WorldWideScience

Sample records for aggregate economic damage

  1. Isolation and Aggregation in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlicht, Ekkehart

    1985-01-01

    In explaining economic phenomena, economic analysis concentrates on selected influences and fixes the host of other factors under a ceteris paribus clause. This view, which goes back to Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), is developed in the first part of the book. Aggregation is viewed as a particular application of ceteris paribus analysis - isolation from "structural effects". This leads to an approach, called "closed aggregation", which was introduced by Kenneth May and is also implicit in Keyne...

  2. Staring at Economic Aggregators through Information Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nock, Richard; Sanz, Nicolas; Celimene, Fred; Nielsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to exaggerate the role of economic aggregators -- functions that summarize numerous and / or heterogeneous data -- in economic models since the early XX$^{th}$ century. In many cases, as witnessed by the pioneering works of Cobb and Douglas, these functions were information quantities tailored to economic theories, i.e. they were built to fit economic phenomena. In this paper, we look at these functions from the complementary side: information. We use a recent toolbox built on top ...

  3. Economic Instability and Aggregate Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck; Solimano, Andres

    1993-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that because investment expenditures are irreversible and can be delayed, they may be highly sensitive to uncertainty. The authors briefly summarize the theory, stressing its empirical implications. Then, using cross-section and time-series data for a set of developing and industrial countries, they explore the empirical relevance of irreversibility and uncertainty to aggregate investment. They find that: (a) the volatility of the marginal profitability of capital (...

  4. Staring at Economic Aggregators through Information Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nock, Richard; Celimene, Fred; Nielsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to exaggerate the role of economic aggregators -- functions that summarize numerous and / or heterogeneous data -- in economic models since the early XX$^{th}$ century. In many cases, as witnessed by the pioneering works of Cobb and Douglas, these functions were information quantities tailored to economic theories, i.e. they were built to fit economic phenomena. In this paper, we look at these functions from the complementary side: information. We use a recent toolbox built on top of a vast class of distortions coined by Bregman, whose application field rivals metrics' in various subfields of mathematics. This toolbox makes it possible to find the quality of an aggregator (for consumptions, prices, labor, capital, wages, etc.), from the standpoint of the information it carries. We prove a rather striking result. From the informational standpoint, well-known economic aggregators do belong to the \\textit{optimal} set. As common economic assumptions enter the analysis, this large set shrinks, and it e...

  5. Economic measurement of environment damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  6. Inventories, oil shocks, and aggregate economic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ana Maria

    This dissertation examines the relationship between oil price shocks and aggregate economic behavior in the U.S. The first chapter addresses the effects of changes in the price of crude oil on the manufacturing sector in VAR regressions and in a structural linear quadratic inventory model. It finds that oil price increases lead to reductions in manufacturing activity while oil price falls are not followed by booms. This asymmetry in the response of the manufacturing activity, the changes in the composition of the demand, and the large variations in sales of key investment and consumption goods favor a multi-channel transmission mechanism. The analysis shows that differences in the response of the various industrial sectors are determined by the cost structure of the industry as well as by the dynamics of the demand, cost and oil shocks. Positive oil price shocks are first transmitted from the transportation equipment industry to sectors such as primary metals products, rubber and plastics and textiles, later affecting the remaining sectors and the aggregates. In the short run inventories act as a buffer however, one and a half years after the shock significant production cuts do take place. Sluggishness in the response of aggregate output can be accounted by the behavior of inventories as well as by the time lags implied in the propagation from one industry to the remaining sectors and the aggregate. The second chapter studies the role of oil prices and monetary policy in accounting for business cycles in an identified VAR framework. It finds that the slowdown in GDP growth that follows an oil shock can not be solely explained by the response of the Fed's monetary policy. An "exogenous" monetary policy that holds the fed funds rate fixed would exert a large expansionary effect. Nevertheless, conditional on this policy, the reduction in economic activity persists and the price level increases leading to a sharp reduction in the short-term interest rate. In addition

  7. Aggregate Economic Shocks, Child Schooling, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Do aggregate economic shocks, such as those caused by macroeconomic crises or droughts, reduce child human capital? The answer to this question has important implications for public policy. If shocks reduce investments in children, they may transmit poverty from one generation to the next. This paper uses a simple framework to analyze the effects of aggregate economic shocks on child schoo...

