution by contracting the source region. In contrast to focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS), this method can gain more accurate result under certain circumstances.

  17. Inhibition of Aβ42 peptide aggregation by a binuclear ruthenium(II)-platinum(II) complex: Potential for multi-metal organometallics as anti-amyloid agents. (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Moody, Lamaryet; Olaivar, Jason F; Lewis, Nerissa A; Khade, Rahul L; Holder, Alvin A; Zhang, Yong; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan


    Design of inhibitors for amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation has been widely investigated over the years towards developing viable therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biggest challenge seems to be inhibiting Aβ aggregation at the early stages of aggregation possibly at the monomeric level, as oligomers are known to be neurotoxic. In this regard, exploiting the metal chelating property of Aβ to generate molecules that can overcome this impediment presents some promise. Recently, one such metal complex containing Pt(II) ([Pt(BPS)Cl(2)]) was reported to effectively inhibit Aβ42 aggregation and toxicity (1). This complex was able bind to Aβ42 at the N-terminal part of the peptide and triggered a conformational change resulting in effective inhibition. In the current report, we have generated a mixed-binuclear metal complex containing Pt(II) and Ru(II) that inhibited Aβ42 aggregation at an early stage of aggregation and seemed to have different modes of interaction than the previously reported Pt(II) complex, suggesting an important role of the second metal center. This 'proof-of-concept' compound will help in developing more effective molecules against Aβ aggregation by modifying the two metal centers as well as their ligands, which will open doors to new rationale for Aβ inhibition.

  18. Enhancement and suppression of surface plasmon resonance in Ag aggregate by optical gain and absorption in surrounding dielectric medium

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, M A; Bahoura, M; Drachev, V P; Ritzo, B A; Shalaev, V M; Small, C; Zhu, G


    We have observed the compensation of loss in metal by gain in interfacing dielectric in the mixture of aggregated silver nanoparticles and rhodamine 6G dye. The demonstrated six-fold enhancement of the Rayleigh scattering is the evidence of the increase of the quality factor of the surface plasmon (SP) resonance. The reported experimental observation paves the road to many practical applications of nanoplasmonics. We have also predicted and experimentally observed a suppression of the surface SP resonance in metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host with absorption.

  19. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barra

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater. Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80% was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches

  20. Area-aggregated assessments of perceived environmental attributes may overcome single-source bias in studies of green environments and health: results from a cross-sectional survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadbro John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate

  1. Impact of different environmental conditions on the aggregation of biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Singh, Gursharan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Spycher, Nicolas; Ginn, Timothy R.; Peyton, Brent M.; Sani, Rajesh K.


    This study investigates the impact of specific environmental conditions on the formation of colloidal U(IV) nanoparticles by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB, Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20). The reduction of soluble U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) was quantitatively investigated under growth and non-growth conditions in bicarbonate or 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) buffered environments. The results showed that under non-growth conditions, the majority of the reduced U nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated out of solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that only a very small fraction of cells had reduced U precipitates in the periplasmic spaces in the presence of PIPES buffer, whereas in the presence of bicarbonate buffer, reduced U was also observed in the cytoplasm with greater aggregation of biogenic U(IV) particles at higher initial U(VI) concentrations. The same experiments were repeated under growth conditions using two different electron donors (lactate and pyruvate) and three electron acceptors (sulfate, fumarate, and thiosulfate). In contrast to the results of the non-growth experiments, even after 0.2 m filtration, the majority of biogenic U(IV) remained in the aqueous phase resulting in potentially mobile biogenic U(IV) nanoparticles. Size fractionation results showed that U(IV) aggregates were between 18 and 200 nm in diameter, and thus could be very mobile. The findings of this study are helpful to assess the size and potential mobility of reduced U nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, and would provide insights on their potential impact affecting U(VI) bioremediation efforts at subsurface contaminated sites.

  2. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria E Pickard

    Full Text Available Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris, and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly

  3. Dispersion/Aggregation of polymer grafted nanorods in a polymer matrix studied by Dissipative Particle Dynamics (United States)

    Maia, Joao; Khani, Shaghayegh


    Nanorods are incorporated into polymer matrices for fabricating composite materials with enhanced physical and mechanical properties.The final macroscopic properties of the composites are directly related to the dispersion and organization of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For instance, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanorod-polymer composites is observed upon formation of a percolating network. One way of controlling the assembly of nanorods in the polymer medium is adjusting the chemical interactions which is done through grafting polymer chains on the surface of the rods. The recent developments in the computational techniques have paved the road for further understanding of the controlled dispersion and aggregation of nanorods in polymer matrices. In this study, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is employed in order to investigate the effect of enthalpic and entopic variables on the phase behavior of the abovementioned nanocomposites. In DPD, the interaction parameter between the components of the systems can be mapped onto the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter via well-known Groot-Warren expression. This works studies the effect of the enthalpic and entropic variables on phase transitions. The main goal is to provide a phase diagram than can be used to guide the experiments in designing new materials.

  4. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoqiu, E-mail: [Center of Clinical Laboratory Medicine of Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Hongbin; Li, Linxian; Fan, Xiaobo; Ding, Jiaxuan; Li, Xiaofang; Xi, Tao [Biotechnology Center, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shen, Zilong, E-mail: [Biotechnology Center, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Thanatin, a 21-residue peptide, is an inducible insect peptide. In our previous study, we have identified a novel thanatin analog of S-thanatin, which exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi with low hemolytic activity. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of S-thanatin and identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. In this study, membrane phospholipid was found to be the target for S-thanatin. In the presence of vesicles, S-thanatin interestingly led to the aggregation of anionic vesicles and sonicated bacteria. Adding S-thanatin to Escherichia coli suspension would result in the collapse of membrane and kill bacteria. The sensitivity assay of protoplast elucidated the importance of outer membrane (OM) for S-thanatin's antimicrobial activity. Compared with other antimicrobial peptide, S-thanatin produced chaotic membrane morphology and cell debris in electron microscopic appearance. These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death.

  5. MLL5 maintains spindle bipolarity by preventing aberrant cytosolic aggregation of PLK1. (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Deng, Lih-Wen


    Faithful chromosome segregation with bipolar spindle formation is critical for the maintenance of genomic stability. Perturbation of this process often leads to severe mitotic failure, contributing to tumorigenesis. MLL5 has been demonstrated to play vital roles in cell cycle progression and the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we identify a novel interaction between MLL5 and PLK1 in the cytosol that is crucial for sustaining spindle bipolarity during mitosis. Knockdown of MLL5 caused aberrant PLK1 aggregation that led to acentrosomal microtubule-organizing center (aMTOC) formation and subsequent spindle multipolarity. Further molecular studies revealed that the polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1 interacted with a binding motif on MLL5 (Thr887-Ser888-Thr889), and this interaction was essential for spindle bipolarity. Overexpression of wild-type MLL5 was able to rescue PLK1 mislocalization and aMTOC formation in MLL5-KD cells, whereas MLL5 mutants incapable of interacting with the PBD failed to do so. We thus propose that MLL5 preserves spindle bipolarity through maintaining cytosolic PLK1 in a nonaggregated form.

  6. Selective phosphorylation of cationic polypeptide aggregated with phosphatidylserine/diacylglycerol/Ca2+/detergent mixed micelles by Ca(2+)-independent but not Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C isozymes. (United States)

    Mahoney, C W; Huang, K P


    Mixed micelles containing Nonidet P40 (NP-40) (829 microM or 4.8 mM), phosphatidylserine (PS) (14.5 or 8 mol%), and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) (0.5 or 1 mol%) when preincubated with protein kinase C (PKC) assay mixture containing cationic substrate and CaCl2 (400 microM) formed aggregates in a time-, temperature-, and substrate concentration-dependent manner with a t1/2 approximately 3-12 min (22 degrees C). Concomitant with the formation of these aggregates there was a substantial loss of substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by the Ca(2+)-dependent PKC alpha, beta, and gamma but not the Ca(2+)-independent PKC, delta and epsilon. All cationic PKC substrates tested, neurogranin peptide analog, neurogranin, and histone III-S, formed aggregates with PS/DG/NP-40/Ca2+ mixed micelles in a time-dependent fashion. The poly(cationic-anionic) PKC substrate protamine sulfate also forms aggregates with the mixed micelles in the presence of Ca2+, but without affecting the substrate phosphorylation by the kinase. Under similar conditions, but at 4 degrees C, neither aggregation nor loss of cationic substrate phosphorylation was observed. Another nonionic detergent, octyl glucoside, behaved similarly to NP-40. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylglycerol like PS, were effective in forming aggregates with NP-40/cationic polypeptide/DG/Ca2+ as monitored by light scattering, yet without affecting substrate phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cationic substrates by M-kinase, derived from trypsinized PKC beta, was also greatly diminished by the aggregation. In contrast, [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding to PKC beta was unaffected. Formation of the aggregates that were selectively utilized by the Ca(2+)-independent PKCs was dependent on the ratio of cationic substrate to the number of mixed micelles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. 再生骨料混凝土路面耐磨性的研究%Research on Abrasion Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 赵美霞


    采用单因素扫描法系统考察了再生粗骨料的取代率、水胶比、砂率、胶凝材料的总用量等因素对再生混凝土耐磨性能的影响,分析了其产生的原因.在单因素试验的基础上,通过响应面法对影响再生混凝土耐磨性能的显著因素进行了更进一步的研究,并建立了相应的预测模型.结果表明:再生骨料的取代率和水胶比对再生混凝土耐磨性影响最为显著,砂率和胶凝材料的总用量对再生混凝土耐磨性有一定的影响,且再生骨料取代率为43%、水胶比为0.38、砂率为35%时再生混凝土耐磨性能最佳,研究结果为再生混凝土耐磨性的深入研究提供了一定的借鉴和参考.%The single factor scanning method was used to analyze the effects of replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate, water-binder ratio, sand-coarse aggregate ratio, the total amount of gelled material on the wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete, and its reasons were analyzed. On the basis of the single-factor test, the significant influence factors of the wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete were further studied by the response surface methodology ( RSM ) , and a correlation model on the optimized wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete was presented. The analysis results show that replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate, water-binder ratio exert tremendous influence on wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete, sand-coarse aggregate ratio and the total amount of gelled material exert certain influence. Wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete is best when replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate is 43% , water-binder ratio is 0. 38, sand-coarse aggregate ratio is 0. 35. The test results also can provide a reference for future further study on abrasion resistance of recycled aggregate concrete.

  8. In vitro platelet activation, aggregation and platelet-granulocyte complex formation induced by surface modified single-walled carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Fent, János; Bihari, Péter; Vippola, Minnamari; Sarlin, Essi; Lakatos, Susan


    Surface modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) such as carboxylation, amidation, hydroxylation and pegylation is used to reduce the nanotube toxicity and render them more suitable for biomedical applications than their pristine counterparts. Toxicity can be manifested in platelet activation as it has been shown for SWCNTs. However, the effect of various surface modifications on the platelet activating potential of SWCNTs has not been tested yet. In vitro platelet activation (CD62P) as well as the platelet-granulocyte complex formation (CD15/CD41 double positivity) in human whole blood were measured by flow cytometry in the presence of 0.1mg/ml of pristine or various surface modified SWCNTs. The effect of various SWCNTs was tested by whole blood impedance aggregometry, too. All tested SWCNTs but the hydroxylated ones activate platelets and promote platelet-granulocyte complex formation in vitro. Carboxylated, pegylated and pristine SWCNTs induce whole blood aggregation as well. Although pegylation is preferred from biomedical point of view, among the samples tested by us pegylated SWCNTs induced far the most prominent activation and a well detectable aggregation of platelets in whole blood.

  9. Tuning the photoluminescence of condensed-phase cyclic trinuclear Au(I) complexes through control of their aggregated structures by external stimuli (United States)

    Fujisawa, Kaori; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Yanagi, Yukihiro; Yoshioka, Yasunori; Kiyohara, Ayumi; Tsutsumi, Osamu


    A series of new cyclic trinuclear Au(I) complexes with alkoxy side chains of various lengths were synthesized as photoluminescence materials. None of the complexes emitted luminescence in solution; however, some showed photoluminescence in the crystalline phase. Single crystal X-ray structural analyses revealed that an intermolecular interaction between two Au atoms (aurophilic interaction) existed only in the emissive complexes, which formed molecular aggregates in the crystal. Because isolated molecules show no luminescence in the present system, we conclude that only molecules aggregated via aurophilic interactions can luminesce. We demonstrated that luminescence properties, such as colour and intensity, were very sensitive to the aggregated structure of the molecules. We also found that such luminescence properties can be controlled by a change in the aggregated structure induced by external stimuli, such as heat, solvent, and mechanical stress.

