WorldWideScience

Sample records for aggregate economic damage

  1. Isolation and Aggregation in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlicht, Ekkehart

    1985-01-01

    In explaining economic phenomena, economic analysis concentrates on selected influences and fixes the host of other factors under a ceteris paribus clause. This view, which goes back to Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), is developed in the first part of the book. Aggregation is viewed as a particular application of ceteris paribus analysis - isolation from "structural effects". This leads to an approach, called "closed aggregation", which was introduced by Kenneth May and is also implicit in Keyne...

  2. The aggregation of climate change damages. A welfare theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic value of environmental goods is commonly determined using the concepts of willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to accept (WTA). However, the WTP/WTA observed in different countries (or between individuals) will differ according to socio-economic characteristics, in particular income. This notion of differentiated values for otherwise identical goods (say, a given reduction in mortality risk) has been criticized as unethical, most recently in the context of the 'social cost' chapter of the IPCC Second Assessment Report. These critics argue that, being a function of income, WTP/WTA estimates reflect the unfairness in the current income distribution, and for equity reasons uniform per-unit values should therefore be applied across individuals and countries. This paper analyses the role of equity in the aggregation of climate change damage estimates, using basic tools of welfare economics. It shows one way of how WTP/WTA estimates can be corrected in aggregation if the underlying income distribution is considered unfair. It proposes that in the aggregation process individual estimates be weighted with an equity factor derived from the social welfare and utility functions. Equity weighting can significantly increase aggregate (global) damage figures, although some specifications of weighting functions also imply reduced estimates. The paper also shows that while the postulate of uniform per-unit values is compatible with a wide range of 'reasonable' utility and welfare specifications, there are also cases where the common-value notion is not compatible with defensible welfare concepts. 3 tabs., 32 refs

  3. Staring at Economic Aggregators through Information Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nock, Richard; Sanz, Nicolas; Celimene, Fred; Nielsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to exaggerate the role of economic aggregators -- functions that summarize numerous and / or heterogeneous data -- in economic models since the early XX$^{th}$ century. In many cases, as witnessed by the pioneering works of Cobb and Douglas, these functions were information quantities tailored to economic theories, i.e. they were built to fit economic phenomena. In this paper, we look at these functions from the complementary side: information. We use a recent toolbox built on top ...

  4. Economic Instability and Aggregate Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck; Solimano, Andres

    1993-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that because investment expenditures are irreversible and can be delayed, they may be highly sensitive to uncertainty. The authors briefly summarize the theory, stressing its empirical implications. Then, using cross-section and time-series data for a set of developing and industrial countries, they explore the empirical relevance of irreversibility and uncertainty to aggregate investment. They find that: (a) the volatility of the marginal profitability of capital (...

  5. Staring at Economic Aggregators through Information Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nock, Richard; Celimene, Fred; Nielsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to exaggerate the role of economic aggregators -- functions that summarize numerous and / or heterogeneous data -- in economic models since the early XX$^{th}$ century. In many cases, as witnessed by the pioneering works of Cobb and Douglas, these functions were information quantities tailored to economic theories, i.e. they were built to fit economic phenomena. In this paper, we look at these functions from the complementary side: information. We use a recent toolbox built on top of a vast class of distortions coined by Bregman, whose application field rivals metrics' in various subfields of mathematics. This toolbox makes it possible to find the quality of an aggregator (for consumptions, prices, labor, capital, wages, etc.), from the standpoint of the information it carries. We prove a rather striking result. From the informational standpoint, well-known economic aggregators do belong to the \\textit{optimal} set. As common economic assumptions enter the analysis, this large set shrinks, and it e...

  6. Economic measurement of environment damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  7. Inventories, oil shocks, and aggregate economic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ana Maria

    This dissertation examines the relationship between oil price shocks and aggregate economic behavior in the U.S. The first chapter addresses the effects of changes in the price of crude oil on the manufacturing sector in VAR regressions and in a structural linear quadratic inventory model. It finds that oil price increases lead to reductions in manufacturing activity while oil price falls are not followed by booms. This asymmetry in the response of the manufacturing activity, the changes in the composition of the demand, and the large variations in sales of key investment and consumption goods favor a multi-channel transmission mechanism. The analysis shows that differences in the response of the various industrial sectors are determined by the cost structure of the industry as well as by the dynamics of the demand, cost and oil shocks. Positive oil price shocks are first transmitted from the transportation equipment industry to sectors such as primary metals products, rubber and plastics and textiles, later affecting the remaining sectors and the aggregates. In the short run inventories act as a buffer however, one and a half years after the shock significant production cuts do take place. Sluggishness in the response of aggregate output can be accounted by the behavior of inventories as well as by the time lags implied in the propagation from one industry to the remaining sectors and the aggregate. The second chapter studies the role of oil prices and monetary policy in accounting for business cycles in an identified VAR framework. It finds that the slowdown in GDP growth that follows an oil shock can not be solely explained by the response of the Fed's monetary policy. An "exogenous" monetary policy that holds the fed funds rate fixed would exert a large expansionary effect. Nevertheless, conditional on this policy, the reduction in economic activity persists and the price level increases leading to a sharp reduction in the short-term interest rate. In addition

  8. Aggregate Economic Shocks, Child Schooling, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Do aggregate economic shocks, such as those caused by macroeconomic crises or droughts, reduce child human capital? The answer to this question has important implications for public policy. If shocks reduce investments in children, they may transmit poverty from one generation to the next. This paper uses a simple framework to analyze the effects of aggregate economic shocks on child schoo...

  9. Economic evaluation of subsidence damage mitigation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mining in Illinois has resulted in many structures being exposed to subsidence damage. Damage mitigation techniques (DMT) applied in the foundation design/construction have proven successful in minimizing damage in several test cases. To determine the practicality of these techniques, the costs of their application are investigated. The DMT costs are compared to foundation and total house costs for various classes and sizes of houses. An economical and effective subsidence resistant foundation construction is proposed

  10. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  11. Return dispersion, stock market liquidity and aggregate economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Degiannakis; Andreas Andrikopoulos; Timotheos Angelidis; Christos Floros

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of return dispersion on the dynamics of stock market liquidity, risk and return. Moreover, the importance of return dispersion in forecasting aggregate economic activity is rediscovered in the context of a regime switching model that accounts for stock market fluctuations and their association with the state of the economy. We find that there is a bidirectional, Granger-causal association between illiquidity and return dispersion in the U.S. stock market. The em...

  12. Aggregate dynamic economic-ecological models for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J.C.J.M.; P. Nijkamp

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to formulate a general integrated aggregate dynamic model for sustainable development, that will be both simple in structure and able to deal with the main objectives, processes, and constraints applying to sustainable development in closed economic - ecological systems. General characteristics of models to be used for sustainable development are discussed. It turns out that such models do not exist. Short critical descriptions are given of representative analytical mo...

  13. Granular Effect of Fly Ash Repairs Damage of Recycled Coarse Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-su; XIAO Han-ning; GONG Jian-qing

    2008-01-01

    Repairing effect of fly ash (FA) on damage of recycled coarse aggregate was evaluated by characteristics of pores and cracks in the vicinity of interracial transition zone (ITZ). The interracial structure between the virgin aggregate and the attached old mortar was investigated and compared with ITZ of recycled aggregate concrete in the presence of FA or ultra-fine FA(UFA) by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Diam- eter and plumpness frequency distribution of pores as well as width of the old ITZ, length of contacting points and cracks density were analyzed. The SEM results reveal that the diameter of pores is decreases significantly but pores plumpness increases. A decreased ITZ width and cracks density as well as an increased bonding zone length can also been observed, which indicates that FA or UFA repairs damage of recycled coarse aggregate due to its granular effect.

  14. BMW v. Gore: Mitigating the Punitive Economics of Punitive Damages

    OpenAIRE

    Mark F. Grady; Paul H. Rubin; Calfee, John E.

    1997-01-01

    In BMW v Gore, the Supreme Court held that a state court's award of punitive damages was so excessive that it violated the Due Process Clause. In three other recent cases, the Court had rejected due process challenges to large awards of punitive damages. Although the Court did not articulate an economic rationale, these four cases are consistent with a theory under which federal courts should intervene only when there is a high risk that punitive damages will systematically appropriate wealth...

  15. Constructing Aggregate Environmental-Economic Indicators. A Comparison of 12 OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of aggregate indicators in environmental-economic research has received little attention so far. An important reason is the incompleteness of environmental data. This article presents a systematic approach to construct indicators of environment and economy on a macro level. It includes a distinction into the following categories: the volume of economic activities as an indicator of potential environmental pressure; actual environmental pressure; environmental quality; and environmental policy. In each category aggregate indicators are calculated for 12 OECD countries. Subsequently, the correlation between these indicators is examined. Significant correlation is found between the economic activity indicators (or 'potential' environmental pressure), actual environmental pressure and environmental quality, whereas a very weak correlation exists with these indicators and two types of aggregate indicators of environmental policy. Due to some arbitrary choices, which are inevitable, the results are to be judged with caution. Several suggestions are offered to improve the calculation and comparison of aggregate indicators. 20 refs

  16. Economical evaluation of damaged vacuum insulation panels in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, G. S.; Kang, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In Korea, thermal insulation standard of buildings have been tightened annually to satisfy the passive house standard from the year 2009. The current domestic policies about disseminating green buildings are progressively conducted. All buildings should be the zero energy building in the year 2025, obligatorily. The method is applied to one of the key technologies for high-performance insulation for zero energy building. The vacuum insulation panel is an excellent high performance insulation. But thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels is reduced significantly. In this paper, the thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels was compared and analyzed. The measurement result of thermal performance depends on the core material type. The insulation of building envelope is usually selected by economic feasibility. To evaluate the economic feasibility of VIPs, the operation cost was analyzed by simulation according to the types and damaged ratio of VIPs

  17. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALETTO, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province. Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production and carbon sequestration functions, replacement cost method for protection, and contingent valuation for tourism-recreation. Applying desk research on damage caused by the main biotic and abiotic factors to this particular case study led us to estimate a annual damage of about € 1,624,921 equal to 4.71 € per hectare. This can be considered a lower bound estimate of possibly greater damage. Another interesting result that emerged from the evaluation exercise is that the wealth of information produced through monitoring and scientific research in the last twenty years does not readily lend itself to economic analysis.

  19. Climate change loss and damage. Economic and legal foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text works to establish essential foundations and guidelines in the current process of providing strategies, mechanisms and resources for mitigating loss and damage from the adverse impacts of climate change and climate variability. This builds on the groundwork done by the UNFCCC and other entities to facilitate the processes at the international level, pursuing a pragmatic approach and the objective specification of relevant frameworks for further actions. The primary goal is the development of integrated approaches to the assessment and reduction of loss and damage due to climate change (including climate variability), encompassing both economic and legal dimensions.

  20. Economic reform and aggregate cropping patterns for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shousha, Fawaz M.; Gregory R. Pautsch

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1980s, the government of Egypt embarked on an aggressive initiative to progressively change its centrally planned economy to a system more dependent on domestic and international markets. The agriculture and food sectors have taken the lead in the economic reforms. This paper investigates changes in Egyptian cropping patterns as an indicator of the 'success' of the transition toward a more market-oriented economy. First, trends in cultivated area and gross margins durin...

  1. Aggregation rules for cost-benefit analysis: a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine

    2008-07-01

    Few willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies in the health sector have used their results within a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an essential step to informing resource allocation decisions. This paper provides an overview of aggregation methods, reviews current evidence of practice in the health sector, and presents estimates of the total economic value of a women's group programme to improve mother and newborn health using different aggregation rules. A contingent valuation survey was conducted with 93 women's group members, 70 female non-members and 33 husbands. Aggregation was conducted with and without the values of non-users, and with different units of aggregation. The unadjusted mean, median and a weighted mean transfer were used to aggregate values. Equity weights were introduced to adjust WTP for income. Total WTP more than doubled when the values of husbands were added to that of women, and increased over 10-fold when the values of women who were not members of the group were added. The inclusion of non-use values, and the unit of aggregation, had the greatest effect on results. Researchers must reach agreement on the most acceptable method of aggregating WTP values to promote the use of WTP in resource allocation decisions in the health sector. PMID:17992709

  2. Investment behavior and investment aggregates during China's economic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi

    2006-01-01

    In view of the peculiar patterns of investment ownership structure and special investment phenomena in China,the paper sets up formal dynamic investment behavioral models for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises(NSOEs)under the background of full-dimensional and gradual economic transition.The models are based on two key points: entrepreneurs of SOEs have dual and changing operational objectives as the result of property-rights reformation;and dual-track approach of price liberalization process and reformation of financing system alters the actual user costs of capital goods.Analytical solutions are provided and it is shown that there exists a normative and unified explanation of the peculiar phenomena such as "investment deficiency" of NSOEs,"investment thirst","investment inefficiency," and dual shrinkage of SOEs in both investment and output.Our research also sheds lights on evaluation of preceding reforms,understanding of SOEs' losses and bad bank loans.The paper partially justifies the property-rights-oriented reformation of SOEs.

  3. Comparative performance of various smart aggregates during strength gain and damage states of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi Saravanan, T.; Balamonica, K.; Bharathi Priya, C.; Likhith Reddy, A.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-01

    Information regarding the early strength gain of fresh concrete determines the time for the removal of form work and the transfer of pre-stressing forces for pre-stressed concrete. An ultrasonic based non-destructive evaluation of early strength gain may not work for concrete in fluid and semi-solid phases. A possible alternative is a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based smart aggregate embedded in concrete, which can evaluate the micro-structural and rheological properties right from the fluid phase. A set of five smart aggregates embedded in a concrete cube were investigated for their suitability to evaluate electromechanical impedance (EMI) signatures. Cubes were loaded to failure and the EMI during progressive strength loss under compressive loads was studied. To show the generalized applicability of this, experimental results for the performance of typical smart aggregates on a larger specimen, namely a concrete beam, are also discussed. Different statistical metrics were examined computationally on a three peak admittance curve with a parametric variation of stiffness, damping and simple scaling. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), mean absolute percentage deviation (MAPD), cross correlation (CC) and modified cross correlation (MCC) were investigated, in addition to the rate of change of the RMSD. Variations between the reference and modified states were studied. Both stiffness and mass gains occur for the smart aggregates, resulting in an increase or decrease of frequency and amplitude peaks due to progressive C-S-H gel formation. The trend of increasing stiffness and the consequent rightward shift of the resonant peaks and decrease of damping, with the consequent upward shift of amplitudes that happens during curing and strength gain, was observed to be reversed during the application of damaging loads.

  4. Pigmented macrophage aggregates as a biomarker of oxidative damage in yellow bullhead catfish, Ameiurus natalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented macrophage aggregates (PMs) occur when peroxidized lipids resulting from oxidative damage in tissues are scavenged by macrophages. Ionizing radiation causes oxidative damage, so the authors evaluated PMs as a biomarker in the pronephros of yellow bullheads (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting Pond B, Savannah River Site, SC, a reservoir contaminated with low levels of 137Cs. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and stepwise regression were used to relate the mean number of PMs, per 0.15 mm2 of tissue section, to fish sex (females: N = 61; males: N = 84), age (1--6 yrs), body-condition, and muscle 137Cs concentration. Mean pronephric PMs differed by six and with fish muscle 137Cs concentration. Among males, PMs were positively correlated with fish age and 137Cs. In females, PMs were also correlated with fish age and 137Cs. ANCOVA, with age as covariate, affirmed that sex and muscle 137Cs were significantly associated with the mean number of pronephric PMs. Using stepwise regression, the interaction of age and 137Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs in males. Among females, the product of age, body-condition, and 137Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs. The positive relationships between the number of pronephric PMs and 137Cs concentration suggest that oxidative damage related to long-term exposure to low-level radiation is detectable in these fish. Secondarily, these results demonstrate the importance of considering covariates such as age and sex when evaluating effects of environmental contaminants

  5. Nighttime lights time series of tsunami damage, recovery, and economic metrics in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Thomas W; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Chum, Kai Fung; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake off the west coast of the northern Sumatra, Indonesia resulted in 160,000 Indonesians killed. We examine the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light imagery brightness values for 307 communities in the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a household survey in Sumatra from 2004 to 2008. We examined night light time series between the annual brightness and extent of damage, economic metrics collected from STAR households and aggregated to the community level. There were significant changes in brightness values from 2004 to 2008 with a significant drop in brightness values in 2005 due to the tsunami and pre-tsunami nighttime light values returning in 2006 for all damage zones. There were significant relationships between the nighttime imagery brightness and per capita expenditures, and spending on energy and on food. Results suggest that Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime light imagery can be used to capture the impacts and recovery from the tsunami and other natural disasters and estimate time series economic metrics at the community level in developing countries. PMID:25419471

  6. What is the aggregate economic rate of return to foreign aid?

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Does foreign aid promote aggregate economic growth? In contrast to widespread perceptions, academic studies of this question have been rapidly converging towards a positive answer. We employ a simulation approach to (i) validate the coherence of recent empirics and (ii) calculate plausible ranges for the rate of return to aid. Our results highlight the long-run nature of aid investments and indicate the return to aid falls in ranges commonly accepted for public investments. We find no basis f...

  7. Smart-aggregate-based damage detection of fiber-reinforced-polymer-strengthened columns under reversed cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howser, Rachel; Moslehy, Yashar; Gu, Haichang; Dhonde, Hemant; Mo, Y. L.; Ayoub, Ashraf; Song, Gangbing

    2011-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is an important aspect of the maintenance of large civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns in areas of high seismic activity. In this project, recently developed innovative piezoceramic-based sensors were utilized to perform the health monitoring of a shear-critical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge column subjected to reversed cyclic loading. After the column failed, it was wrapped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, commonly used to retrofit seismically damaged structures. The FRP-strengthened column was retested under the same reversed cyclic loading pattern. Innovative piezoceramic-based sensors, called 'smart aggregates', were utilized as transducers for health monitoring purposes. On the basis of the smart aggregates developed, an active-sensing approach and an impact-hammer-based approach were used to evaluate the health status of the RC column during the loading procedure. Wave transmission energy is attenuated by the existence of cracks during the loading procedure, and this attenuation phenomenon alters the curve of the transfer function between the actuator and sensor. To detect the damage occurrence and evaluate the damage severity, transfer function curves were compared with those obtained during the period of healthy status. A transfer-function-based damage index matrix was developed to demonstrate the damage severity at different locations. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the smart aggregates in health monitoring of the FRP-strengthened column as well as the unstrengthened column. The experimental results show that the proposed smart-aggregate-based approach can successfully detect damage occurrence and evaluate its severity.

  8. Smart-aggregate-based damage detection of fiber-reinforced-polymer-strengthened columns under reversed cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural health monitoring is an important aspect of the maintenance of large civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns in areas of high seismic activity. In this project, recently developed innovative piezoceramic-based sensors were utilized to perform the health monitoring of a shear-critical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge column subjected to reversed cyclic loading. After the column failed, it was wrapped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, commonly used to retrofit seismically damaged structures. The FRP-strengthened column was retested under the same reversed cyclic loading pattern. Innovative piezoceramic-based sensors, called 'smart aggregates', were utilized as transducers for health monitoring purposes. On the basis of the smart aggregates developed, an active-sensing approach and an impact-hammer-based approach were used to evaluate the health status of the RC column during the loading procedure. Wave transmission energy is attenuated by the existence of cracks during the loading procedure, and this attenuation phenomenon alters the curve of the transfer function between the actuator and sensor. To detect the damage occurrence and evaluate the damage severity, transfer function curves were compared with those obtained during the period of healthy status. A transfer-function-based damage index matrix was developed to demonstrate the damage severity at different locations. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the smart aggregates in health monitoring of the FRP-strengthened column as well as the unstrengthened column. The experimental results show that the proposed smart-aggregate-based approach can successfully detect damage occurrence and evaluate its severity

  9. Experimental Investigation of CFRP Confined Columns Damaged by Alkali Aggregate Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Radziah Abdullah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer is the most effective repair material in use to enhance the strength and ductility of deteriorated reinforced concrete columns. Often, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP provides passive confinement to columns until the dilation and cracking of concrete occurs. In the case of concrete suspected of Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR where concrete undergoes expansion, FRP wrap provides active confinement to the expanded concrete. In this study, the performance of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP wrapped columns damaged by AAR is evaluated based on the number of FRP layers and the time of the polymer application which provides two types of confinement: active or passive. The columns were tested under axial compression to evaluate the residual strength of the columns in comparison with unwrapped columns. The results reveal that the strength of the wrapped columns is enhanced with an increase in the number of CFRP layers. The strength of the columns under passive confinement is higher than the columns under active confinement. Under active confinement, early CFRP wrapping leads to improvement in the strength of the columns.

  10. What Is the Aggregate Economic Rate of Return to Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, academic studies have been converging towards the view that foreign aid promotes aggregate economic growth. We employ a simulation approach to: (i) validate the coherence of empirical aid-growth studies published since 2008; and (ii) calculate plausible ranges for the rate of...... return to aid. Our results highlight the long run nature of aid-financed investments and the importance of channels other than accumulation of physical capital. We find the return to aid lies in ranges commonly accepted for public investments and there is little to justify the view that aid has had a...

  11. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship among economic growth, carbon emissions and energy consumption at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. For the aggregate energy consumption model, we use total energy consumption per capita and CO2 emissions per capita based on the total energy consumption. For the disaggregate analysis, we used oil, gas and electricity consumption models along with their respective CO2 emissions. The long-term income elasticities of carbon emissions in three of the four models are positive and higher than their estimated short-term income elasticities. These results suggest that carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income which supports the belief that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between per capita carbon emissions and per capita income for the aggregate model and for the oil and electricity consumption models. The long- and short-term income elasticities of carbon emissions are negative for the gas consumption model. This result indicates that if the Saudi Arabian economy switched from oil to gas consumption, then an increase in per capita income would reduce carbon emissions. The results also suggest that electricity is less polluting than other sources of energy. - Highlights: • Carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income in Saudi Arabia. • The income elasticity of CO2 is negative for the gas consumption model. • The income elasticity of CO2 is positive for the oil consumption model. • The results suggest that electricity is less polluting than oil and gas

  12. CO2, GDP and RET: An aggregate economic equilibrium analysis for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a worldwide interest in renewable electricity technologies (RETs) due to growing concerns about global warming and climate change. As an EU candidate country whose energy demand increases exponentially, Turkey inevitably shares this common interest on RET. This study, using an aggregate economic equilibrium model, explores the economic costs of different policy measures to mitigate CO2 emissions in Turkey. The model combines energy demands, capital requirements and labor inputs at a constant elasticity of substitution under an economy-wide nested production function. Growing energy demand, triggered by economic growth, is met by increased supply and initiates new capacity additions. Investment into RET is encouraged via the incorporation of (a) endogenous technological learning through which the RET cost declines as a function of cumulative capacity, and (b) a willingness to pay (WTP) function which imposes the WTP of consumers as a lower bound on RET installation. The WTP equation is obtained as a function of consumer income categories, based on data gathered from a pilot survey in which the contingent valuation methodology was employed. The impacts of various emission reduction scenarios on GDP growth and RET diffusion are explored. As expected, RET penetration is accelerated under faster technological learning and higher WTP conditions. It is found that stabilizing CO2 emissions to year 2005 levels causes economic losses amounting to 17% and 23% of GDP in the years 2020 and 2030, respectively

  13. Ecological catastrophe and economical damages. The problems of assessment from Amoco-Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book strikes the balance of the accident of the tanker ship Amoco-Cadiz (environmental effects and economic impact) and sets the problem of damages assessment, liabilities, victims compensation. 99 refs., 41 figs., 43 tabs

  14. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  15. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  16. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  17. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa. The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

  18. Damage Simulation of a Random Aggregate Model Induced by Microwave under Different Discontinuous Ratios and Exposure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A random aggregate algorithmic method and a numerical model for two-phase materials (composed of quartz and plagioclase with different discontinuous ratios and irradiation times were studied based on the discrete element method using two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. The results showed that this algorithm can simulate random irregular aggregate shapes. Furthermore, crack initiation and development and the coalescence process of microwave-induced material damage could be predicted using the discrete element method. After analysis of this study, the micro crack originated from the boundary of the high-absorption-phase plagioclase crystal and expanded around the plagioclase, extending into the quartz material. The crack morphology presented a radial network.

  19. Economizer water-wall damages initiated by feedwater impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Vidojković Sonja M.; Onjia Antonije E.; Devečerski Aleksandar B.; Grahovac Nebojsa N.; Nastasović Aleksandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The main causes of efficiency loss in thermal power plants are boiler tube failures that diminish unit reliability and availability, and raise the cost of the electric energy. For that reason, regular examination of boiler tubes is indispensable measure for prevention future malfunctions of power units. Microscopic examination of economizer inner wall microstructure, analysis of chemical composition of deposit using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning elec...

  20. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  1. Economizer water-wall damages initiated by feedwater impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković Sonja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main causes of efficiency loss in thermal power plants are boiler tube failures that diminish unit reliability and availability, and raise the cost of the electric energy. For that reason, regular examination of boiler tubes is indispensable measure for prevention future malfunctions of power units. Microscopic examination of economizer inner wall microstructure, analysis of chemical composition of deposit using x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS has been performed in a subcritical power plant. Stress corrosion cracking, pitting corrosion, destroyed protective magnetite layer, presence of magnetite and hematite in deposit and corrosive impurities within the cracks were indicated the effect of inadequate quality of feedwater that can not entirely ensure reliable operation of the boiler. It may be stated that maintenance of present boiler does not provide its reliable operation. Extensive chemical control of water/steam cycle was recommended. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009 i br. III 45012

  2. Economic valuation of landslide damage in hilly regions: a case study from Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Liesbet; Van Turnhout, Pieter; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Vandekerckhove, Liesbeth; Poesen, Jean

    2013-03-01

    Several regions around the globe are at risk of incurring damage from landslides, but only few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in a 2,910 km study area located west of Brussels, a low-relief region susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil servants and the owners and providers of lifelines such as electricity and sewage, a quantitative damage assessment is provided. For private properties (houses, forest and pasture land) we estimate the real estate and production value losses for different damage scenarios, while for public infrastructure the costs of measures to repair and prevent landslide induced damage are estimated. In addition, the increase in amenity value of forests and grasslands due to the occurrence of landslides is also calculated. The study illustrates that a minority of land (only 2.3%) within the study area is used for dwellings, roads and railway lines, but that these land use types are responsible for the vast majority of the economic damage due to the occurrence of landslides. The annual cost of direct damage due to landsliding amounts to 688,148 €/year out of which 550,740 €/year for direct damage to houses, while the annual indirect damage augments to 3,020,049 €/year out of which 2,007,375 €/year for indirect damage to real estate. Next, the study illustrates that the increase of the amenity value of forests and grasslands outweighs the production value loss. As such the study does not only provide quantitative input data for the estimation of future risks, but also important information for government officials as it clearly informs about the costs associated with certain land use types in landslide areas. PMID:23391898

  3. In situ luminescence qualification of radiation damage in aluminas: F-aggregation and Al colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Correlation between IBIL and surface electrical degradation. •Potential to remotely monitor degradation of insulating materials. •Possibility for in situ recovery of the insulating properties by thermal annealing. -- Abstract: Recent work for in situ sequential measurement of ion beam induced luminescence and surface electrical conductivity has identified a correlation between surface electrical degradation and the luminescence for aluminas and sapphire during 45 keV He ion bombardment. Detailed measurements for the initial stages of degradation where rapid changes in the luminescence emission bands occur, have now identified processes related to oxygen vacancy (F centre) aggregation and aluminium colloid production as precursors to measurable surface electrical degradation in the irradiated region. This understanding enhances the possibility of using ion beam induced luminescence as a potential monitoring tool for material evolution and insulator surface degradation during irradiation, not only in ITER and future fusion devices, but also in present experimental reactor materials test programmes

  4. The Impact of External Economic Factors on the Formation of Ukrainian Producers Aggregate Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiya Kuznetsova; Tetyana Shynkorenko; Oleksandr Bilotserkivets'

    2014-01-01

    The most important external factors are identified and trends of their impact on the aggregate supply in Ukraine are analysed. The important disparities of aggregate supply are established: excessive dependence of the Ukrainian economy on external demand and backlog of partner countries at a rate of fixed capital formation. Correlation between GDP growth in Ukraine and GDP growth in partner countries are reviewed; the impacts of inflation on the dynamics of demand in the domestic market are e...