  8. Economic evaluation of subsidence damage mitigation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mining in Illinois has resulted in many structures being exposed to subsidence damage. Damage mitigation techniques (DMT) applied in the foundation design/construction have proven successful in minimizing damage in several test cases. To determine the practicality of these techniques, the costs of their application are investigated. The DMT costs are compared to foundation and total house costs for various classes and sizes of houses. An economical and effective subsidence resistant foundation construction is proposed

  9. Return dispersion, stock market liquidity and aggregate economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Degiannakis; Andreas Andrikopoulos; Timotheos Angelidis; Christos Floros

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of return dispersion on the dynamics of stock market liquidity, risk and return. Moreover, the importance of return dispersion in forecasting aggregate economic activity is rediscovered in the context of a regime switching model that accounts for stock market fluctuations and their association with the state of the economy. We find that there is a bidirectional, Granger-causal association between illiquidity and return dispersion in the U.S. stock market. The em...

  10. Aggregate dynamic economic-ecological models for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J.C.J.M.; P. Nijkamp

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to formulate a general integrated aggregate dynamic model for sustainable development, that will be both simple in structure and able to deal with the main objectives, processes, and constraints applying to sustainable development in closed economic - ecological systems. General characteristics of models to be used for sustainable development are discussed. It turns out that such models do not exist. Short critical descriptions are given of representative analytical mo...

  11. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  12. Granular Effect of Fly Ash Repairs Damage of Recycled Coarse Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-su; XIAO Han-ning; GONG Jian-qing

    2008-01-01

    Repairing effect of fly ash (FA) on damage of recycled coarse aggregate was evaluated by characteristics of pores and cracks in the vicinity of interracial transition zone (ITZ). The interracial structure between the virgin aggregate and the attached old mortar was investigated and compared with ITZ of recycled aggregate concrete in the presence of FA or ultra-fine FA(UFA) by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Diam- eter and plumpness frequency distribution of pores as well as width of the old ITZ, length of contacting points and cracks density were analyzed. The SEM results reveal that the diameter of pores is decreases significantly but pores plumpness increases. A decreased ITZ width and cracks density as well as an increased bonding zone length can also been observed, which indicates that FA or UFA repairs damage of recycled coarse aggregate due to its granular effect.

  13. Economical evaluation of damaged vacuum insulation panels in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, G. S.; Kang, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In Korea, thermal insulation standard of buildings have been tightened annually to satisfy the passive house standard from the year 2009. The current domestic policies about disseminating green buildings are progressively conducted. All buildings should be the zero energy building in the year 2025, obligatorily. The method is applied to one of the key technologies for high-performance insulation for zero energy building. The vacuum insulation panel is an excellent high performance insulation. But thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels is reduced significantly. In this paper, the thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels was compared and analyzed. The measurement result of thermal performance depends on the core material type. The insulation of building envelope is usually selected by economic feasibility. To evaluate the economic feasibility of VIPs, the operation cost was analyzed by simulation according to the types and damaged ratio of VIPs

  14. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Climate change loss and damage. Economic and legal foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text works to establish essential foundations and guidelines in the current process of providing strategies, mechanisms and resources for mitigating loss and damage from the adverse impacts of climate change and climate variability. This builds on the groundwork done by the UNFCCC and other entities to facilitate the processes at the international level, pursuing a pragmatic approach and the objective specification of relevant frameworks for further actions. The primary goal is the development of integrated approaches to the assessment and reduction of loss and damage due to climate change (including climate variability), encompassing both economic and legal dimensions.

  16. Damage Evaluation in Shear-Critical Reinforced Concrete Beam using Piezoelectric Transducers as Smart Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalioris, Constantin E.; Papadopoulos, Nikos A.; Angeli, Georgia M.; Karayannis, Chris G.; Liolios, Asterios A.; Providakis, Costas P.