  10. Disaggregation of Amylin Aggregate by Novel Conformationally Restricted Aminobenzoic Acid containing α/β and α/γ Hybrid Peptidomimetics (United States)

    Paul, Ashim; Kalita, Sourav; Kalita, Sujan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Mandal, Bhubaneswar


    Diabetes has emerged as a threat to the current world. More than ninety five per cent of all the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregates of Amylin hormone, which is co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells, inhibit the activities of insulin and glucagon and cause T2DM. Importance of the conformationally restricted peptides for drug design against T2DM has been invigorated by recent FDA approval of Symlin, which is a large conformationally restricted peptide. However, Symlin still has some issues including solubility, oral bioavailability and cost of preparation. Herein, we introduced a novel strategy for conformationally restricted peptide design adopting a minimalistic approach for cost reduction. We have demonstrated efficient inhibition of amyloid formation of Amylin and its disruption by a novel class of conformationally restricted β-sheet breaker hybrid peptidomimetics (BSBHps). We have inserted β, γ and δ -aminobenzoic acid separately into an amyloidogenic peptide sequence, synthesized α/β, α/γ and α/δ hybrid peptidomimetics, respectively. Interestingly, we observed the aggregation inhibitory efficacy of α/β and α/γ BSBHps, but not of α/δ analogues. They also disrupt existing amyloids into non-toxic forms. Results may be useful for newer drug design against T2DM as well as other amyloidoses and understanding amyloidogenesis.

  11. Schisandra chinensis and Morus alba Synergistically Inhibit In Vivo Thrombus Formation and Platelet Aggregation by Impairing the Glycoprotein VI Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Kim


    Full Text Available Morus alba L. (MAL extract has been used in traditional medicine for its cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects, while another herbal remedy, Schisandra chinensis (SCC, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated underlying cellular changes exerted by extracts of these plants on platelet function and effects of SCC + MAL on in vivo thrombus formation using AV shunt and tail thrombosis-length models in rats. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and Ca2+i release assays were carried out. The activation of integrin αIIbβ3 and phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules, including MAPK and Akt, were investigated using cytometry and immunoblotting, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate changes in platelet shape and HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the marker compounds in SCC + MAL mixture. In vivo thrombus weight and average length of tail thrombosis were significantly decreased by SCC + MAL. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, Ca2+i release, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation were notably inhibited. SCC + MAL markedly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway factors along with Akt. HPLC analysis identified four marker compounds: isoquercitrin, astragalin, schizandrol A, and gomisin A. The extracts exerted remarkable synergistic effects as natural antithrombotic and antiplatelet agent and a potent drug candidate for treating cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Acceleration of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation by aggregation substance expression in an ex vivo model of cardiac valve colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia N Chuang-Smith

    Full Text Available Infectious endocarditis involves formation of a microbial biofilm in vivo. Enterococcus faecalis Aggregation Substance (Asc10 protein enhances the severity of experimental endocarditis, where it has been implicated in formation of large vegetations and in microbial persistence during infection. In the current study, we developed an ex vivo porcine heart valve adherence model to study the initial interactions between Asc10(+ and Asc10(-E. faecalis and valve tissue, and to examine formation of E. faecalis biofilms on a relevant tissue surface. Scanning electron microscopy of the infected valve tissue provided evidence for biofilm formation, including growing masses of bacterial cells and the increasing presence of exopolymeric matrix over time; accumulation of adherent biofilm populations on the cardiac valve surfaces during the first 2-4 h of incubation was over 10-fold higher than was observed on abiotic membranes incubated in the same culture medium. Asc10 expression accelerated biofilm formation via aggregation between E. faecalis cells; the results also suggested that in vivo adherence to host tissue and biofilm development by E. faecalis can proceed by Asc10-dependent or Asc10-independent pathways. Mutations in either of two Asc10 subdomains previously implicated in endocarditis virulence reduced levels of adherent bacterial populations in the ex vivo system. Interference with the molecular interactions involved in adherence and initiation of biofilm development in vivo with specific inhibitory compounds could lead to more effective treatment of infectious endocarditis.

  13. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.


    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates. (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui


    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs.

  15. Sequence-dependent internalization of aggregating peptides. (United States)

    Couceiro, José R; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic


    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease.

  16. Analysis of Various Deterioration Factors of Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In embedded systems, wireless sensor network is the interesting field which provides various applications such as battlefield surveillance, disaster management, habitat monitoring, home automation, health caresystems etc. Wireless sensor network (WSN handles a huge number of tiny, cost effective, low powered, autonomous devices called sensor nodes which can perform sensing, processing and communicating operations. WSN has many constraints like energy utilization, limited memory and power consumption. Data aggregation is an intelligent technique which accumulates data from disparate sources by usingvarious aggregation techniques. One of the crucial techniques in WSN is data aggregation which greatly increases the energy efficiency and network lifetime by reducing the number of data transmissions. Toperform data aggregation in an efficient manner, there are lot of issues are to be considered. In this paper several issues related with data aggregation are discussed and comparisons of various design issues of various data aggregation protocols are also addressed.

  17. Alkali-silica reactions of mortars produced by using waste glass as fine aggregate and admixtures such as fly ash and Li2CO3. (United States)

    Topçu, Ilker Bekir; Boğa, Ahmet Raif; Bilir, Turhan


    Use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar, expansions and internal stresses occur due to an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Furthermore, rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. In this study, mortar bars are produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight, and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR are investigated, corresponding to ASTM C 1260. Additionally, in order to reduce the expansions of mortars, 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li(2)CO(3) as chemical admixture are incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. It is observed that among white (WG), green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates, WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. In addition, expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. According to the test results, it is seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li(2)CO(3) replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. However, usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR.

  18. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces (United States)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.


    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  19. Aggregation property of glycyrrhizic acid and its interaction with cyclodextrins analyzed by dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, and NMR. (United States)

    Izutani, Yusuke; Kanaori, Kenji; Oda, Masayuki


    The structural properties of glycyrrhizic acid, a sweet-tasting constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra, and its interaction with cyclodextrins were analyzed using dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, and NMR. The dynamic light scattering and NMR studies showed that glycyrrhizic acid forms a water-soluble aggregate that disperses upon the addition of γ-cyclodextrin. The high sweetness of glycyrrhizic acid can be closely correlated with this aggregation, because the multimers of glycyrrhizic acid can simultaneously bind to the sweet taste receptors on the human tongue. The isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrated that γ-cyclodextrin binds to glycyrrhizic acid more strongly than β-cyclodextrin, however, both reactions are accompanied by a favorable change in binding entropy. Considering the large negative change in heat capacity that is observed during the binding of γ-cyclodextrin, the main driving force for the binding is hydrophobic interactions with dehydration, which is typical for inclusion complex. NMR experiments showed that γ-cyclodextrin interacts with the central part of the aglycone moiety, not the glucuronic acid moieties, resulting in high binding affinity. It should also be noted that the two distinct complexes of glycyrrhizic acid with γ-cyclodextrin would exist in aqueous solution.

  20. Promotion on Nucleation and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals by Injured African Green Monkey Renal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燊; 彭花; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 欧阳健明


    The purpose of this work was to detect the properties of African green monkey renal epithelial cells (Vero) after oxidative injury and to study the mediation of the injured Vero on aggregation and formation of calcium oxalate crystals. This injury model was induced by 0.15 mmol/L H2O2 according to the pretest evaluation. The results suggested that H2O2 could injure Vero significantly and decrease cell viability in a time-dependent manner for exposure time of 0.5--2 h. After cell injury, the indexes connected with oxidative injury changed. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content and osteopontin (OPN) expression increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) level decreased. It resulted in the increase of both the amount of CaOxa crystals and the degree of crystal aggregation on the injured cells. This work indicated that injured cells promoted the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, thus increased the risk of formation of urinary stone.

  1. Characterization of two second-site mutations preventing wild type protein aggregation caused by a dominant negative PMA1 mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Eraso

    Full Text Available The correct biogenesis and localization of Pma1 at the plasma membrane is essential for yeast growth. A subset of PMA1 mutations behave as dominant negative because they produce aberrantly folded proteins that form protein aggregates, which in turn provoke the aggregation of the wild type protein. One approach to understand this dominant negative effect is to identify second-site mutations able to suppress the dominant lethal phenotype caused by those mutant alleles. We isolated and characterized two intragenic second-site suppressors of the PMA1-D378T dominant negative mutation. We present here the analysis of these new mutations that are located along the amino-terminal half of the protein and include a missense mutation, L151F, and an in-frame 12bp deletion that eliminates four residues from Cys409 to Ala412. The results show that the suppressor mutations disrupt the interaction between the mutant and wild type enzymes, and this enables the wild type Pma1 to reach the plasma membrane.

  2. Surface-secreted von Willebrand factor mediates aggregation of ADP-activated platelets at moderate shear stress: facilitated by GPIb but controlled by GPIIb-IIIa. (United States)

    Frojmovic, M M; Kasirer-Friede, A; Goldsmith, H L; Brown, E A


    We previously showed that ADP activation of washed human platelets in plasma-free suspensions supports aggregation at moderate shear stress (0.4-1.6 Nm-2) in Poiseuille flow. Although most activated platelets expressed maximal fibrinogen-occupied GPIIb-IIIa receptors, aggregation appeared to be independent of bound fibrinogen, but blocked by the hexapeptide GRGDSP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that von Willebrand factor (vWF) secreted and expressed on activated platelets mediates aggregation at moderate shear rates from 300 to 1000 s-1 corresponding to shear stresses from 0.3 to 1.1 Nm-2. Relatively unactivated platelets (Flow cytometric measurements with monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2.2.9 reporting on surface-bound vWF, and with mAb S12 reporting on alpha-granule secreted P-selectin, showed that 65% and 80%, respectively, of all platelets were maximally activated with respect to maximal secretion and surface expression of these proteins. "Resting" washed platelets exhibited both surface-bound vWF and significant P-selectin secretion. We showed that mAbs 6D1 and NMC4, respectively blocking the adhesive domains on the GPIb receptor recognizing vWF, and on the vWF molecule recognizing the GPIb receptor, partially inhibited ADP-induced aggregation under shear in Couette flow, the degree of inhibition increasing with increasing shear stress. In contrast, mAb 10E5, blocking the vWF binding domain on GPIIb-IIIa, essentially blocked all aggregation at the shear rates tested. We conclude that vWF, expressed on ADP-activated platelets, is at least the predominant cross-bridging molecule mediating aggregation at moderate shear stress. There is an absolute requirement for free activated GPIIb-IIIa receptors, postulated to interact with platelet-secreted, surface bound vWF. The GPIb-vWF cross-bridging reaction plays a facilitative role becoming increasingly important with increasing shear stress. Since aurin tricarboxylic acid, which blocks the GPIb binding domain on vWF, was

  3. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A


    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the characteri

  4. A novel method for study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering technique (United States)

    Long, Xiufen; Zhang, Caihua; Cheng, Jiongjia; Bi, Shuping


    We present a novel method for the study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) technique. In neutral Tris-HCl medium, the effect of this aggregation of protein results in the enhancement of RRS intensity and the relationship between the enhancement of the RRS signal and the Al concentration is nonlinear. On this basis, we established a new method for the determination of the critical induced-aggregation concentrations ( CCIAC) of metal ion Al(III) inducing the protein aggregation. Our results show that many factors, such as, pH value, anions, salts, temperature and solvents have obvious effects. We also studied the extent of aggregation and structural changes using ultra-violet spectrometry, protein intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism to further understand the exact mechanisms of the aggregation characteristics of proteins induced by metal ion Al(III) at the molecular level, to help us to develop effective methods to investigate the toxicity of metal ion Al, and to provide theoretical and quantitative evidences for the development of appropriate treatments for neurodementia such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia related to dialysis.

  5. Enhancement of cell adhesion, retention, and survival of HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates that are transplanted in ischemic tissues by concurrent delivery of an antioxidant for therapeutic angiogenesis. (United States)

    Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Pan, Wen-Yu; Tseng, Michael T; Lin, Kun-Ju; Yang, Yi-Pei; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Yen; Wei, Hao-Ji; Sung, Hsing-Wen


    A recurring obstacle in cell-base strategies for treating ischemic diseases is the significant loss of viable cells that is caused by the elevated levels of regional reactive oxygen species (ROS), which ultimately limits therapeutic capacity. In this study, aggregates of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cord-blood mesenchymal stem cells (cbMSCs), which are capable of inducing therapeutic angiogenesis, are prepared. We hypothesize that the concurrent delivery of an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may significantly increase cell retention following the transplantation of HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates in a mouse model with hindlimb ischemia. Our in vitro results demonstrate that the antioxidant NAC can restore ROS-impaired cell adhesion and recover the reduced angiogenic potential of HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates under oxidative stress. In the animal study, we found that by scavenging the ROS generated in ischemic tissues, NAC is likely to be able to establish a receptive cell environment in the early stage of cell transplantation, promoting the adhesion, retention, and survival of cells of engrafted aggregates. Therapeutic angiogenesis is therefore enhanced and blood flow recovery and limb salvage are ultimately achieved. The combinatory strategy that uses an antioxidant and HUVEC/cbMSC aggregates may provide a new means of boosting the therapeutic efficacy of cell aggregates for the treatment of ischemic diseases.

  6. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.


    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  7. Erosion of dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm


    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 m/s and above. Though fractal aggregates as ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The inverse scattering problems are to detect the property of obstacles from the measurements outside the obstacles. One of important research areas in this topic is the recovery of boundary property for impenetrable obstacles. In this paper, we would like to give a brief review about the recently developed singular source methods. There are three different methods in this category, namely, linear sampling method, pointsource method and probe method. We also present some recent new results about the probe method.