  5. A methodological approach for landslide economic damage estimation in rural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aucelli, Pietro P.; Balteanu, Dan; Pisano, Luca; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Zumpano, Veronica

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation due to mass wasting and accelerated water erosion represents at global scale a serious threat to socio-economic development not only in urban areas but also in rural and hence less populated territories where the main economic resources are frequently directly linked to the exploitation of the agricultural, pastoral and natural resources, often threatened especially by landslide phenomena. The assessment of damage induced by landslides, thus, provides an important contribution to support decision making concerning the sustainable management of land use. In this paper a methodological approach developed in GIS environment for valuing the economic damage induced by landslides in rural areas is presented. It allows direct damage estimation related to landslide phenomena by means of a synthetic approach which considers the loss of land value associated with landslides state of activity. This approach was tested in a study area (a small-scale catchment in Molise Region, Southern Italy) which is highly representative of the Adriatic flank of the Molise Apennine, highly exploited for farming and, in the same time, very sensible to slope instability. Several environmental calculation matrices were defined at the pixel scale in relation to different states of activity of landslides. For each cell, soil uses and related Average Agricultural Values (AAVs) were determined. The economic damage value (DV) was computed by multiplying the obtained specified AAV with a specific landslide-damage index (LDI) which was calculated on the basis of the extent and state of activity of landslides within each cell. This procedure allowed the estimation of the DV and the real agricultural value for each cell. Summing up the results coming from each cell, the total loss of land value due to landslides and the residual total agricultural value for the entire study area were calculated. Furthermore, in order to assess for the entire study area the landslide exposition of rural

  6. Economics, Politics and Young Males. Root Causes of Terrorism on the Aggregate Level in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldsnes, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The research question posed in this thesis is: what are the root causes of terrorism on the aggregate level in Europe. There is little convergence on the root causes of terrorism in the field of terrorism research, and many findings are challenged on data and conceptual grounds. The analysis is done with two dependent variables each representing an operationalization of terrorism, a count of the number of killed in terrorism events for each country-year observation and a count of the numbe...

  7. Mineralogical and chemical assessment of concrete damaged by the oxidation of sulfide-bearing aggregates: Importance of thaumasite formation on reaction mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A. [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton (CRIB), Universite Laval, 1065 ave de la Medecine, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Duchesne, J., E-mail: josee.duchesne@ggl.ulaval.ca [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton (CRIB), Universite Laval, 1065 ave de la Medecine, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Fournier, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton (CRIB), Universite Laval, 1065 ave de la Medecine, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Durand, B. [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1740 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, Canada J3X 1S1 (Canada); Rivard, P. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Shehata, M. [Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Damages in concrete containing sulfide-bearing aggregates were recently observed in the Trois-Rivieres area (Quebec, Canada), characterized by rapid deterioration within 3 to 5 years after construction. A petrographic examination of concrete core samples was carried out using a combination of tools including: stereomicroscopic evaluation, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. The aggregate used to produce concrete was an intrusive igneous rock with different metamorphism degrees and various proportions of sulfide minerals. In the rock, sulfide minerals were often surrounded by a thin layer of carbonate minerals (siderite). Secondary reaction products observed in the damaged concrete include 'rust' mineral forms (e.g. ferric oxyhydroxides such as goethite, limonite (FeO (OH) nH{sub 2}O) and ferrihydrite), gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite. In the presence of water and oxygen, pyrrhotite oxidizes to form iron oxyhydroxides and sulphuric acid. The acid then reacts with the phases of the cement paste/aggregate and provokes the formation of sulfate minerals. Understanding both mechanisms, oxidation and internal sulfate attack, is important to be able to duplicate the damaging reaction in laboratory conditions, thus allowing the development of a performance test for evaluating the potential for deleterious expansion in concrete associated with sulfide-bearing aggregates.

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a neo-classical aggregate production model where capital, labor and energy are treated as separate inputs, this paper tests for the existence and direction of causality between output growth and energy use in China at both aggregated total energy and disaggregated levels as coal, oil and electricity consumption. Using the Johansen cointegration technique, the empirical findings indicate that there exists long-run cointegration among output, labor, capital and energy use in China at both aggregated and all three disaggregated levels. Then using a VEC specification, the short-run dynamics of the interested variables are tested, indicating that there exists Granger causality running from electricity and oil consumption to GDP, but does not exist Granger causality running from coal and total energy consumption to GDP. On the other hand, short-run Granger causality exists from GDP to total energy, coal and oil consumption, but does not exist from GDP to electricity consumption. We thus propose policy suggestions to solve the energy and sustainable development dilemma in China as: enhancing energy supply security and guaranteeing energy supply, especially in the short run to provide adequate electric power supply and set up national strategic oil reserve; enhancing energy efficiency to save energy; diversifying energy sources, energetically exploiting renewable energy and drawing out corresponding policies and measures; and finally in the long run, transforming development pattern and cut reliance on resource- and energy-dependent industries

  9. An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainio Marko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems. Methods We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones. Results We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 50–70%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies. Conclusion Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic.

  10. LEDGF1-326 Decreases P23H and Wild Type Rhodopsin Aggregates and P23H Rhodopsin Mediated Cell Damage in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Baid; Scheinman, Robert I; Toshimichi Shinohara; Singh, Dhirendra P; Kompella, Uday B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: P23H rhodopsin, a mutant rhodopsin, is known to aggregate and cause retinal degeneration. However, its effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of P23H rhodopsin in RPE cells and further assess whether LEDGF(1-326), a protein devoid of heat shock elements of LEDGF, a cell survival factor, reduces P23H rhodopsin aggregates and any associated cellular damage. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were transiently transfect...

  11. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE PLANNED DAMAGES ACTIONS FOR THE BREACHES OF EC ANTITRUST LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Isac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the planned damages actions for breaches of EC antitrust law in order to assess their impact on consumer welfare. It first examines the current legal situation and concurs that the European Union needs to regulate damages actions for breaches of EC antitrust law so that a higher number of consumers could be compensated for their losses. This paper then discusses the main legal provisions proposed by the Commission in the Green and in the White paper on damages actions for breaches of EC antitrust law. The analysis of these proposed legal provisions is done using arguments specific to the economic analysis of law. It is demonstrated that most of these proposed legal provisions will enhance consumer welfare but that there are also proposed legal provisions which will damage consumer welfare. The paper concludes that the planned damages actions for breaches of the EC law will be an improvement compared to the current situation. However, the Commission should amend some of the proposed legal provisions in order to help consumers further.

  12. Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

  13. Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

  14. Physically-based Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Damage and Economic Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating damage and economic losses caused by tropical cyclones (TC) is a topic of considerable research interest in many scientific fields, including meteorology, structural and coastal engineering, and actuarial sciences. One approach is based on the empirical relationship between TC characteristics and loss data. Another is to model the physical mechanism of TC-induced damage. In this talk we discuss about the physically-based approach to predict TC damage and losses due to extreme wind and storm surge. We first present an integrated vulnerability model, which, for the first time, explicitly models the essential mechanisms causing wind damage to residential areas during storm passage, including windborne-debris impact and the pressure-debris interaction that may lead, in a chain reaction, to structural failures (Lin and Vanmarcke 2010; Lin et al. 2010a). This model can be used to predict the economic losses in a residential neighborhood (with hundreds of buildings) during a specific TC (Yau et al. 2011) or applied jointly with a TC risk model (e.g., Emanuel et al 2008) to estimate the expected losses over long time periods. Then we present a TC storm surge risk model that has been applied to New York City (Lin et al. 2010b; Lin et al. 2012; Aerts et al. 2012), Miami-Dade County, Florida (Klima et al. 2011), Galveston, Texas (Lickley, 2012), and other coastal areas around the world (e.g., Tampa, Florida; Persian Gulf; Darwin, Australia; Shanghai, China). These physically-based models are applicable to various coastal areas and have the capability to account for the change of the climate and coastal exposure over time. We also point out that, although made computationally efficient for risk assessment, these models are not suitable for regional or global analysis, which has been a focus of the empirically-based economic analysis (e.g., Hsiang and Narita 2012). A future research direction is to simplify the physically-based models, possibly through

  15. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  16. Economic Load Dispatch - A Comparative Study on Heuristic Optimization Techniques With an Improved Coordinated Aggregation-Based PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Lee, KY

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization (ICA-PSO) algorithm is introduced for solving the optimal economic load dispatch (ELD) problem in power systems. In the ICA-PSO algorithm each particle in the swarm retains a memory of its best position ever...... particles search the decision space with accuracy up to two digit points resulting in the improved convergence of the process. The ICA-PSO algorithm is tested on a number of power systems, including the systems with 6, 13, 15, and 40 generating units, the island power system of Crete in Greece and the...... Hellenic bulk power system, and is compared with other state-of-the-art heuristic optimization techniques (HOTs), demonstrating improved performance over them....

  17. Geometrical exposition of structural axiomatic economics (II): qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. Part (I) of the structural axiomatic analysis submits three nonbehavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the simplest possible case of the pure consumption economy. The geometrical analysis makes the interrelations between income, profit and...

  18. Models for Risk Aggregation and Sensitivity Analysis: An Application to Bank Economic Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Inanoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A challenge in enterprise risk measurement for diversified financial institutions is developing a coherent approach to aggregating different risk types. This has been motivated by rapid financial innovation, developments in supervisory standards (Basel 2 and recent financial turmoil. The main risks faced - market, credit and operational – have distinct distributional properties, and historically have been modeled in differing frameworks. We contribute to the modeling effort by providing tools and insights to practitioners and regulators. First, we extend the scope of the analysis to liquidity and interest rate risk, having Basel Pillar II of Basel implications. Second, we utilize data from major banking institutions’ loss experience from supervisory call reports, which allows us to explore the impact of business mix and inter-risk correlations on total risk. Third, we estimate and compare alternative established frameworks for risk aggregation (including copula models on the same data-sets across banks, comparing absolute total risk measures (Value-at-Risk – VaR and proportional diversification benefits-PDB, goodness-of-fit (GOF of the model as data as well as the variability of the VaR estimate with respect to sampling error in parameter. This benchmarking and sensitivity analysis suggests that practitioners consider implementing a simple non-parametric methodology (empirical copula simulation- ECS in order to quantify integrated risk, in that it is found to be more conservatism and stable than the other models. We observe that ECS produces 20% to 30% higher VaR relative to the standard Gaussian copula simulation (GCS, while the variance-covariance approximation (VCA is much lower. ECS yields the highest PDBs than other methodologies (127% to 243%, while Archimadean Gumbel copula simulation (AGCS is the lowest (10-21%. Across the five largest banks we fail to find the effect of business mix to exert a directionally consistent impact on

  19. Evidence of Economic Regularities and Disparities of Italian Regions From Aggregated Tax Income Size Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the size distribution, - in economic terms - of the Italian municipalities over the period 2007-2011. Yearly data are rather well fitted by a modified Lavalette law, while Zipf-Mandelbrot-Pareto law seems to fail in this doing. The analysis is performed either at a national as well as at a local (regional and provincial) level. Deviations are discussed as originating in so called king and vice-roy effects. Results confirm that Italy is shared among very different regional realities. The case of Lazio is puzzling.

  20. Aggregated technical and economic indicators and facilities coefficient in the building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Juraj

    2012-06-01

    Budgetary indicators, such as technical-economic indicators, are valuation tools commonly used in assessing indicative costs in civil engineering. Their applications are used across the professional construction spectrum, from preparation of the investment process to checking implementation of the construction, in the banking, insurance and property value estimation systems. The catalogues of specific financial indicators may have significant differences between them. These differences can result from different ways of processing the catalogues. As a result of the differences, situations may occur in practice in which a disparity pertains between the values obtained and the effect of the results of planning, implementation, monitoring or other activities related to the buildings.

  1. Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto Basu; John G. Fernald

    1997-01-01

    Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology are meaningful but distinct concepts. We show that a slightly-modified Solow productivity residual measures changes in economic welfare, even when productivity and technology differ because of distortions such as imperfect competition. We then present a general accounting framework that identifies several new non-technological gaps between productivity and technology, gaps reflecting imperfections and frictions in output and factor markets. Empi...

  2. On predicting future economic losses from tropical cyclones: Comparing damage functions for the Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    for the Eastern USA until the year 2100. The projection is based on downscaling five different GCM model runs for the RCP8.5 scenario, as conducted by Emanuel et al. [7], and accounts for population and GDP changes relying on the newly developed Shared Socioenonomic Pathways (SSPs) [8]. We hereby contribute valuable input to the scientific community as well as the societies at risk. The possibility of extending this work to different regions in order to access the future impact of tropical cyclones on a global scale will also be discussed. References [1] Thomas R. Knutson, John L. McBride, Johnny Chan, Kerry Emanuel, Greg Holland, Chris Landsea, Isaac Held, James P. Kossin, A. K. Srivastava, and Masato Sugi. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience, 3(3):157-163, 2010. [2] Robert Mendelsohn, Kerry Emanuel, Shun Chonabayashi, and Laura Bakkensen. The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage. Nature Climate Change, 2(3):205-209, 2012. [3] Silvio Schmidt, Claudia Kemfert, and Peter Höppe. The impact of socio-economics and climate change on tropical cyclone losses in the USA. Regional Environmental Change, 10(1):13-26, 2009. [4] William D. Nordhaus. The Economics of Hurricanes and Implications of Global Warming. Climate Change Economics, 01(01):1-20, 2010. [5] Kerry Emanuel. Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage. Weather, Climate, and Society, 3(4):261-268, 2011. [6] Richard J. Murnane and James B. Elsner. Maximum wind speeds and US hurricane losses. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(16):707, 2012. [7] Kerry Emanuel. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(30):12219-24, 2013. [8] Detlef P. van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi, and Richard Moss. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities. Global Environmental Change, 22

  3. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial flood in Japan using rainfall data and socio-economic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhattarai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of flood risk is important for policy makers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately JPY 100 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial flood only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope, and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993–2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  4. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial flood in Japan using rainfall data and socio-economic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, R.; Yoshimura, K.; Seto, S.; Nakamura, S.; Oki, T.

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policy makers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately JPY 100 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial flood only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope, and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  5. Consistency in Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Auer

    2004-01-01

    In empirical economic research, individual prices are often aggregated into average prices of sub-aggregates. Then, these average prices are aggregated to produce the average price of the total aggregate. Often, such two stage procedures help to illuminate the underlying forces driving the overall result. Since price data are usually published as price changes, this two stage aggregation is typically based on some price index formula. In this paper, various screening devices are introduced wh...

  6. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  7. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Kanasugi, H.; Shibasaki, R.; Kaneda, H.

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3) to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  8. Closure to Discussion on "Economic Load Dispatch-A Comparative Study on Heuristic Optimization Techniques With an Improved Coordinated Aggregation-Based PSO"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Lee, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization algorithm is introduced for solving the optimal economic load dispatch problem in power systems. In the improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization algorithm each particle in the swarm retains...... a memory of its best position ever encountered, and is attracted only by other particles with better achievements than its own with the exception of the particle with the best achievement, which moves randomly.The ICA-PSO algorithm is tested on a number of power systems, including the systems with 6...

  9. DOES CONSISTENT AGGREGATION REALLY MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Shumway, C. Richard; Davis, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent aggregation assures that behavioral properties which apply to disaggregate relationships also apply to aggregate relationships. The agricultural economics literature is reviewed which has tested for consistent aggregation or measured statistical bias and/or inferential errors due to aggregation. Tests for aggregation bias and errors of inference are conducted using indices previously tested for consistent aggregation. Failure to reject consistent aggregation in a partition did not ...

  10. DOES CONSISTENT AGGREGATION REALLY MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Shumway, C. Richard; Davis, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent aggregation assures that behavioral properties, which apply to disaggregate relationships also, apply to aggregate relationships. The agricultural economics literature is reviewed which has tested for consistent aggregation or measured statistical bias and/or inferential errors due to aggregation. Tests for aggregation bias and errors of inference are conducted using indices previously tested for consistent aggregation. Failure to reject consistent aggregation in a partition did no...

  11. Positive Research on China's Economic Growth Quality——Analyze the Fluctuating Situation of the Factor Input and Aggregative Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBtanhua

    2005-01-01

    To analyze China's fluctuating situation of the factor input and aggregative productivity is not only the main method to seek the source of the economic growth but also the main way to weigh the level of economic growth quality. As to economic growth of a country, the improvement of the productivity is extremely important. The growth of the output can be realized through two kinds of ways: increasing the quantity of factor input of orimproving the effciency of the input and output. Therefore, the level of economic growth quafity does not mainly depend on the amount of invesTed factor, but the importance of improving the produtivity since Pesources are rare.The relative improvement of efficiency in use of the invested factor marks the economic growing quality. So, in order to understand the economic growth quafity of China to some extent, it must analyze Chinese factor input and aggregative productivity. This is the main topic that this text wilt be probed into.

  12. A Methodology for Forecasting Damage & Economic Consequences to Floods: Building on the National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootle, G. A.; Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE) held June 3-July 17, 2015 at the National Water Center (NWC) in Tuscaloosa, Alabama sought to demonstrate an increase in flood predictive capacity for the coterminous United States (CONUS). Accordingly, NFIE-derived technologies and workflows offer the ability to forecast flood damage and economic consequence estimates that coincide with the hydrologic and hydraulic estimations these physics-based models generate. A model providing an accurate prediction of damage and economic consequences is a valuable asset when allocating funding for disaster response, recovery, and relief. Damage prediction and economic consequence assessment also offer an adaptation planning mechanism for defending particularly valuable or vulnerable structures. The NFIE, held at the NWC on The University of Alabama (UA) campus led to the development of this large scale flow and inundation forecasting framework. Currently, the system can produce 15-hour lead-time forecasts for the entire coterminous United States (CONUS). A concept which is anticipated to become operational as of May 2016 within the NWC. The processing of such a large-scale, fine resolution model is accomplished in a parallel computing environment using large supercomputing clusters. Traditionally, flood damage and economic consequence assessment is calculated in a desktop computing environment with a ménage of meteorology, hydrology, hydraulic, and damage assessment tools. In the United States, there are a range of these flood damage/ economic consequence assessment software's available to local, state, and federal emergency management agencies. Among the more commonly used and freely accessible models are the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Flood Damage Reduction Analysis (HEC-FDA), Flood Impact Assessment (HEC-FIA), and Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) United States Multi-Hazard (Hazus-MH). All of which exist only in a desktop environment. With this

  13. RILEM recommendations for the prevention of damage by alkali-aggregate reactions in new concrete structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 219-ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Sims, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the full set of RILEM Recommendations which have been produced to enable engineers, specifiers and testing houses to design and produce concrete which will not suffer damage arising from alkali reactions in the concrete. There are five recommended test methods for aggregates (designated AAR-1 to AAR-5), and an overall recommendation which describes how these should be used to enable a comprehensive aggregate assessment (AAR-0). Additionally, there are two Recommended International Specifications for concrete (AAR-7.1 & 7.2) and a Preliminary International Specification for dams and other hydro structures (AAR-7.3), which describe how the aggregate assessment can be combined with other measures in the design of the concrete to produce a concrete with a minimised risk of developing damage from alkali-aggregate reactions.

  14. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial floods in Japan using rainfall data and socioeconomic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rajan; Yoshimura, Kei; Seto, Shinta; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Oki, Taikan

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policymakers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately USD 1 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial floods only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  15. Protected Areas, Agricultural Pests and economic Damage: A Study of Elephants and other Pests from Xishuangbanna State Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Xiang, Zhu

    1995-01-01

    Protected areas are often the source of agricultural pests and .Xishuangbanna State Nature Reserve in Yunnan is no exception. The main pest associated with the. Reserve is the Asian elephant, Elaphas maximus, which causes damage outside the Reserve to agriculture as well as in the Reserve. However, these elephants are also an important attraction to tourists visiting Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Prefecture contains the only remaining wild elephants in China. The present economic value of tour...

  16. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  17. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  18. NOx emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of the measurement of the health damage of ozone (O3) produced from nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) emitted by individual large point sources in the eastern United States. We use a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States, the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NOx emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface O3, depending on temperature and local biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. We also examine the dependence of resulting O3-related health damages on the size of the exposed population. The investigation is relevant to the increasingly widely used 'cap and trade' approach to NOx regulation, which presumes that shifts of emission over time and space, holding the total fixed over the course of the summer O3 season, will have minimal effect on the environmental outcome. By contrast, we show that a shift of a unit of NOx emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in resulting health effects due to O3 formation and exposure. We indicate how the type of modeling carried out here might be used to attach externality-correcting prices to emissions. Charging emitters fees that are commensurate with the damage caused by their NOx emissions would create an incentive for emitters to reduce emissions at times and in locations where they cause the largest damage. (author)

  19. Estimating the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Prestige oil spill may be considered as one of the worst in the last years because of the amount of oil spilled (59,000 tons at the moment) and the wide zone affected: almost all the coastline in Galicia (Spanish region with a very important coast fishing and tourist activity) and some points in North Spain and in Southwest France. In this paper, we estimate the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spills in the Galician fishing and tourist activities. The economic losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed those items that can be indemnified under the IOPC system. Their magnitude could reach 5 times more than the applicable limit of compensations in the Prestige case. The consequence is net losses from repeated oil spills and internationally accepted incentives to risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons. (author)

  20. 中国经济增长质量的实证研究%Positive Research on China's Economic Growth Quality-Analyze the Fluctuating Situation of the Factor Input and Aggregative Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李变花

    2005-01-01

    To analyze China's fluctuating situation of the factor input and aggregative productivity is not only the main method to seek the source of the economic growth but also the main way to weigh the level of economic growth quality. As to economic growth of a country, the improvement of the productivity is extremely important. The growth of the output can be realized through two kinds of ways: increasing the quantity of factor input of or improving the efficiency of the input and output. Therefore, the level of economic growth quality does not mainly depend on the amount of invested factor, but the importance of improving the productivity since resources are rare.The relative improvement of efficiency in use of the invested factor marks the economic growing quality. So, in order to understand the economic growth quality of China to some extent, it must analyze Chinese factor input and aggregative productivity. This is the main topic that this text will be probed into.

  1. Economic Valuation of the Damage to Tourism Benefits by Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nohara, Katsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Main purpose of this study is to evaluate the lost benefits of tourism by harmful rumors or misinformation proceeded from Higashi Nihon Daishinsai, literally Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster on 11 March 2011. Its great earthquake disaster has done a lot of damages to many people, buildings, key infrastructures, and regional economy. Most regions have recovered from a devastating earthquake, but tourism industry of Tohoku region which include Aomori, Akita Iwate, Yamagata, Miyagi and Fu...

  2. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  3. Air and agriculture. Damage by air pollution in crop cultivation and economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution adversely affects crop production in the Netherlands, both in qualitative and in quantitative terms. The extent to which crop yield is reduced and economic loss have been estimated for the Netherlands. Exposure to ozone accounts for the greater part of economic loss. For an average summer, with ozone at background levels, the calculated gain for producers and consumers is circa 450 million Dutch guilders (Dfl). They will experience a net loss of Dfl 587 million in a high ozone summer (ozone level is 30% higher compared to the average summer). If the concentration of sulfur dioxide decreases by 60% and the concentration of nitrogen oxides decreases by 20% as compared to the levels in 1995, producers and consumers are expected to experience a net gain of Dfl 186 million. Fluorides and other air pollutants do not constitute a large-scale problem. 3 refs

  4. Estimating the Economic Damage of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Commercial and Recreational Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Caffey, Rex H.; Kazmierczak, Richard F., Jr.; Diop, Hamady; Keithly, Walter R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A USGS analysis of land change data from satellite imagery and field observation indicated that 217 square miles of Louisiana's coastal wetlands were converted to open water because of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Because of their physical location and marine-dependence, commercial and recreational fishing sectors in Louisiana received a disproportional economic impact from the hurricanes of 2005. Storm surge modeling was accomplished using the ADCIRC model with data generated by the National...

  5. An Analysis of The Economic Causes Upon The Social Damage ( with an Emphasis on the Relationship between Inflation and Crime in the Years 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihallah Makipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crime is an extremely important social and economic issue in our day. The considerable costs imposed by crime on its victims and society greatly exceed the private benefits of crime (Becker, 1968; .Economics of crime is an interdisciplinary topic that is intended to analyze crimes economically. Regarding the increase in crimes rates in our country, a comprehensive study of the causes of crime, especially economic crimes such as robbery is necessary, because it is directly related to the economy and accurate understanding of causal relationship between the two will help policymakers in planning for a better society. The causal relationship between crime and unemployment is an age-old question in the social science literature. There have been many studies of the relationship between crime and unemployment from a range of perspectives, but this research effort to produce clear evidence of a causal link between crimes and inflation rate and unemployment rate. A large empirical literature investigating the link between macroeconomic conditions and aggregate crime rates has developed over the last thirty years. The majority of these studies focus on the relationship between unemployment and crime. As a result, the literature largely neglects the role of inflation as a potential determinant of crime. One of the most important effects of economic policies in Iran is increase in inflation. This has led to different crimes specially economic crimes and robbery, by widening the gap between different social classes and income groups. As inflation and unemployment rates were the only variables used in this study the results might not fully capture the criminal behavior. Results imply that inflation and unemployment rates cause crime rate, but there is no strong evidence of the reverse causality. An individual will engage in criminal activities because of their inability to maintain a particular level of living as a consequence of inflation and

  6. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  7. State responsibility and compensation for climate change damages - a legal and economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Customary international law has that countries may do each other no harm. A country violates this rule if an activity under its control does damage to another country, and if this is done on purpose or due to carelessness. Impacts of climate change fall under this rule, which is reinforced by many declarations and treaties,including the UNFCCC. Compensation for the harm done depends on many parameters, such as emission scenarios, climate change, climate change impacts and its accounting. The compensation paid by the OECD may run up to 4% of its GDP, far exceeding the costs of climate change to the OECD directly. However, the most crucial issues are, first, from when countries can be held responsible and, second, which emissions are acceptable and which careless. This may even be interpreted such that the countries of the OECD are entitled to compensation, rather than be obliged to pay. State responsibility could substantially change international climate policy. (author)

  8. Assessment of the economic costs of damage caused by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-benefit analysis is one of the fundamental tools for the development of economic instruments for pollution control. The costs of various abatement measures are reasonably well characterised. However, assessment of the economic costs of pollutant impacts is less well developed. This paper reports on two studies carried out for DGXII of the European Commission, the ExternE-Project and the Green Accounting Research Project. Both studies have been performed by international, multi-disciplinary research teams. Analysis of the effects of emissions of PM10, SO2, NOx and VOCs (as ozone precursors) has included assessment of human health, materials, crops and other terrestrial ecosystems, and freshwater fisheries. The analysis follows the 'impact pathway' approach, linking dose-response functions, valuation data and other models. It differs significantly to earlier 'top-down' approaches that made only very limited use of the wealth of scientific data available. Most success has been achieved in analysis of impacts on human health, building materials and crops. Significant uncertainties exist for these receptors, though these have been identified and are now being addressed. Assessment of impacts on other receptors, perhaps most notably forests, is more limited. The methodology is particularly applicable for analysis of impacts on receptors for which the critical loads approach is not appropriate. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Influence of Climate and Economic Variables on the Aggregated Supply of a Wild Edible Fungi (Lactarius deliciosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alfranca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A mycological supply function of wild edible fungi is determined by a set of forest and economic variables, among which climate variables stand out. Focusing on wild mushroom picking with commercial value (Lactarius deliciosus (L. Gray as an example, the main objective of this paper is to obtain empirical evidence about the impact of meteorological and economic variables on the mushroom supply. A multidisciplinary vector error correction (VEC model for mushroom supply is estimated. Coefficients for the Error Correction Term (ECT are all significant, at the 0.01 significance level, both in the model for prices and for collected mushrooms. The value of the ECT coefficient in the equation for prices is −0.086 (t-value: −9.321, and for the collected mushroom equation is 0.499 (t-value: 3.913. The impact of precipitation on price changes is −0.104 (t-value: −1.66, and the impact of temperature on mushroom harvest picking is 0.605 (t-value: 3.07. We find that including climate factors to explain mushroom supply considerably strengthens the explanatory power of the model, and in some cases greatly changes the results.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

    2009-01-01

    Used of recycled aggregate (RA) in concrete can be described in environmental protection and economical terms. The application of recycled aggregate to use in construction activities have been practice by developed European countries and also of some Asian countries. This paper reports the results of an experimental study on the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) as compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC). The effects of size of RA on compressive strength were dis...