  9. Thermoregulation and aggregation in neonatal bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). (United States)

    Khan, Jameel J; Richardson, Jean M L; Tattersall, Glenn J


    Ectothermic vertebrates, such as reptiles, thermoregulate behaviorally by choosing from available temperatures in their environment. As neonates, bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are often observed to aggregate in vertical strata. A proximate mechanism for this behavior is the thermal advantage of heat storage (i.e., grouped lizards benefit through a decreased surface area to volume ratio), although competition for limited thermal resources, or aggregation for social reasons are alternative explanations. This study was designed to gain an understanding of how aggregation and thermoregulation interact. We observed that both isolated and grouped individuals achieved a similar level of thermoregulation (mean T(b) over trial) within a thermal gradient, but that individuals within a group had lower thermoregulatory precision. An experimental design in which light and ambient temperature (T(a)) (20 versus 30 degrees C) were altered established that a light bulb (source of heat) was a limited and valuable resource to both isolated and grouped neonatal lizards. Lizards aggregated more when the light was on at both temperatures, suggesting that individuals were equally attracted to or repelled from the heat source, depending on the ambient temperature. These data suggest aggregation occurs in neonatal bearded dragons through mutual attraction to a common resource. Further, increased variability in thermal preference occurs in groups, demonstrating the potential for agonistic behaviors to compromise optimal thermoregulation in competitive situations, potentially leading to segregation, rather than aggregation.

  10. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  11. Reliability Estimations of Control Systems Effected by Several Interference Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengBei-xing; JiangMing-hu; LiXing


    In order to establish the sufficient and necessary condition that arbitrarily reliable systems can not be constructed with function elements under interference sources, it is very important to expand set of interference sources with the above property. In this paper, the models of two types of interference sources are raised respectively: interference source possessing real input vectors and constant reliable interferen cesource. We study the reliability of the systems effected by the interference sources, and the lower bound of the reliability is presented. The results show that it is impossible that arbitrarily reliable systems can not be constructed with the elements effected by above interference sources.

  12. The database for aggregate analysis of (AACT and subsequent regrouping by clinical specialty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asba Tasneem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The registry provides information regarding characteristics of past, current, and planned clinical studies to patients, clinicians, and researchers; in addition, registry data are available for bulk download. However, issues related to data structure, nomenclature, and changes in data collection over time present challenges to the aggregate analysis and interpretation of these data in general and to the analysis of trials according to clinical specialty in particular. Improving usability of these data could enhance the utility of as a research resource. METHODS/PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The purpose of our project was twofold. First, we sought to extend the usability of for research purposes by developing a database for aggregate analysis of (AACT that contains data from the 96,346 clinical trials registered as of September 27, 2010. Second, we developed and validated a methodology for annotating studies by clinical specialty, using a custom taxonomy employing Medical Subject Heading (MeSH terms applied by an NLM algorithm, as well as MeSH terms and other disease condition terms provided by study sponsors. Clinical specialists reviewed and annotated MeSH and non-MeSH disease condition terms, and an algorithm was created to classify studies into clinical specialties based on both MeSH and non-MeSH annotations. False positives and false negatives were evaluated by comparing algorithmic classification with manual classification for three specialties. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The resulting AACT database features study design attributes parsed into discrete fields, integrated metadata, and an integrated MeSH thesaurus, and is available for download as Oracle extracts (.dmp file and text format. This publicly-accessible dataset will facilitate analysis of studies and permit detailed characterization and analysis of the U.S. clinical trials enterprise as a whole. In

  13. Formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates by specific host-guest interactions in a turbulent flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia Ariza, Raquel; Huskens, Jurriaan


    A multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) was used to investigate the formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates under highly turbulent flow conditions. To form aggregates, gold nanoparticles were functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (CD) and mixed with adamantyl (Ad)-terminated poly(propyleneim

  14. Free-carrier generation in aggregates of single-wall carbon nanotubes by photoexcitation in the ultraviolet regime. (United States)

    Crochet, Jared J; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Lüer, Larry; Hertel, Tobias; Doorn, Stephen K; Lanzani, Guglielmo


    We present evidence for the generation of free carriers in aggregated single-wall carbon nanotubes by photoexcitation in the energetic range of the π→π(*) transition associated with the M saddle point of the graphene lattice. The underlying broad absorption culminating at 4.3 eV can be fit well with a Fano line shape that describes strong coupling of a saddle-point exciton to an underlying free electron-hole pair continuum. Moreover, it is demonstrated that transitions in this energetic region autoionize into the continuum by detecting features unique to the presence of free charges in the transient transmission spectra of the continuum-embedded second sub-band exciton, S(2).

  15. Randomization of amyloid-β-peptide(1-42) conformation by sulfonated and sulfated nanoparticles reduces aggregation and cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Saraiva, Ana M; Cardoso, Isabel; Saraiva, Maria João; Tauer, Klaus; Pereira, M Carmo; Coelho, Manuel A N; Möhwald, Helmuth; Brezesinski, Gerald


    The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays a central role in the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease, being the main constituent of the plaque deposits found in AD brains. Aβ amyloid formation and deposition are due to a conformational switching to a β-enriched secondary structure. Our strategy to inhibit Aβ aggregation involves the re-conversion of Aβ conformation by adsorption to nanoparticles. NPs were synthesized by sulfonation and sulfation of polystyrene, leading to microgels and latexes. Both polymeric nanostructures affect the conformation of Aβ inducing an unordered state. Oligomerization was delayed and cytotoxicity reduced. The proper balance between hydrophilic moieties and hydrophobic chains seems to be an essential feature of effective NPs.

  16. Stimulation of nitrogen turnover due to nutrients release from aggregates affected by freeze-thaw in wetland soils (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zou, Yuanchun; Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei


    The freeze-thaw phenomenon will occur more frequently in mid-high latitude ecosystems under climate change which has a remarkable effect on biogeochemical processes in wetland soils. Here, we used a wet sieving procedure and a barometric process separation (BaPS) technique to examine the responses of wetland soil aggregates and related carbon and nitrogen turnover affected by the freeze-thaw treatment. Wetland soil samples were divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group was incubated at temperatures fluctuating from 10 °C to -10 °C, whereas the control group was incubated at the constant temperature of 10 °C. A 24 h process was set as the total freeze-thaw cycle, and the experiment had 20 continuous freeze-thaw cycles. In our results, the freeze-thaw process caused great destruction to the >2 mm water-stable aggregates (WSA) fraction and increased the carbon (DOC) content was stimulated during the initial freeze-thaw cycles followed by a rapid decline, and then still increased during subsequent freeze-thaw cycles, which was mainly determined by the soil organic carbon (SOC). The NH4+ and NO3- content, respiration rate and gross nitrification rate were all significantly improved by the freeze-thaw effect. Because the amount of NH4+ and NO3- expressed prominent negative responses to the content of >2 mm WSA fraction and the gross nitrification rate can be stimulated at the initial freeze-thaw cycles, nutrients and substrates may play a leading role in the freeze-thaw treatment regardless of the minimal influences on microbial biomass pools.

  17. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain


    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; Einar; Kruis


    A new procedure was developed for estimating the effective collision diameter of an aggregate composed of primary particles of any size. The coagulation coefficient of two oppositely charged particles was measured experimentally and compared with classic Fuchs theory, including a new method to account for particle non-sphericity. A second set of experiments were performed on well-defined nanoparticle aggregates at different stages of sintering, i.e. from the aggregate to the fully sintered stage. Here, electrical mobility was used to characterize the particle drag. The aggregates are being built from two different size-fractionated nanoparticle aerosols, the non-aggregated particles are discarded by an electrofilter and then they are passed through a furnace at concentrations low enough not to induce coagulation.

  19. Optical monitoring of particle aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Gregory


    Methods for monitoring particle aggregation are briefly reviewed. Most of these techniques are based on some form of light scattering and may be greatly dependent on the optical properties of aggregates, which are not generally known. As fractal aggregates grow larger their density can become very low and this has important practical consequences for light scattering. For instance, the scattering coefficient may be much less than for solid objects, which means that the aggregates can appear much smaller than their actual size by a light transmission method. Also, for low-density objects, a high proportion of the scattered light energy is within a small angle of the incident beam, which may also be relevant for measurements with aggregates.Using the 'turbidity fluctuation' technique as an example, it is shown how the apparent size of hydroxide flocs depends mainly on the included impurity particles, rather than the hydroxide precipitate itself. Results using clay suspensions with hydrolyzing coagulants and under are discussed.

  20. Molecular aggregation of humic substances (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.


    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  1. High Stability Multi-Wavelength Source by Using Synchronized Etalon Filter in Superfluorescent Fiber Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wencai Huang; Jianping Xie; Hai Ming


    We demonstrate a new technique to generate a high stability multi-wavelength fiber source by inserting a synchronized etalon filter in superfluorescent fiber source. Multi-wavelength source can easily be obtained over the EDF gain region with the proposed schedule. By partially feedback diffracted spontaneous emission into erbium doped fiber medium, greater output power, extinction ration and narrower linewidth for each channel than that simply using the spectrum slicing technique is easy obtained. Stable output of multi-wavelength fiber source enables it to replace the DFB laser array with wavelength locker in DWDM application.

  2. Aggregation induced Raman scattering of squaraine dye: Implementation in diagnosis of cervical cancer dysplasia by SERS imaging. (United States)

    Narayanan, Nisha; Karunakaran, Varsha; Paul, Willi; Venugopal, Karunakaran; Sujathan, K; Kumar Maiti, Kaustabh


    The extent of squaraine dye aggregation that reflects on surface enhanced Raman signal scattering (SERS) intensity upon adsorption on nano-roughened gold surface has been investigated. Here we have synthesized a serious of six squaraine dyes consisting of two different electron donor moiety i.e. 1,1,2-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indole and 2-methylbenzo[d]thiazole which modulates the chemisorptions and hydrophobicity being designated as SQ1, SQ2, SQ3, SQ4, SQ5 and SQ6. Interestingly, SQ2 (mono lipoic acid appended), SQ5 and SQ6 (conjugated with hexyl and dodecyl side chain) squaraine derivatives having more tendency of aggregation in DMSO-water mixed solvent showed significant increase of Raman scattering in the fingerprint region when chemisorbed on spherical gold nanoparticles. Two sets of SERS nanotags were prepared with colloidal gold nanoparticle (Au-NPs size: 40 nm) by incorporating Raman reporters SQ2 and SQ5 followed by thiolated PEG encapsulation (SH-PEG, SH-PEG-COOH) denoted as AuNPs-SQ2-PEG and AuNPs-SQ5-PEG. Further conjugation of these nanotag with monoclonal antibodies specific to over expressed receptors, EGFR and p16/Ki-67 in cervical cancer cell, HeLa showed prominent SERS mapping intensity and selectivity towards cell surface and nucleus. The fast and accurate recognition obtained by antibody triggered SERS-nanotag has been compared with conventional time consuming immunocytochemistry technique which prompted us to extend further investigation using real patient cervical smear sample for a non-invasive, ultrafast and accurate diagnosis.

  3. CPAD, Curated Protein Aggregation Database: A Repository of Manually Curated Experimental Data on Protein and Peptide Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mary Thangakani

    Full Text Available Accurate distinction between peptide sequences that can form amyloid-fibrils or amorphous β-aggregates, identification of potential aggregation prone regions in proteins, and prediction of change in aggregation rate of a protein upon mutation(s are critical to research on protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as biotechnological production of protein based therapeutics. We have developed a Curated Protein Aggregation Database (CPAD, which has collected results from experimental studies performed by scientific community aimed at understanding protein/peptide aggregation. CPAD contains more than 2300 experimentally observed aggregation rates upon mutations in known amyloidogenic proteins. Each entry includes numerical values for the following parameters: change in rate of aggregation as measured by fluorescence intensity or turbidity, name and source of the protein, Uniprot and Protein Data Bank codes, single point as well as multiple mutations, and literature citation. The data in CPAD has been supplemented with five different types of additional information: (i Amyloid fibril forming hexa-peptides, (ii Amorphous β-aggregating hexa-peptides, (iii Amyloid fibril forming peptides of different lengths, (iv Amyloid fibril forming hexa-peptides whose crystal structures are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB and (v Experimentally validated aggregation prone regions found in amyloidogenic proteins. Furthermore, CPAD is linked to other related databases and resources, such as Uniprot, Protein Data Bank, PUBMED, GAP, TANGO, WALTZ etc. We have set up a web interface with different search and display options so that users have the ability to get the data in multiple ways. CPAD is freely available at The potential applications of CPAD have also been discussed.

  4. Ultrafast fluorescent decay induced by metal-mediated dipole-dipole interaction in two-dimensional molecular aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Qing; Nam, Sang Hoon; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Xiang; Fang, Nicholas X


    Two-dimensional molecular aggregate (2DMA), a thin sheet of strongly interacting dipole molecules self-assembled at close distance on an ordered lattice, is a fascinating fluorescent material. It is distinctively different from the single or colloidal dye molecules or quantum dots in most previous research. In this paper, we verify for the first time that when a 2DMA is placed at a nanometric distance from a metallic substrate, the strong and coherent interaction between the dipoles inside the 2DMA dominates its fluorescent decay at picosecond timescale. Our streak-camera lifetime measurement and interacting lattice-dipole calculation reveal that the metal-mediated dipole-dipole interaction shortens the fluorescent lifetime to about one half and increases the energy dissipation rate by ten times than expected from the noninteracting single-dipole picture. Our finding can enrich our understanding of nanoscale energy transfer in molecular excitonic systems and may designate a new direction for developing fast a...