  11. JUDGMENT AGGREGATION AND PREFERENCE AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Ochremiak

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present an introduction to the theory of judgment aggregation and discuss its relation to the theory of preference aggregation. We compare the formal model of judgment aggregation, based on logic, with the formal model of preference aggregation. Finally, we present a theorem in judgmentaggregation which is an exact analogue of Arrow's theorem for strict preferences.

  12. Yeast prions: protein aggregation is not enough.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael Y

    2004-01-01

    Although many proteins -- both damaged and normal -- have a tendency to aggregate, only some are capable of dividing and propagating. What does it take to turn a protein aggregate into an infectious prion?

  13. Impact estimation of disasters : a global aggregate for 1960 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Okuyama, Yasuhide; Sahin, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the global aggregate of disaster impacts during 1960 to 2007 using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) methodology. The authors selected 184 major disasters in terms of the size of economic damages, based on the data available from the International Emergency Disasters and MunichRe (NatCat) databases for natural catastrophes. They estimate the losses and total impact...

  14. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab

  15. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law

    1995-12-31

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  17. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Zia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, especially Prais-Winston and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA models, are estimated to forecast the economic impacts of hurricanes of varying intensity, given that various patterns of land use emerge in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states of the U.S. The Prais-Winston and ARMA models use observed time series data from 1900 to 2005 for inflation adjusted hurricane damages and socio-economic and land-use data in the coastal or inland regions where hurricanes caused those damages. The results from this study provide evidence that increases in housing density and agricultural cover cause significant rise in the de-trended inflation-adjusted damages. Further, higher intensity and frequency of land-falling hurricanes also significantly increase the economic damages. The evidence from this study implies that a medium to long term land use adaptation in the form of capping housing density and agricultural cover in the coastal (and adjacent inland states can significantly reduce economic damages from intense hurricanes. Future studies must compare the benefits of such land use adaptation policies against the costs of development controls implied in housing density caps and agricultural land cover reductions.

  18. Economism

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, P.

    2010-01-01

    Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

  19. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... that occurred in the same area. In analogy to ’Paired catchment studies’ - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow – we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events...

  20. Rational Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Chapman

    2002-01-01

    In two recent papers, Christian List and Philip Pettit have argued that there is a problem in the aggregation of reasoned judgements that is akin to the aggregation of the preference problem in social choice theory.1 Indeed, List and Pettit prove a new general impossibility theorem for the aggregation of judgements, and provide a propositional interpretation of the social choice problem that suggests it is a special case of their impossibility result.2 Specifically, they show that no judgemen...

  1. Weighted aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  2. Study of the reactivity of an aggregative explosive sensitized by dynamical damage; Etude de la reactivite d`un explosif agregataire sensibilise par endommagement dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertuis, Ch.

    1997-11-13

    The thermal decomposition of a TATB-based explosive that have been exposed to a projectile impact, is studied in order to determine its sensitivity based on the morphological state of the damaged material. Two self-maintained thermal decomposition modes have been identified, one is a slow mode, the other is a rapid mode; four media have been differentiated in the damaged explosive: sound, porous, micro-cracked and fractured media, and thermal decomposition is studied for each media, using two experimental techniques, manometric bomb and a specifically designed strand burner. Laws giving the regression speed of each media has been established considering confinement pressure and initial temperature of the explosive. Analytical calculations yield the regression speed evolution as a function of certain parameters

  3. Categories of risk and damage in context of innovative ecological-economic activity’s theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Prokopenko O. V.; Petrushenko M.M.; Shevchenko H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the necessity of environmental risks problem’s actualization in the course of the innovative ecological-economic activities is grounded. Nature and content of damage’s categories arising from increased risk of environmentally relevant conflict situations and accordingly ineffective risk management in the context of innovative ecological-economic activity’s theoretical analysis are details researched.

  4. Aggregate Demand and Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Roger E.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader project that provides a microfoundation to the General Theory of J.M. Keynes. I call this project 'old Keynesian economics' to distinguish it from new-Keynesian economics, a theory that is based on the idea that to make sense of Keynes we must assume that prices are sticky. I describe a multi-good model in which I interpret the definitions of aggregate demand and supply found in the General Theory through the lens of a search theory of the labor market. I argue...

  5. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment-A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges faced by the developing countries are unique in that they need to meet the increasing energy demands for their economic growths at a competitive price without damaging the environments. In this paper, a case study on the electricity demand issue in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented to investigate potential solutions in addressing this current need for a typical developing economy from the technical, economical and environmental perspectives. Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, is currently experiencing a serious power shortage, especially at the east coast. A 300 MW coal plant is proposed by the electricity utility company. However, the proposal has been rejected in the past several years due to the negative environmental impacts of the plant. In this paper, a number of alternative solutions were evaluated and proposed with respect to the viability of technologies, financial return and minimum environmental impact in terms of GHG emission.

  6. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment. A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges faced by the developing countries are unique in that they need to meet the increasing energy demands for their economic growths at a competitive price without damaging the environments. In this paper, a case study on the electricity demand issue in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented to investigate potential solutions in addressing this current need for a typical developing economy from the technical, economical and environmental perspectives. Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, is currently experiencing a serious power shortage, especially at the east coast. A 300 MW coal plant is proposed by the electricity utility company. However, the proposal has been rejected in the past several years due to the negative environmental impacts of the plant. In this paper, a number of alternative solutions were evaluated and proposed with respect to the viability of technologies, financial return and minimum environmental impact in terms of GHG emission. (author)

  7. Disassembly and aggregation in computer aided overhaul preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Janik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Disassembly and aggregation procedures are main aspects of an overhaul process. The paper presents the example of an application that solves automation of technical mean recirculation procedures. Automation in the aspect of overhaul process preparation should be obtained through new tools specially oriented to refurbish mechanically used or damaged components.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology is based on complex overhaul process analysis that conclude technical mean recirculation method. This method brings technical mean back to operation with procedures (like: disassembly, aggregation, examination, preparation of refurbishing technology, overhaul process report generation determined in specific order.Findings: Method of technical mean refurbishing with computer aid application. Proposition of automation in aspects of: disassembly (disassembly correct sequence and aggregation procedures (which elements should be examined.Research limitations/implications: Important limitations are: disassembly based on assembly order, automation widest range possible when disassembly and aggregation is based on existing documentation. Aggregation algorithm based on machined type of elements.Practical implications: Nowadays overhaul processes are based directly in most cases on leading technologist experience. Elaborated method and application leads to more objective solutions (decisions based on algorithms results.Originality/value: CAO is an original and new approach that should be considered especially in heavy industry. Nowadays subjective decisions about how to refurbish in overhaul processes could be replaced by automated computer aided solutions. Positive economic impact to future and present overhaul processes execution in industry.

  8. Radiation Damage and Dimensional Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dimensional changes have been modeled in order to be accommodated in the reactor design. This study has major implications for the interpretation of damage in carbon based nuclear fission and fusion plant materials. Radiation damage of graphite leads to self-interstitials and vacancies defects. The aggregation of these defects causes dimensional changes. Vacancies aggregate into lines and disks which heal and contract the basal planes. Interstitials aggregate into interlayer disks which expand the dimension

  9. Effect of sulfur aggregates on mechanical resistance and durability for SFRHPC with the addition of slag

    OpenAIRE

    Boutiba Aldjia; Chaid Rabah; Moulez Laurent; Jauberthie Raoul

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of sulfides present in the aggregate to sulfates causes internal sulfate attack (ISA) by formation of secondary ettringite in the hardened concrete. This pathological ettringite crystallizes, the generated pressure is greater than the tensile strength of the concrete. It generates internal swelling and causes disorders that can severely damage the structures. Favors to their structural and economic performance, high performance concrete steel fiber (SFRHPC) are increasingly...

  10. Essays on Econometric Analyses of Economic Development and Effects on Health, Environmental Damage and Natural Resource Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Yaduma, Natina

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis is composed of three separate chapters, each using an innovative approach to analysing externalities from economic activity. The general introduction and overall conclusion sections complete the structure of the thesis. Chapter one examines the value of statistical life, an essential parameter used in ascribing monetary values to the mortality costs of air pollution in health risk analyses. This willingness to pay estimate is virtually non-existent for most develo...

  11. Can Aggregation Across Goods be Achieved by Neglecting The Problem? Property Inheritance and Aggregation Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand M. Koebel

    2002-01-01

    This article studies the problem of composite commodity in two different frameworks. In one case, aggregation across goods is analyzed for elementary goods that satisfy an optimality condition. The unrestricted case is also examined. The notion of an approximate aggregate representation is formalized and shown to be always possible. Can thereby aggregation issues simply be neglected in economic contributions? I show that the standard economic properties of initial functions are not necessaril...

  12. An Empirical Assessment of the Economic Damage Caused by Apple Marssonina Blotch and Pear Scab Outbreaks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyoung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marssonina blotch in apples and pear scab are diseases that may affect apple and pear production as well as related industries significantly. The range and scale of the economic influence of such outbreaks should be clarified to ensure the sustainable growth of these industries. This study evaluates the direct and indirect economic effects of outbreaks through a partial equilibrium approach and an input–output model; direct influences are measured on the basis of reduced production, and the estimated costs are 34,926 million Korean Won (mKRW (US$ 29.79 million and 11,767 mKRW (US$ 10.04 million for apples and pears, respectively. The indirect effects are determined according to changes in the quantity of apples and pears supplied to the market; these effects can induce social welfare losses. These costs are estimated to be 305,065 mKRW (US$ 259.08 million for apples infected with Marssonina blotch, which accounts for 186,628 mKRW (US$ 158.50 million in producer surplus and 118,437 mKRW (US$ 100.58 million in consumer surplus and 72,693 mKRW (US$ 61.74 million for pears infected with scab, which accounts for 44,106 mKRW (US$ 37.46 million in producer surplus and 28,587 mKRW (US$ 24.28 million in consumer surplus. The findings from this study can be referenced by the Korean government in designing more effective control measures toward sustainable growth of related industry.

  13. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  14. Economic Losses and Damages Induced by Climate Changes on Rural Livelihood of Northern Part of Bangladesh: An Exploratory GIS Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TanjinulHoque Mollah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh have generally a sub-tropical monsoon climate and maximum rainfall is recorded in the coastal areas of Chittagong and northern part of Sylhet district, whereasSundarganjUpazila of Gaibandha district is positioned in northern part belongs to the drought prone area in Bangladesh. Due to climate change agricultural land affected by drought, water scarcity and temperature variation. GDP growth rate of Bangladesh mainly depends on the performance of the agricultural sector [5]. Due to natural calamities like drought,losses of production crops are almost a regular phenomenonwhich induces sufferings of economically and environmentally. From field observation total area of SundarganjUpazilla is about 410.83 sq. kmwhere total agricultural land is 298.38sq.km or 29838 hectares and total drought prone area is 113.23 sq. km/11323 hectares which is the 27.56% of total land area [8]. In 2006 there main crops was Boro rice, Aman rice, wheat, potato and can but in 2012 observed that all crops production are decreases for temperature rise and water scarcity by drought[8].This paper aims at bringing up the reality of climate induced economic losses and damages mainly on agricultural crops in the SundarganjUpazila of Gaibandha district.

  15. GFRP管约束再生混凝土柱抗震性能与损伤评价%On the seismic behavior and damage assessment of recycled aggregate concrete filled GFRP tube column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建庄; 黄一杰

    2012-01-01

    以再乍粗骨料取代率、混凝土强度为主要参数,开展了6个玻璃纤维增强翅料(GFRP)管再生混凝土柱试件的低周反复试验,对试件的承载力、刚度退化过程、滞刚特性、延件、耗能能力、破坏形态等抗震性能进行研究。研究结果表明:GFRP管约束再生混凝土柱的耗能能力、延性、滞回特性随着再生粗骨料取代率、混凝土强度的改变而略有变化;粘结滑移的效应对试件的抗震性能影响很小;GFRP僻约束再生混凝土柱极限承载力受混凝土强度作用影响并小明显。最后,提出GFRP约束再生混凝土杜归一化损伤计算公式,该模型能较好地反映GFRP管约束再生混凝土柱的损伤发展。%Low frequency cyclic loading test of six recycled concrete filled Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) tube (RCFF) columns was performed. The main parameters in tbe test are the Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) replacement percentage, the strength of core concrete. The bearing capacity, the stiffness degradation, the ductility and the energy dissipation capacity and the failure pattern of columns with different RCA replacement percentage were studied. The findings indicate that the energy dissipation capacity, ductility and hysteresis vary slightly with the RCA replacement percentage and concrete strength. It is shown that the bond-slip has little effect on the seismic performance of the specimens. The effect of RCA replacement percentage on the bearing capacity of confined recycled concrete columns is not obvious. Finally, a normalization damage assessment method was developed for the RCFF columns. The model could well explain the damage development of RCFF columns.

  16. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  17. Aggregation of Scale Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Zelenyuk

    2012-01-01

    In this article we extend the aggregation theory in efficiency and productivity analysis by deriving solutions to the problem of aggregation of individual scale efficiency measures, primal and dual, into aggregate primal and dual scale efficiency measures of a group. The new aggregation result is coherent with aggregation framework and solutions for the other related efficiency measures that already exist in the literature.

  18. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  19. 7 CFR 51.1280 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.1280 Section 51.1280 Agriculture... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1280 Serious damage. Serious damage means any injury... which in the aggregate exceeds the following shall be considered as serious damage: (1) On all...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2966 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2966 Section 51.2966 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2966 Serious damage. Serious damage means any... serious damage: (a) Discoloration (or stain) which covers, in the aggregate, one-third or more of...

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Aggregate Polishing as a function of Load and Velocity : Application to the Prediction of Damages on Skid Resistance of Pavement Surface due to Trucks and Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Malal; ZHAO, Dan; De Larrard, François; Do, Minh Tan

    2012-01-01

    Skid resistance of road surfaces depends mostly on pavement texture. This texture is usually divided to two components:microtexture and macrotexture. Microtexture refers to the smallscale texture of the road aggregate component while macrotexture refers to the large-scale texture of the road as a whole due to the aggregate particle arrangement. Both components contribute to the generation of friction between tyre and road. However, due to traffic, the firstcited component is continuously poli...

  2. Underground economy and aggregate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Conesa Roca; Carlos Díaz Moreno; José Enrique Galdón Sánchez

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the role of underground economic activities as an explanation of differences in registered aggregate fluctuations. In order to do so, we introduce an underground economy sector in an otherwise standard Real Business Cycle model and calibrate it to the USA economy. We find that, at low frequencies, Europe fluctuates more than the USA, while its participation rate is smaller. The existence of underground activities rationalizes the negative relationship between participation...

  3. Credit contagion and aggregate losses

    OpenAIRE

    Giesecke, Kay; Weber, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Credit contagion refers to the propagation of economic distress from one firm or sovereign government to another. In this paper we model credit contagion phenomena and study the fluctuation of aggregate credit losses on large portfolios of financial positions. The joint dynamics of firms’ credit ratings is modeled by a voter process, which is well-known in the theory of interacting particle systems. We clarify the structure of the equilibrium joint rating distribution using ergodic decomposit...

  4. Consistent Trade Policy Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work requires the aggregation of policies. This paper provides methods of policy aggregation that are consistent with two common objectives of empirical work. One is to preserve real income. The other is to preserve the real volume of activity in one or more parts of the economy. Trade policy aggregation is an acute example of the aggregation problem with thousands of highly dispersed trade barriers to be aggregated. An application to India shows that the standard atheoretic me...

  5. Information-aggregation bias

    OpenAIRE

    Goodfriend, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    Aggregation in the presence of data-processing lags distorts the information content of data, violating orthogonality restrictions that hold at the individual level. Though the phenomenon is general, it is illustrated here for the life-cycle-permanent-income model. Cross-section and pooled-panel data induce information-aggregation bias akin to that in aggregate time series. Calculations show that information aggregation can seriously bias tests of the life-cycle model on aggregate time series...

  6. Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas P; Aukema, Juliann E; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin

    2009-04-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally eradicated the American chestnut across eastern North America. Assessments of the economic costs and losses induced by nonnative forest pests are required for policy development and need to adequately account for all of the economic impacts induced by rare, highly damaging pests. To date, countrywide economic evaluations of forest-invasive species have proceeded by multiplying a unit value (price) by a physical quantity (volume of forest products damaged) to arrive at aggregate estimates of economic impacts. This approach is inadequate for policy development because (1) it ignores the dynamic impacts of biological invasions on the evolution of prices, quantities, and market behavior, and (2) it fails to account for the loss in the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem services, such as landscape aesthetics, outdoor recreation, and the knowledge that healthy forest ecosystems exist. A review of the literature leads one to anticipate that the greatest economic impacts of invasive species in forests are due to the loss of nonmarket values. We proposed that new methods for evaluating aggregate economic damages from forest-invasive species need to be developed that quantify market and nonmarket impacts at microscales that are then extended using spatially explicit models to provide aggregate estimates of impacts. Finally, policies that shift the burden of economic impacts from taxpayers and forest landowners onto parties responsible for introducing or spreading invasives, whether through the imposition of tariffs on products suspected of imposing unacceptable risks on native forest ecosystems or by requiring

  7. Compartment-specific aggregases direct distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregate deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Stephanie Bm; Ho, Chi-Ting; Winkler, Juliane;

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the functional protein balance in living cells activates protective quality control systems to repair damaged proteins or sequester potentially cytotoxic misfolded proteins into aggregates. The established model based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicates that aggregating proteins i...

  8. An Analysis of The Economic Causes Upon The Social Damage ( with an Emphasis on the Relationship between Inflation and Crime in the Years 1991-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihallah Makipour; Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Crime is an extremely important social and economic issue in our day. The considerable costs imposed by crime on its victims and society greatly exceed the private benefits of crime (Becker, 1968;) .Economics of crime is an interdisciplinary topic that is intended to analyze crimes economically. Regarding the increase in crimes rates in our country, a comprehensive study of the causes of crime, especially economic crimes such as robbery is necessary, because it is directly relate...

  9. Appraising Damaged Timber

    OpenAIRE

    Straka, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of the value of damaged timber stands can be complicated. The foundation for any valuation calculations involving damaged timber is land expectation value (LEV). A timber damage model using LEV is described in detail. The concept is economically sound as it ignores sunk costs and considers land opportunity cost and the impact on future rotations. The method described is an income approach. The results can also be applied to a replacement cost model. The two approaches will produce ...

  10. A look at construction aggregates production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

  11. Platelet aggregation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a part of blood, clump together and cause blood to clot. ... Decreased platelet aggregation may be due to: Autoimmune ... Fibrin degradation products Inherited platelet function defects ...

  12. Aggregation in manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaard, J

    1983-01-01

    In manpower planning, as in all other kinds of planning, an important choice is the level of aggregation. The proper level of aggregation depends on the flexibility (mobility) of the personnel. This dependency is investigated in this paper. The manpower system considered is characterized by two dimensions, level and function group. Conditions are derived for aggregate long-term planning (aggregation over function group) combined with one-period disaggregation being optimal.

  13. Aggregating Reputation Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Florent; Faltings, Boi; Jurca, Radu

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental task in reputation systems is to aggregate multiple feedback ratings into a single value that can be used to compare the reputation of different entities. Feedback is most commonly aggregated using the arithmetic mean. However, the mean is quite susceptible to outliers and biases, and thus may not be the most informative aggregate of the reports. We consider three criteria to assess the quality of an aggregator: the informativness, the robustness and the strategyproofness, and a...

  14. Protein aggregation and bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Cromwell, Mary E. M.; Hilario, Eric; Jacobson, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common issue encountered during manufacture of biotherapeutics. It is possible to influence the amount of aggregate produced during the cell culture and purification process by carefully controlling the environment (eg, media components) and implementing appro-priate strategies to minimize the extent of aggregation. Steps to remove aggregates have been successfully used at a manufacturing scale. Care should be taken when developing a process to monitor the compatibili...

  15. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  16. Environmental Sustainability by Use of Recycled Aggregates - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Gandhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimum utilization of available natural resources is the major component to achieve the environmental sustainability. Development in urban infrastructure demands for large quantity of aggregates for construction. Infrastructural waste in the form of demolished aggregates is one of the major components of solid waste. By efficient use of these demolished aggregates in the form of recycled aggregates along with fresh aggregates can achieve a better solid waste management and also cope up with the rising demands of aggregates leading to economy. Present study is an attempt to increase the awareness about economical viability and technical feasibility for the use of recycled aggregates as a construction material in concrete and to show that the use of recycled aggregates is also an efficient measure to reduce the intensity of environmental impact.

  17. 7 CFR 51.2128 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.2128 Section 51.2128 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2128 Damage. Damage means any defect which... the affected area on an individual kernel aggregates more than the equivalent of a circle...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1536 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.1536 Section 51.1536 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1536 Serious damage. “Serious damage” means... serious damage: (a) Broken skins which are unhealed when aggregating more than one-eighth inch in...

  19. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  20. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  1. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  2. Compensating for environmental damages

    OpenAIRE

    GASTINEAU, Pascal; TAUGOURDEAU, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a situation in which a decision-maker determines the appropriate compensation that should be awarded for a given amount of ecological damage. The compensation can take the form of either or both monetary and environmental units to meet three goals: i) minimisation of the cost associated with the compensation, ii) no aggregate welfare loss, and iii) minimal environmental compensation requirement. The findings suggest that – in some cases – providing both monetar...

  3. Testing the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy in Malaysia Using Alternative Monetary Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Choi-Meng; Puah, Chin-Hong; Abu Mansor, Shazali; Evan, Lau

    2008-01-01

    The capability of monetary aggregates to generate stable link with fundamental economic indicators verifies the effectiveness of monetary targeting. However, traditional monetary aggregates have become flawed when financial reforms take place. As official monetary aggregates fail to maintain stable link with crucial economic indicators in Malaysia, monetary targeting has been substituted by interest rate targeting. Therefore, Divisia monetary aggregates, which are considered more superior tha...

  4. Effect of sulfur aggregates on mechanical resistance and durability for SFRHPC with the addition of slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutiba Aldjia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of sulfides present in the aggregate to sulfates causes internal sulfate attack (ISA by formation of secondary ettringite in the hardened concrete. This pathological ettringite crystallizes, the generated pressure is greater than the tensile strength of the concrete. It generates internal swelling and causes disorders that can severely damage the structures. Favors to their structural and economic performance, high performance concrete steel fiber (SFRHPC are increasingly used in construction. Increase productivity and reduce construction time on site. They provide substantial weight savings, therefore it is possible to build with less formwork, less concrete to set up and fewer reinforcement than ordinary concrete. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of sulfur present in the hornfels crushed aggregates, on the mechanical strength, durability, and the microstructure of SFRHPC with the addition of blast furnace slag. In ordinary concrete, the pyrite aggregates cause cracking by expansion when they are in wet land. In high performance concretes this phenomenon is greatly reduced or absent. This is the result of a very low porosity, reduced flow of moisture that cannot propagate to aggregate. And sulfide is stable and cannot be transformed into aggressive sulfate.

  5. Methods for Measuring Aggregate Costs of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods for measuring the economic cost of conflict. Estimating the economic costs of conflict requires a counterfactual calculation, which makes this a very difficult task. Social researchers have resorted to different estimation methods depending on the particular effect in question. The method used in each case depends on the units being analyzed (firms, sectors, regions or countries), the outcome variable under study (aggregate output, market valuation of firms, mar...

  6. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Objective was to develop a lightweight, high alumina refractory aggregate for use in various high performance insulating (low thermal conductivity) refractory applications (e.g., in the aluminium, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries). A new aggregate process was developed through bench and pilot-scale experiments involving extrusion of a blend of calcined and activated alumina powders and organic extrusion aids and binders. The aggregate, with a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cc, exhibited reduced thermal conductivity and adequate fired strength compared to dense tabular aggregate. Refractory manufacturers were moderately enthusiastic over the results. Alcoa prepared an economic analysis for producing lightweight aggregate, based on a retrofit of this process into existing Alcoa production facilities. However, a new, competing lightweight aggregate material was developed by another company; this material (Plasmal{trademark})had a significantly more favorable cost base than the Alcoa/DOE material, due to cheap raw materials and fewer processing steps. In late 1995, Alcoa became a distributor of Plasmal. Alcoa estimated that {ge}75% of the market originally envisioned for the Alcoa/DOE aggregate would be taken by Plasmal. Hence, it was decided to terminate the contract without the full- scale demonstration.

  7. Provenance for Aggregate Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Amsterdamer; Daniel Deutch; Val Tannen

    2011-01-01

    We study in this paper provenance information for queries with aggregation. Provenance information was studied in the context of various query languages that do not allow for aggregation, and recent work has suggested to capture provenance by annotating the different database tuples with elements of a commutative semiring and propagating the annotations through query evaluation. We show that aggregate queries pose novel challenges rendering this approach inapplicable. Consequently, we propose...

  8. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consists of spherical, or cylindrical or plane aggregates, which do not represent the individual aggregates of the soil, however. The radii of the spheres, cylinders or plane sheets represent different le...

  9. Generation of Small Enterprises’ Multivariate Sample Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Bokun, N. Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The work gives methodology of small enterprises’ multivariate sample aggregates in order to provide more comprehensive statistical evaluation of small institutional units’ economic activity. The strategy is found on usage cluster analysis. The article provides results of small enterprises’ selection carried out in Minsk City.

  10. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  11. 7 CFR 51.1414 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as serious damage: (a) Adhering hull material or dark stains affecting an aggregate of more than 20...) Decay affecting any portion of the kernel; (g) Insect injury when the insect, web or frass is present... than three dark spots on either half of the kernel, or when any spot or the aggregate of two or...

  12. The Aggregate-Supply/Aggregate-Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    BARRO, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The aggregate-supply/ aggregate-demand (AS-AD) model is popular in textbooks, but has problems with logical consistency. In one interpretation, the Keynesian underpinnings of the AD curve-derived from the IS/LM model with downward price stickiness-conflict with the determination of the price level at the intersection of the AS and AD curves. In another view, the model corresponds to rational-expectations theories in which Keynesian properties are absent. In a third interpretation, the model i...

  13. 7 CFR 51.317 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.317 Section 51.317 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.317 Damage. “Damage” means any specific defect defined in... to “aggregate area,” “total area,” or “aggregate affected area” means the gathering together...

  14. Further Results on Aggregation of Differential Demand Equations.

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Selvanathan

    1991-01-01

    W. A. Barnett (1979, 1981), extending H. Theil's (1971) work, aggregates differential demand equations in absolute (undeflated) prices. This paper extends further these results by deriving aggregate (macro) demand equations in relative prices under stated assumptions. These equations are analogous to the individual consumer's (micro) demand equations and the properties of the microcoefficients carry over. Copyright 1991 by The Review of Economic Studies Limited.

  15. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth in Mena Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Panahi; Ahmad Assadzadeh; Ramiar Refaei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between economic freedom and growth of GDP have found a positive correlation. One problem in this area is the choice of measure of economic freedom. A single measurement does not reflect the complex economic environment and a highly aggregated index makes it difficult to draw policy conclusions. This paper attempts to answer the question: How does economic freedom impact economic growth? Using data from 13 selected MENA countries over the period of 2000 to 200...