  5. Hierarchical nitrogen and cobalt co-doped TiO{sub 2} prepared by an interface-controlled self-aggregation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shishuai; Li, Qiang; Hou, Chengcheng; Feng, Xiaodong; Guan, Zisheng, E-mail:


    Highlights: •N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by hydrothermal method at vapor–liquid interface. •Hierarchical N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized. •Growth mechanism of N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was discussed. •Ferromagnetism was found on the titanate N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} at room temperature. •Light absorption edge of N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was shifted to visible light region. -- Abstract: Hierarchical N and Co co-doped TiO{sub 2} (NCT) self-aggregates were prepared by the interfacial self-aggregation in an autoclave, where a mixed Ti(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution reacted with polyacrylate-controlled-releasing ammonia at the vapor–liquid interface. The SEM images show that the typical hierarchical NCT self-aggregates were composed of perpendicular nanosheets on the top, granule aggregates in the middle, and flower-like nanosheets at the bottom. A possible mechanism of their formation has been proposed on the basis of a series of experiments. We found that the morphology and crystal structure of the NCT self-aggregates can be controlled by adjusting reaction temperature, reaction time, and the amount of ammonia solution. The demonstration of hysteresis loops in the magnetization curves indicates that the NCT self-aggregate samples prepared at 150 °C were ferromagnetic at room temperature. The absorption spectra of the samples prepared at 150 °C showed evident absorption in the visible region. These NCT self-aggregates may be potentially useful in photoelectrochemical and magneto-electronic applications.

  6. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen


    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  7. Non-aggregating tau phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy. (United States)

    Miller, Nimrod; Feng, Zhihua; Edens, Brittany M; Yang, Ben; Shi, Han; Sze, Christie C; Hong, Benjamin Taige; Su, Susan C; Cantu, Jorge A; Topczewski, Jacek; Crawford, Thomas O; Ko, Chien-Ping; Sumner, Charlotte J; Ma, Long; Ma, Yong-Chao


    Mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading inherited cause of infant mortality, remain largely unknown. Many studies have established the importance of hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, tau phosphorylation in SMA pathogenesis has yet to be investigated. Here we show that tau phosphorylation on serine 202 (S202) and threonine 205 (T205) is increased significantly in SMA motor neurons using two SMA mouse models and human SMA patient spinal cord samples. Interestingly, phosphorylated tau does not form aggregates in motor neurons or neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), even at late stages of SMA disease, distinguishing it from other tauopathies. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because tau phosphorylation at these sites is significantly reduced in Cdk5 knock-out mice; genetic knock-out of Cdk5 activating subunit p35 in an SMA mouse model also leads to reduced tau phosphorylation on S202 and T205 in the SMA;p35(-/-) compound mutant mice. In addition, expression of the phosphorylation-deficient tauS202A,T205A mutant alleviates motor neuron defects in a zebrafish SMA model in vivo and mouse motor neuron degeneration in culture, whereas expression of phosphorylation-mimetic tauS202E,T205E promotes motor neuron defects. More importantly, genetic knock-out of tau in SMA mice rescues synapse stripping on motor neurons, NMJ denervation, and motor neuron degeneration in vivo. Altogether, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for SMA pathogenesis in which hyperphosphorylation of non-aggregating tau by Cdk5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration.

  8. Selection and Exploitation of Concrete Aggregate Sources in the Construction of Baihe Hydropower Station%混凝土骨料料源选择与开采设计--以白河水电站为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻建春; 朱全敏


    In the construction of Baihe Hydropower Station, three sources of the concrete aggregate are available, i.e. the excavation materials, natural sand and gravel, and artificial exploited stones.In order to cut the construction cost, reduce the construction waste and protect the surrounding environment, it is recommended to take excavation materials that meet the construction requirements as the first choice of aggregate source.And insufficient materials should be a-dopted from the natural sand and gravel.On the other hand, flood of the Hanjiang River has a serious influence on the construction as a staged diversion scheme is adopted.Thus, a safe and feasible exploitation plan for the aggregate mate-rials should be made to ensure the construction schedule.%白河水电站的混凝土骨料料源有3类,分别为工程开挖料、天然砂砾石料及人工开采块石料。为降低工程造价、减少工程弃渣及保护周边环境,料源优先选择满足要求的工程开挖料,不足部分从规划的天然砂砾石料场中择优选取。工程采用分期导流,工期受汉江洪水影响较大,为保证混凝土浇筑进度,必须做好料场的开采、备料计划,制定安全、可行的开采方案。

  9. Platelet aggregation unchanged by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ inhibition: results from an in vitro study and two randomized phase I trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie C Shaddinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We explored the theorized upregulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF- mediated biologic responses following lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 inhibition using human platelet aggregation studies in an in vitro experiment and in 2 clinical trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Full platelet aggregation concentration response curves were generated in vitro to several platelet agonists in human plasma samples pretreated with rilapladib (selective Lp-PLA2 inhibitor or vehicle. This was followed by a randomized, double-blind crossover study in healthy adult men (n = 26 employing a single-agonist dose assay of platelet aggregation, after treatment of subjects with 250 mg oral rilapladib or placebo once daily for 14 days. This study was followed by a second randomized, double-blind parallel-group trial in healthy adult men (n = 58 also treated with 250 mg oral rilapladib or placebo once daily for 14 days using a full range of 10 collagen concentrations (0-10 µg/ml for characterizing EC50 values for platelet aggregation for each subject. Both clinical studies were conducted at the GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Unit in the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. EC50 values derived from multiple agonist concentrations were compared and no pro-aggregant signals were observed during exposure to rilapladib in any of these platelet studies, despite Lp-PLA2 inhibition exceeding 90%. An increase in collagen-mediated aggregation was observed 3 weeks post drug termination in the crossover study (15.4% vs baseline; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-27.0, which was not observed during the treatment phase and was not observed in the parallel-group study employing a more robust EC50 examination. CONCLUSIONS: Lp-PLA2 inhibition does not enhance platelet aggregation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 1 Study 1: NCT01745458 2 Study 2: NCT00387257.

  10. Copper Binding and Subsequent Aggregation of α-Synuclein Are Modulated by N-Terminal Acetylation and Ablated by the H50Q Missense Mutation. (United States)

    Mason, Rebecca J; Paskins, Aimee R; Dalton, Caroline F; Smith, David P


    The Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein exhibits significant conformational heterogeneity. Bacterially expressed α-synuclein is known to bind to copper, resulting in the formation of aggregation-prone compact conformations. However, in vivo, α-synuclein undergoes acetylation at its N-terminus. Here the effect of this modification and the pathological H50Q mutation on copper binding and subsequent conformational transitions were investigated by electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that acetylation perturbs the ability of α-synuclein to bind copper and that the H50Q missense mutation in the presence of N-terminal acetylation prevents copper binding. These modifications and mutations prevent the formation of the most compact conformations and inhibit copper-induced aggregation.

  11. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique


    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  12. Effect of the surfactant tween 80 on the detachment and dispersal of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson single cells and aggregates from cilantro leaves as revealed by image analysis. (United States)

    Brandl, Maria T; Huynh, Steven


    Salmonella enterica has the ability to form biofilms and large aggregates on produce surfaces, including on cilantro leaves. Aggregates of S. enterica serovar Thompson that remained attached to cilantro leaves after rigorous washing and that were present free or bound to dislodged leaf tissue in the wash suspension were observed by confocal microscopy. Measurement of S. Thompson population sizes in the leaf washes by plate counts failed to show an effect of 0.05% Tween 80 on the removal of the pathogen from cilantro leaves 2 and 6 days after inoculation. On the contrary, digital image analysis of micrographs of single cells and aggregates of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-S. Thompson present in cilantro leaf washes revealed that single cells represented 13.7% of the cell assemblages in leaf washes containing Tween 80, versus 9.3% in those without the surfactant. Moreover, Tween 80 decreased the percentage of the total S. Thompson cell population located in aggregates equal to or larger than 64 cells from 9.8% to 4.4% (P Tween 80 showed that the surfactant promoted the dispersal of cells from large aggregates into smaller ones and into single cells (P < 0.05). Our study underlines the importance of investigating bacterial behavior at the scale of single cells in order to uncover trends undetectable at the population level by bacterial plate counts. Such an approach may provide valuable information to devise strategies aimed at enhancing the efficacy of produce sanitization treatments.

  13. Reliability Estimations of Control Systems Effected by Several Interference Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Bei-xing; Jiang Ming-hu; Li Xing


    In order to estab lish the sufficient and necessary condition that arbitrarily reliable systems can not be construc-ted with function elements under interference sources, it is very important to expand set of interference sources with the above property. In this paper, the models of two types of in-terference sources are raised respectively: interference source possessing real input vectors and constant reliable interference source. We study the reliability of the systems effected by the interference sources, and the lower bound of the reliability is presented. The results show that it is impossible that arbi-trarily reliable systems can not be constructed with the ele-ments effected by above interference sources.

  14. Quantitation of soluble aggregates in recombinant monoclonal antibody cell culture by pH-gradient protein A chromatography. (United States)

    Pan, Hai; Chen, Ken; Pulisic, Matt; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced from mammalian cell culture may contain significant amounts of dimers and higher order aggregates. Quantitation of soluble aggregates in the cell culture is time-consuming and labor-intensive, usually involving a purification step to remove the impurities that interfere with the subsequent size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis. We have developed a novel pH-gradient protein A chromatography for rapid, non-size based separation of the aggregates in mAb cell culture samples. Our results demonstrate that this method has excellent correlation with SEC and can be applied to both human immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1) and IgG2 antibodies. This approach can be useful in the quantitation of soluble aggregates in crude cell culture samples.

  15. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases--Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, Type Controlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅰ)--Multi-source Overlap and Type Controlled by Main Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平


    Based on the geochemical studies of natural gases in the past ten years in China, the authors have proposed a new model for their genesis--multi-source overlap, multi-stage continuity, main source-controlling type and nomenclature by the main stage.Multi-source refers to a diversity of material sources involved in the formation of natural gases, including abiogenic and biogenic material sources. In regard to biogenic sources, either oil-generating or coal-generating organic matter would produce gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs of commercial importance. Generally, natural gases originating from these sources can overlap to form gas reservoirs. Under specific circumstances mantle-source abiogenic gases could overlap biogenic gases to form gas reservoirs. In nature, natural gases predominated by gaseous hydrocarbons may be formed from a single end-member source. However, multi-source overlap is more typical of the genesis of natural gases.

  16. Microfibrillar structure of PGG-glucan in aqueous solution as triple-helix aggregates by small angle x-ray scattering. (United States)

    Gawronski, M; Park, J T; Magee, A S; Conrad, H


    The conformation of polysaccharide PGG-Glucan, isolated from yeast cell walls, in aqueous solution was investigated by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and multidetector gel permeation chromatography coupled with postcolumn delivery (GPC/PCD) techniques in comparison with scleroglucan. It was shown that both polysaccharides exhibit a rigid rod-like conformation in aqueous solution by SAXS experiments. The mass per unit length (M/L) and radius (R) of rod cross section of PGG-Glucan were measured to be 6300 daltons/nm and 1.89 nm, while those of scleroglucan are 2300 and 0.83, respectively. Utilizing a GPC/light scattering technique, the average aggregation number of PGG-Glucan is 9, while that of scleroglucan is around 3. From the comparison of the M/L and R of the respective rod cross sections as well as their aggregation number data, it is concluded that PGG-Glucan is composed of triple helices, which tend to aggregate as triplets in solution, whereas scleroglucan is composed of a single triple helix. The aggregation number distribution of PGG-Glucan was found to range from 1 to about 25 determined by GPC/PCD. From the observation of a Debye-Scherrer ring type of peak in the macroscopic scattering cross section of PGG-Glucan by SAXS, the existence of a small amount of ordered clusters of PGG-Glucan can be deduced. The "lattice parameter" of these ordered fasces-like clusters is consistent with the radius of the individual triple-helical rods forming a microfibrillar superstructure. These results indicate that higher aggregated forms of PGG-Glucan containing up to 8 triple helices behave as ordered fasces-like clusters. We conclude that PGG-Glucan is triple-helix aggregates formed by rigid rods stacking together side by side. We propose a molecular structural model for PGG-Glucan conformations.

  17. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.


    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates created by combining the Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening. (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Won, Jong Min; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan


    The Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening were successfully combined to prepare uniquely structured NiO aggregates. In particular, a NiO-C composite powder was first prepared using a one-pot spray pyrolysis, which was followed by a two-step post-treatment process. This resulted in the formation of micron-sized spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates through a synergetic effect that occurred between nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening. The discharge capacity of the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates at the 500(th) cycle was 1118 mA h g(-1) and their capacity retention, which was measured from the second cycle, was nearly 100%. However, the discharge capacities of the solid NiO aggregates and hollow NiO shells were 631 and 150 mA h g(-1), respectively, at the 500(th) cycle and their capacity retentions, which were measured from the second cycle, were 63 and 14%, respectively. As such, the spherical and hollow-structured NiO aggregates, which were formed through the synergetic effect of nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and Ostwald ripening, have high structural stability during cycling and have excellent lithium storage properties.