  16. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists enhance white blood cell aggregation in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Pringle, T. H.; McNeill, G P; Tavendale, R; Belch, J J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and long acting nitrates on white blood cell (WBC) aggregation were studied in patients with ischaemic heart disease. WBC aggregation was significantly increased by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (P = 0.011) but was unaffected by either calcium channel blockers or long acting nitrates. Enhanced WBC aggregation promotes microvascular occlusion and damage.

  17. An Aggregation Matrix MATLAB Function

    OpenAIRE

    Caleb Stair

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Document describes the foundations for an aggregation matrix function implemented in MATLAB, including the format and structure of the required aggregation vector used as an argument to the function. The function is passed with the N-dimensional aggregation vector as an argument. The aggregation vector contains N values ranging from 1 to M, each of which is the aggregate index corresponding to the N pre-aggregation indices. The function returns an aggregation matrix with M rows...

  18. Software for Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    The equations below provide an algebraic example of the AD-AS model in G.Wells, 'Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models", Journal of Economic Education. The initial equilibrium is illustrated in the diagram on this sheet.

  19. Pirated Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Babutsidze, Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    I argue that the impact of piracy engines for scholarly content on science depends on the nature of the research. Social sciences are more likely to reap benefits from such engines without inflicting much damage to journal publisher revenues. To validate the claim, I examine the data from illegal downloads of economics content from Sci-Hub over five-month period. I conclude that: (a) the extent of piracy in economics is not pervasive; (b) as downloads are coming mostly from under-developed co...

  20. Aggregate stability and soil degradation in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregate stability is a measure of the structural stability of soils. Factors that influence aggregate stability are important in evaluating the ease with which soils erode by water and/or wind, the potential of soils to crust and/or seal, soil permeability, quasi-steady state infiltration rates and seedling emergence and in predicting the capacity of soils to sustain long-term crop production. Aggregate stability of soils can be measured by the wet-sieving or raindrop techniques. A reduction in soil aggregate stability implies an increase in soil degradation. Hence aggregate stability and soil degradation are interwoven. The measures used can either be preventive or remedial. Preventive practices minimize the chances of soil degradation occurring or the magnitude or severity of the damage when the degradation manifests. These include in Nigeria, (i) manuring and mulching, (ii) planted fallows and cover crops, (iii) sustainable farming systems, (iv) adequate rotations, (v) home gardens or compound farms, (vi) alley cropping and related agro forestry systems, and (vii) chemical fertilizers which are mainly remedial measures. Because of alterations in soil properties that affect particular land uses, soils may degrade for one crop (maize rather sorghum). As long as some land use is possible soil degradation is not always an absolute concept. Decline in agricultural productivity should be evaluated in terms of inputs such as fertilizer use, water management and tillage methods. We can alleviate some types of soil degradation by use of micronutrients, inorganic fertilizers and organic residues. Soil that responds to management practices cannot be said to be degraded. Since crop growth depends on weather, degraded soils may be more sensitive to harsh weather (e.g. drought, temperature) than undegraded soils. A soil is degraded if its productivity falls below the economic threshold even under favourable weather conditions or with judicious inputs. All human

  1. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Zia

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, ...

  2. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Zia

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, ...

  3. Comment 2 on workshop in economics - issues in benefit-cost analysis: Amplification channels and discounting long-term environmental damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many environmental problems have long-term effects. Acid rain has long-term effects on soils, forests, and exposed materials. Global climate change has even longer-term effects. This difference in timing - between the near-term cost of environmental protection and the long-term environmental effects - makes it difficult to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of any program designed to abate environmental damages. The rate at which to discount long-term environmental damages becomes a key question in comparisons of benefits and costs. This comment points out an important facet of the discounting issue. The discount rate for calculating the present value of future environmental benefits may be much lower than the rate of return on investment. Cost-benefit analysis is a framework in which to evaluate policies and decisions. Because global climate change is a complex problem, extensions of cost-benefit theory can be expected to add additional insights, particularly in the following areas: distinguishing distributional effects among nations, over time, and among generations; determining the rate of discount that is appropriate for long-term environmental damages and separating risk aspects from the rate of discount; and assessing amplification effects when policies involve large expenditures relative to the economy or when affected sectors are significant sectors of the economy

  4. Economic Security in Nova Scotia

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Osberg; Andrew Sharpe

    2008-01-01

    The report uses an aggregate index, based on security from the economic risks imposed by four key factors – unemployment, illness, old age, and single parenthood – to examine trends in economic security in Nova Scotia from 1981 to 2007. It concludes that economic security in Nova Scotia decreased during the 1981-2007 period.

  5. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  6. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  7. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  8. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  9. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten; Fenger-Eriksen, C; Ingerslev, J; Sørensen, Benny

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...... by tissue factor evaluated by means of impedance aggregometry. Citrated whole blood from healthy volunteers and haemophilia A patients with the addition of inhibitors of the contact pathway and fibrin polymerization was evaluated. In healthy persons, a second wave of platelet aggregation was found to...... coincide with the thrombin burst and to be abolished by thrombin inhibitors. In this system, platelet aggregation in severe haemophilia A (n = 10) was found to be significantly decreased as compared with healthy individuals (912 ± 294 vs. 1917 ± 793 AU × min, P = 0.003), most probably due to the weak level...

  10. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  11. Coagulation with limited aggregations

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Smoluchowski's coagulation equations can be used as elementary mathematical models for the formation of polymers. We review here some recent contributions on a variation of this model in which the number of aggregations for each atom is a priori limited. Macroscopic results in the deterministic setting can be explained at the microscopic level by considering a version of stochastic coalescence with limited aggregations, which can be related to the so-called random configuration model of random graph theory.

  12. The Aggregation Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Ingmar Schumacher

    2014-01-01

    The results in this paper show that the level of aggregation used in a social welfare func- tion matters significantly for policy analysis. Using climate change as an example, it is shown that, under the mild and widely-accepted assumptions of asymmetric climate change impacts and declining marginal utility, an aggregation dilemma may arise that dwarfs most other policy-relevant aspects in the climate change cost-benefit analysis. Estimates based on the RICE-99 model (Nordhaus and Boyer 2000)...

  13. Glycine reduces platelet aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Schemmer, Peter; Zhong, Zhi; Galli, Uwe; Wheeler, Michael D.; Xiangli, Li; Bradford, Blair U.; Conzelmann, Lars O.; Forman, Dow; Boyer, José; Thurman, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a wide variety of white blood cells and macrophages (i.e. Kupffer cells, alveolar and peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils) contain glycine-gated chloride channels. Binding of glycine on the receptor stimulates Cl− influx causing membrane hyperpolarization that prevents agonist-induced influx of calcium. Since platelet-aggregation is calcium-dependent, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that glycine would inhibit platelet aggregation. Rats were fed ...

  14. Climate change: Unattributed hurricane damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

  15. Effects of aggregating electric load in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load over various combinations (Aggregation Groupings) of the 10 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. Generator capacity capital cost savings, load energy shift operating cost savings, reserve requirement cost savings, and transmission costs due to aggregation were calculated for each Aggregation Grouping. Eight scenarios of Aggregation Groupings over the U.S. were formed to estimate overall system cost. Transmission costs outweighed cost savings due to aggregation for all scenarios and nearly all Aggregation Groupings. East–west transmission layouts had the highest overall cost, and interconnecting ERCOT to adjacent FERC Regions resulted in increased costs, both due to limited existing transmission capacity. This study found little economic benefit of aggregating electric load alone (e.g., without aggregating renewable generators simultaneously), except in the West and Northwest U.S. If aggregation of load alone is desired, small, regional consolidations yield the lowest overall cost. This study neither examines nor precludes benefits of interconnecting geographically-dispersed renewable generators with load. It also does not consider effects from sub-hourly load variability, fuel diversity and price uncertainty, energy price differences due to congestion, or uncertainty due to forecasting errors; thus, results are valid only for the assumptions made. - Highlights: ► Effects of aggregating load across various geographic areas of U.S. are quantified. ► Benefits exist for all metrics, but outweighed by additional transmission costs. ► Aggregating electric load alone is not economical, except for West and NW U.S. ► Limited existing transmission capacity yields highest cost for east–west layout. ► Lowest U.S.-wide overall cost when consolidate multiple, small areas.

  16. Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes: economic evolution and spatial modelling of the damage potential in the lower Weser region; Risiko einer Kuestenregion bei Klimaaenderung: Oekonomische Bewertung und raeumliche Modellierung des Schadenspotentials in der Unterweserregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiese, M.; Leineweber, B.

    2001-07-01

    An accelerated increase of the sea-level causes the coastal protection to change from an absolute necessity (coastal protection at any price) to a decision problem due to empty public cash boxes. In order to guarantee an efficient distribution of the scarce financial means the most urgent coastal protection investments must be assessed by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The benefit of a coastal protection measure corresponds to the avoided damage in case of failure (''if the flood comes''). Taking into account equal conditions extension measures must be carried out where the damage potential to the hinterland is the highest. The part of the project ''Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes: Economic evaluation and spatial modelling of the damage potential in the Lower Weser region Bremerhaven - Butjadingen - Land Wursten'' worked on by the Department of Economic Geography of the Geographic Institute of the University Hanover, is supposed to assess the ''protected values'' located behind the dike, evaluate the monetary value and develop a spatial model. The obtained protected values, which are related with damage functions, indicate the damage potential that would have to be expected in case of flooding. The results of this project are incorporated in the research project ''Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes'' that is carried out by the Franzius Institute for water construction and coastal engineering in cooperation with the Department of Economic Geography. (orig.) [German] Ein beschleunigter Meeresspiegelanstieg macht den Kuestenschutz angesichts leerer oeffentlicher Kassen zunehmend von einer Unbedingtheit (Kuestenschutz um jeden Preis) zu einem Entscheidungsproblem. Um eine effiziente Allokation der knappen Mittel zu gewaehrleisten, sind die vordringlichsten Kuestenschutzinvestitionen mit Hilfe von Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen zu ermitteln. Dabei entspricht

  17. "Paul Davidson's Economics"

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P.F. Holt; J. Barkley Rosser; Jr,; L. Randall Wray

    1998-01-01

    Paul Davidson is one of the best known and most influential Post Keynesian economists. He has insisted throughout his career that economists should focus on real world problems and that the purpose of economic policy is to help society become more humane and civilized. He is also known for his insistence on adhering to the words and ideas of John Maynard Keynes. This article reviews his contributions to monetary theory, international economics, aggregate supply theory, and environmental econo...

  18. High School Economics. Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  19. Capturing Aggregate Flexibility in Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; Scaglione, Anna; Goldsmith, Andrea; Kesidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility in electric power consumption can be leveraged by Demand Response (DR) programs. The goal of this paper is to systematically capture the inherent aggregate flexibility of a population of appliances. We do so by clustering individual loads based on their characteristics and service constraints. We highlight the challenges associated with learning the customer response to economic incentives while applying demand side management to heterogeneous appliances. We also develop a framewo...

  20. Creative destruction and aggregate productivity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Fujita

    2008-01-01

    Productivity growth is the engine of economic growth and is responsible for rising standards of living. But all firms do not partake equally in the nation's productivity growth. Rather, according to economist Joseph Schumpeter's theory, firms undergo a process of "creative destruction": New firms that adapt to new knowledge cause the decline and eventual demise of incumbent firms. In "Creative Destruction and Aggregate Productivity Growth," Shigeru Fujita surveys recent studies that examine t...

  1. Aggregate Demand Model for Theatre in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rusnė Kregždaitė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse aggregate demand for theatre which is the demand for the whole theatre sector described by the box office performance. In reference to foreign authors’ models a demand model for theatre in Lithuania was created which allows to analyse the relations between theatre demand and social or economical structure. The econometric models with time series model expression were used. Proposed methods could be applied to the analysis of the other sectors of cultural ...

  2. Temperature, Aggregate Risk, and Expected Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Bansal; Marcelo Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that temperature is an aggregate risk factor that adversely affects economic growth. Our argument is based on evidence from global capital markets which shows that the covariance between country equity returns and temperature (i.e., temperature betas) contains sharp information about the cross-country risk premium; countries closer to the Equator carry a positive temperature risk premium which decreases as one moves farther away from the Equator. The differences in tempe...

  3. Sustainable Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, P

    2012-01-01

    Concretes produced with recycled aggregates are the subject of several papers recently published in the technical literature. Substitution of natural aggregates can be one of possibilities to take care of landfills and increase of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere in Latvia. Recycled aggregate is a valuable resource; value-added consumption of recycled aggregate, as replacement for virgin aggregate in concrete, can yield significant energy and environmental benefits. In present study recycled...

  4. Arrow's Theorem in Judgement Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Dietrich; Christian List

    2005-01-01

    In response to recent work on the aggregation of individual judgements on logically connected propositions into collective judgements, it is often asked whether judgement aggregation is a special case of Arrowian preference aggregation. We argue the opposite. After proving a general impossibility theorem, we construct an embedding of preference aggregation into judgement aggregation and prove Arrow's theorem as a corollary of our result. Although we provide a new proof of Arrow's theorem, our...

  5. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Olsina, Jan; Durchan, Milan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption...

  6. Aggregate Oligopoly Games with Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Simon P.; Erkal, Nisvan; Piccinin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We use cumulative reaction functions to compare long-run market structures in aggregative oligopoly games. We first compile an IO toolkit for aggregative games. We show strong neutrality properties across market structures. The aggregator stays the same, despite changes in the number of firms and their actions. The IIA property of demands (CES and logit) implies that consumer surplus depends on the aggregator alone, and that the Bertrand pricing game is aggregative. We link together the follo...

  7. Metaconcrete: Engineered aggregates for enhanced dynamic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.

    to resist damage induced by a propagating shock wave. The various analyses presented in this work provide the theoretical and numerical background necessary for the informed design and development of metaconcrete aggregates for dynamic loading applications, such as blast shielding, impact protection, and seismic mitigation.

  8. Aggregation on heterogeneous surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hang-Jun; Wu Feng-Min; Fang Yun-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Chessboard-like substrates are introduced in this paper, in order to study the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA)and the motion of poly-atoms on heterogeneous surfaces. The effect of morphology of such substrates upon the cluster aggregation is investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the growth process and the cluster morphology are governed by the energetic topography of the substrates. Our simulation also indicate that the island density and the fractal dimension of the clusters depend strongly on the substrate topography and the activation energy.

  9. Determination of the dynamic elastic constants of recycled aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumani, A. A.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, construction and demolition waste constitutes a major portion of the total solid waste production in the world. Due to both environmental and economical reasons, an increasing interest concerning the use of recycled aggregate to replace aggregate from natural sources is generated. This paper presents an investigation on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Concrete mixes are prepared using recycled aggregates at a substitution level between 0 and 100% of the total coarse aggregate. The influence of this replacement on strengthened concrete's properties is being investigated. The properties estimated are: density and dynamic modulus of elasticity at the age of both 7 and 28 days. Also, flexural strength of 28 days specimens is estimated. The determination of the dynamic elastic modulus was made using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method. The results reveal that the existence of recycled aggregates affects the properties of concrete negatively; however, in low levels of substitution the influence of using recycled aggregates is almost negligible. Concluding, the controlled use of recycled aggregates in concrete production may help solve a vital environmental issue apart from being a solution to the problem of inadequate concrete aggregates.

  10. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  11. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  12. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  13. The Theory of Monetary Aggregation (book front matter)

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Apostolos Serletis; W. Erwin Diewert

    2005-01-01

    This is the front matter from the book, William A. Barnett and Apostolos Serletis (eds.), The Theory of Monetary Aggregation, published in 2000 by Elsevier in its Contributions to Economic Anaysis mongraph series. The front matter includes the Table of Contents and the Introduction by Barnett and Serletis and the Preface by W. Erwin Diewert. The volume contains a unified collection and discussion of W. A. Barnett's most important published papers on financial aggregation theory and monetary e...

  14. Habit, aggregation and long memory: evidence from television audience data

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, D; Peel, D; D A Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many economic outcomes appear to be influenced by habit or commitment, giving rise to persistence. In cases where the decision is binary and persistent, the aggregation of individual time series can result in a fractionally integrated process for the aggregate data. Certain television programmes appear to engender commitment on the part of viewers and the decision to watch or not is clearly binary. We report an empirical analysis of television audience data and show that these series can be m...

  15. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  16. Aggregation Algorithms in Heterogeneous Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Titus Felix FURTUNA; Ivan, Ion; Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    The heterogeneous tables are most used in the problem of aggregation. A solution for this problem is to standardize these tables of figures. In this paper, we proposed some methods of aggregation based on the hierarchical algorithms.

  17. Judgement aggregation and distributed thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Spiekermann, Kai

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, judgement aggregation has emerged as an important area of social choice theory. Judgement aggregation is concerned with aggregating sets of individual judgements over logically connected propositions into a set of collective judgements. It has been shown that even seemingly weak conditions on the aggregation function make it impossible to find functions that produce rational collective judgements from all possible rational individual judgements. This implies...

  18. Aggregating governance indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the growing interest of academics and policymakers in governance has been reflected in the proliferation of cross-country indices measuring various aspects of governance. The authors explain how a simple variant of an unobserved components model can be used to combine the information from these different sources into aggregate governance indicators. The main advantage of this method us that it allows quantification of the precision of both individual sources of governance data...

  19. Study of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Jitender Sharma; Sandeep Singla

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and production of recycled concrete aggregates and its various applications in the construction industry. In this paper, properties of recycled aggregates and its comparison with the natural aggregates are also mentioned. Future recommendations about RCA are also included.

  20. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Smart aggregates: multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the authors' recent pioneering research work in piezoceramic-based smart aggregates and their innovative applications in concrete civil structures. The basic operating principle of smart aggregates is first introduced. The proposed smart aggregate is formed by embedding a waterproof piezoelectric patch with lead wires into a small concrete block. The proposed smart aggregates are multi-functional and can perform three major tasks: early-age concrete strength monitoring, impact detection and structural health monitoring. The proposed smart aggregates are embedded into the desired location before the casting of the concrete structure. The concrete strength development is monitored by observing the high frequency harmonic wave response of the smart aggregate. Impact on the concrete structure is detected by observing the open-circuit voltage of the piezoceramic patch in the smart aggregate. For structural health monitoring purposes, a smart aggregate-based active sensing system is designed for the concrete structure. Wavelet packet analysis is used as a signal-processing tool to analyze the sensor signal. A damage index based on the wavelet packet analysis is used to determine the structural health status. To better describe the time-history and location information of damage, two types of damage index matrices are proposed: a sensor-history damage index matrix and an actuator–sensor damage index matrix. To demonstrate the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates, different types of concrete structures have been used as test objects, including concrete bridge bent-caps, concrete cylinders and a concrete frame. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates. The multi-functional smart aggregates have the potential to be applied to the comprehensive monitoring of concrete structures from their earliest stages and throughout their lifetime. (topical review)

  2. Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound effect over years of exposure ... changes. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun accounts for most premature skin aging. Many skin ...

  3. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  4. Damage Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2.2 of the HARDER project is according to the work package description: For various structural configurations of the struck ship and using the results of Task 2.1, the probability distributions for the damage location and size will be derived. The format will be similar to the...... damage statistics and bow height statistics for vessels in the world fleet. The proposals for the p-, r-, and v-factors have been compared to factors from current regulation by examples.......The purpose of Task 2.2 of the HARDER project is according to the work package description: For various structural configurations of the struck ship and using the results of Task 2.1, the probability distributions for the damage location and size will be derived. The format will be similar to the p...... between the damage location, the damage sizes and the main particulars of the struck vessel. From the numerical simulation and the analyse of the damage statistics it is found that the current formulation from the IMO SLF 43/3/2 can be used as basis for determination of the p-, r-, and v...

  5. INTERTEMPORALLY NON-SEPARABLE MONETARYASSET RISK ADJUSTMENT AND AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Shu Wu

    2004-01-01

    Modern aggregation theory and index number theory were introduced into monetary economics by Barnett (1980). The widely used Divisia monetary aggregates were based upon that paper. A key result upon which the rest of the theory depended was Barnett¡¯s derivation of the user-cost price of monetary assets. To make that critical part of Barnett¡¯s results available prior to publication of that paper in the Journal of Econometrics, Barnett repeated that proof two years earlier in Economics Letter...

  6. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  7. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  8. Punitive Damages, Social Norms, and Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cooter, Robert D

    1999-01-01

    Law and morality forbid acts that cause uncompensable harms or create unreasonable risks. When people intentionally commit such acts, courts express anger and indignation at the wrongdoer through speech and punishment. In a system of social norms with multiple equilibria, expressions of emotion signal commitment and coordinate expectations. In a system of social norms with a unique, stable equilibrium, legal sactions deter marginally. Social norms, however, provide a better guide to the need ...

  9. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  10. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception - challenges for flood damage research

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Frank; Meyer, Volker

    2005-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in flood damage analysis mainly focuses on the economic evaluation of tangible flood effects. It is contended in this discussion paper that important economic, social and ecological aspects of flood-related vulnerabilities are neglected. It is a challenge for flood research to develop a wider perspective for flood damage evaluation.

  11. Aggregation of smooth preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Schofield

    1998-01-01

    Suppose p is a smooth preference profile (for a society, N) belonging to a domain PN. Let be a voting rule, and (p)(x) be the set of alternatives in the space, W, which is preferred to x. The equilibrium E((p)) is the set {x∈W:(p)(x) is empty}. A sufficient condition for existence of E((p)) when p is convex is that a "dual", or generalized gradient, d(p)(x), is non-empty at all x. Under certain conditions the dual "field", d(p), admits a "social gradient field" (p). is called an "aggregator" ...

  12. Concrete = aggregate, cement, water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete for the Temelin nuclear power plant is produced to about 70 different formulae. For quality production, homogeneous properties of aggregates, accurate proportioning devices, technological discipline and systematic inspections and tests should be assured. The results are reported of measuring compression strength after 28 days for different concrete samples. The results of such tests allow reducing the proportion of cement, which brings about considerable savings. Reduction in cement quantities can also be achieved by adding ash to the concrete mixes. Ligoplast, a plasticizer addition is used for improving workability. (M.D). 8 figs

  13. Interactive Web Graphs for Economic Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Dennis A.; Kaufman, Rebecca S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Web site with animation and interactive activities containing graphs and basic economics concepts. Features changes in supply and market equilibrium, the construction of the long-run average cost curve, short-run profit maximization, long-run market equilibrium, and changes in aggregate demand and aggregate supply. States the…

  14. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  15. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  16. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na+ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  17. Belarusian economic growth decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Dzmitry Kruk; Kateryna Bornukova

    2016-01-01

    Belarus experienced rapid economic growth in the 2000's, which abruptly came to halt after 2008. The authors found that the major source of growth was capital accumulation, while growth in total factor productivity (TFP) was modest. Moreover, government interventions and controls on the capital market contributed to misallocation which lowered aggregate productivity. Lack of productivity growth led to the loss of competitiveness on the international markets. Comparisons of TFP in Belarus with...

  18. "Aggregate Risk in Japanese Equity Markets"

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anton Braun; Etsuro Shioji

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade Japanese households have been buffeted by some big aggregate shocks. Economic growth has slowed, unemployment risk has risen, and asset prices have fallen to levels not seen since the early 1980's. These shocks have hit both households' financial and human capital. This paper develops a framework for identifying the sources of these shocks and a way to measure how household assessments of these risks vary over time. We consider the perspective of a forward-looking risk-aver...

  19. Growth rates and aggregate welfare : an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Kakwani, Nanak

    1991-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between growth rates and changes in welfare, using alternative procedures for measuring growth. The Bank and other organizations often compute growth rates by fitting a least-squares linear trend line to the logarithmic values of economic indicators for a period. This paper questions the use of the least-squares procedure for measuring people's economic welfare over time. Instead, the author develops a conceptual framework for deriving an aggregate growth ...

  20. Using of Local Limestone as Aggregate in Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Muyasser M. Jomaa'h

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the field investigations and construction properties for using limestone as a lightweight course aggregate in concrete mixture in stead of normal coarse aggregate. Concrete cubes samples have been prepared with dimensions of 150*150*150 mm according to ASTM. For these samples the normal coarse aggregate was replaced by 100% coarse crushed limestone. Three types of limestone which were used (Al-Sinea, Makhool and Himreen, it was found that the Al-Sinea type of limestone gave a good combination (fcu =32.11MPa without admixtures. The obtained results showed a suitable reduction in dead loads of structural elements and cost. Accordingly, the usage of limestone will improve the structural applications and concrete mix properties to attain economic viability. These above results make limestone as a good alternative of normal coarse aggregate

  1. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  2. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  3. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  4. Benzbromarone, Quercetin, and Folic Acid Inhibit Amylin Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Laura C.; Varea, Olga; Navarro, Susanna; Carrodeguas, José A.; Sanchez de Groot, Natalia; Ventura, Salvador; Sancho, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Human Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), is a small hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells that forms aggregates under insulin deficiency metabolic conditions, and it constitutes a pathological hallmark of type II diabetes mellitus. In type II diabetes patients, amylin is abnormally increased, self-assembled into amyloid aggregates, and ultimately contributes to the apoptotic death of β-cells by mechanisms that are not completely understood. We have screened a library of approved drugs in order to identify inhibitors of amylin aggregation that could be used as tools to investigate the role of amylin aggregation in type II diabetes or as therapeutics in order to reduce β-cell damage. Interestingly, three of the compounds analyzed—benzbromarone, quercetin, and folic acid—are able to slow down amylin fiber formation according to Thioflavin T binding, turbidimetry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy assays. In addition to the in vitro assays, we have tested the effect of these compounds in an amyloid toxicity cell culture model and we have found that one of them, quercetin, has the ability to partly protect cultured pancreatic insulinoma cells from the cytotoxic effect of amylin. Our data suggests that quercetin can contribute to reduce oxidative damage in pancreatic insulinoma β cells by modulating the aggregation propensity of amylin. PMID:27322259

  5. Intertemporally non-separable monetary-asset risk adjustment and aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, William A.; Shu Wu

    2004-01-01

    Modern aggregation theory and index number theory were introduced into monetary aggregation by Barnett (1980). The widely used Divisia monetary aggregates were based upon that paper. A key result upon which the rest of the theory depended was Barnett's derivation of the user-cost price of monetary assets. To make that critical part of Barnett''s results available prior to publication of that paper in the Journal of Econometrics, Barnett repeated that proof two years earlier in Economics Lette...

  6. Biomimetic Dye Aggregate Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    A biomimetic self-assembling dye, which forms aggregates that mimic the natural light-harvesting system of special photosynthetic active bacteria, has been investigated towards its applicability to solar cells. This fully synthetic dye, self-assembles to orderly structured nano- to micrometer sized rod-shaped aggregates, which might improve solar cells based on conventional organic dyes. In order to use the full potential of the dye aggregates, the self-assembly needed to be controlled and a ...

  7. Aggregation in Large Dynamic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Chudik, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of aggregation in the case of large linear dynamic panels, where each micro unit is potentially related to all other micro units, and where micro innovations are allowed to be cross sectionally dependent. Following Pesaran (2003), an optimal aggregate function is derived, and the limiting behavior of the aggregation error is investigated as N (the number of cross section units) increases. Certain distributional features of micro parameters are also identi...