  19. Study on the Decreasing of COD in Monosodium Glutamate Wastewater by Electrical Aggregation%电凝聚法降低味精废水中COD的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁忠浩; 黄久贵; 翁达; 张惠灵


    The monosodium glutamate wastewater is treated by means of electrical aggregation. Theoretical analysis is carried out of the mechanism of the electrical aggregation. With the help of the analysis and of an electrical aggregation efficiency equation deduced from reasonable hypotheses ,the influence of three main factors in electrical aggregation, namely the current intensity, operation time and the organic compound concentration in the wastewater, on the aggregation efficiency has been discussed.%采用电凝聚法对味精废水进行处理,进行了电凝聚机理探讨和理论分析。根据论分析和合理假设推导出的电凝聚效率公式,描述了电凝聚过程中三个主要影响因素-电流强度、通电时间、废水中有机物浓度对电凝聚效率的影响。

  20. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites (United States)

    Ismail, Maznah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Abdullah, Rasedee; Zhang, Yi-Da


    Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE) were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC), bleeding time (BT), and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg). Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32 ± 4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91 ± 5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms. PMID:27800004

  1. Consider the source: persuasion of implicit evaluations is moderated by source credibility. (United States)

    Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan; Nosek, Brian A


    The long history of persuasion research shows how to change explicit, self-reported evaluations through direct appeals. At the same time, research on how to change implicit evaluations has focused almost entirely on techniques of retraining existing evaluations or manipulating contexts. In five studies, we examined whether direct appeals can change implicit evaluations in the same way as they do explicit evaluations. In five studies, both explicit and implicit evaluations showed greater evidence of persuasion following information presented by a highly credible source than a source low in credibility. Whereas cognitive load did not alter the effect of source credibility on explicit evaluations, source credibility had an effect on the persuasion of implicit evaluations only when participants were encouraged and able to consider information about the source. Our findings reveal the relevance of persuasion research for changing implicit evaluations and provide new ideas about the processes underlying both types of evaluation.

  2. The aggregation and neurotoxicity of TDP-43 and its ALS-associated 25 kDa fragment are differentially affected by molecular chaperones in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M Gregory

    Full Text Available Almost all cases of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and some cases of the familial form, are characterised by the deposition of TDP-43, a member of a family of heteronuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP. Although protein misfolding and deposition is thought to be a causative feature of many of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, a link between TDP-43 aggregation and the dysfunction of motor neurons has yet to be established, despite many correlative neuropathological studies. We have investigated this relationship in the present study by probing the effect of altering TDP-43 aggregation behaviour in vivo by modulating the levels of molecular chaperones in a Drosophila model. More specifically, we quantify the effect of either pharmacological upregulation of the heat shock response or specific genetic upregulation of a small heat shock protein, CG14207, on the neurotoxicity of both TDP-43 and of its disease associated 25 kDa fragment (TDP-25 in a Drosophila model. Inhibition of the aggregation of TDP-43 by either method results in a partial reduction of its neurotoxic effects on both photoreceptor and motor neurons, whereas inhibition of the aggregation of TDP-25 results not only in a complete suppression of its toxicity but also its clearance from the brain in both neuronal subtypes studied. The results demonstrate, therefore, that aggregation plays a crucial role in mediating the neurotoxic effects of both full length and truncated TDP-43, and furthermore reveal that the in vivo propensity of these two proteins to aggregate and their susceptibility to molecular chaperone mediated clearance are quite distinct.

  3. Calorimetric, Viscosimetric, and Light Scattering Studies of the Aggregation of, and the Solubilization of Water by, Triton X-35 in n-Heptane. (United States)

    Lagerge; Grimberg-Michaud; Guerfi; Partyka


    The behavior of a nonionic surfactant TX-35 in solution in n-heptane in the presence and absence of added water has been examined using the microcalorimetric, viscosimetric, and quasielastic light scattering experimental methods. In this paper, we were interested in the aggregation process of the poly(oxyethylene) glycol alkylphenyl ether in n-heptane and in the solubilization of water in the reverse micelle of the surfactant (micellar solubilization). The analysis of the differential molar enthalpies of dilution of TX-35 in dried n-heptane has shown the occurrence of a gradual exothermic aggregation process on a very wide range of concentration which takes place at particular concentration so-called "operational CMC". This operational CMC value has been confirmed by viscosities measurements. The differential molar enthalpies of hydration of TX-35 were also measured and found to be exothermic. The maximal hydration ratio (w0) was found to be equal to 3.2 mol H2O per mole of TX-35 before the point of phase separation. The measurements of the variation of the amount of water contained in TX-35 solutions at different concentrations in n-heptane also show the occurence of a gradual aggregation process and confirm the value of the maximal hydration ratio already determined by microcalorimetry. In the absence of added water, from the quasielastic light scattering experiments, a mean diameter of the aggregates close to 45 Å has been determine, while in the presence of water, a mean diameter of 61 Å was detected and remained unchanged with increasing the hydration ratio indicating that the size of the aggregate is more influenced by the presence of water than by the amount. In the presence of water, it is relevant to discuss aggregates of lamellar or filament shape. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Evidence of diffusive fractal aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles by femtosecond laser ablation at ambient conditions (United States)

    Celardo, G. L.; Archetti, D.; Ferrini, G.; Gavioli, L.; Pingue, P.; Cavaliere, E.


    The specific mechanisms which lead to the formation of fractal nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition remain elusive despite intense research efforts, motivated mainly by the technological interest in obtaining tailored nanostructures with simple and scalable production methods. Here we focus on fractal nanostructures of titanium dioxide, TiO2, a strategic material for many applications, obtained by femtosecond laser ablation at ambient conditions. We compare a theoretical model of fractal formation with experimental data. The comparison of theory and experiment confirms that fractal aggregates are formed after landing of the ablated material on the substrate surface by a simple diffusive mechanism. We model the fractal formation through extensive Monte Carlo simulations based on a set of minimal assumptions: TiO2 nanoparticles arrive already formed on the substrate, then they diffuse in a size/mass independent way and stick irreversibly upon touching, thus forming fractal clusters. Despite its simplicity, our model explains the main features of the fractal structures arising from the complex interaction of large TiO2 nanoparticles with different substrates. Indeed our model is able to reproduce both the fractal dimensions and the area distributions of the nanostructures for different densities of the ablated material. Finally we discuss the role of the thermal conductivity of the substrate and the laser fluence on the properties of the fractal nanostructures. Our results represent an advancement towards controlling the production of fractal nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition.

  5. Approach for Developing Scientific News Aggregators Using ATOM Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Shaikh


    Full Text Available Scientists want to stay connected with everything that is new and innovative in the world, so they constantly read and analyze several online scientific resources such as magazines and journals. A user needs to do a lot of searching through on the web to locate the articles which are important to their interest. The idea of a news aggregator is not new to scientific world. A news aggregator is a software application, which periodically reads several sources and displays them on a separate page such as Google news. The information is stored in XML format. A scientific news aggregator helps in structuring online resources into useful contents. These contents are automatically fetched from several online resources available on the Internet and categorized on a separate page. Mostly, RSS feeds are used to done this job. Atom feeds are more detailed and having advance feature than RSS feeds, helps to improve the performance of scientific news aggregator by giving more updated information. A modern view of an aggregator offers a friendly user interface for users by merging the news content. We are working on an interesting approach for the design and implementation of news aggregators which will collect and aggregate data from the web to acquire unstructured information and transform it into data that could be understood and dynamically processed. The proposed approach will combine various mechanisms in order to connect to the data sources specified, identify the categories of articles, extract the corresponding pieces of news and automatically place them into the knowledge database and automatically extract the new pieces of information in the knowledge base and display them on the Science News section

  6. Investigation of the effect of aggregates' morphology on concrete creep properties by numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavergne, F. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Navier (ENPC, IFSTTAR, CNRS), 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex (France); Sab, K., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Navier (ENPC, IFSTTAR, CNRS), 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex (France); Sanahuja, J. [Département Mécanique des Matériaux et des Composants, EDF R& D, Site des Renardières, Avenue des Renardières, 77818 Moret-Sur-Loing Cedex (France); Bornert, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Navier (ENPC, IFSTTAR, CNRS), 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex (France); Toulemonde, C. [Département Mécanique des Matériaux et des Composants, EDF R& D, Site des Renardières, Avenue des Renardières, 77818 Moret-Sur-Loing Cedex (France)


    Prestress losses due to creep of concrete is a matter of interest for long-term operations of nuclear power plants containment buildings. Experimental studies by Granger (1995) have shown that concretes with similar formulations have different creep behaviors. The aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the effect of size distribution and shape of elastic inclusions on the long-term creep of concrete. Several microstructures with prescribed size distribution and spherical or polyhedral shape of inclusions are generated. By using the 3D numerical homogenization procedure for viscoelastic microstructures proposed by Šmilauer and Bažant (2010), it is shown that the size distribution and shape of inclusions have no measurable influence on the overall creep behavior. Moreover, a mean-field estimate provides close predictions. An Interfacial Transition Zone was introduced according to the model of Nadeau (2003). It is shown that this feature of concrete's microstructure can explain differences between creep behaviors.

  7. Bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization following orthograde mineral trioxide aggregate obturation:a scanning electron microscopy study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Sang Yoo; Qiang Zhu; Kee-Yeon Kum; Seok-Woo Chang; So Ram Oh; Hiran Perinpanayagam; Sang-Min Lim; Yeon-Jee Yoo; Yeo-Rok Oh; Sang-Bin Woo; Seung-Hyun Han


    The time domain entombment of bacteria by intratubular mineralization following orthograde canal obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single-rooted human premolars (n560) were instrumented to an apical size #50/0.06 using ProFile and treated as follows:Group 1 (n510) was filled with phosphate buffered saline (PBS);Group 2 (n510) was incubated with Enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks, and then filled with PBS;Group 3 (n520) was obturated orthograde with a paste of OrthoMTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea) and PBS;and Group 4 (n520) was incubated with E. faecalis for 3 weeks and then obturated with OrthoMTA–PBS paste. Following their treatments, the coronal openings were sealed with PBS-soaked cotton and intermediate restorative material (IRM), and the roots were then stored in PBS for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. After each incubation period, the roots were split and their dentin/MTA interfaces examined in both longitudinal and horizontal directions by SEM. There appeared to be an increase in intratubular mineralization over time in the OrthoMTA-filled roots (Groups 3 and 4). Furthermore, there was a gradual entombment of bacteria within the dentinal tubules in the E. faecalis inoculated MTA-filled roots (Group 4). Therefore, the orthograde obturation of root canals with OrthoMTA mixed with PBS may create a favorable environment for bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization.

  8. Crossover from the coffee-ring effect to the uniform deposit caused by irreversible cluster-cluster aggregation (United States)

    Crivoi, A.; Zhong, X.; Duan, Fei


    The coffee-ring effect for particle deposition near the three-phase line after drying a pinned sessile colloidal droplet has been suppressed or attenuated in many recent studies. However, there have been few attempts to simulate the mitigation of the effect in the presence of strong particle-particle attraction forces. We develop a three-dimensional stochastic model to investigate the drying process of a pinned colloidal sessile droplet by considering the sticking between particles, which was observed in the experiments. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that by solely promoting the particle-particle attraction in the model, the final deposit shape is transformed from the coffee ring to the uniform film deposition. This phenomenon is modeled using the colloidal aggregation technique and explained by the "Tetris principle," meaning that unevenly shaped or branched particle clusters rapidly build up a sparse structure spanning throughout the entire domain in the drying process. The influence of the controlled parameters is analyzed as well. The simulation is reflected by the drying patterns of the nanofluid droplets through the surfactant control in the experiments.

  9. Improvements in self-consolidating cementitious composites by using micro carbonized aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andrea Ferro


    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of self-consolidating cementitious systems in construction industry. The present research was conducted to enhance the mechanical performance of cement composites by the utilization of micro-sized inert particles. This paper deals with the synthesis of micro-sized inert carbonized particles from hemp hurds. The synthesized carbonized particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. These particles were further used as additive in self-consolidating cement composites. Total of four different wt% additions (i.e. 0.08, 0.20, 1.00 and 3.00 by wt% of cement were investigated. The cement composites containing carbonized particles inclusions were characterized by three point bending and compression tests. The results indicate that the carbonized particles additions enhanced the flexural and compressive strengths of the cement composites. It was also observed that the fracture properties and the energy absorption capability of the cement composites were enhanced substantially.

  10. MicroRNA-133 inhibits behavioral aggregation by controlling dopamine synthesis in locusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Yang


    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and primarily controlled by interactions between environmental and genetic factors. The migratory locust, a worldwide pest, exhibits pronounced phenotypic plasticity, which is a population density-dependent transition that occurs between the gregarious and solitary phases. Genes involved in dopamine synthesis have been shown to regulate the phase transition of locusts. However, the function of microRNAs in this process remains unknown. In this study, we report the participation of miR-133 in dopamine production and the behavioral transition by negatively regulating two critical genes, henna and pale, in the dopamine pathway. miR-133 participated in the post-transcriptional regulation of henna and pale by binding to their coding region and 3' untranslated region, respectively. miR-133 displayed cellular co-localization with henna/pale in the protocerebrum, and its expression in the protocerebrum was negatively correlated with henna and pale expression. Moreover, miR-133 agomir delivery suppressed henna and pale expression, which consequently decreased dopamine production, thus resulting in the behavioral shift of the locusts from the gregarious phase to the solitary phase. Increasing the dopamine content could rescue the solitary phenotype, which was induced by miR-133 agomir delivery. Conversely, miR-133 inhibition increased the expression of henna and pale, resulting in the gregarious-like behavior of solitary locusts; this gregarious phenotype could be rescued by RNA interference of henna and pale. This study shows the novel function and modulation pattern of a miRNA in phenotypic plasticity and provides insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of the phase transition of locusts.