  8. Reconstructing Economics in Light of the 2007-? Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    The lessons learned from the recent financial crisis should significantly reshape the economics profession's thinking, including, importantly, what we teach our students. Five such lessons are that we live in a monetary economy and therefore aggregate demand and policies that affect aggregate demand are determinants of real economic outcomes; that…

  9. Ballistic impact response of a coarse-aggregate barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical understanding of the damage inflicted to a protective barrier resulting from impact with a projectile is paramount to the intelligent design of advanced protective systems. The configuration of the protective barrier used for ballistic impact studies depends upon the overall protective device that the barrier is to represent. Although many barriers are homogeneous in configuration, a much broader class of barriers involves a non-uniform agglomeration of components. Such barriers can conceivably represent the means of protection for ammunition bunkers, nuclear reactors, armored military vehicles, or any asset for which protection against projectile impact is desired. Here, an experiment-oriented investigation aimed at gaining insight and understanding of the physical phenomena that occur when a projectile impacts a thin barrier consisting of a uniform, coarse aggregate was performed at the US Army Research Laboratory. The thin barrier target was an assembly of solid steel cylinders oriented in a 15-by-15 rod square-packed array. The projectile consisted of a solid aluminum cylinder with a diameter of approximately 2.5 aggregate diameters and a length of 1.25 aggregate element lengths. The impact velocity was 2 km/s. The data collected consisted of the crater size in the barrier, plastic deformation of individual cylinders, a lateral damage wave velocity from the strain gage signals, and the residual penetrator length. A detailed analysis of the damage inflicted on the aggregate elements of the barrier was performed. The analysis focused primarily on the steel cylinders that resided outside of the eroded crater zone. Iso-strain contours were mapped on the face of the barrier to shed insight into the contact mechanics of the individual aggregate elements. A semi-empirical aggregate deformation model was created to predict the magnitude of deformation that occurs to cylinders located outside the physical crater

  10. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  11. Modifiers of mutant huntingtin aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Teuling, Eva; Bourgonje, Annika; Veenje, Sven; Thijssen, Karen; Boer, Jelle de; van der Velde, Joeri; Swertz, Morris; Nollen, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common hallmark of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and polyglutamine-expansion disorders such as Huntington’s disease, but how aggregation-prone proteins lead to pathology is not known. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen in a C. elegans-model for polyglutamine aggregation, we previously identified 186 genes that suppress aggregation. Using an RNAi screen for human orthologs of these genes, we here present 26 human g...

  12. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  13. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  14. Hypertension and cerebrovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglio, Franco; Paglieri, Cristina; Rabbia, Franco; Bisbocci, Daniela; Bergui, Mauro; Cerrato, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable factor for cerebrovascular disease. Stroke and dementia are growing health problems that have considerable social and economical consequences. Hypertension causes brain lesions by several mechanisms predisposing to lacunar infarctions, leucoaraiosis, and white matter changes as well as to intracerebral haemorrhages. These parenchymal damages determine evident or silent neurological alterations that often precede the onset of cognitive decline. It is important to recognize cerebrovascular disease and, above all, to correlate typical lesions to hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy has shown clinical benefits in primary and secondary prevention of stroke. These drugs represent important instruments against cerebrovascular disease but their effects on cognition are still matter of debate. Cerebral parenchymal and functional damages have to be considered together to make medical intervention more incisive. PMID:19100549

  15. Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new

  16. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED......). Inclusion criteria were trauma team activation and arterial cannula insertion on arrival. Blood samples were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry initiated by thrombin receptor agonist peptide 6 (TRAP) or collagen using a Multiplate device. Blood was sampled median 65 min after injury; median injury...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...

  17. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  18. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  19. The role of residual cracks on alkali silica reactivity of recycled glass aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraghechi, Hamed; Shafaatian, Seyed-Mohammad-Hadi; Fischer, Gregor;

    2012-01-01

    Despite its environmental and economical advantages, crushed recycled glass has limited application as concrete aggregates due to its deleterious alkali-silica reaction. To offer feasible mitigation strategies, the mechanism of ASR should be well understood. Recent research showed that unlike some...... percentages of reactive microcracks which may explain why ASR expansions are lowered by reducing the size of glass aggregates....

  20. Aggregate Relationships between Telecommunications and Travel: Structural Equation Modeling of Time Series Data

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Sangho

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the aggregate relationships (substitution, complementarity, or neutrality) between telecommunications and travel and to compare such relationships across transportation modes. This study first presents a conceptual model, considering causal relationships among travel, telecommunications, land use, economic activity, and socio-demographics. Then, based on the conceptual model, the aggregate relationships between telecommunications (local telephone calls,...

  1. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  2. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Li Dai; Jihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore differ...

  3. Damage database

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Valach, Jaroslav; Křemen, P.; Abrahamčík, J.

    Prague: Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 185-195 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * damage * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Sunita; Rastogi, Rajesh P.; Singh, Kanchan L.; Singh, Shailendra P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P.

    2008-01-01

    Even under the best of circumstances, DNA is constantly subjected to chemical modifications. Several types of DNA damage such as SSB (single strand break), DSB (double strand break), CPDs (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers), 6-4PPs (6-4 photoproducts) and their Dewar valence isomers have been identified that result from alkylating agents, hydrolytic deamination, free radicals and reactive oxygen species formed by various photochemical processes including UV radiation. There are a n...

  5. Smooth muscle titin forms in vitro amyloid aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Alexandr G; Galzitskaya, Oxana V; Fadeev, Roman S; Bobyleva, Liya G; Yurshenas, Darya A; Molochkov, Nikolay V; Dovidchenko, Nikita V; Selivanova, Olga M; Penkov, Nikita V; Podlubnaya, Zoya A; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Amyloids are insoluble fibrous protein aggregates, and their accumulation is associated with amyloidosis and many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we report that smooth muscle titin (SMT; 500 kDa) from chicken gizzard forms amyloid aggregates in vitro This conclusion is supported by EM data, fluorescence analysis using thioflavin T (ThT), Congo red (CR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our dynamic light scattering (DLS) data show that titin forms in vitro amyloid aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of approximately 700-4500 nm. The initial titin aggregates with Rh approximately 700 nm were observed beyond first 20 min its aggregation that shows a high rate of amyloid formation by this protein. We also showed using confocal microscopy the cytotoxic effect of SMT amyloid aggregates on smooth muscle cells from bovine aorta. This effect involves the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and result is cell damage. Cumulatively, our results indicate that titin may be involved in generation of amyloidosis in smooth muscles. PMID:27129292

  6. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  7. J-aggregates, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with J-aggregates, which have a long history of research. The volume covers electronic states, linear and nonlinear optical properties. Various properties and processes of J-aggregates, such as super-radiance, excitons, photon echo, geometrical structure, electron transfer and femtosecond spectroscopy, are discussed.

  8. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  9. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Blum, Janice S; Joubert, Marisa K; Narhi, Linda O; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins have a propensity for aggregation during manufacturing, shipping, and storage. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products can induce adverse immune responses in patients that may affect safety and efficacy, and so it is of concern to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In this vein, there is a lack of understanding of the physicochemical determinants of immunological responses and a lack of standardized analytical methods to survey the molecular properties of aggregates associated with immune activation. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic immune mechanisms in the context of interactions with protein aggregates. We then critically examine the literature with emphasis on the underlying immune mechanisms as they relate to aggregate properties. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our current understanding of this issue and offer recommendations for future research. PMID:26869409

  10. DRAG ON SUBMICRON NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; Einar; Kruis

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure was developed for estimating the effective collision diameter of an aggregate composed of primary particles of any size. The coagulation coefficient of two oppositely charged particles was measured experimentally and compared with classic Fuchs theory, including a new method to account for particle non-sphericity. A second set of experiments were performed on well-defined nanoparticle aggregates at different stages of sintering, i.e. from the aggregate to the fully sintered stage. Here, electrical mobility was used to characterize the particle drag. The aggregates are being built from two different size-fractionated nanoparticle aerosols, the non-aggregated particles are discarded by an electrofilter and then they are passed through a furnace at concentrations low enough not to induce coagulation.

  11. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks.

  12. Erythrocyte aggregation in flowing blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the issue of whether nonionic contrast media (CM) promote thrombosis by the formation of large, irregular red blood cell aggregates with videomicroscopy and a flow chamber, red blood cell aggregates adjacent to an endothelial cell monolayer were imaged at 17 sec-1 in dilute suspensions (hematocrit, --8) at 370C in plasma with 20% CM by non-red blood cell volume. All aggregates were rouleaux (<100 μm) readily dispersed at higher shear rates. Aggregate length in eight experiments was increased 11% by ioxaglate (320 mg of iodine per milliliter), decreased 58% by diatrizoate (370 mg of iodine per milliliter) but reduced similarly (16%) by iohexol (350 mg of iodine per milliliter) and saline. Iohexol did not enhance platelet aggregation on injured monolayers

  13. RankAggreg, an R package for weighted rank aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Susmita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers in the field of bioinformatics often face a challenge of combining several ordered lists in a proper and efficient manner. Rank aggregation techniques offer a general and flexible framework that allows one to objectively perform the necessary aggregation. With the rapid growth of high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies, the potential utility of rank aggregation in the context of meta-analysis becomes even more apparent. One of the major strengths of rank-based aggregation is the ability to combine lists coming from different sources and platforms, for example different microarray chips, which may or may not be directly comparable otherwise. Results The RankAggreg package provides two methods for combining the ordered lists: the Cross-Entropy method and the Genetic Algorithm. Two examples of rank aggregation using the package are given in the manuscript: one in the context of clustering based on gene expression, and the other one in the context of meta-analysis of prostate cancer microarray experiments. Conclusion The two examples described in the manuscript clearly show the utility of the RankAggreg package in the current bioinformatics context where ordered lists are routinely produced as a result of modern high-throughput technologies.

  14. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol on Asphaltic Concrete for Cubical and Rod shaped Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principle material in pavement construction. Conventional road aggregates in India are natural aggregates obtained by crushing rocks. Aggregate characteristics such as particle size, shape, and texture etc.., influence the performance and serviceability of pavement. Pavements laid with polymer modified asphalt exhibits greater resistance to rutting, thermal cracking and fatigue damages and hence these were used at locations of higher stress. The present work concentrates on aggregate characteristics which include the shape indices. The particle shapes namely Cubical and Rod are being used in the study. The study shows the behavior of the two shapes of aggregate in terms of Penetration, Ductility, Softening Point and Marshall Stability tests with varying percentages of asphalt and also with varying the percentages of PEG. The results of unmodified asphalt mix are compared with the modified asphalt mix against some critical Marshall Mix parameters.

  15. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, Johanna; Grass, Dieter; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günther

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy, water and population dynamics. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre, 2013, Viglione, 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This is the first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events: Investments in defense capital can avoid floods even when the water level is high, but on the other hand such investment competes with investment in productive capital and hence may reduce the level of consumption. When floods occur, the flood damage therefore depends on the existing defense capital. The aim is to find an optimal tradeoff between investments in productive versus defense capital such as to optimize the stream of consumption in the long-term. We assume a non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function (Yevjevich et.al. 1990, Zakaria 2001) which implies that the long-term equilibrium will be periodic . With our model we aim to derive mechanisms that allow consumption smoothing in the long term, and at the same time allow for optimal investment in flood defense to maximize economic output. We choose an aggregate welfare function that depends on the consumption level of the society as the objective function. I.e. we assume a social planer with perfect foresight that maximizes the aggregate welfare function. Within our model framework we can also study whether the path and level of defense capital (that protects people from floods) is related to the time preference rate of the social planner. Our model also allows to investigate how the frequency

  16. Economic impact assessment on SANREM

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This PowerPoint summarizes findings from SANREM’s economic impact assessment cross-cutting research activity (CRRA-6). It describes results from budgeting studies, linear programming models, and aggregate impact analysis for several study sites. Additionally, it provides information about the CCRA’s publications and training activities.

  17. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  18. Cognitive Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  19. DAMAGE FROM CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Ovsepyan S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a problem of identification and assessment of damage from corruption in public procurement. We have presented an analysis of the methodology for the calculation and assessment of accumulated financial and economic damage caused by corruption in public procurement. The conclusion about the need for further development of research on this issue has been made

  20. Evolution of pyrrhotite oxidation in aggregates for concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rocks containing pyrrhotite bands are sometimes used to produce concrete. These rocks oxidize and produce long-term expansive reactions that damage concrete structures, leading to important economic and risk related repercussions. The present study analyses several aspects that affect the oxidation process of the aggregate such as the existence of preferential paths for the entrance of the oxidizing agent and the conversion process of the chemical elements involved in the reaction. For that, host rock samples containing pyrrhotite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shows that the pyrrhotite appears in bands that create planes of weakness and present cracks that serve as preferential paths for the entrance of oxygen. Furthermore, a new representation is proposed for the oxidation process.Rocas con bandas de pirrotina han sido usadas para producir áridos destinados a la fabricación de hormigones. Las mismas son susceptible a un fenómeno de oxidación que a largo plazo produce la degradación del material, llevando a importantes repercusiones económica y en cuanto a la seguridad. El presente estudio evalúa la influencia de diferentes aspectos que pueden afectar dicho proceso de oxidación del agregado, tales como la existencia de caminos preferentes para la entrada del agente oxidante y los elementos químicos involucrados en la reacción. Para ello, muestras de roca con pirrotina han sido analizadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados indican que la pirrotina aparece en bandas que dan lugar a planos de debilidad y fisuración. Esas fisuras actúan como caminos preferentes a la entrada del oxígeno. Asimismo, con base en los análisis realizados se ha propuesto una nueva representación para el proceso de oxidación.

  1. Coupling Climate Models and Forward-Looking Economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, K.; Brock, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    Authors: Dr. Kenneth L. Judd, Hoover Institution, and Prof. William A. Brock, University of Wisconsin Current climate models range from General Circulation Models (GCM’s) with millions of degrees of freedom to models with few degrees of freedom. Simple Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCM’s) help us understand the dynamics of GCM’s. The same is true in economics with Computable General Equilibrium Models (CGE’s) where some models are infinite-dimensional multidimensional differential equations but some are simple models. Nordhaus (2007, 2010) couples a simple EBCM with a simple economic model. One- and two- dimensional ECBM’s do better at approximating damages across the globe and positive and negative feedbacks from anthroprogenic forcing (North etal. (1981), Wu and North (2007)). A proper coupling of climate and economic systems is crucial for arriving at effective policies. Brock and Xepapadeas (2010) have used Fourier/Legendre based expansions to study the shape of socially optimal carbon taxes over time at the planetary level in the face of damages caused by polar ice cap melt (as discussed by Oppenheimer, 2005) but in only a “one dimensional” EBCM. Economists have used orthogonal polynomial expansions to solve dynamic, forward-looking economic models (Judd, 1992, 1998). This presentation will couple EBCM climate models with basic forward-looking economic models, and examine the effectiveness and scaling properties of alternative solution methods. We will use a two dimensional EBCM model on the sphere (Wu and North, 2007) and a multicountry, multisector regional model of the economic system. Our aim will be to gain insights into intertemporal shape of the optimal carbon tax schedule, and its impact on global food production, as modeled by Golub and Hertel (2009). We will initially have limited computing resources and will need to focus on highly aggregated models. However, this will be more complex than existing models with forward

  2. Anonymous aggregator election and data aggregation in wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Holczer; Levente Buttyán

    2011-01-01

    In mission critical cyber-physical systems, dependability is an important requirement at all layers of the system architecture. In this paper, we propose protocols that increase the dependability of wireless sensor networks, which are potentially useful building blocks in cyber-physical systems. More specifically, we propose two private aggregator node election protocols, a private data aggregation protocol, and a corresponding private query protocol for sensor networks that allow for secure ...

  3. Arrow’s theorem in judgment aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In response to recent work on the aggregation of individual judgments on logically connected propositions into collective judgments, it is often asked whether judgment aggregation is a special case of Arrowian preference aggregation. We argue for the converse claim. After proving two impossibility theorems on judgment aggregation (using “systematicity” and “independence” conditions, respectively), we construct an embedding of preference aggregation into judgment aggregation and prove Arrow’s ...

  4. Energy and economic tables 1950-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication, prepared by the Planning and Economic Studies Section of the Division of Nuclear Power, presents summaries of data contained in the IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB). The data for each country are presented in a standardized format and in consistent system units. Aggregated data for the whole world, and for eight world subdivisions, are also presented in the same format

  5. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  6. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  7. Geographic Concentration of Economic Activity: An aggregate index

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río

    2009-01-01

    This paper first proposes a measure, the mutual information index derived from the information theory, to quantify overall concentration from an axiomatic perspective. The analysis reveals that this overall concentration measure can be written as the weighed sum of the Theil index for each sector of the economy (partial concentration). Next, the generalized entropy family of concentration indexes is characterized in terms of basic axioms borrowed from the literature on income distribution and...

  8. Health monitoring of reinforced concrete shear walls using smart aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a smart aggregate-based approach is proposed for the structural health monitoring of a concrete shear wall structure. The piezoceramic-based smart aggregates were distributed in predetermined locations prior to the casting of the concrete structure to form an active-sensing system for the health monitoring purpose. To evaluate the damage in different areas, the concrete shear wall was sectioned into sub-domains and a wavelet-packet-based damage index matrix is proposed to evaluate the health status in these sections. A cyclic loading procedure was applied to gradually fail the concrete shear wall and the proposed structural health monitoring approach was used to perform structural health monitoring during this loading procedure. The experimental results have shown that the proposed smart aggregate-based approach effectively evaluated the damage status in different areas and detected the precautionary point to predict the structural failure. The proposed approach has the potential to be applied to the structural health monitoring of large-scale concrete shear wall structures. (technical note)

  9. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  10. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  11. Quantum economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  12. Judgment aggregation with consistency alone

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian

    2007-01-01

    All existing impossibility theorems on judgment aggregation require individ- ual and collective judgment sets to be consistent and complete (in some recent results with completeness relaxed to deductive closure), arguably a demand- ing rationality requirement. They do not carry over to aggregation functions mapping pro…les of (merely) consistent individual judgment sets to (merely) consistent collective ones. We prove that, whenever the agenda of propositions under consideration exhibits mild...

  13. Judgment aggregation without full rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several recent results on the aggregation of judgments over logically connected propositions show that, under certain conditions, dictatorships are the only independent (i.e., propositionwise) aggregation rules generating fully rational (i.e., complete and consistent) collective judgments. A frequently mentioned route to avoid dictatorships is to allow incomplete collective judgments. We show that this route does not lead very far: we obtain (strong) oligarchies rather than dictatorships if i...

  14. Familial aggregation of cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, S; Lemos, C; Monteiro, JM

    2013-01-01

    Several studies suggest a strong familial aggregation for cluster headache (CH), but so far none of them have included subjects with probable cluster headache (PCH) in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. OBJECTIVE: To identify cases of probable cluster headache and to assess the familial aggregation of cluster headache by including these subjects. METHOD: Thirty-six patients attending a headache consultation and diagnosed with trigeminal autonom...

  15. Familial aggregation of cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Simao Cruz; Carolina Lemos; Jose Maria Pereira Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies suggest a strong familial aggregation for cluster headache (CH), but so far none of them have included subjects with probable cluster headache (PCH) in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Objective To identify cases of probable cluster headache and to assess the familial aggregation of cluster headache by including these subjects. Method Thirty-six patients attending a headache consultation and diagnosed with trigeminal autonomic headache...

  16. Economics of the Firm and Economic Growth. An hybrid theoretical framework of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Tavares Silva; Aurora Amelia Castro Teixeira; Mário Rui Silva

    2004-01-01

    The characterization of individual firms is an essential step toward the study of the behaviour of industries and other more aggregated units of economics, and so to the analysis of economic growth processes. Hence, the main goal of this study is to achieve a critical discussion around the conceptualisation of the firm and its role in the dynamical process of economic growth. The approach to the main topic starts with the construction of a theoretical matrix of the economics of the firm, open...

  17. Business Models for an Aggregator : Is an Aggregator economically sustainable on Gotland?

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Under the determined impulse of the European Union to limit the environmental impact of energy-related services, the electricity sector will face several challenges in coming years. Integrating renewable energy sources in the distribution networks is certainly one of the most urging issues to be tackled with. The current grid and production structure cannot absorb the high penetration shares anticipated for 2020 without putting at risk the entire system. The innovative concept of smart grid o...

  18. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [3H]NaBH4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  19. Kinetic model for erythrocyte aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoluzzo, S M; Bollini, A; Rasia, M; Raynal, A

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that light transmission through blood is the most widely utilized method for the study of erythrocyte aggregation. The curves obtained had been considered empirically as exponential functions. In consequence, the process becomes characterized by an only parameter that varies with all the process factors without discrimination. In the present paper a mathematical model for RBC aggregation process is deduced in accordance with von Smoluchowski's theory about the kinetics of colloidal particles agglomeration. The equation fitted the experimental pattern of the RBC suspension optical transmittance closely and contained two parameters that estimate the most important characteristics of the aggregation process separately, i.e., (1) average size of rouleaux at equilibrium and (2) aggregation rate. The evaluation of the method was assessed by some factors affecting erythrocyte aggregation, such as temperature, plasma dilutions, Dextran 500, Dextran 70 and PVP 360, at different media concentrations, cellular membrane alteration by the alkylating agent TCEA, and decrease of medium osmolarity. Results were interpreted considering the process characteristics estimated by the parameters, and there were also compared with similar studies carried out by other authors with other methods. This analysis allowed us to conclude that the equation proposed is reliable and useful to study erythrocyte aggregation. PMID:10660481

  20. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  1. Irradiation damage in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation response of two candidate tritium-breeding materials, LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3, was investigated using electron irradiation to produce atomic displacements, and EPR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect damage responses. In a first set of experiments, single crystals and sintered polycrystals of γ-LiAlO2 were irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at a temperature of 20 K. EPR measurements made at 4 K on samples kept at 77 K after electron irradiation confirm that paramagnetic defects are created during irradiation, and that most of these defects disappear at about 100 K. TEM observations at room temperature indicate, however, that annealing of these defects does not result in visible defect aggregates. In a second set of experiments, sintered polycrystalline LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3 samples were thinned to electron transparency and heavily irradiated in situ with 200 keV electrons. In LiAlO2, laths of LiAl5O8 grew intragranularly under irradiation. Li2ZrO3 showed little or no aggregate damage after extensive irradiation near room temperature. (orig.)

  2. QUERY PLANNING FOR CONTINUOUS AGGREGATION QUERIES USING DATA AGGREGATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SATEESH, D. ANIL, M. KIRANKUMAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous aggregation queries are used to monitor the changes in data with time varying for online decision making. For continuous queries low cost and scalable techniques used a network of aggregators. Individual node cannot by itself determine its inclusion in the query result for this a different algorithmic challenges from aggregate and selection queries are presented. At specific coherencies each data item can serve for a set of data aggregators. Technique involves disseminating query into sub query and sub queries are executed on the chosen data aggregators. We build a query cost model which can be used to estimate the number of refresh messages which is required to satisfy the client specified incoherency bound. Performance results shows that by our method the query can be executed using less than one third the messages required for existing schemes. Our adaptive strategy employs distributed decisions made by the distributed servers independently based on localized statistics collected by each server at runtime. When comparatively static environment, propose two motionless tree construction algorithms relying on apriori system statistics. These static trees can also be used as early trees in a dynamic environment and apply our schemes to both single- and multi object distribution. Our extensive performance study illustrate that the adaptive mechanisms.

  3. Thresholded Range Aggregation in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Lin, Zhifeng; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in wireless sensor technologies (e.g., Mica, Telos motes) enable the economic deployment of lightweight sensors for capturing data from their surrounding environment, serving various monitoring tasks, like forest wildfire alarming and volcano activity. We propose a novel query...... called thresholded range aggregate query (TRA), which retrieves the IDs of the sensors for which the average measurement in their neighborhood exceeds a user-given threshold. This query provides results that they are robust against individual sensor abnormality, and yet precisely summarize the sensors......' status in each local region. In order to process the (snapshot) TRA query, we develop energy-efficient protocols based on appropriate operators and filters in sensor nodes. The design of these operators and filters is non-trivial, due to the fact that each sensor measurement influences the actual results...

  4. Adjustments in Demand during Lithuania's Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdaus Hossain; Jensen, Helen H.

    1998-01-01

    Significant economic changes have occurred in Lithuania since 1992. Major market reforms were introduced through phased liberalization of producer and consumer prices. In this study, panel data from a Lithuanian Household Budget Survey conducted during 1992-94 were used to estimate demand parameters for aggregated commodity groups. The researchers evaluated consumer demand behavior during the period of economic transition and assessed the effects of the economic changes on Lithuanian households.

  5. Research on the relationship between water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Bing; Zhao Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the early destruction of asphalt pavement, water damage is the most major form.In this paper, experimental study was conducted on the composition of asphalt concrete,Marshall specimens were made in different types of aggregate gradation with the same kind of asphalt. Water immersion tests were conducted in order to analysis the relationship between the water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement.

  6. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  7. Pirated Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Babutsidze, Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    We examine the data from illegal downloads of economics content from Sci-Hub over five-month period. The most pirated economics articles and the most pirated economics journals are identified. We analyze the contribution of this particular piracy engine toward open science (economics). We conclude that economics is benefitting from Sci-Hub: (a) as downloads are not pervasive, publishers are not losing much revenues; (b) as downloads are coming mostly from under-developed countries, the exposu...

  8. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...... optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem....

  9. Utilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregates in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb; Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is considered as one of the largest wastes in the entire world which is produced by demolishing concrete structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams. It is the intention of scientists and researchers, as well as people in authority, to explore waste material recycling for environmental and economic advantages. The current paper presents an experimental research on the feasibility of reusing RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures as a partial replaceme...

  10. Beyond the business cycle: factors driving aggregate mortality rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hanewald, Katja

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive econometric analysis of factors driving aggregate mortality rates over time. It differs from previous studies in this field by simultaneously considering an extensive set of macroeconomic, socio-economic and ecological factors as explanatory variables. Germany is chosen as an indicative example for other industrialized countries due to its advanced demographic transition process. Our regression analysis, which covers the time interval 1956-2004, indicates...

  11. Aggregate Preferred Correspondence and the Existence of a MREE

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, Anuj; Cao, Jiling; Nicholas C. Yannelis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a general model of a pure exchange differential information economy is studied. In this economic model, the space of states of nature is a complete probability measure space, the space of agents is a measure space with a finite measure, and the commodity space is the Euclidean space. Under appropriate and standard assumptions on agents' characteristics, results on continuity and measurability of the aggregate preferred correspondence in the sense of Aumann in [4] are establishe...

  12. The demand for bank reserves and other monetary aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2004), s. 518-533. ISSN 0095-2583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/02/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : bank reserves * monetary aggregates Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2004 http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F61A66E6D1122EFF785

  13. Destructive Strength Properties of Recycled Coarse Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Chetna M Vyas,; Darshana R Bhatt,

    2013-01-01

    Due to a critical shortage of natural aggregate, the availability of demolished concrete for use as recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) is increasing. Use of waste concrete as RCA conserves natural aggregate, reduces the impact on landfills, save energy and can provide cost benefit. Recycled aggregates are the materials for the future. The application of recycled aggregate has been started in many Asian & Western countries for construction projects. Research Paper reports the basic strength prope...

  14. Erythrocyte aggregation: Basic aspects and clinical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanis...

  15. Individual income, incomplete information, and aggregate consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Pischke, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper I study a model of life-cycle consumption in which individuals react optimally to their own income process but ignore economy wide information. Since individual income is less persistent than aggregate income consumers will react too little to aggregate income variation. Aggregate consumption will be excessively smooth. Since aggregate information is slowly incorporated into consumption, aggregate consumption will be autocorrelated and correlated with lagged income. The second p...

  16. The methodological convention 2,0 for the estimation of environmental costs. An economic evaluation of environmental damages; Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten. Oekonomische Bewertung von Umweltschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The reliable estimation of environmental damage costs requires a high degree of transparency of the objectives, assumptions and methods of assessment in order to ensure a correct classification and comparability of the cost factors. The methods convention under consideration aims to develop uniform standards for the technical evaluation of environmental costs and to improve the transparency of the estimates.

  17. Autophagy and mitophagy in cellular damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy and mitophagy are important cellular processes that are responsible for breaking down cellular contents, preserving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated biomolecules. This graphic review gives a broad summary of autophagy and discusses examples where autophagy is important in controlling protein degradation. In addition we highlight how autophagy and mitophagy are involved in the cellular responses to reactive species and mitochondrial dysfunction. The key signaling pathways for mitophagy are described in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction.

  18. Damages in Master Oil Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Domínguez Domínguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an approach to the study of chemical causes responsible for deep damages in oil pipeline in the last few years. These phenomena are responsible for significant direct and indirect economical enterprise loses and cause extensive environmental damage along thetrace. Leaning on laboratory and field tests about fluid properties, characteristic of surrendersoils and pipeline state, performed by several recognize national a foreign institutions the physicochemical causes of the damages, basic corrosion mechanism and main wear direction were proposed. It‘s quite evident the under deposit localized corrosion phenomenon with lowor medium penetration degree, along the tube bottom for firsts 30 km of the installation. Continuous emulsified water segregation from oil phase becomes the main cause of the strongmetal losses. This study followed by technological, mechanical and anti-corrosion evaluations will allow to fine proper solutions for this problem.

  19. Turbulent breakage of ductile aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Marchioli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study breakage rate statistics of small colloidal aggregates in non-homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. We use pseudo-spectral direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow and Lagrangian tracking to follow the motion of the aggregates, modelled as sub-Kolmogorov massless particles. We focus specifically on the effects produced by ductile rupture: This rupture is initially activated when fluctuating hydrodynamic stresses exceed a critical value, $\\sigma>\\sigma_{cr}$, and is brought to completion when the energy absorbed by the aggregate meets the critical breakage value. We show that ductile rupture breakage rates are significantly reduced with respect to the case of instantaneous brittle rupture (i.e. breakage occurs as soon as $\\sigma>\\sigma_{cr}$). These discrepancies are due to the different energy values at play as well as to the statistical features of energy distribution in the anisotropic turbulence case examined.

  20. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  1. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  2. Photostimulated Aggregation of Metal Aerosols

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, Sergei V

    2010-01-01

    The effect of optical radiation on the rate of aggregation of nanoscopic particles is studied in metal aerosols. It has been shown that under light exposure, polydisperse metal aerosols can aggregate up to two orders faster due to the size dependent photoelectron effect from nanoparticles. Different size nanoparticles undergo mutual heteropolar charging when exchanging photoelectrons through the interparticle medium to result in an increased rate of aggregation. It is shown that long-range electrostatic attractive forces drive the particles into closer distances where the short-range Van-der-Waals forces become dominating. Attention is drawn to the fact that this effect may occur in various types of dispersed systems as well as in natural heteroaerosols.

  3. Quantum Diffusion-Limited Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David B

    2011-01-01

    Though classical random walks have been studied for many years, research concerning their quantum analogues, quantum random walks, has only come about recently. Numerous simulations of both types of walks have been run and analyzed, and are generally well-understood. Research pertaining to one of the more important properties of classical random walks, namely, their ability to build fractal structures in diffusion-limited aggregation, has been particularly noteworthy. However, only now has research begun in this area in regards to quantum random motion. The study of random walks and the structures they build has various applications in materials science. Since all processes are quantum in nature, it is important to consider the quantum variant of diffusion-limited aggregation. Recognizing that Schr\\"odinger equation and a classical random walk are both diffusion equations, it is possible to connect and compare them. Using similar parameters for both equations, we ran various simulations aggregating particles....

  4. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already......One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... during aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  5. Kinetics of Formation and Asymmetrical Distribution of Hsp104-Bound Protein Aggregates in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Camille; Quintin, Sophie; Matifas, Audrey; Charvin, Gilles

    2016-04-12

    Budding yeast cells have a finite replicative life span; that is, a mother cell produces only a limited number of daughter cells before it slows division and dies. Despite the gradual aging of the mother cell, all daughters are born rejuvenated and enjoy a full replicative lifespan. It has been proposed that entry of mother cells into senescence is driven by the progressive accumulation and retention of damaged material, including protein aggregates. This additionally allows the daughter cells to be born damage free. However, the mechanism underlying such asymmetrical segregation of protein aggregates by mother and daughter cells remains controversial, in part because of the difficulties inherent in tracking the dynamics and fate of protein aggregates in vivo. To overcome such limitations, we have developed single-cell real-time imaging methodology to track the formation of heat-induced protein aggregates in otherwise unperturbed dividing cells. By combining the imaging data with a simple computational model of protein aggregation, we show that the establishment of asymmetrical partitioning of protein aggregates upon division is driven by the large bud-specific dilution rate associated with polarized growth and the absence of significant mother/bud exchange of protein aggregates during the budded phase of the cell cycle. To our knowledge, this study sheds new light on the mechanism of establishment of a segregation bias, which can be accounted for by simple physical arguments. PMID:27074685

  6. Economic Literacy or Economic Ideology?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Julie A.; Steven M. Sheffrin

    1991-01-01

    The Test of Economic Literacy (TEL), is a standardized multiple choice test developed under the auspices of the Joint Council on Economic Education with esteemed economists in an advisory role. The Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) is administered in many high school economics courses both to measure economic understanding and to monitor the effectiveness of teaching. We found that some of the questions in the test have a pronounced ideological slant. We view the biases in the TEL as characteri...

  7. Western economics versus Buddhist economics

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Zsolnai

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative prin...

  8. Polysorbates, Peroxides, Protein Aggregation, and Immunogenicity – A growing Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T. Maggio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation can have a number of deleterious effects on biotherapeutics including the loss of efficacy, the induction of unwanted immunogenicity, altered pharmacokinetics, and reduced shelf life. Aggregation is ameliorated by the inclusion of surfactants in biotherapeutics formulations, typically non-ionic polymeric ether surfactants. The most commonly used examples are Tween® 20 (Polysorbate 20 and Tween® 80(Polysorbate 80. Others include Triton™ X-100, Pluronic® F-68, Pluronic® F-88, Pluronic®F-127(poloxamers, and Brij 35 (polyoxyethylene alkyl ether. The usefulness of polysorbates, in particular in preventing protein aggregation in biotherapeutic formulations, is well accepted. However, polysorbates contain ether linkages and unsaturated alkyl chains that have been shown to auto-oxidize in aqueous solution to protein-damaging peroxides and reactive aldehydes including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The peroxides principally affect methionine and tryptophan moieties. The aldehydes react with primary amino groups on proteins and are known to induce immunogenicity of proteins in the absence of aggregation or adjuvants. Detection of protein aggregation and prevention of aggregation using polysorbates is relatively straightforward using light scattering or size exclusion chromatography methods. Detection of oxidativedamage to amino acyl moieties or increased immunogenicity resulting from the reaction of biotherapeutics with the degradation products of polysorbates is considerably more difficult and has generally been ignored in the scientific literature. As an increasing number of biotherapeutic agents come into use in common clinical practice, including both as innovator and as biosimilar products, these latter issues will come under increased scrutiny. Substitution of non-ionic, non-ether-based surfactants, could offer significant improvements in stability, reduced immunogenicity, and shelf life, and represents a significant unmet need in

  9. Interpretation of wind hazard damage in conifer plantation forests from remotely sensed imagery

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Kay B.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Dunford, R. W.; Watt, P J

    2005-01-01

    Damage caused by wind poses a significant threat to the economic management of forests. In recent times, large storm events such as the 1999 Lothar storm and January 2005 gales have caused significant economic damage to areas of forest across Europe. However, wind damage also occurs at a smaller scale that may be harder to detect. Traditionally, vertical or oblique aerial photography has been the main method used to assess extent of new wind damage. Smaller areas of localised damage may not e...

  10. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  11. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design. PMID:16784165

  12. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  13. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  14. Constitutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Van den Hauwe

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the main points discussed at the seminar ?Constitutional Economics: Cinderella in the Czech Economic Community? held by the Czech Economic Association in February 2000. The main speaker at the seminar was Prof. Karel Kouba (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague), who characterized constitutional economics as a still relatively new and promising research program. The ensuing discussion concerned several topics, including the relationship between public ...

  15. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Rijke

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous que

  16. Child Labor and Aggregate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Pallage; Alice Fabre

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we build a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to measure the welfare effect of banning child labor in an economy with aggregate fluctuations and idiosyncratic shocks to employment. We then design an unemployment insurance system that generates the endogenous elimination of child labor.

  17. Institutional Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  18. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    Poterba, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  19. Estimation uncertainty of direct monetary flood damage to buildings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Merz; H. Kreibich; A. Thieken; Schmidtke, R.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional flood design methods are increasingly supplemented or replaced by risk-oriented methods which are based on comprehensive risk analyses. Besides meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic investigations such analyses require the estimation of flood impacts. Flood impact assessments mainly focus on direct economic losses using damage functions which relate property damage to damage-causing factors. Although the flood damage of a building is influenced by many factors, usually only i...

  20. Evaluation Of Flexure Strength Behavior Of Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ali,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional conditions enforced engineers to generate a study on concrete which incorporate Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate partially due to their abundance. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (M05, M10, M15, M20 incorporation was used as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Analysis of incorporated concrete was done in fresh state as well in hardened state to evaluate different properties of concrete i.e. slump value, compaction factor value, unit weight, flexural strength and Los Angeles abrasion value. From experimental approach it is concluded that Concrete formed with over burnt brick ballast aggregate showed beneficial performance as compared with the concrete made up of natural aggregate obtained from Sargodha. It reduces the cost of concrete by reducing the aggregate cost and produces economical infrastructure system. The waste generated from the brick kiln is utilized efficiently, making environment friendly encouraging green construction.

  1. Protein misfolding and aggregation research: some thoughts on improving quality and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Regina M; Roberts, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Once misfolded and aggregated proteins were as interesting as yesterday's trash, just a bothersome byproduct of productive activities. Today, they attract sustained interest from both basic researchers and practicing engineers. In the burgeoning biopharmaceutical industry, protein misfolding and aggregation pose significant challenges to the economic manufacture of safe and effective protein products. In the clinic, protein aggregates are believed to be pathological agents in a number of serious neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Over the past few years, the quantity of research into biotechnological aspects of protein misfolding and aggregation has skyrocketed. However, the quality of the published work is quite variable. In this brief opinion piece, we describe what we believe are some key features of high-quality publications in protein aggregation. We focus on experimental studies that may also have a kinetic modeling component. PMID:24124114

  2. Using Information Aggregation Markets for Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Buckley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Aggregation Markets, often referred to as prediction markets, are markets that are designed to aggregate information from a disparate pool of human individuals to make predictions about the likely outcome of future uncertain events. This paper looks at how Information Aggregation Markets can be incorporated into the standard body of decision making theory. It examines how Information Aggregation Markets can be used as decision support systems, and provides empirical evidence from a wide variety of sources as to the effectiveness and practicality of Information Aggregation Markets. Finally, this paper details some future research questions to be addressed in the area of Information Aggregation Markets.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb; Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of t...

  4. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms – for...... example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  5. The Economics of Internet Media

    OpenAIRE

    Peitz, Martin; Reisinger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We survey the economics literature on media as it applies to the Internet. The Internet is an important driver behind media convergence and connects information and communication technologies. While new Internet media share some properties with traditional media, several novel features have appeared: On the content side, aggregation by third parties that have no editorial policy and user-generated content have become increasingly important. On the advertiser side, fine-tuned tailoring and tar...

  6. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  7. Good economics, bad economics, and European economics

    OpenAIRE

    Backhaus, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The editors of Kyklos have asked the question: Is there a European economics? This short essay tries to give an answer by first trying to provide a framework for a sensible answer in economics, and then following suit by illustrating how in the context of this frame-work, the answer can be given. In so doing, the essay touches on theories of regulation, the ORDO-approach, the sub-discipline of law and economics and the problem of European institutions as they are different from American ones ...

  8. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  9. A theoretical formalism for aggregation of peroxidized lipids and plasma membrane stability during photolysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, N. A.; Yarmush, M. L.; M. Toner

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine, from a theoretical perspective, the mechanism underlying the lysis of plasma membranes by photoinduced, chemically mediated damage such as is found in photolysis. Toward this end, a model is presented which relates the membrane lifetime to the thermodynamic parameters of the membrane components based upon the kinetic theory of aggregate formation. The formalism includes a standard birth/death process for the formation of damaged membrane com...

  10. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  11. IMITATION MODELING WHEN ANALYSING THE EFFICIENCY OF AGGREGATES FOR TILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osykin S. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the most optimal composition of aggregates for tillage for work in a certain economy is very difficult from many determined and casual factors. In connection with what, it is suggested to conduct researches with the use of quantificational and quantifier algebra logic. Also we need minimum influences on ecology, being characterized as a predicate of "minimum of expenses on indemnification of erosive losses of soil". For the agricultural technique of Russia, countries of the CIS and distant foreignness with the well-known norms of making (by the productivity and expense of fuel imitation modeling is applied, on the method of Monte Carlo (Monte - Carlo Simulation, allowing to build a mathematical model for prognostication of necessary amount of aggregates at different normative agroterms with corresponding damages

  12. Debt and Economic Activity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin M. Friedman

    1981-01-01

    This paper documents a long-standing stability in the relationship between outstanding debt and economic activity in the United States, and explores the implications for capital formation of several hypotheses that could explain this observed phenomenon. The aggregate of outstanding credit liabilities of all nonfinancial borrowers in the United States bears as close a relationship to U.S. non- financial economic activity as do the more familiar asset aggregates like the money stock (however m...

  13. Economic assessment of crop loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report uses the change in producers' plus consumers' surplus as the criterion to judge the economic desirability of a change in ozone level. While this is the appropriate measure of aggregate welfare, economics also should provide information on the distribution of gains and losses to policymakers for consideration in setting ozone standards. The paper argues data on the change in equilibrium price and quantity produced by commodity, regional shifts in production, changes in producers' surplus by production region, and the division of changes in consumer surplus between domestic and foreign consumers should be provided. Two additional studies that should be included in the report are cited

  14. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  15. Expectation Damages and the Theory of Overreliance

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Melvin A.

    2002-01-01

    The basic remedy for breach of a bargain contract is expectation damages, which puts the injured party where she would have been had the contract been performed. It is generally accepted that the expectation measure provides efficient incentives to a bargain-promisor. Beginning about twenty years ago, however, law-and-economics scholars developed a model of damages which showed that the expectation measure can provide inefficient incentives to a bargain-promisee. The theory is that the expect...

  16. Cohesive zone modeling of intergranular cracking in polycrystalline aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonovski, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Simonovski@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-JRC, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Cizelj@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Alternative approach to cohesive elements is proposed: cohesive-zone contact. • Applicability to measured and simulated grain structures is demonstrated. • Normal and normal/shear separation as a damage initialization is explored. • Normal/shear damage initialization significantly reduces ductility. • Little difference in Voronoi aggregate size on macroscopic response. - Abstract: Understanding and controlling early damage initiation and evolution are amongst the most important challenges in nuclear power plants, occurring in ferritic, austenitic steels and nickel based alloys. In this work a meso-scale approach to modeling initiation and evolution of early intergranular cracking is presented. This damage mechanism is present in a number of nuclear power plant components and depends on the material (e.g. composition, heat treatment, microstructure), environment and load. Finite element modeling is used to explicitly model the microstructure – both the grains and the grain boundaries. Spatial Voronoi tessellation is used to obtain the grain topology. In addition, measured topology of a 0.4 mm stainless steel wire is used. Anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity are used as constitutive laws for the grains. Grain boundaries are modeled using the cohesive zone approach. Different modeling assumptions/parameters are evaluated against the numerical stability criteria. The biggest positive contribution to numerical stability is the use of cohesive-type contact instead of cohesive elements. A small amount of viscous regularization should be also used along with the addition of a small amount of viscous forces to the global equilibrium equations. Two cases of grain boundary damage initiation are explored: (1) initiation due to normal separation and (2) initiation due to a combination of normal and shear separation. The second criterion significantly decreases the ductility of an aggregate and slightly improves the numerical stability.

  17. Estimation of line efficiency by aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, de, MBM René

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPresents a multi-stage flow lines with intermediate buffers approximated by two-stage lines using repeated aggregation. Characteristics of the aggregation method; Problems associated with the analysis and design of production lines.

  18. Aggregation of metallochlorophylls - Examination by spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, L. J.; Katz, J. J.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements determine which metallochlorophylls, besides magnesium-containing chlorophylls, possess coordination aggregation properties. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that only zinc pheophytin and zinc methyl pheophorbide showed significant coordination aggregation, whereas divalent nickel and copper did not.

  19. Estimation of Line Efficiency by Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPresents a multi-stage flow lines with intermediate buffers approximated by two-stage lines using repeated aggregation. Characteristics of the aggregation method; Problems associated with the analysis and design of production lines.

  20. Elections, information aggregation, and strategic voting

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, Timothy; Pesendorfer, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    A central role of elections is the aggregation of information dispersed within a population. This article surveys recent work on elections as mechanisms for aggregating information and on the incentives for voters to vote strategically in such elections.

  1. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  2. Water Proton NMR for In Situ Detection of Insulin Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Marc B; Truong, Huy C; Feng, Yue; Jouravleva, Elena V; Anisimov, Mikhail A; Yu, Yihua Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The need for quality control during the manufacturing and distribution of biopharmaceuticals is becoming increasingly necessary. At present, detecting drug degradation through the monitoring of active factor aggregation is accomplished through "invasive" techniques, such as size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), and so on. Unfortunately, these analytical methods require sampling the drug by opening the drug container that renders the remaining drug unusable regardless of the outcome of the test. Visual inspection, the current non-invasive quality control method is qualitative and can only detect visible particulates. Thus, it will miss sub-visible protein aggregates. In this paper, human insulin preparations were used to demonstrate that the transverse relaxation rate of water protons R2 ((1) H2 O) can serve as a sensitive and reliable indicator to detect and quantify both visible and sub-visible protein aggregates. R2 ((1) H2 O) is measured using a wide-bore low-field bench-top NMR instrument with permanent magnets. Such analysis could be carried out without opening the drug container, thus saving a drug for further use. The results suggest a novel, economical, non-destructive in situ analytical technique that allows for on-the-site quantification of protein aggregation in biopharmaceutical products. PMID:26344698

  3. Bacterial Association with Particles: Aggregation to Dissolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.

    stick to phytoplankton cells to form larger particles called marine snow that enhance the sinking flux of organic carbon. However, Smith et al. (1992) and Ploug et al. (1999) found that once the bacteria colonize the aggregate they solubilize... trophic levels of the aquatic food web (Kiorboe et al., 2002). Caron et al. (1982) thought that aggregates are important loci of microbial activity in the water column, similar to the much larger oceanic ?marine snow? aggregates. Marine snow aggregates...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF FINE RECYCLED AGGREGATES IN MORTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Feys, Charles; Joseph, Miquel; Boehme, Luc; Zhang, Yunlian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the influence of fine recycled concrete aggregates as replacement for sand in mortar and the use as cement replacement and filler is investigated. Mortar with fine recycled aggregates is examined on its mechanical and physical properties. The samples are also examined on a microscopic scale. The fine recycled concrete aggregates are made with one-year old concrete made in the laboratory. Fine recycled aggregates (FRCA) are added as a cement replacement (0 %, 10 %...

  5. Revisiting Aggregation Techniques for Data Intensive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation has been an important operation since the early days of relational databases. Today's Big Data applications bring further challenges when processing aggregation queries, demanding robust aggregation algorithms that can process large volumes of data efficiently in a distributed, share-nothing architecture. Moreover, aggregation on each node runs under a potentially limited memory budget (especially in multiuser settings). Despite its importance, the design and evaluation of aggrega...

  6. Computers and Productivity: Are Aggregation Effects Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. McGuckin; Kevin Stiroh

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical implications of aggregation bias when measuring the productive impact of computers. To isolate two specific aggregation problems relating to "aggregation in variables" and "aggregation in relations," we compare various production function estimates across a range of specifications, econometric estimators, and data levels. The results show that both sources of bias are important, especially as one moves from the sector to the economy level, and when the elasti...

  7. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions...

  8. Aggregation resistant zwitterated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising for biomedical applications since they can be directed toward the organ of interest using an external magnetic field. They are also good contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and have potential for the treatment of malignant tumors (i.e., hyperthermia). Therefore, there is a need to produce stable, non-aggregating superparamagnetic nanomaterials that can withstand the in vivo environment. In this work, the colloidal stability of a dispersion of iron oxide NPs was enhanced by functionalizing them with a short zwitterionic siloxane shell in aqueous media. The stabilization procedure yields superparamagnetic nanomaterials, ca. 10 nm in diameter, with saturation magnetization of about 54 emu/g that resist aggregation at physiological salt concentration, temperature, and pH. The loading of the zwitterionic shell was established with diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. X-ray and electron diffraction verified the starting magnetite phase, and that no change in phase occurred on surface functionalization.

  9. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja;

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... of such objects while preserving flexibility. Hence, this paper formally defines the concept of flexibility objects (flex-objects) and provides a novel and efficient solution for aggregating and disaggregating flex-objects. Out of the broad range of possible applications, this paper will focus on smart grid...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...

  10. Containing Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Yadin, Ariel; Yehudayoff, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation (IDLA) is a model that describes the growth of a random aggregate of particles from the inside out. Shellef proved that IDLA processes on supercritical percolation clusters of integer-lattices fill Euclidean balls, with high probability. In this article, we complete the picture and prove a limit-shape theorem for IDLA on such percolation clusters, by providing the corresponding upper bound. The technique to prove upper bounds is new and robust: it only requires the existence of a "good" lower bound. Specifically, this way of proving upper bounds on IDLA clusters is more suitable for random environments than previous ways, since it does not harness harmonic measure estimates.

  11. Recycled aggregate concrete; an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sorato, Renan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to investigate whether recycled materials can be incorporated into the production of concrete without compromising the compressive strength of the concrete produced. In order to shed light on the compressive strength of concrete made from recycled materials, the thesis reviewed studies in which waste materials are utilised as recycled aggregates in the composition of concrete and presented the results of this synthesis and analysis. It was found that som...

  12. Judgment aggregation functions and ultraproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between propositional model theory and social decision making via premise-based procedures is explored. A one-to-one correspondence between ultrafilters on the population set and weakly universal, unanimity-respecting, systematic judgment aggregation functions is established. The proof constructs an ultraproduct of profiles, viewed as propositional structures, with respect to the ultrafilter of decisive coalitions. This representation theorem can be used to prove other proper...

  13. Aggregating Labels in Crowdsourcing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Priisalu, Maria; Grey, Francois; Segal, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Project Specification Crowdsourcing is gaining popularity in academia with the launch of crowdsourcing platforms such as Crowdcrafting [Lombraña, 2015] and GeoTagX [UNOSAT, 2015]. There have been a number of proposed algorithms for the aggregation of true labels and a confusion matrix from crowdsourced labels for ordinal, nominal and binary labels. The work here consists of an implementation of the Dawid Skene [Dawid 1979] adaptation of the Expectation Maximization algorithm [D...

  14. Protein aggregates in Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Arrasate, M.; Finkbeiner, S

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal motor movements, personality changes, and early death. HD is caused by a mutation in the IT-15 gene that expands abnormally the number of CAG nucleotide repeats. As a result, the translated protein huntingtin contains disease-causing expansions of glutamines (polyQ) that make it prone to misfold and aggregate. While the gene and mutations that cause HD are known, the mechanisms underlying HD pathogen...

  15. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  16. Belt conveyor for recycle aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrodný, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the belt conveyor for the transport of recycled aggregate in an oblique direction. The aim is to find constructional solutions to the belt conveyor for the assigned transport capacity of 95 000 kg per hour, and the assigned axial distance of 49 m and different height of 12 m. The thesis contains a brief description of the belt conveyor and a description of basic constructional components. It also contains a functional calculation of the capacity and forces acco...

  17. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  18. Parametric characterization of aggregation functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko; Kolesárová, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2009), s. 816-831. ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Aggregation function * Conjunction measure * Disjunction measure * Global/local parametric characterization * Idempotency measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/mesiar-parametriccharacterizationofaggregationfunctions.pdf

  19. 78 FR 68945 - Aggregation of Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... (``1979 Aggregation Policy''), 44 FR 33839, 33843 (June 13, 1979). Note, however, that consistent with the... the ownership criteria of aggregation. \\40\\ See, e.g., 53 FR 13290, 13292 (1988) (proposal). The 1988... approach best resolves those issues while maintaining a bright-line aggregation test? \\41\\ See 77 FR...

  20. Aggregation functions: an approach using copulae

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cardin; Maddalena Manzi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the extension of the copula approach to aggregation functions. In fact we want to focus on a class of aggregation functions and present them in the multilinear form with marginal copulae. Moreover, we define the joint aggregation density function.

  1. 28 CFR 2.5 - Sentence aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sentence aggregation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... aggregation. When multiple sentences are aggregated by the Bureau of Prisons pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 4161...

  2. Aggregated Authentication (AMAC) Using Universal Hash Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaidi, Wassim; Minier, Marine; Lauradoux, Cédric

    Aggregation is a very important issue to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs). There is currently a lack of cryptographic primitives for authentication of aggregated data. The theoretical background for Aggregated Message Authentication Codes (AMACs) has been proposed by Chan and Castelluccia at ISIT 08.

  3. Aggregation of erythrocytes in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Y; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2011-01-01

    The manuscript describes experiments designed to examine factors that influence erythrocytes aggregation within the blood of burn patients. Results showed that the rate and degree of erythrocytes aggregation increased significantly in burn patients, and what is especially unfavorable for microcirculation, erythrocytes disaggregation decreased. We show that normalization of blood plasma contents completely restores erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation of burn patients. The rate and degr...

  4. Network Provisioning Using Multimedia Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Vila-Carbó

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic makes network provisioning a key issue. Optimal provisioning of network resources is crucial for reducing the service cost of multimedia transmission. Multimedia traffic requires not only provisioning bandwidth and buffer resources in the network but also guaranteeing a given maximum end-to-end delay. In this paper we present methods and tools for the optimal dimensioning of networks based on multimedia aggregates. The proposed method minimises the network resources reservations of traffic aggregates providing a bounded delay. The paper also introduces several methods to generate multimedia traffic aggregation using real video traces. The method is evaluated using a network topology based on the European GÉANT network. The results of these simulations allow us to discover the relationship between a required delay and the necessary bandwidth reservation (or the achievable utilisation limit. An interesting conclusion of these scenarios is that, following several recommendations, the network utilisation can reach values of around 80% or higher.

  5. Swinger Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio D'Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Swinging is a sexual behavior of increasing relevance but substantially ignored in theoretical economic investigation. This paper has two major goals. The first is to describe what swinging is, discuss its economic relevance and single out the main characteristics of swinger behavior. To this end, the Italian situation has been considered as a type of case study. The second goal is to use standard and less-standard tools from economic theory to propose some preliminary assessments of the caus...

  6. Green Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Pearce

    1992-01-01

    Economists assume that people are fundamentally greedy, though not exclusively so. If environmental improvement is to be achieved, it will require policies that use selfishness rather than opposing it. Such policies are to be found in the basics of green economics in which market signals are modified by environmental taxes and tradeable pollution certificates to 'decouple' the economic growth process from its environmental impact. Green economic policies avoid the infringements of human liber...

  7. Institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiaud, Sylvain; Locatelli, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of institutional economics has gained increasing prominence in recent years, because standard economic explanations can often not come to grips with major contemporary policy issues, such as economic reform in affluent, but dysfunctional economies, the transformation of the failed socialist command economies and the governance problems of the new industrial economies. Institutional economists point out that rule systems matter greatly to explaining these problems and that insti...

  8. Evolutionary Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dopfer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of major recent contributions in evolutionary economics. It starts of demonstrating that the pioneers of this approach such as Veblen, Schumpeter, Marshall and Hayek saw the economy as continuously changing and that this kind of "realism of perception" guides essentially also contemporary evolutionary economics. The economy is viewed as an evolving system of structured knowledge governing economic operations. Theoretically, a micro-meso-macro architecture is pro...

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by an...... literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  10. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by an...... literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  11. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create nine (9) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  12. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  13. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  14. Evaluating damage potential of cryogenic concrete using acoustic emission sensors and permeability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B.; Parsaei, Boback; Iyengar, Srinath R.; Grasley, Zachary C.; Masad, Eyad A.; Zollinger, Dan G.