  11. Quantifying Pb and Cd complexation by alginates and the role of metal binding on macromolecular aggregation. (United States)

    Lamelas, Cristina; Avaltroni, Fabrice; Benedetti, Marc; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Slaveykova, Vera I


    The Pb and Cd binding capacity of alginates were quantified by the determination of their complex stability constants and the concentration of complexing sites using H+, Pb2+, or Cd2+ selective electrodes in both static and dynamic titrations. Centrifugation filter devices (30 kDa filter cutoff), followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of lead or cadmium in the filtrates, were used to validate the results. The influence of ionic strength, pH, and the metal-to-alginate ratio was determined for a wide range of metal concentrations. Because of their polyelectrolytic properties, alginates may adopt different conformations depending on the physicochemistry of the medium, including the presence of metals. Therefore, molecular diffusion coefficients of the alginate were determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy under the same conditions of pH, ionic strength, and metal-to-alginate ratios that were used for the metal binding studies. The complexation and conformational properties of the alginate were related within the framework of the nonideal competitive adsorption isotherm (NICA) combined with a Donnan approach to account for both intrinsic and electrostatic contributions.

  12. Studies on the heterogeneity of St/DVB copolymers by phenyl aggregate fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国昌; 叶彦春; 高焕; 何炳林; 栗凤珍; 高传喜


    A new method for characterizing St/DVB copolymer heterogeneity by phenyl aggregatefluorescence has been developed and used to study the effects of crosslinking degree,crosslinker and diluent onthe heterogeneity of the copolyruer gels.The results show that St/m-DVB copolymer gel is more homogeneousin structure than St/p-DVB copolymer gel,whereas increasing crosslinking degree and the proportion of goodsolvent in diluent lead to an increase of gel heterogeneity.These results provide structural evidence which mayserve as a bridge between St/DVB crosslinking reaction and the copolymer properties.

  13. Plasmonic enhancement of second harmonic generation from nonlinear RbTiOPO4 crystals by aggregates of silver nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Tserkezis, Christos; Ramírez, Mariola O;


    We demonstrate a 60–fold enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) response at the nanoscale in a hybrid metal-dielectric system. By using complex silver nanostructures photochemically deposited on the polar surface of a ferroelectric crystal, we tune the plasmonic resonances from the v...... the potential of aggregates of silver nanostructures for enhancing optical nonlinearities at the nanoscale and provides an alternative approach for the development of nanometric nonlinear photonic devices in a scalable way.......We demonstrate a 60–fold enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) response at the nanoscale in a hybrid metal-dielectric system. By using complex silver nanostructures photochemically deposited on the polar surface of a ferroelectric crystal, we tune the plasmonic resonances from...... or up to 60 times when it matches the fundamental NIR radiation. The results are consistent with the more spatially-extended near-field response of complex metallic nanostructures and can be well explained by taking into account the quadratic character of the SHG process. The work points out...

  14. Relationship of Social and Lifestyle Factors with Central Fat Distribution Expressed by the Aggregate Fat Distribution Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suder Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is caused by several factors and the explanation of the level of its variability also depends on anthropometric indexes applied for its assessment. The aim was to determine the degree of explanation of the abdominal adiposity variation, presented by the aggregate fat distribution index (AFDI, through the socio-economic status and lifestyle. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a sample of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. A full model was created using a stepwise backward regression with the social and lifestyle data as independent variables and the AFDI as a dependent variable. The AFDI was created by unitarization applied to selected characteristics of fat distribution which were transformed into [0,1] interval (without measurement unit and then added and averaged to form a composite index. The highest autonomous influence on AFDI is ascribed to age (b = 0.2456 p = 0.000, level of motor fitness b=−0.2392 p=0.000, leisure time physical activity (b=−0.1353 p=0.000 and being born in a rural area (b=0.1300 p=0.000. The variables explain 17% (R2=0.1667 of the variation of the central fat distribution. Variation of the abdominal adiposity was explained with the use of AFDI at the level close to the commonly applied indexes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Sundberg


    Full Text Available Pectins are important structural elements in spruce fibres. Alkaline peroxide bleaching of spruce thermomechanical pulp (TMP causes degradation and demethylation of pectins, yielding high-charge-density pectic acids. The pectic acids in fibres contribute strongly to the negative fibre charge, and the dissolved pectic acids increase the cationic demand of bleached TMP water. In this study, a method to isolate pectic acids from peroxide-bleached TMP pulp water is presented. The pectic acids were isolated and purified in good yield using a polyacrylate resin to remove lignin, a cellulose filter to remove galactoglucomannans (GGM, and an anion exchange resin to separate pectic acids from neutral carbohydrates. Salts and residual low-molar-mass carbohydrates were further removed from the isolated pectic acids by dialysis. The isolated pectic acids (>80% purity had a low molar mass and a wide polydispersity (5.9 kDa, MW/MN 3.3. The aggregation and precipitation of the isolated pectic acids, as well as citrus fruit pectic acids with well-defined molar masses, by Ca2+-ions were studied. The molar mass of pectic acids was a key factor determining the precipitation of Ca2+-pectates. Pectic acids below 6 kDa were not precipitated by Ca2+, while higher molar masses led first to partial and then to complete precipitation. The precipitated Ca2+-pectates may impair paper machine runnability and paper quality.

  16. Submicron-Scale Heterogeneities in Nickel Sorption of Various Cell-Mineral Aggregates Formed by Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria. (United States)

    Schmid, Gregor; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Hao, Likai; Ingino, Pablo; Adaktylou, Irini; Eickhoff, Merle; Obst, Martin


    Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria form biogenic cell-mineral aggregates (CMAs) composed of microbial cells, extracellular organic compounds, and ferric iron minerals. CMAs are capable of immobilizing large quantities of heavy metals, such as nickel, via sorption processes. CMAs play an important role for the fate of heavy metals in the environment, particularly in systems characterized by elevated concentrations of dissolved metals, such as mine drainage or contaminated sediments. We applied scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) spectrotomography for detailed 3D chemical mapping of nickel sorbed to CMAs on the submicron scale. We analyzed different CMAs produced by phototrophic or nitrate-reducing microbial Fe(II) oxidation and, in addition, a twisted stalk structure obtained from an environmental biofilm. Nickel showed a heterogeneous distribution and was found to be preferentially sorbed to biogenically precipitated iron minerals such as Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides and, to a minor extent, associated with organic compounds. Some distinct nickel accumulations were identified on the surfaces of CMAs. Additional information obtained from scatter plots and angular distance maps, showing variations in the nickel-iron and nickel-organic carbon ratios, also revealed a general correlation between nickel and iron. Although a high correlation between nickel and iron was observed in 2D maps, 3D maps revealed this to be partly due to projection artifacts. In summary, by combining different approaches for data analysis, we unambiguously showed the heterogeneous sorption behavior of nickel to CMAs.

  17. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics in the assessment of natural aggregate resources (United States)

    Knepper, D.H.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.H.


    Natural aggregate made from crushed stone and deposits of sand and gravel is a vital element of the construction industry in the United States. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is relatively abundant, new sources of aggregate are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transporation costs, and environmental concerns, especially in urban growth centers where much of the aggregate is used. As the demand for natural aggregate increases in response to urban growth and the repair and expansion of the national infrastructure, new sources of natural aggregate will be required. The USGS has recognized the necessity of developing the capability to assess the potential for natural aggregate sources on Federal lands; at present, no methodology exists for systematically describing and evaluating potential sources of natural aggregate. Because remote sensing and airborne geophysics can detect surface and nearsurface phenomena, these tools may useful for detecting and mapping potential sources of natural aggregate; however, before a methodology for applying these tools can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits, as well as the problems that will be encountered in assessing their potential value. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel that may be used directly or crushed and sized to meet specifications. In any particular area, the availability of bedrock suitable for crushing is a function of the geologic history of the area - the processes that formed, deformed, eroded and exposed the bedrock. Deposits of sand and gravel are primarily surficial deposits formed by the erosion, transportation by water and ice

  18. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation]. (United States)

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia


    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed.

  19. Supramolecular aggregates formed by sulfadiazine and sulfisomidine inclusion complexes with α- and β-cyclodextrins (United States)

    Rajendiran, N.; Venkatesh, G.; Saravanan, J.


    Sulfadiazine (SDA) and sulfisomidine (SFM) inclusion complexes with two cyclodextrins (α-CD and β-CD) are studied in aqueous as well as in solid state. The inclusion complexes are characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, time correlated single photon counting, FTIR, DSC, PXRD and 1H NMR techniques. The self assembled SDA/CD and SFM/CD inclusion complexes form different types of nano and microstructures. The self assembled nanoparticle morphologies are studied using SEM and TEM techniques. SDA/α-CD complex is formed hierarchal morphology, SDA/β-CD and SFM/β-CD complexes form the nanosheet self assembly. However, SFM/α-CD complex forms nanoporous sheet self assembly. van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interaction play a vital role in the self assembling process.

  20. Whey protein isolate modified by transglutaminase aggregation and emulsion gel properties (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Chen, Chong; Liu, Mujun; Yu, Guoping; Cai, Xinghang; Guo, Peipei; Yao, Yuxiu; Mei, Sijie


    Whey protein isolate and commercial soybean salad oil were used to produce the WPI emulsion dispersions. The properties of TG-catalyzed emulsion gelation produced from WPI emulsion dispersions were investigated by the amount of TG, temperature, pH and reaction time. Specifically, the texture properties (hardness and springiness), water-holding capacity and rheological properties (G' and G") were assessed. The result of Orthogonal tests showed WPI emulsion can form better hardness and springiness gel when the ratio of TG and WPI was 20U/g, pH 7.5, treatment temperature and time were 50°C and 3 h, respectively. The microstructure of TG emulsion gels was more compact, gel pore is smaller, distribution more uniform, the oil droplets size smaller compared with untreated emulsion gels. Compared to the control of rheological properties, G' and G" were significantly increased and G' > G", results showed that the gel was solid state, and TG speeded up the process of gelation.

  1. Study by XPS of the chlorination of proteins aggregated onto tin dioxide during electrochemical production of hypochlorous acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, UPMC Case Courrier 133-4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Haskouri, Sanae [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, UPMC Case Courrier 133-4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France); Cachet, Hubert [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, UPMC Case Courrier 133-4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France)


    In solution, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) reacts with organic matter and notably with protein side-chains. In this study, HOCl was produced by an electrochemical way, by oxidation of chloride ions at a transparent tin dioxide electrode in the presence of a protein, the bovine serum albumin (BSA). A thick irregular layer is formed at the electrode when HOCl is produced at the SnO{sub 2} surface. Indeed, SEM analyses show that an important deposit is formed during the anodic polarization of SnO{sub 2} in the presence of chloride ions and proteins. Actually, two phenomena take place on the one hand the chlorination of the proteins due to the reaction of HOCl with some protein side-chains and on the other hand the aggregation of proteins onto the SnO{sub 2} surface. The present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study points out the cross-linking of BSA molecules via formation of inter molecular sulfonamide groups. It also shows that the BSA chlorination is due on the one hand to the formation of sulfonyl chloride groups (-SO{sub 2}Cl) and on the other hand to formation of chloramine groups ( N-Cl). The Cl2p and S2p photo-peak intensities allowed us to quantify the chloramines. It is found that, one BSA entity immobilized onto the SnO{sub 2} surface contains about 50 chloramine groups.

  2. Reparative Dentinogenesis Induced by Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review from the Biological and Physicochemical Points of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Okiji


    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the biological and physicochemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA with respect to its ability to induce reparative dentinogenesis, which involves complex cellular and molecular events leading to hard-tissue repair by newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells. Compared with that of calcium hydroxide-based materials, MTA is more efficient at inducing reparative dentinogenesis in vivo. The available literature suggests that the action of MTA is attributable to the natural wound healing process of exposed pulps, although MTA can stimulate hard-tissue-forming cells to induce matrix formation and mineralization in vitro. Physicochemical analyses have revealed that MTA not only acts as a “calcium hydroxide-releasing” material, but also interacts with phosphate-containing fluids to form apatite precipitates. MTA also shows better sealing ability and structural stability, but less potent antimicrobial activity compared with that of calcium hydroxide. The clinical outcome of direct pulp capping and pulpotomy with MTA appears quite favorable, although the number of controled prospective studies is still limited. Attempts are being conducted to improve the properties of MTA by the addition of setting accelerators and the development of new calcium silicate-based materials.