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the damage potential of concrete of different mix designs subjected to cryogenic temperatures, using acoustic emission (AE) and permeability testing. The aim is to investigate design methodologies that might be employed to produce concrete that resists damage when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Such concrete would be suitable for primary containment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and could replace currently used 9% Ni steel, thereby leading to huge cost savings. In the experiments described, concrete cubes, 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm, were cast using four different mix designs. The four mixes employed siliceous river sand as fine aggregate. Moreover, limestone, sandstone, trap rock and lightweight aggregate were individually used as coarse aggregates in the mixes. The concrete samples were then cooled from room temperature (20°C) to cryogenic temperature (-165°C) in a temperature chamber. AE sensors were placed on the concrete cubes during the cryogenic freezing process. The damage potential was evaluated in terms of the growth of damage as determined from AE, as a function of temperature and concrete mixture design. The damage potential observed was validated with water permeability testing. Initial results demonstrate the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the aggregates on damage growth. Concrete damage (cracking) resistance generally decreased with increasing coarse aggregate CTE, and was in the order, limestone ≥ trap rock concrete due to differential CTE of its components.

  15. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  16. [AGGREGATION OF METABOLICALLY DEPLETED HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet'ev, Yu A; Popovicheva, A N; Rogozin, M M; Levin, G Ya

    2016-01-01

    An aggregation of erythrocytes in autologous plasma after blood storage for 14 days at 4 °C was studied using photometry and light microscopy. The decrease of ATP content, the formation of echinocytes and spheroechinocytes, the decrease of rouleaux form of erythrocyte aggregation were observed during the storage. On the other hand the aggregates of echinocytes were formed in the stored blood. The addition of plasma from the fresh blood didn't restore the normal discocytic shape and aggregation of erythrocytes in the stored blood. The possible mechanisms of erythrocytes and echinocytes aggregation are discussed. PMID:27220249

  17. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed. PMID:25509147

  18. Unusual Cyclodextrin Derivatives as a New Avenue to Modulate Self- and Metal-Induced Aβ Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Valentina; Bellia, Francesco; Pietropaolo, Adriana; Vecchio, Graziella

    2015-09-28

    Mounting evidence suggests an important role of cyclodextrins in providing protection in neurodegenerative disorders. Metal dyshomeostasis is reported to be a pathogenic factor in neurodegeneration because it could be responsible for damage involving oxidative stress and protein aggregation. As such, metal ions represent an effective target. To improve the metal-binding ability of cyclodextrin, we synthesized three new 8-hydroxyquinoline-cyclodextrin conjugates with difunctionalized cyclodextrins. In particular, the 3-difunctionalized regioisomer represents the first example of cyclodextrin with two pendants at the secondary rim, resulting in a promising compound. The derivatives have significant antioxidant capacity and the powerful activity in inhibiting self-induced amyloid-β aggregation seems to be led by synergistic effects of both cyclodextrin and hydroxyquinoline. Moreover, the derivatives are also able to complex metal ions and to inhibit metal-induced protein aggregation. Therefore, these compounds could have potential as therapeutic agents in diseases related to protein aggregation and metal dyshomeostasis. PMID:26298549

  19. The Economics of Land Use Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hubacek, K.; Vazquez, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview for non-economists of how land has been treated in economic theory. Land is an aggregate of many different attributes, providing many important functions, which are not part of market transactions. An analysis of the economics of land use change has to include the unique character of land. This uniqueness arises from its distinct "physical, ecological, and institutional" properties. Land use decisions are influenced by three groups of factors. F...

  20. Corruption and the Effects of Economic Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Luca; d'Agostino, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    The predictions that economic freedom is beneficial in reducing corruption have not been found to be universally robust in empirical studies. The present work reviews this relationship by using firms’ data in a cross-country survey and argues that approaches using aggregated data have not been able to explain it appropriately. Our purpose is, first to model cross-country variations of the micro-founded economic freedom-corruption relationship using multilevel models. Additionally, we analyze ...

  1. The Economics of Natural Disasters: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Eduardo; Noy, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophes caused by natural disasters are by no means new, yet our evolving understanding regarding their relevance to economic development and growth is still at its infancy. In order to facilitate further necessary research on this topic, we summarize the state of the economic literature that examines the aggregate impact of disasters. We review the main disaster data sources available, discuss the determinants of the direct effects of disasters, and distinguish between the short- and lo...

  2. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang

    2014-01-01

    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  3. Economic Freedom and Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the politically contested association between the degree of capitalism, captured by measures of economic freedom, and the risk and characteristics of economic crisis. After offering some brief theoretical considerations, I estimate the effects of economic freedom on crisis risk in the post-Cold War period 1993-2010. I further estimate the effects on the duration, peak-to-trough GDP ratios and recovery times of 212 crises across 175 countries within this period. Estima...

  4. Behavioral Economics and Health Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Frank

    2004-01-01

    The health sector is filled with institutions and decision-making circumstances that create friction in markets and cognitive errors by decision makers. This paper examines the potential contributions to health economics of the ideas of behavioral economics. The discussion presented here focuses on the economics of doctor-patient interactions and some aspects of quality of care. It also touches on issues related to insurance and the demand for health care. The paper argues that long standing ...

  5. Identity Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Akerlof George A; Kranton Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Why have the relative rates of women smoking grown so much in the last 100 years? How can the U.S. military do so well with a relatively flat pay scale? Standard economics hasn't a clue, but according to Berkeley economist George Akerlof and Duke economist Rachel Kranton, the answers lie in a new field called identity economics.

  6. Economics Online

    OpenAIRE

    John McMillan; Drucilla Ekwurzel

    2001-01-01

    The internet is bringing profound changes in scholarly publishing. The American Economic Association maintains a web site (www.AEAweb.org) containing the three AEA journals, bibliographic information, links to various economics information, and various services for AEA members. This note surveys the AEA's on-line initiatives.

  7. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and...

  8. Bouncing Behavior of Microscopic Dust Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Context: Bouncing collisions of dust aggregates within the protoplanetary may have a significant impact on the growth process of planetesimals. Yet, the conditions that result in bouncing are not very well understood. Existing simulations studying the bouncing behavior used aggregates with an artificial, very regular internal structure. Aims: Here, we study the bouncing behavior of sub-mm dust aggregates that are constructed applying different sample preparation methods. We analyze how the internal structure of the aggregate alters the collisional outcome and determine the influence of aggregate size, porosity, collision velocity, and impact parameter. Methods: We use molecular dynamics simulations where the individual aggregates are treated as spheres that are made up of several hundred thousand individual monomers. The simulations are run on GPUs. Results: Statistical bulk properties and thus bouncing behavior of sub-mm dust aggregates depend heavily on the preparation method. In particular, there is no uni...

  9. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for transforming problems into taking more tractable forms. Aggregated formulations can, though, have drawbacks: some information may get lost in the aggregation and { put in a branch-and-bound context { branching may become very di_cult and even...... mathematical formulation and the aggregated formulation. The method allows usage of relaxed aggregated formulations and enables branching on both aggregated and disaggregated variables. Also, the method guarantees an LP bound at least as good as those for the disaggregated and aggregated formulations. The...... paper includes general considerations on types of problems for which the method is of particular interest. Furthermore, we prove the correctness of the procedure and consider how to include extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies....

  10. Microwave extinction characteristics of nanoparticle aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. P.; Cheng, J. X.; Liu, X. X.; Wang, H. X.; Zhao, F. T.; Wen, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    Structure of nanoparticle aggregates plays an important role in microwave extinction capacity. The diffusion-limited aggregation model (DLA) for fractal growth is utilized to explore the possible structures of nanoparticle aggregates by computer simulation. Based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, the microwave extinction performance by different nano-carborundum aggregates is numerically analyzed. The effects of the particle quantity, original diameter, fractal structure, as well as orientation on microwave extinction are investigated, and also the extinction characteristics of aggregates are compared with the spherical nanoparticle in the same volume. Numerical results give out that proper aggregation of nanoparticle is beneficial to microwave extinction capacity, and the microwave extinction cross section by aggregated granules is better than that of the spherical solid one in the same volume.

  11. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... of science There is a “disconnection” between economics which focuses on structures and universal laws from those that are in contrast with the everyday of life of business activity, which are processual and dynamic. This discussion is the central issue in the paper, and is discussed from the perspective...

  12. An aggregated energy security performance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► AESPI shows a country’s (or province’s) energy security status. ► AESPI considers social, economic and environmental aspects using 25 indicators. ► AESPI shows the impact of the trend of energy policies/measures. ► AESPI could be a tool for monitoring and evaluating the impact of energy policies. -- Abstract: An “Aggregated Energy Security Performance Indicator (AESPI)” has been developed by considering 25 individual indicators representing social, economy and environmental dimensions. The principle used, data required and the methodology for the development of AESPI have been detailed. AESPI requires time series data for its development and its value ranges from 0 to 10. The characteristics of AESPI have been compared with the existing indicators in terms of methodology, data requirements, analysis possible and the applications. The advantages of AESPI is that it not only assists in knowing the past energy security status of a country, but also helps in assessing the future status considering the energy policies and plans of the country, thus enabling the monitoring of the impacts of the policies.

  13. Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Bernanke, Ben S.; Alan S. Blinder

    1988-01-01

    Standard models of aggregate demand treat money and credit asymmetrically; money is given a special status, while loans, bonds, and other debt instruments are lumped together in a "bond market" and suppressed by Walras' Law. This makes bank liabilities central to the monetary transmission mechanism, while giving no role to bank assets. We show how to modify a textbook IS-UI model so as to permit a more balanced treatment. As in Tobin (1969) and Brunner-Meltzer (1972), the key assumption is th...

  14. Strategy-proof Preference Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bossert, Walter; Sprumont, Yves

    2012-01-01

    An aggregation rule maps each profile of individual strict preference orderings over a set of alternatives into a social ordering over that set. We call such a rule strategyproof if misreporting one’s preference never produces a social ordering that is strictly between the original ordering and one’s own preference. After describing a few examples of manipulable rules, we study in some detail three classes of strategy-proof rules: (i) rules based on a monotonic alteration of the majority rela...

  15. Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.

  16. PERCOLATION OF RANDOM CYLINDER AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Jeulin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The percolation threshold ρc of Boolean models of cylinders with their axis parallel to a given direction is studied by means of simulations. An efficient method of construction of percolating connected components was developed, and is applied to one or two scales Boolean model, in order to simulate the presence of aggregates. The invariance of the percolation threshold with respect to affine transformations in the common direction of the axis of cylinders is approximately satisfied on simulations. The prediction of the model (ρc close to 0.16 is consistent with experimental measurements on plasma spray coatings, which motivated this study.

  17. Multi-functional smart aggregate-based structural health monitoring of circular reinforced concrete columns subjected to seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a recently developed multi-functional piezoceramic-based device, named the smart aggregate, is used for the health monitoring of concrete columns subjected to shake table excitations. Two circular reinforced concrete columns instrumented with smart aggregates were fabricated and tested with a recorded seismic excitation at the structural laboratory at the University of Nevada—Reno. In the tests, the smart aggregates were used to perform multiple monitoring functions that included dynamic seismic response detection, structural health monitoring and white noise response detection. In the proposed health monitoring approach, a damage index was developed on the basis of the comparison of the transfer function with the baseline function obtained in the healthy state. A sensor-history damage index matrix is developed to monitor the damage evolution process. Experimental results showed that the acceleration level can be evaluated from the amplitude of the dynamic seismic response; the damage statuses at different locations were evaluated using a damage index matrix; the first modal frequency obtained from the white noise response decreased with increase of the damage severity. The proposed multi-functional smart aggregates have great potential for use in the structural health monitoring of large-scale concrete structures

  18. Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events

    OpenAIRE

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Brouwer, Roy; Hofkes, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static or dynamic way, and describe economic processes at a high level of aggregation. As a consequence, they typically fail to account for the complexity of social interactions and other behavioural res...

  19. Swarm Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

    The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

  20. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy. This condition is a complicaiton ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by ... sugar level . This condition is more likely when the blood sugar ...

  1. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  2. Aggregation Tool to Create Curated Data albums to Support Disaster Recovery and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in science and technology of prediction and simulation of natural hazards, losses incurred due to natural disasters keep growing every year. Natural disasters cause more economic losses as compared to anthropogenic disasters. Economic losses due to natural hazards are estimated to be around $6-$10 billion dollars annually for the U.S. and this number keeps increasing every year. This increase has been attributed to population growth and migration to more hazard prone locations such as coasts. As this trend continues, in concert with shifts in weather patterns caused by climate change, it is anticipated that losses associated with natural disasters will keep growing substantially. One of challenges disaster response and recovery analysts face is to quickly find, access and utilize a vast variety of relevant geospatial data collected by different federal agencies such as DoD, NASA, NOAA, EPA, USGS etc. Some examples of these data sets include high spatio-temporal resolution multi/hyperspectral satellite imagery, model prediction outputs from weather models, latest radar scans, measurements from an array of sensor networks such as Integrated Ocean Observing System etc. More often analysts may be familiar with limited, but specific datasets and are often unaware of or unfamiliar with a large quantity of other useful resources. Finding airborne or satellite data useful to a natural disaster event often requires a time consuming search through web pages and data archives. Additional information related to damages, deaths, and injuries requires extensive online searches for news reports and official report summaries. An analyst must also sift through vast amounts of potentially useful digital information captured by the general public such as geo-tagged photos, videos and real time damage updates within twitter feeds. Collecting and aggregating these information fragments can provide useful information in assessing damage in real time and help direct

  3. Utilization Possibility of Natural Aggregate Resources in Central Town of Tokat as Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tutmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aggregates of three quarries sampled from Tokat Province were tested to evaluate their suitability for concrete production. The aggregates were supplied from Yesilirmak River, and largely used in agricultural structures constructed in Tokat. Standard aggregate tests approved by Turkish Standards Institute were carried out to analyze the samples. Granulation, unit weight, specific weight, water absorption rate, resistance to frost, resistance against abrasion, ratio of fine materials, organic material contents and, mineralogical analysis of aggregates sampled from aggregate quarries were determined. Pressure resistance tests were conducted on concrete prepared by the aggregates. The results indicated that the aggregate granulation distribution of aggregate quarries evaluated was not suitable however other parameters determined were appropriate for concrete production. The resultant concrete had sufficient pressure resistance. The possible solutions to improve the improper characteristics of aggregates used in concrete were also determined and introduced with this study.

  4. Cell aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as an energy-dependent stress response during growth sodium dodecyl sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Klebensberger, Janosch; Rui, Oliver; Fritz, Eva; Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 grew with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The growth started with the formation of macroscopic cell aggregates which consisted of respiring cells embedded in an extracellular matrix composed of acidic polysaccharides and DNA. Damaged and uncultivable cells accumulated in these aggregates compared to those cells that remained suspended. We investigated the response of suspended cells to SDS under different conditions. At high energy supply, the ce...

  5. Employer's liability for damage

    OpenAIRE

    Baštýřová, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to analyse and clarify in detail the issue of liability for damage in Labour law with focus on liability for damage of employer. At first the thesis defines conception of liability and liability in Labour law in general. The thesis also deals with characteristic features, functions and prevention of liability for damage in Labour law as well. The main part is devoted to liability for damage of employer with regards to judicial decision. It explains gener...

  6. Protein aggregates in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasate, Montserrat; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2012-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal motor movements, personality changes, and early death. HD is caused by a mutation in the IT-15 gene that expands abnormally the number of CAG nucleotide repeats. As a result, the translated protein huntingtin contains disease-causing expansions of glutamines (polyQ) that make it prone to misfold and aggregate. While the gene and mutations that cause HD are known, the mechanisms underlying HD pathogenesis are not. Here we will review the state of knowledge of HD, focusing especially on a hallmark pathological feature-intracellular aggregates of mutant Htt called inclusion bodies (IBs). We will describe the role of IBs in the disease. We speculate that IB formation could be just one component of a broader coping response triggered by misfolded Htt whose efficacy may depend on the extent to which it clears toxic forms of mutant Htt. We will describe how IB formation might be regulated and which factors could determine different coping responses in different subsets of neurons. A differential regulation of IB formation as a function of the cellular context could, eventually, explain part of the neuronal vulnerability observed in HD. PMID:22200539

  7. Asphaltene Aggregation and Fouling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshesh, Marzie

    This thesis explored the properties of asphaltene nano-aggregates in crude oil and toluene based solutions and fouling at process furnace temperatures, and the links between these two phenomena. The link between stability of asphaltenes at ambient conditions and fouling at the conditions of a delayed coker furnace, at over 450 °C, was examined by blending crude oil with an aliphatic diluent in different ratios. The stability of the blends were measured using a S-value analyzer, then fouling rates were measured on electrically heated stainless steel 316 wires in an autoclave reactor. The less stable the blend, the greater the rate and extent of fouling. The most severe fouling occurred with the unstable asphaltenes. SEM imaging of the foulant illustrates very different textures, with the structure becoming more porous with lower stability. Under cross-polarized light, the coke shows the presence of mesophase in the foulant layer. These data suggest a correlation between the fouling rate at high temperature furnace conditions and the stability index of the crude oil. Three organic polysulfides were introduced to the crude oil to examine their effect on fouling. The polysulfides are able to reduce coking and carbon monoxide generation in steam crackers. The fouling results demonstrated that polysulfide with more sulfur content increased the amount of corrosion-fouling of the wire. Various additives, solvents, ultrasound, and heat were employed to attempt to completely disaggregate the asphaltene nano-aggregates in solution at room temperature. The primary analytical technique used to monitor the nano-aggregation state of the asphaltenes in solution was the UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicate that stronger solvents, such as pyridine and quinoline, combined with ionic liquids yield a slight reduction in the apparent absorbance at longer wavelengths, indicative of a decrease in the nano-aggregate size although the magnitude of the decrease is not significant

  8. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  9. ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains many of the classic articles in economic sociology, both from the early period (especially Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter) and from the current generation (such as Mark Granovetter and Viviana Zelizer).

  10. Modeling pluvial flooding damage in urban environments: spatial relationships between citizens' complaints and overland catchment areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are expected to cause severe economic losses in The Netherlands. Cumulative damage due to pluvial flooding can be considerable, especially in lowland areas where this type of floods occurs relatively frequently. Currently, in The Netherlands, water-related damages to property and contents are covered through private insurance. As pluvial flooding is becoming heavier and more likely to occur, sound modelling of damages is required to ensure that insurance systems are able to stand as an adaptation measure. Current damage models based on rainfall intensity, registries of insurance claims, and classifications of building types are unable to fully explain damage variability. Further developments assessing additional explanatory factors and reducing uncertainties, are required in order to significantly explain damage. In this study, urban topography is used as an explanatory factor for modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Flood damage is evaluated based on complaints data, a valuable resource for assessing vulnerability to urban pluvial flooding. Though previous research has shown coincidences between the localization of high complaint counts and large size catchments areas in Rotterdam, additional research is needed to establish the precise spatial relationship of those two variables. This additional task is the focus of the presented work. To that end a data base of complaints, that was made available by the Municipality Administration of the City, will be analysed. It comprises close to 36800 complaints from 2004 to 2011. The geographical position of the registries is aggregated into 4 to 6-digit Postal Code zones, which represents entire streets or relative positions along a street, respectively. The Municipality also provided the DEM, characterized by a spatial resolution of 0.5 m × 0.5 m, a vertical precision of 5 cm, and an accuracy better than two standard deviations of 15 cm. First the localization of complaints

  11. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  12. Economically Challenged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers must wrestle with how China can maintain stable GDP growth while overcoming inflation and natural disasters some economists believe that the country’s red-hot economic growth could slow down slightly this year. Yu Yongding,Director of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,forecasts that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate,which was 11.9 percent

  13. Welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This major three-volume work contains key papers which reflect the innovation and imagination that has characterised the field of welfare economics during the last 50 years. The selections range from literary treatments to the most advanced mathematical presentation. However, all readers, regardless of their mathematical sophistication or methodological predilections, will find a large number of the papers interesting and worthwhile in giving an overview of the present state of welfare econom...

  14. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  15. Forensic Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Zitzewitz

    2012-01-01

    A new meta-field of "forensic economics" has begun to emerge, uncovering evidence of hidden behavior in a variety of domains. Examples include teachers cheating on exams, road builders skimping on materials, violations of U.N. sanctions, unnecessary heart surgeries, and racial biases in employment decisions, traffic stops, auto retailing, and even sports judging. In each case, part of the contribution of economic analysis is in uncovering evidence of wrongdoing. Although research questions di...

  16. Environmental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This article, prepared for the forthcoming second edition of the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, provides an overview of the economics of environmental policy. Included are the setting of goals and targets, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion, and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. Also reviewed are the means of environmental policy, that is, the choice of specific policy instruments, featuring an examination of potential criteria for assessing alternative i...

  17. Tropical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Meng, Kyle C.

    2015-01-01

    Why wealth is systematically lower in the tropics remains a puzzle. We point out that latitude may have fundamental economic consequence because it plays a key role in how countries experience geophysical processes that have economic implications. We demonstrate that annual fluctuations in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) leads to hotter and dryer local weather across tropical countries and subsequently to substantial losses in agricultural yields, output, and value-added. If volatilit...

  18. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  19. The Principles of Economics from Now until Then.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Carolyn Shaw

    1988-01-01

    Examining economics textbooks, Bell states that today's texts descend from Samuelson's "Economics" published in 1948. States that the closed economy model used to present aggregate analysis has become irrelevant. Argues that introductory textbooks should develop a student understanding of the interdependent world economy as well as standard…

  20. Information and Communication Technology and Economic Growth in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erumban, Abdul; Das, Deb Kusum

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of economic growth in Indian economy since the 1980s, with particular focus on the role of information and communication technology (ICT). The impact of ICT on economic growth is analyzed via two main channels. The direct contribution of ICT investment to aggregate ec

  1. The influence of expectations on the mechanism of economic cycle

    OpenAIRE

    D. Shiyan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the economic cycle mechanism are reviewed through the prism of the rational expectations theory. The author proposes his own methods of evaluation of the economic activity that takes into account the volume of GDP and the real aggregate investments based on the sliding expectations method.

  2. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  3. Automation of aggregate characterization using laser profiling and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2002-08-01

    technologies. Finally, in order to provide a generalized, quantitative, and representative way to characterize aggregate particles, 3D particle descriptors are developed using the multi-resolution analysis feature of wavelet transforms. Verification tests show that this approach could characterize various aggregate properties in a fast, accurate, and reliable way. When implemented, this ability to automatically analyze multiple characteristics of an aggregate sample is expected to provide not only economic but also intangible strategic gains.

  4. One-dimensional long-range diffusion-limited aggregation III -- The limit aggregate

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of the limit aggregate (the union of all finite-time aggregates) of the one-dimensional long range diffusion limited aggregation process defined in [arXiv:0910.4416] . We show (under some regularity conditions) that for walks with finite third moment the limit aggregate has renewal structure and positive density, while for walks with finite variance the renewal structure no longer exists and the limit aggregate has 0 density. We define a tree structure on the aggregates and show some results on the degrees and number of ends of these random trees.

  5. Ecological Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  6. Estimation uncertainty of direct monetary flood damage to buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional flood design methods are increasingly supplemented or replaced by risk-oriented methods which are based on comprehensive risk analyses. Besides meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic investigations such analyses require the estimation of flood impacts. Flood impact assessments mainly focus on direct economic losses using damage functions which relate property damage to damage-causing factors. Although the flood damage of a building is influenced by many factors, usually only inundation depth and building use are considered as damage-causing factors. In this paper a data set of approximately 4000 damage records is analysed. Each record represents the direct monetary damage to an inundated building. The data set covers nine flood events in Germany from 1978 to 1994. It is shown that the damage data follow a Lognormal distribution with a large variability, even when stratified according to the building use and to water depth categories. Absolute depth-damage functions which relate the total damage to the water depth are not very helpful in explaining the variability of the damage data, because damage is determined by various parameters besides the water depth. Because of this limitation it has to be expected that flood damage assessments are associated with large uncertainties. It is shown that the uncertainty of damage estimates depends on the number of flooded buildings and on the distribution of building use within the flooded area. The results are exemplified by a damage assessment for a rural area in southwest Germany, for which damage estimates and uncertainty bounds are quantified for a 100-year flood event. The estimates are compared to reported flood damages of a severe flood in 1993. Given the enormous uncertainty of flood damage estimates the refinement of flood damage data collection and modelling are major issues for further empirical and methodological improvements.

  7. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris Kriest; Geoffrey T Evans

    2000-12-01

    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the distribution of aggregate sizes and sinking speeds. The distribution of sizes is described by two parameters, the mass and number of aggregates, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the models. Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations is small, and it presents the difference in timing between settlement of aggregates and fecal pellets.

  8. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  9. Influence of shear stress on erythrocyte aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hoyoon; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-09-25

    Shear stress is known to induce platelet activation and aggregation. The red blood cell (RBC) aggregation test requires the application of shear stress for the cells to disaggregate for initialization. We tested the hypothesis that applying shear stress may activate platelets, which can influence RBC aggregation. The present study used a commercial microchip-based aggregometer (RheoSCan-AnD300) with a rotating stirrer for RBC disaggregation. Whole blood samples were exposed to different magnitudes of shear stress with various shearing times. As the rotational speed was increased up to 2800 rpm, the RBC aggregation index (AI) of the whole blood increased by up to 30% (p <  0.05), whereas that of the platelet-excluded blood samples did not show any apparent alteration. The AI also increased in proportion with the stirring time. The data suggest that high shear stress affects RBC aggregation through shear-induced platelet aggregation. PMID:26444600

  10. A dimension map for molecular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Cuiying; Tang, Tian; Bhattacharjee, Subir

    2015-05-01

    A pair of gyradius ratios, defined from the principal radii of gyration, are used to generate a dimension map that describes the geometry of molecular aggregates in water and in organic solvents. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the aggregation of representative biomolecules and polyaromatic compounds to demonstrate application of the dimension map. It was shown that molecular aggregate data on the dimension map were bounded by two boundary curves, and that the map could be separated into three regions representing three groups of structures: one-dimensional rod-like structures; two-dimensional planar structures or short-cylinder-like structures; and three-dimensional sphere-like structures. Examining the location of the aggregates on the dimension map and how the location changes with solvent type and solute material parameter provides a simple yet effective way to infer the aggregation manner and to study solubility and mechanism of aggregation. PMID:25768393

  11. The Discounted Economic Stock of Money with VAR Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, William A.; Unja Chae; John W. Keating

    2005-01-01

    We measure the United States capital stock of money implied by the Divisia monetary aggregate service flow, in a manner consistent with the present-value model of economic capital stock and asset pricing theory. The resulting measures differ substantially from the usual simple sum accounting monetary aggregates. We permit non-martingale expectations and time varying discount rates. Based on Barnett¡¯s (1991) definition of the economic stock of money, we compute the U.S. economic stock of mone...

  12. Changes in blood platelet aggregation in two leukaemic patients after receiving large dose of γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of platelet aggregation determination in two patients with leukaemia after irradiation with large doses of γ-rays. It is shown that in the early days after irradiation an increase of aggregation response appeared. Perhaps it is one of the causes of post-irradiation microcirculatory disturbances. We are inclined to say that the inhibition of platelet aggregation during early days after irradiation would be helpful to alleviate microcirculatory disturbances, thereby the repair of radiation damage might be brought about

  13. Recycled aggregate concrete exposed to elevated temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Arundeb Gupta; Saroj Mandal; Somnath Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to study the mechanical as well as micro structural properties of Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) exposed to elevated temperature. Fly ash (as replacement of cement) was added while making concrete. Recycled aggregates are mixed with natural aggregates also to prepare concrete. Cubes and cylinder test specimens were prepared and cured under water for 28 days. Test specimens were exposed to different levels of temperature (200oC, 400oC, 600oC,...

  14. Constraint Aggregation Principle in Convex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Y.M. Ermoliev; Kryazhimskiy, A.V.; Ruszczynski, A.

    1995-01-01

    A general constraint aggregation technique is proposed for convex optimization problems. At each iteration a set of convex inequalities and linear equations is replaced by a single inequality formed as a linear combination of the original constraints. After solving the simplified subproblem, new aggregation coefficients are calculated and the iteration continues. This general aggregation principle is incorporated into a number of specific algorithms. Convergence of the new methods is pro...

  15. Linguistic Weighted Aggregation under Confidence Levels

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We develop some new linguistic aggregation operators based on confidence levels. Firstly, we introduce the confidence linguistic weighted averaging (CLWA) operator and the confidence linguistic ordered weighted averaging (CLOWA) operator. These two new linguistic aggregation operators are able to consider the confidence level of the aggregated arguments provided by the information providers. We also study some of their properties. Then, based on the generalized means, we introduce the confide...

  16. Simulations of kinetically irreversible protein aggregate structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S Y; Przybycien, T M

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated the structure of kinetically irreversible protein aggregates in two-dimensional space using a lattice-based Monte-Carlo routine. Our model specifically accounts for the intermolecular interactions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein surfaces and a polar solvent. The simulations provide information about the aggregate density, the types of inter-monomer contacts and solvent content within the aggregates, the type and extent of solvent exposed perimeter, and the short-...

  17. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Shao-Qi; Xu Liang-De; Zhang Guang-Mei; Li Xia; Li Lin; Shen Gong-Qing; Jiang Yang; Yang Yue-Ying; Gong Bin-Sheng; Jiang Wei; Zhang Fan; Xiao Yun; Wang Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis b...

  18. Making Sense of the Aggregator Bank

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    On Tuesday, 10 February 2009, Treasury Secretary Geithner proposed the aggregator bank (“public-private investment fund”) as a key instrument to resolve the financial crisis (www.financialstability.gov). The Treasury description leaves many issues unanswered. Here we explain how an aggregator bank might operate in practice. We fill in some of the major details so as to enhance the effectiveness of the aggregator bank. In particular, the approach emphasizes transparency and value to the taxpay...

  19. A File Aggregation Scheme for FLUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Christoph; Roca, Vincent; Walsh, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This document introduces a logical and physical file aggregation scheme for File Delivery over Unidirectional Transport (FLUTE). The logical file aggregation mechanism is a generalized grouping mechanism, allowing to logically group files. The physical file aggregation scheme allows, additionally to a logical grouping, to more efficiently use Forward Error Correction (FEC) in the context of FLUTE, in particular when dealing with a large number of "small" files. Unlike a solution based on the ...

  20. Regulated protein aggregation: stress granules and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Wolozin Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protein aggregation that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases is classically thought to occur as an undesirable, nonfunctional byproduct of protein misfolding. This model contrasts with the biology of RNA binding proteins, many of which are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. RNA binding proteins use protein aggregation as part of a normal regulated, physiological mechanism controlling protein synthesis. The process of regulated protein aggregation is most evident in formation ...

  1. Temporal aggregation of an ESTAR process

    OpenAIRE

    I Paya; Peel, D

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear models of deviations from PPP have recently provided an important, theoretically well motivated, contribution to the PPP puzzle. Most of these studies use temporally aggregated data to empirically estimate the nonlinear models. As noted by Taylor (2001), if the true DGP is nonlinear, the temporally aggregated data could exhibit misleading properties regarding the adjustment speeds. We examine the effects of different levels of temporal aggregation on estimates of ESTAR models of rea...

  2. Aggregate expenditure ceilings and allocative flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how to combine top-down budgeting – in the core sense of the establishment of a hard aggregate expenditure ceiling at the start of the budget preparation process – with flexibility in the allocation of the aggregate ceiling between spending ministries during budget preparation. It argues strongly against determining spending ministry shares of the aggregate expenditure ceiling without any prior opportunity for them to present formal new spending proposals. The keys to recon...

  3. Testing aggregation consistency across geography and commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qinghua; Shumway, C. Richard

    2004-01-01

    Consistent aggregation of production data across commodities and states was tested using Lewbel's generalized composite commodity theorem (GCCT). This was the first empirical GCCT test for consistent geographic aggregation and was applied to two groups of states. Consistent commodity aggregation was tested in all states for two output groups and three input groups and in one state for a larger number of groups. Using a more powerful test procedure than previously applied to production data, m...

  4. A revised model of platelet aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Dopheide, Sacha M.; Yap, Cindy L.; Ravanat, Catherine; Freund, Monique; Mangin, Pierre; Heel, Kathryn A.; Street, Alison; Harper, Ian S.; Lanza, Francois; Jackson, Shaun P.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we have examined the mechanism of platelet aggregation under physiological flow conditions using an in vitro flow-based platelet aggregation assay and an in vivo rat thrombosis model. Our studies demonstrate an unexpected complexity to the platelet aggregation process in which platelets in flowing blood continuously tether, translocate, and/or detach from the luminal surface of a growing platelet thrombus at both arterial and venous shear rates. Studies of platelets congenitally...

  5. Diffusion Limited Aggregation: Algorithm optimization revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F. L.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) model developed by Witten and Sander in 1978 is useful in modeling a large class of growth phenomena with local dependence. Besides its simplicity this aggregation model has a complex behavior that can be observed at the patterns generated. We propose on this work a brief review of some important proprieties of this model and present an algorithm to simulate a DLA aggregates that simpler and efficient compared to others found in the literature.

  6. Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    The Security in sensor networks has become most important aspect along with low power as the sensors are unattended so there is more possibility of attack in WSN than usual networks, data aggregation security is an important task as if some false node injects a highly odd value it will affect the whole aggregation process, The paper reviews the need of security for data aggregation and propose an architecture which can eliminate the false values injection as well as provides e...

  7. A canonical representation for aggregated Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larget, Bret

    1998-01-01

    A deterministic function of a Markov process is called an aggregated Markov process. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of continuous-time aggregated Markov processes. For both discrete- and continuous-time, we show that any aggregated Markov process which satisfies mild regularity conditions can be directly converted to a canonical representation which is unique for each class of equivalent models, and furthermore, is a minimal parameterization ...

  8. Well-being in the Czech Republic in an Aggregate Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Kamila; Štika, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 70-87. ISSN 1213-2446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : well-being * sustainability * subjective life satisfaction Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://nho.econ.muni.cz/15-2015/1-2015/well-being-czech-republic-aggregate-perspective

  9. Familial aggregation and heritability of pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Fischer, Thea K; Skotte, Line;

    2010-01-01

    first year of life, during which 3362 children had surgery for pyloric stenosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Familial aggregation of pyloric stenosis, evaluated by rate ratios. RESULTS: The incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of pyloric stenosis in the first year of life was 1.8 for singletons and 3.1 for......CONTEXT: Pyloric stenosis is the most common condition requiring surgery in the first months of life. Case reports have suggested familial aggregation, but to what extent this is caused by common environment or inheritance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate familial aggregation of pyloric...... strong familial aggregation and heritability....

  10. Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graph Generation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs can assist programmers to uncover the main data paths of a given algorithm. This information can be useful when scaling a singlethreaded program into a multi-core architecture. The amount of data movements is crucial when targeting for cache incoherent and/or heterogeneous platforms. This paper presents two methods for generating function-level Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs. Instruction level trace log was used as a basis, which was generated by Microsoft Giano processor simulator platform. Top-down aggregation strategy and relational database was used to speed up the generation of different views of the aggregated dataflow and call graphs.

  11. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent

  12. Economic Convergence and Economic Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Jeffrey D; Andrew M. Warner

    1995-01-01

    Many of the crucial debates in development economics are encapsulated in the question of economic convergence. Is there a tendency for the poorer countries to grow more rapidly than the richer countries, and thereby to converge in living standards? Some recent research on endogenous growth has emphasized increasing returns as a possible reason not to expect convergence. Other research has suggested that convergence may be achieved only after poor countries attain a threshold level of income o...

  13. Fracture model for cemented aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Zubelewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanisms-based fracture model applicable to a broad class of cemented aggregates and, among them, plastic-bonded explosive (PBX composites, is presented. The model is calibrated for PBX 9502 using the available experimental data under uniaxial compression and tension gathered at various strain rates and temperatures. We show that the model correctly captures inelastic stress-strain responses prior to the load peak and it predicts the post-critical macro-fracture processes, which result from the growth and coalescence of micro-cracks. In our approach, the fracture zone is embedded into elastic matrix and effectively weakens the material's strength along the plane of the dominant fracture.

  14. Collisional Aggregation Due to Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars and to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favored by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modeling such processes. These advances lead to a semiquantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  15. Morphological classification of nanoceramic aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Kang, Bongwoo; Ospina, Carolina; Sung, Changmo

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum silicate nanoaggregates grown at near-room temperature on an organic template under a variety of experimental conditions have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy. Images have been automatically classified by an algorithm based on "spectrum enhancement", multivariate statistics and supervised optimization. Spectrum enhancement consists of subtracting, in the log scale, a known function of wavenumber from the angle averaged power spectral density of the image. Enhanced spectra of each image, after polynomial interpolation, have been regarded as morphological descriptors and as such submitted to principal components analysis nested with a multiobjective parameter optimization algorithm. The latter has maximized pairwise discrimination between classes of materials. The role of the organic template and of a reaction parameter on aggregate morphology has been assessed at two magnification scales. Classification results have also been related to crystal structure data derived from selected area electron diffraction patterns.

  16. Collisional Aggregation due to Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pumir, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars, and also to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favoured by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles, and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modelling these processes. These advances lead to a semi-quantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates, and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  17. Use of recycled fine aggregate in concretes with durable requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Claudio Javier; Di Maio, Angel Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The use of construction waste materials as aggregates for concrete production is highly attractive compared to the use of non-renewable natural resources, promoting environmental protection and allowing the development of a new raw material. Several countries have recommendations for the use of recycled coarse aggregate in structural concrete, whereas the use of the fine fraction is limited because it may produce significant changes in some properties of concrete. However, during the last decade the use of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) has achieved a great international interest, mainly because of economic implications related to the shortage of natural sands suitable for the production of concrete, besides to allow an integral use of this type of waste. In this study, the durable behaviour of structural concretes made with different percentage of RFA (0%, 20%, and 30%) is evaluated. Different properties related to the durability of concretes such as absorption, sorptivity, water penetration under pressure, and carbonation are determined. In addition, the results of compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage are presented. The obtained results indicate that the recycled concretes have a suitable resistant and durable behaviour, according to the limits indicated by different international codes for structural concrete. PMID:21775123

  18. Utilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregates in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA is considered as one of the largest wastes in the entire world which is produced by demolishing concrete structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams. It is the intention of scientists and researchers, as well as people in authority, to explore waste material recycling for environmental and economic advantages. The current paper presents an experimental research on the feasibility of reusing RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures as a partial replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The engineering properties of SMA mixtures containing RCA have been evaluated for different percentages of binders based on the Marshall mix design method. The outcomes were statistically analyzed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA. Test results revealed that the performance of SMA mixtures is affected by RCA due to higher porosity and absorption of RCA in comparison with virgin granite aggregates. However, the engineering properties of SMA mixtures containing a particular amount of RCA showed the acceptable trends and could satisfy the standard requirements. Moreover, to achieve desirable performance characteristics, more caution should be made on properties of SMA mixtures containing RCA.

  19. Colloidal aggregation in polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, M; Ridouane, H; Hachem, E-K; Derouiche, A; Rahmoune, M

    2005-06-22

    We consider here a low-density assembly of colloidal particles immersed in a critical polymer mixture of two chemically incompatible polymers. We assume that, close to the critical point of the free mixture, the colloids prefer to be surrounded by one polymer (critical adsorption). As result, one is assisted to a reversible colloidal aggregation in the nonpreferred phase, due the existence of a long-range attractive Casimir force between particles. This aggregation is a phase transition driving the colloidal system from dilute to dense phases, as the usual gas-liquid transition. We are interested in a quantitative investigation of the phase diagram of the immersed colloids. We suppose that the positions of particles are disordered, and the disorder is quenched and follows a Gaussian distribution. To apprehend the problem, use is made of the standard phi(4) theory, where the field phi represents the composition fluctuation (order parameter), combined with the standard cumulant method. First, we derive the expression of the effective free energy of colloids and show that this is of Flory-Huggins type. Second, we find that the interaction parameter u between colloids is simply a linear combination of the isotherm compressibility and specific heat of the free mixture. Third, with the help of the derived effective free energy, we determine the complete shape of the phase diagram (binodal and spinodal) in the (Psi,u) plane, with Psi as the volume fraction of immersed colloids. The continuous "gas-liquid" transition occurs at some critical point K of coordinates (Psi(c) = 0.5,u(c) = 2). Finally, we emphasize that the present work is a natural extension of that, relative to simple liquid mixtures incorporating colloids. PMID:16035822

  20. The effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Gaber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the evidence on the practice and effects of discretionary fiscal policy, particularly in the context of recent efforts to stimulate the economy, reaching two main conclusions. First, policy interventions have increased in this decade, pre-dating the 2009 stimulus. Second, despite a large economic literature on the topic, the state of theory and evidence is not as "shovel ready" as one would like. Although consumption and investment clearly respond to tax incentives and structural vector autoregressions show that lower taxes and higher government purchases can boost output, it is difficult to apply the findings in the current context, in part because multipliers and policy lags are likely to vary with economic conditions. This paper surveys the theoretical predictions and recent empirical Vector Autoregression (VAR evidence on the short-run effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates.

  1. Damage correlation in theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common to all reactor development work is the problem of differences between the irradiation environments used for materials testing and those typical of service conditions. Efforts are being made to develop damage models that incorporate irradiation parameters such as type and energy of radiation, flux, and exposure. Models relating radiation damage production and microstructural evolution to changes in mechanical properties are primitive. Nevertheless, they suggest that the inability to account quantitatively for differences in test and service neutron spectra leads to overly conservative design of out-of-core components. Direct experimental corroboration is difficult because of the low neutron fluxes associated with the desired soft spectra. Further development of mechanistic models and new approaches to model testing are needed. Models of the growth stage of swelling, on the other hand, are relatively advanced. These models are discussed briefly as an example of how damage models can be used to help guide and analyze irradiation experiments. Accelerated damage studies using charged particles are expected to continue. Current empirical correlations of damage rates can be given a firmer theoretical basis as analysis of experiments and modeling of damage continue to improve. Damage correlation methodology practices in reactor design must necessarily follow different rules from that practiced in materials research and development. Nevertheless, decreasing the gap between them is a laudable objective with potentially significant economic impact

  2. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  3. Aggregate composition and stability of structural aggregates of non-calcareous rendzinas in Eastern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Boško; Živković Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    The present study includes the results of comparative investigations of aggregate composition and water stability of structural aggregates in humus horizons of non-calcareous rendzina under native forest and pasture vegetations and the same rendzina utilized long-term as arable field. The results show that aggregate composition and water stability of structural aggregates in the cultivated non-calcareous rendzina are significantly impaired due to a long-term anthropogenization. In the cultiva...

  4. Shrinkage of concrete with replacement of aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental analysis of samples of concrete where portion of the natural aggregate were replaced with recycled aggregate originating from concrete (RCA). Experimental analysis to obtain the shrinkage properties (basic and dried) of the concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (CRCA) was performed. The percentages of replacement of natural aggregate with RCA were 0%, 15%, 30%, 60% and 100% with test conditions of 50% RH and 20°C. The results of these ...

  5. Towards Better Understanding of Concrete Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Qasrawi; Iqbal Marie

    2013-01-01

    The effect of using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) on the basic properties of normal concrete is studied. First, recycled aggregate properties have been determined and compared to those of normal aggregates. Except for absorption, there was not a significant difference between the two. Later, recycled aggregates were introduced in concrete mixes. In these mixes, natural coarse aggregate was partly or totally replaced by recycled aggregates. Results show that the use of recycled aggregates...

  6. Radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to estimate the radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates by computing the asymmetry parameter and the cross sections for extinction and scattering. The ballistic particle-cluster aggregate and the ballistic cluster-cluster aggregate consisting of either dielectric or absorbing material are considered to represent naturally existing aggregates. We show that the asymmetry parameter perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is maximized where the wavelength is comparable to the aggregate size, which may be characterized by the area-equivalent radius or the radius of gyration rather than the volume-equivalent radius. The asymmetry parameter for the aggregate depends on the morphology of the particle, but not on the constituent material. Therefore, the dependence of the radiation pressure cross section on the material composition arises mainly from that of the extinction and scattering cross sections, in other words, the single-scattering albedo. We find that aggregates consisting of high-albedo material show a large deviation of radiation pressure from the direction of incident radiation. When the aggregates are illuminated by blackbody radiation, the deviation of the radiation pressure increases with increasing temperature of the blackbody. Since the parallel component of the radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates is smaller than that for the volume-equivalent spheres at the size parameter close to unity, the Planck-mean radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates having radius comparable to the effective wavelength of radiation shows a lower value, compared with the volume-equivalent sphere. Consequently, the slope of the radiation pressure force per mass of the particle as a function of particle mass shows a lower maximum for the aggregates than for compact spherical particles. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Aggregate size distribution of the soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Jakab, Gergely; Szabó, Boglárka; Józsa, Sándor; Szalai, Zoltán; Centeri, Csaba

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural areas the soil erosion and soil loss estimation is vital information in long-term planning. During the initial period of the erosion a part of the soil particles and aggregates get transportable and nutrients and organic matter could be transported due to the effect of water or wind. This preliminary phase was studied with laboratory-scale rainfall simulator. Developed surface crust and aggregate size composition of the runoff was examined in six different slope-roughness-moisture content combination of a Cambisol and a Regosol. The ratio of micro- and macro aggregates in the runoff indicate the stability of the aggregates and determine the transport capacity of the runoff. Both soil samples were taken from field where the water erosion is a potential hazard. During the experiment the whole amount of runoff and sediment was collected through sieve series to a bucket to separate the micro- and macro aggregates. In case of both samples the micro aggregates dominate in the runoff and the runoff rates are similar. Although the runoff of the Regosol - with dominant >1000μm macro aggregate content - contained almost nothing but ratio 250-1000μm sized macro aggregates. This difference occurred because the samples are resistant against drop erosion differently. In case of both sample the selectivity of the erosion and substance matrix redistribution manifested in mineral crusts in the surface where the quartz deposited in place while the lighter organic matter transported with the sediment. The detachment of the aggregates and the redistribution of the particles highly effect on the aggregate composition of the runoff which is connected with the quality of the soil loss. So while the estimation of soil loss quantity is more or less is easy, measuring aggregate size distribution which is led to nutrient and organic matter redistribution is one of a key questions to improve erosion estimation. G. Jakab was supported by the János Bolyai fellowship of the

  8. Energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy demand is strongly conditioned by the consuming equipments. Depending on the uses, some energy sources can be substituted, while for some others the choice is limited or impossible. The energy offer comes mainly from non-renewable resources, and taking into consideration the geographical localization of these resources, economics are geopolitics are indissociable despite the development of markets. Necessary for the economic development, energy cannot be consumed without impact on the environment, which raises some worrying questions, like the one of global warming. (J.S.)

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  10. Protein aggregation and lyophilization: Protein structural descriptors as predictors of aggregation propensity

    OpenAIRE

    Roughton, Brock C.; Iyer, Lavanya K.; Bertelsen, Esben; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Camarda, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Lyophilization can induce aggregation in therapeutic proteins, but the relative importance of protein structure, formulation and processing conditions are poorly understood. To evaluate the contribution of protein structure to lyophilization-induced aggregation, fifteen proteins were co-lyophilized with each of five excipients. Extent of aggregation following lyophilization, measured using size-exclusion chromatography, was correlated with computational and biophysical protein structural desc...

  11. Economic profitability and the accounting rate of return

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Alberto Magni; Ken Peasnell

    2012-01-01

    The internal rate of return (IRR) is a widely used benchmark for assessing the reliability of the accounting rate of return (ROA) as a measure of economic profitability. We turn this reasoning process on its head by demonstrating that a suitable (weighted average) aggregation of ROAs better captures what is generally meant by economic profitability than does the IRR. We show that average ROA when compared with the cost of capital, will always correctly signal economic profitability in the sen...

  12. 24 CFR 50.21 - Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregation. 50.21 Section 50.21 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Aggregation. Activities which are geographically related and are logical parts of a composite of...

  13. 42 CFR 411.106 - Aggregation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aggregation rules. 411.106 Section 411.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.106 Aggregation rules. The following rules apply...

  14. 24 CFR 58.32 - Project aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other activities and actions. (See 40 CFR 1508.25(a)). (2) Consider reasonable alternative courses of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project aggregation. 58.32 Section... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification §...

  15. 24 CFR 55.24 - Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 CFR part 58), individual or aggregated approvals may be issued. A single compliance review and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregation. 55.24 Section 55.24... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.24...

  16. Choosing Aggregation Rules for Composite Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munda, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    From a formal point of view, a composite indicator is an aggregate of all dimensions, objectives, individual indicators and variables used for its construction. This implies that what defines a composite indicator is the set of properties underlying its mathematical aggregation convention. In this article, I try to revise the theoretical debate on…

  17. Morphology and mobility of synthetic colloidal aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melas, Anastasios D; Isella, Lorenzo; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Drossinos, Yannis

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between geometric and dynamic properties of fractal-like aggregates is studied in the continuum mass and momentum-transfer regimes. The synthetic aggregates were generated by a cluster-cluster aggregation algorithm. The analysis of their morphological features suggests that the fractal dimension is a descriptor of a cluster's large-scale structure, whereas the fractal prefactor is a local-structure indicator. For a constant fractal dimension, the prefactor becomes also an indicator of a cluster's shape anisotropy. The hydrodynamic radius of orientationally averaged aggregates was calculated via molecule-aggregate collision rates determined from the solution of a Laplace equation. An empirical expression that relates the aggregate hydrodynamic radius to its radius of gyration and the number of primary particles is proposed. The suggested expression depends only on geometrical quantities, being independent of statistical (ensemble-averaged) properties like the fractal dimension and prefactor. Hydrodynamic radius predictions for a variety of fractal-like aggregates are in very good agreement with predictions of other methods and literature values. Aggregate dynamic shape factors and DLCA individual monomer hydrodynamic shielding factors are also calculated. PMID:24407656

  18. Streaming instability of aggregating slime mold amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert; Reynolds, William

    1991-05-01

    We propose a new model of aggregation in the cellular slime mold D. Discoideum. Our approach couples the excitable signaling system to amoeba chemotaxis; the resultant system of equations is tractable to analytical and numerical approaches. Using our model, we derive the existence of a streaming instability for the concentric target aggregation pattern.

  19. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  20. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    This note analyses the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the Aggregate Demand-Aggregate Supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. The paper shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and supply shocks of various kinds.

  1. The impossibility of unbiased judgment aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Standard impossibility theorems on judgment aggregation over logically connected propositions either use a controversial systematicity condition or apply only to agendas of propositions with rich logical connections. Are there any serious impossibilities without these restrictions? We prove an impossibility theorem without requiring systematicity that applies to most standard agendas: Every judgment aggregation function (with rational inputs and outputs) satisfying a condition called unbiased...

  2. Protein aggregation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Anna M.; Groen, Ewout J. N.; Koppers, Max; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in affected motor neurons. Recent studies have identified several new molecular constituents of ALS-linked cellular aggregates, including FUS, TDP-43, OPTN, UBQLN2 and the tr

  3. Spontaneous intravascular platelet aggregation in angiographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of intravascular platelet aggregation is activated in angiographic clinical studies using 76% Verografin solution. It has been shown in experiments op rats that verografin (2 ml/kg) and iodamide (2 ml/ kg) together with the activation of intravascular platelet aggregation inhibit antiaggregation properties of the vascular wall

  4. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  5. Oxidation, aggregation and immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torosantucci, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis is to study the chemical mechanisms responsible for protein aggregation induced by metal catalyzed oxidation and to investigate the relationship between protein oxidation, aggregation and immunogenicity. To this end, recombinant human insulin rhIFNβ-1

  6. Research for the development of crushed aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Nam; Kang, Sun Duck; Min, Jeong Sik; Jung, Joo Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The Production of crushed sand in 1996 reached 8% of the total fine aggregates which was more or less 1% in 1994. This research concentrated to develop the up-to-data and economical system for producing crushed sand. To do this, the efficiency survey has been carried out for crusher, classifiers and dewatering devices. From the survey, it was known that rock on rock type V.S.I., and Hydrocyclone type sand unit are the most efficient crusher and classifier which are taking over 50% of the present market According to the quality evaluation, 33.4% was satisfied KSF 2558 standard in finish modulus (F.M) and size distribution and 66.6% appeared under the standard. In pilot test of crushed sand for better quality, the recovery of 56.9-57.9% could be achieved which had been only 55% as of now. And the finish modulus could be increased up to 2.86-3.23 which was 2.60-3.59 before. Accordingly, finish modulus of bellow 3.1 can be achieved when the wet type and appropriate system to the characteristics of the raw materials are used It was known that the direct production cost is 6674 won/m{sup 3} in case of 160 ton/hr of production rate. It will be possible to produce 250,000 m{sup 3} yearly. For utilizing the sludges which contains 58% of SiO{sub 2}, the manufacturing technology of A.L.C., has been developed. And it will be applicable to use as a soil activator of agricultural land for neutralization and dewatering restriction. (author). 36 refs., 76 tabs., 82 figs.

  7. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  8. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  9. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  11. Economic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China bounces back from several setbacks during the first half of this year to maintain its double-digit economic growth China’s economy withstood dis- ruptions to its agricultural sector caused by snow storms at the beginning of this year and the Sichuan earthquake in May and posted eco-

  12. Economic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At a hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on August 22,2006, James A. Dorn, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Cato Institute, offers his ideas on the impact of China's financial system and monetary policies on U.S. exchange rates, capital markets and interest rates. Excerpts follow.

  13. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  14. Mystical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Dinu

    2012-01-01

    The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  15. Pharmaceutical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical Economics begins with an investigation of the structure of the industry and its three main components: the research firms which produce innovative products; the generic drug industry and its expanding role; and the biotech industry, which is regarded as the future for pharmaceuticals. Further sections discuss topics including demand and incentives, pricing and regulation.

  16. DNA Damage Response

    OpenAIRE

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damag...

  17. The second generation of natural resource damage assessments: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), under the Office of General Counsel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has centered its efforts on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures will likely lower the costs associated with damage assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments and simplify most assessments. The DART team of NOAA is developing new regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration, and economic valuation. Various methods are currently being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources. The proposed means include: compensation tables for spills under 50,000 gallons, Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive procedures. They are being developed to provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages for each oil spill

  18. Dynamic Approaches to In-Network Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Oliver; Demers, Al

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration between small-scale wireless devices hinges on their ability to infer properties shared across multiple nearby nodes. Wireless-enabled mobile devices in particular create a highly dynamic environment not conducive to distributed reasoning about such global properties. This paper addresses a specific instance of this problem: distributed aggregation. We present extensions to existing unstructured aggregation protocols that enable estimation of count, sum, and average aggregates in highly dynamic environments. With the modified protocols, devices with only limited connectivity can maintain estimates of the aggregate, despite \\textit{unexpected} peer departures and arrivals. Our analysis of these aggregate maintenance extensions demonstrates their effectiveness in unstructured environments despite high levels of node mobility.

  19. Aggregation of Composite Solutions: strategies, models, examples

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses aggregation issues for composite (modular) solutions. A systemic view point is suggested for various aggregation problems. Several solution structures are considered: sets, set morphologies, trees, etc. Mainly, the aggregation approach is targeted to set morphologies. The aggregation problems are based on basic structures as substructure, superstructure, median/consensus, and extended median/consensus. In the last case, preliminary structure is built (e.g., substructure, median/consensus) and addition of solution elements is considered while taking into account profit of the additional elements and total resource constraint. Four aggregation strategies are examined: (i) extension strategy (designing a substructure of initial solutions as "system kernel" and extension of the substructure by additional elements); (ii) compression strategy (designing a superstructure of initial solutions and deletion of some its elements); (iii) combined strategy; and (iv) new design strategy to build a new s...

  20. Competitive aggregation dynamics using phase wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Maeyama, Satomi

    2014-10-21

    Coupled equations of the phase equation and the equation of cell concentration n are proposed for competitive aggregation dynamics of slime mold in two dimensions. Phase waves are used as tactic signals of aggregation in this model. Several aggregation clusters are formed initially, and target patterns appear around the localized aggregation clusters. Owing to the competition among target patterns, the number of the localized aggregation clusters decreases, and finally one dominant localized pattern survives. If the phase equation is replaced with the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, several spiral patterns appear, and n is localized near the center of the spiral patterns. After the competition among spiral patterns, one dominant spiral survives. PMID:24956327