  3. Human Rad51 mediated DNA unwinding is facilitated by conditions that favour Rad51-dsDNA aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Anagha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Rad51 (RAD51, analogous to its bacterial homolog, RecA, binds and unwinds double stranded DNA (dsDNA in the presence of certain nucleotide cofactors. ATP hydrolysis is not required for this process, because even ATP non hydrolysable analogs like AMP-PNP and ATPγS, support DNA unwinding. Even ADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, feebly supports DNA unwinding. Results We find that human Rad52 (RAD52 stimulates RAD51 mediated DNA unwinding in the presence of all Adenine nucleotide cofactors, (except in AMP and no nucleotide conditions that intrinsically fail to support unwinding reaction while enhancing aggregation of RAD51-dsDNA complexes in parallel. Interestingly, salt at low concentration can substitute the role of RAD52, in facilitating aggregation of RAD51-dsDNA complexes, that concomitantly also leads to better unwinding. Conclusion RAD52 itself being a highly aggregated protein perhaps acts as scaffold to bring together RAD51 and DNA molecules into large co-aggregates of RAD52-RAD51-DNA complexes to promote RAD51 mediated DNA unwinding reaction, when appropriate nucleotide cofactors are available, presumably through macromolecular crowding effects. Our work highlights the functional link between aggregation of protein-DNA complexes and DNA unwinding in RAD51 system.

  4. Antiplatelet Aggregation Coumarins from the Leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Chang Wu


    Full Text Available Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation method, two coumarins: minumicrolineacetonide (1 and epimurpaniculol senecioate (2, were isolated from the leaves ofMurraya omphalocarpa Hayata (Rutaceae. Compound 1 had been previously synthesizedand was now isolated from natural sources for the first time, and compound 2, possessing anegative optical rotation value, is new. The structures and their stereochemistry were fullyelucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. Bothcompounds 1 and 2 are active in the antiplatelet aggregation assay. Interestingly, thepossible acetonide artifact 1 displayed significant antiplatelet aggregation induced not onlyby AA and collagen but also by platelet activating factor (PAF.

  5. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja


    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  6. Mobile Display of Information about Aggregated Antibiotic Resistance in the Hospital Setting Supported by Near Field Communication. (United States)

    Meng, Philipp; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter


    Antibiotic resistance is a heterogeneous phenomenon. It does not only differ between countries or states, but also between wards of hospitals, where different resistance patterns have been found. To support clinicians in administering empiric antibiotic therapy, we developed software to present information about antibiotic resistance using a mobile concept. A pre-existing infrastructure was deployed as the server component. The systems analyze and aggregate data from laboratory information systems, generating statistical data on antibiotic resistance. The information is presented to the Android client using a Representational State Transfer (REST) interface. Geographical localization is performed using near field communication (NFC) tags. The prototype provides tabulated data concerning antibiotic resistance patterns in the wards of a hospital. Using Android, NFC, and data caching, the usability of the system is estimated to be high. We hypothesize that antibiotic stewardship in hospitals can be supported by this software, thus improving medical monitoring of antibiotic resistance. Future studies in a productive environment are needed to measure the impact of the system on the outcome of patient care.

  7. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang


    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  8. Controlling the Emission of Electromagnetic Sources by Coordinate transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yu; Ran, Lixin; Chen, Hongsheng; Kong, Jin Au


    The coordinate transformation on the space that contains electromagnetic sources is studied. We find that, not only the permittivity and permeability tensors of the media, but also the sources inside the media will take another form in order to behave equivalently as the original case. It is demonstrated that, a source of arbitrary shape and position in the free space can be replaced by an appropriately designed metamaterial coating with current distributed on the inner surface and would not be detected by outer observers, because the emission of the source can be controlled at will in this way. As examples, we show how to design conformal antennas by covering the sources with transformation media. The method proposed in this letter provides a completely new approach to develop novel active EM devices.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: The Success of Open Source by Steven Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lease Morgan


    Full Text Available The Success of Open Source by Steven Weber details the history, process, motivations, and possible long-term effects of open source software (OSS. Weber’s book can be used as a set of guidelines – a description of a framework – for building software solutions for the computing problems facing libraries.

  10. The Development of Source Use by International Postgraduate Students (United States)

    Davis, Mary


    It is widely accepted that learning to use sources is difficult, especially for international postgraduate students, but to date, few longitudinal studies have been carried out in this area. Therefore, this two-year UK-based study aims to help fill this gap by examining the source use of three Chinese postgraduate students of business, technology…

  11. Source detection in astronomical images by Bayesian model comparison (United States)

    Frean, Marcus; Friedlander, Anna; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Hollitt, Christopher


    The next generation of radio telescopes will generate exabytes of data on hundreds of millions of objects, making automated methods for the detection of astronomical objects ("sources") essential. Of particular importance are faint, diffuse objects embedded in noise. There is a pressing need for source finding software that identifies these sources, involves little manual tuning, yet is tractable to calculate. We first give a novel image discretisation method that incorporates uncertainty about how an image should be discretised. We then propose a hierarchical prior for astronomical images, which leads to a Bayes factor indicating how well a given region conforms to a model of source that is exceptionally unconstrained, compared to a model of background. This enables the efficient localisation of regions that are "suspiciously different" from the background distribution, so our method looks not for brightness but for anomalous distributions of intensity, which is much more general. The model of background can be iteratively improved by removing the influence on it of sources as they are discovered. The approach is evaluated by identifying sources in real and simulated data, and performs well on these measures: the Bayes factor is maximized at most real objects, while returning only a moderate number of false positives. In comparison to a catalogue constructed by widely-used source detection software with manual post-processing by an astronomer, our method found a number of dim sources that were missing from the "ground truth" catalogue.

  12. Study on performance of concrete with over-burnt bricks aggregates and micro-silica admixture (United States)

    Praveen, K.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Mini, K. M.


    Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, aggregates and water in required proportion, where aggregates occupy the major volume. Addition of aggregates in concrete improves properties of concrete. With the natural resources depleting rapidly, limiting the use of natural resources and enhancing the use of waste materials is very important for sustainable development. Over-burnt bricks are a waste material which cannot be used in construction directly because of their irregular shape and dark colour. Use of over-burnt bricks helps to preserve natural aggregate source. The present study focuses on the effects of microsilica at various percentages as a partial cement replacement in concrete with over-burnt bricks as coarse aggregates. The mechanical properties of hardened concrete such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive strength are studied and analyzed.

  13. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.


    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  14. The Effects of Light-Accelerated Degradation on the Aggregation of Marketed Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies Evaluated by Size-Exclusion Chromatography With Diode Array Detection. (United States)

    Hernández-Jiménez, José; Salmerón-García, Antonio; Cabeza, José; Vélez, Celia; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; Navas, Natalia


    Research into the effects that exposure to light can have on therapeutic proteins is essential for ensuring the quality and safety of the medicines in which they are used. It is important to understand the effects of light on aggregation to help avoid undesirable colloidal instabilities, both in the original medicines and in the formats in which they are finally administered. In this study, 5 marketed therapeutic mAbs, namely bevacizumab, cetuximab, infliximab, rituximab, and trastuzumab, were investigated for this purpose. The medicines and 2 diluted preparations in 0.9 NaCl (2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL)-commonly used in clinical practice-were subjected to controlled light-accelerated degradation. The formation of aggregates was monitored by size-exclusion chromatography. The results indicated that light induced protein aggregation. This process of protein damage was influenced above all by mAb concentration, although the particular characteristics of each mAb were also important. Photodegradation also produced the fragmentation of the mAbs. The damage caused to the mAbs as a result of light-induced aggregation and/or fragmentation was demonstrated both in the medicines and in the diluted preparation forms. These findings should be carefully considered when handling the medicines for administration and when recommending beyond-use dates in normal hospital conditions.

  15. Aggregation and network formation in self-assembly of protein (H3.1) by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation (United States)

    Pandey, R. B.; Farmer, B. L.


    Multi-scale aggregation to network formation of interacting proteins (H3.1) are examined by a knowledge-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation as a function of temperature and the number of protein chains, i.e., the concentration of the protein. Self-assembly of corresponding homo-polymers of constitutive residues (Cys, Thr, and Glu) with extreme residue-residue interactions, i.e., attractive (Cys-Cys), neutral (Thr-Thr), and repulsive (Glu-Glu), are also studied for comparison with the native protein. Visual inspections show contrast and similarity in morphological evolutions of protein assembly, aggregation of small aggregates to a ramified network from low to high temperature with the aggregation of a Cys-polymer, and an entangled network of Glu and Thr polymers. Variations in mobility profiles of residues with the concentration of the protein suggest that the segmental characteristic of proteins is altered considerably by the self-assembly from that in its isolated state. The global motion of proteins and Cys polymer chains is enhanced by their interacting network at the low temperature where isolated chains remain quasi-static. Transition from globular to random coil transition, evidenced by the sharp variation in the radius of gyration, of an isolated protein is smeared due to self-assembly of interacting networks of many proteins. Scaling of the structure factor S(q) with the wave vector q provides estimates of effective dimension D of the mass distribution at multiple length scales in self-assembly. Crossover from solid aggregates (D ˜ 3) at low temperature to a ramified fibrous network (D ˜ 2) at high temperature is observed for the protein H3.1 and Cys polymers in contrast to little changes in mass distribution (D ˜ 1.6) of fibrous Glu- and Thr-chain configurations.

  16. Environmental performance and mechanical analysis of concrete containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and waste precast concrete as aggregate. (United States)

    Erdem, Savaş; Blankson, Marva Angela


    The overall objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating 100% recycled aggregates, either waste precast concrete or waste asphalt planning, as replacements for virgin aggregates in structural concrete and to determine the mechanical and environmental performance of concrete containing these aggregates. Four different types of concrete mixtures were designed with the same total water cement ratio (w/c=0.74) either by using natural aggregate as reference or by totally replacing the natural aggregate with recycled material. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a mineral addition (35%) in all mixtures. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain satisfactory performance for strength characteristics of concrete containing recycled aggregates, if these aggregates are sourced from old precast concrete. However, from the perspective of the mechanical properties, the test results indicated that concrete with RAP aggregate cannot be used for structural applications. In terms of leaching, the results also showed that the environmental behaviour of the recycled aggregate concrete is similar to that of the natural aggregate concrete.

  17. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.


    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  18. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.


    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured

  19. Identification of Esters as Novel Aggregation Pheromone Components Produced by the Male Powder-Post Beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Lyctinae). (United States)

    Kartika, Titik; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi


    Lyctus africanus is a cosmopolitan powder-post beetle that is considered one of the major pests threatening timber and timber products. Because infestations of this beetle are inconspicuous, damage is difficult to detect and identification is often delayed. We identified the chemical compounds involved in the aggregation behavior of L. africanus using preparations of crude hexanic extracts from male and female beetles (ME and FE, respectively). Both male and female beetles showed significant preferences for ME, which was found to contain three esters. FE was ignored by both the sexes. Further bioassay confirmed the role of esters in the aggregation behavior of L. africanus. Three esters were identified as 2-propyl dodecanoate, 3-pentyl dodecanoate, and 3-pentyl tetradecanoate. Further behavioral bioassays revealed 3-pentyl dodecanoate to play the main role in the aggregation behavior of female L. africanus beetles. However, significantly more beetles aggregated on a paper disk treated with a blend of the three esters than on a paper disk treated with a single ester. This is the first report on pheromone identification in L. africanus; in addition, the study for the first time presents 3-pentyl dodecanoate as an insect pheromone.

  20. Cu(2+ affects amyloid-β (1-42 aggregation by increasing peptide-peptide binding forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hane

    Full Text Available The link between metals, Alzheimer's disease (AD and its implicated protein, amyloid-β (Aβ, is complex and highly studied. AD is believed to occur as a result of the misfolding and aggregation of Aβ. The dyshomeostasis of metal ions and their propensity to interact with Aβ has also been implicated in AD. In this work, we use single molecule atomic force spectroscopy to measure the rupture force required to dissociate two Aβ (1-42 peptides in the presence of copper ions, Cu(2+. In addition, we use atomic force microscopy to resolve the aggregation of Aβ formed. Previous research has shown that metal ions decrease the lag time associated with Aβ aggregation. We show that with the addition of copper ions the unbinding force increases notably. This suggests that the reduction of lag time associated with Aβ aggregation occurs on a single molecule level as a result of an increase in binding forces during the very initial interactions between two Aβ peptides. We attribute these results to copper ions acting as a bridge between the two peptide molecules, increasing the stability of the peptide-peptide complex.

  1. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René


    The aggregation number (n), thermodynamic potentials (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) for 6 natural bile salts were determined on the basis of both original and previously published isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data. Different procedures to estimate parameters...

  2. Kinetic analysis of protein aggregation monitored by real-time 2D solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etzkorn, M.; Böckmann, A.; Baldus, M.


    It is shown that real-time 2D solid-state NMR can be used to obtain kinetic and structural information about the process of protein aggregation. In addition to the incorporation of kinetic information involving intermediate states, this approach can offer atom-specific resolution for all detectable

  3. Aggregation studied by laser diffraction in relation to plowing and liming in the Cerrado region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, R.; Buurman, P.; Griethuysen, van C.; Ayarza, M.; Vilela, L.; Zech, W.


    In the Cerrado savanna region in Brazil, the effects of different land use on axisol aggregation were studied using laser diffraction grain size analyses. The topsoil of plowed systems had significantly lower amount of macroaggregates (2000-194 μm) and a significantly higher amount of soil in the mi

  4. Source allocation by least-squares hydrocarbon fingerprint matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Burns; Stephen M. Mudge; A. Edward Bence; Paul D. Boehm; John S. Brown; David S. Page; Keith R. Parker [W.A. Burns Consulting Services LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    There has been much controversy regarding the origins of the natural polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chemical biomarker background in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, site of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Different authors have attributed the sources to various proportions of coal, natural seep oil, shales, and stream sediments. The different probable bioavailabilities of hydrocarbons from these various sources can affect environmental damage assessments from the spill. This study compares two different approaches to source apportionment with the same data (136 PAHs and biomarkers) and investigate whether increasing the number of coal source samples from one to six increases coal attributions. The constrained least-squares (CLS) source allocation method that fits concentrations meets geologic and chemical constraints better than partial least-squares (PLS) which predicts variance. The field data set was expanded to include coal samples reported by others, and CLS fits confirm earlier findings of low coal contributions to PWS. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Study on paper moisture measurement method by monochromatic light sources (United States)

    Mo, Changtao; Du, Xin; He, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Li, Nan; Wang, Ming


    We design the emission and detection optical paths of three monochromatic infrared light sources with different wavelength. The three light sources are placed according to the different angles, so that the three kinds of monochromatic lights are converged on the same point of the sample. Using the method, we can detect the same point and improve the measurement accuracy. We choose the standard near-infrared monochromatic light source, so that we can save some equipments, such as tungsten- halogen lamp, filtered wheel, collimation focalizer, electric machine, and so on. In particular, we save the cumbersome cooling system, reduce the volume of the instrument greatly and reduce the cost. The three monochromatic light sources are supplied by the same pulse power source, to ensure their synchronous working.

  6. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin


    the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...... renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system.......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...

  7. Speciation analysis by gas chromatography with plasma source spectrometric detection (United States)

    Łobiński, Ryszard; Adams, Freddy C.

    State-of-the-art species-selective analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with plasma source spectrometric detection is discussed for organometal and organometalloid compounds. Various plasmas, inductively coupled plasma, microwave induced plasma, capacitatively coupled plasma, direct current plasma and alternating current plasma, are characterized and critically compared as sources of radiation for atomic emission spectrometry and sources of ions for mass spectrometry. Interfaces between gas chromatography (packed, wide-bore, capillary and multicapillary) and plasma source spectrometry are characterized. Particular emphasis is given to applications of GC with plasma source detection to real-world analytical problems, which are comprehensively reviewed. The use of plasmas for the acquisition of auxiliary molecular information such as empirical formulae and structural information is discussed. Recent developments relating to sample preparation and presentation to the hyphenated system are addressed. The most significant trends in speciation analysis are highlighted.

  8. Nuclear inclusion bodies of mutant and wild-type p53 in cancer: a hallmark of p53 inactivation and proteostasis remodeling by p53 aggregation. (United States)

    De Smet, Frederik; Saiz Rubio, Mirian; Hompes, Daphne; Naus, Evelyne; De Baets, Greet; Langenberg, Tobias; Hipp, Mark S; Houben, Bert; Claes, Filip; Charbonneau, Sarah; Blanco, Javier Delgado; Plaisance, Stephane; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Ramkissoon, Lori; Simons, Colinda; van den Brandt, Piet; Weijenberg, Matty; Van England, Manon; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Amant, Frederic; D'Hoore, André; Ligon, Keith L; Sagaert, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic


    Although p53 protein aggregates have been observed in cancer cell lines and tumour tissue, their impact in cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we extensively screened for p53 aggregation phenotypes in tumour biopsies and identified nuclear inclusion bodies (nIBs) of transcriptionally inactive mutant or wild-type p53 as the most frequent aggregation-like phenotype across six different cancer types. p53-positive nIBs co-stained with nuclear aggregation markers and shared molecular hallmarks of nIBs commonly found in neurodegenerative disorders. In cell culture, tumour-associated stress was a strong inducer of p53 aggregation and nuclear inclusion body formation. This was most prominent for mutant p53, but could also be observed in wild-type p53 cell lines for which nIB formation correlated to the loss of p53s transcriptional activity. Importantly, protein aggregation also fueled the dysregulation of the proteostasis network in the tumour cell by inducing a hyper-activated, oncogenic heat-shock response to which tumours are commonly addicted, and by overloading the proteasomal degradation system, an observation that was most pronounced for structurally destabilized mutant p53. Patients exhibiting tumours with p53-positive nIBs suffered from a poor clinical outcome similar to loss-of-p53-expression, and tumour biopsies displayed a differential proteostatic expression profile associated to p53-nIBs. p53-positive nIBs therefore highlight a malignant state of the tumour that results from the interplay between (i) the functional inactivation of p53 through mutation and/or aggregation and (ii) microenvironmental stress, a combination that catalyses proteostatic dysregulation. This study highlights several unexpected clinical, biological and therapeutically unexplored parallels between cancer and neurodegeneration.

  9. Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Reinforced with Polypropylene Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohammad Wan Nur Syazwani


    Full Text Available This research work is aimed to investigate how the addition of various proportion of polypropylene fibre affects the mechanical strength and permeability characteristics of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC which has been produced with treated coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA. Further research on RAC properties and their applications is of great importance as the scarcity of virgin aggregate sources in close proximity to major urban centers is becoming a worldwide problem. In this study, the hardened RAC properties at the curing age of 7 and 28 days such as compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV, water absorption and total porosity were evaluated and compare with control specimens. Experimental result indicates that although the inclusion of the treated coarse RCA can enhance the mechanical strength and permeability properties of RAC, Further modification by addition of polypropylene fibre can optimize the results.

  10. Aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, D.


    An economic model, using OLS regression, of aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry is presented. Some of the methods used by Weisskopf, Bowles and Gordon (1983) in their `social model` of aggregate productivity in the US economy are drawn upon; however, all `social` variables included in this coal productivity model are found not to be significant. The results suggest that pit closures have been an important source of aggregate productivity growth throughout the period; this does not imply, however, that `unproductive`, or `uneconomic`, pits are intrinsically so, rather their status as such may be the result of a political process. Average colliery size and the industry`s capital stock were also found to be important explanatory variables. Attention was paid to the effects of the national miners` strikes during the period; these were found to be structurally insignificant. 45 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Mechanical and durability properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete containing recycled coarse aggregates



    This paper presents mechanical and durability properties of geopolymer concrete containing recycled coarse aggregate (RCA). The RCA is sourced from local construction and demolition (C&D) waste in Perth, Australia. The RCA is used as a partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) in geopolymer concrete at 15%, 30% and 50% by wt. which corresponds to series two, three and four, respectively, while the geopolymer concrete containing 100% NCA is control and is considered as the first se...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan A. Tarawneh


    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties and characteristics of steel slag aggregate concrete in comparison with the typical crushed limestone stone aggregate concrete. Hardened concrete consist of more than 70% aggregate due to the high demand in building construction and the increase of the amount of disposed waste material, suppliers and researchers are exploring the use of alternative materials which could preserve natural sources and save the environment. In this study, steel slag was used as an aggregate replacement in conventional concrete mixes. Steel slag which is mainly consists of calcium carbonate is produced as a by-product during the oxidation process in steel industry. Steel slag was selected due to its characteristics, which are almost similar to conventional aggregates and the fact that it is easily obtainable as a by-product of the steel industry. As a result, utilization of steel slag will save natural resources and clean environment. Furthermore, results have shown that slag aggregate has better abrasion factor and impact value than conventional aggregate. Thorough investigation of the results have indicated that the amount of increase in compressive strength at age of 7 days are much more than that of age 28 days for all types of aggregate replacement. This indicates that the added slag could work as accelerator at early age while at 28 days age, the effect is reduced. The fine slag replacement scores the highest effect.

  13. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability. (United States)

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G


    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  14. Evaluation of the Genetic Basis of Familial Aggregation of Pacemaker Implantation by a Large Next Generation Sequencing Panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia B S Celestino-Soper

    Full Text Available The etiology of conduction disturbances necessitating permanent pacemaker (PPM implantation is often unknown, although familial aggregation of PPM (faPPM suggests a possible genetic basis. We developed a pan-cardiovascular next generation sequencing (NGS panel to genetically characterize a selected cohort of faPPM.We designed and validated a custom NGS panel targeting the coding and splicing regions of 246 genes with involvement in cardiac pathogenicity. We enrolled 112 PPM patients and selected nine (8% with faPPM to be analyzed by NGS.Our NGS panel covers 95% of the intended target with an average of 229x read depth at a minimum of 15-fold depth, reaching a SNP true positive rate of 98%. The faPPM patients presented with isolated cardiac conduction disease (ICCD or sick sinus syndrome (SSS without overt structural heart disease or identifiable secondary etiology. Three patients (33.3% had heterozygous deleterious variants previously reported in autosomal dominant cardiac diseases including CCD: LDB3 (p.D117N and TRPM4 (p.G844D variants in patient 4; TRPM4 (p.G844D and ABCC9 (p.V734I variants in patient 6; and SCN5A (p.T220I and APOB (p.R3527Q variants in patient 7.FaPPM occurred in 8% of our PPM clinic population. The employment of massive parallel sequencing for a large selected panel of cardiovascular genes identified a high percentage (33.3% of the faPPM patients with deleterious variants previously reported in autosomal dominant cardiac diseases, suggesting that genetic variants may play a role in faPPM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi


    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  16. First catalogue of variable sources observed by INTEGRAL/OMC (United States)

    Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Domingo, A.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.


    The Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) onboard INTEGRAL provides photometry in the V Johnson band. With an aperture of 50 mm and a field of view of 5°×5°, OMC is able to detect optical sources brighter than around V˜18 from a previously selected list of potential targets of interest. This first catalogue of variable sources observed by OMC contains more than 5000 variables objects. The long time interval of the observations (more than 7 years) allowed us to study the potential periodicity of these sources determining periods for more than 1000 objects.

  17. Spatial Prediction of Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Organic Carbon Content at the Catchment Scale Using Geostatistical Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The association of organic carbon with secondary parzicles (aggregates) results in its storage and retention in soil. A study was carried out at a catchment covering about 92 km2 to predict spatial variability of soil water-stable aggregates (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and organic carbon (OC) content in macro- (> 2 mm), meso- (1-2 mm), and micro-aggregate (< 1 mm) fractions, using geostatistical methods. One hundred and eleven soil samples were c(o)llected at the 0-10 cm depth and fractionated into macro-, meso-, and micro-aggregates by wet sieving. The OC content was determined for each fraction. A greater percentage of water-stable aggregates was found for micro-aggregates, followed by meso-aggregates. Aggregate OC content was greatest in meso-aggregates (9 g kg-1), followed by micro-aggregates (7 g kg-1), while the least OC content was found in macro-aggregates (3 g kg-1). Although a significart effect (P = 0.000) of aggregate size on aggregate OC content was found, however, our findings did not support the model of aggregate hierarchy.Land use had a significant effect (P = 0.073) on aggregate OC content. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for OC contents associated with each aggregate fraction indicated macro-aggregates as the most variable (CV = 71%). Among the aggregate fractions, the micro-aggregate fraction had a lower CV value of 27%. The mean content of WSA ranged from 15% for macro-aggregates to 84% for micro-aggregates. Geostatistical analysis showed that the measured soil variables exhibited differences in their spatial patterns in both magnitude and space at each aggregate size fraction. The relative nugget variance for most aggregate-associated properties was lower than 45%. The range value for the variogram of water-stable aggregates was almost similar (about 3 km) for the three studied aggregate size classes. The range value for the variogram of aggregate-associated OC contents ranged from about 3 km for macro-aggregates

  18. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelashvili, I., E-mail: [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Pedersen, B. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Beck, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J.M. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel)


    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  19. [Effect of temperature on the aggregation behavior of collagen solution by two-dimensional synchronous fluorescence correlation spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Wu, Wan-ye; Wu, Kun; Li, Guo-ying


    The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study the aggregation behavior of acid-soluble collagen solutions (0.2, 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1)) during the heating process of 10-70 degrees C. It was found that the fluorescence excited at 292 and 282 nm (delta lamda=9 nm) belongs to the tyrosine (Tyr) residues which participate in forming hydrogen bonds or not, respectively. The two dimensional correlation analysis with the temperature varying showed that with the temperature increased (10-30 degrees C) hydrogen bonds among collagen molecular with Tyr residues formed in the 0.2 mg x mL(-1) collagen solution, while the higher aggregations of collagen molecular and hydrophobic micro-domains appeared in the 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1) collagen solutions. With approaching the denatured temperature of collagen (36-38 degrees C), the hydrophobic micro-domain and aggregates seemed to be broken in the 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1) collagen solutions, however the hydrogen bonds in the 0.2 mg x mL(-1) were stable. Above the denaturation temperature of collagen, the triple-helix structure of collagen molecular in solution of each concentration tended to be loose. In the heating process of 45-70 degrees C, this trend was more obvious.

  20. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value. (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K


    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples.

  1. Platelet aggregation is affected by nitrosothiols in patients with chronic hepatitis: In vivo and in vitro studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Federico; C Loguercio; A Filippelli; M Falciani; C Tuccillo; A Tiso; A Floreani; R Naccarato; F Rossi; C Del Vecchio Blanco


    AIM: To investigate the relationship among the number of platelets and plasma levels of S-nitrosothiols (S-NO),nitrite, total non-protein SH (NPSH), glutathione (GSH), cysteine (CYS), malondialdehyde (MDA),4-hydroxininenal (4HNE), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) a