    2015-10-01

    Damage detection at early cracking stages in shear-critical reinforced concrete beams, before further deterioration and their inevitable brittle shear failure is crucial for structural safety and integrity. The effectiveness of a structural health monitoring technique using the admittance measurements of piezoelectric transducers mounted on a reinforced concrete beam without shear reinforcement is experimentally investigated. Embedded "smart aggregate" transducers and externally bonded piezoelectric patches have been placed in arrays at both shear spans of the beam. Beam were tested till total shear failure and monitored at three different states; healthy, flexural cracking and diagonal cracking. Test results showed that transducers close to the critical diagonal crack provided sound and graduated discrepancies between the admittance responses at the healthy state and thedamage levels.Damage assessment using statistical indices calculated from the measurements of all transducers was also attempted. Rational changes of the index values were obtained with respect to the increase of the damage. Admittance responses and index values of the transducers located on the shear span where the critical diagonal crack formed provided cogent evidence of damage. On the contrary, negligible indication of damage was yielded by the responses of the transducers located on the other shear span, where no diagonal cracking occurred.

  17. Investment behavior and investment aggregates during China's economic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi

    2006-01-01

    In view of the peculiar patterns of investment ownership structure and special investment phenomena in China,the paper sets up formal dynamic investment behavioral models for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises(NSOEs)under the background of full-dimensional and gradual economic transition.The models are based on two key points: entrepreneurs of SOEs have dual and changing operational objectives as the result of property-rights reformation;and dual-track approach of price liberalization process and reformation of financing system alters the actual user costs of capital goods.Analytical solutions are provided and it is shown that there exists a normative and unified explanation of the peculiar phenomena such as "investment deficiency" of NSOEs,"investment thirst","investment inefficiency," and dual shrinkage of SOEs in both investment and output.Our research also sheds lights on evaluation of preceding reforms,understanding of SOEs' losses and bad bank loans.The paper partially justifies the property-rights-oriented reformation of SOEs.

  18. Aggregation rules for cost-benefit analysis: a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine

    2008-07-01

    Few willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies in the health sector have used their results within a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an essential step to informing resource allocation decisions. This paper provides an overview of aggregation methods, reviews current evidence of practice in the health sector, and presents estimates of the total economic value of a women's group programme to improve mother and newborn health using different aggregation rules. A contingent valuation survey was conducted with 93 women's group members, 70 female non-members and 33 husbands. Aggregation was conducted with and without the values of non-users, and with different units of aggregation. The unadjusted mean, median and a weighted mean transfer were used to aggregate values. Equity weights were introduced to adjust WTP for income. Total WTP more than doubled when the values of husbands were added to that of women, and increased over 10-fold when the values of women who were not members of the group were added. The inclusion of non-use values, and the unit of aggregation, had the greatest effect on results. Researchers must reach agreement on the most acceptable method of aggregating WTP values to promote the use of WTP in resource allocation decisions in the health sector. PMID:17992709

  19. Comparative performance of various smart aggregates during strength gain and damage states of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi Saravanan, T.; Balamonica, K.; Bharathi Priya, C.; Likhith Reddy, A.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-01

    Information regarding the early strength gain of fresh concrete determines the time for the removal of form work and the transfer of pre-stressing forces for pre-stressed concrete. An ultrasonic based non-destructive evaluation of early strength gain may not work for concrete in fluid and semi-solid phases. A possible alternative is a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based smart aggregate embedded in concrete, which can evaluate the micro-structural and rheological properties right from the fluid phase. A set of five smart aggregates embedded in a concrete cube were investigated for their suitability to evaluate electromechanical impedance (EMI) signatures. Cubes were loaded to failure and the EMI during progressive strength loss under compressive loads was studied. To show the generalized applicability of this, experimental results for the performance of typical smart aggregates on a larger specimen, namely a concrete beam, are also discussed. Different statistical metrics were examined computationally on a three peak admittance curve with a parametric variation of stiffness, damping and simple scaling. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), mean absolute percentage deviation (MAPD), cross correlation (CC) and modified cross correlation (MCC) were investigated, in addition to the rate of change of the RMSD. Variations between the reference and modified states were studied. Both stiffness and mass gains occur for the smart aggregates, resulting in an increase or decrease of frequency and amplitude peaks due to progressive C-S-H gel formation. The trend of increasing stiffness and the consequent rightward shift of the resonant peaks and decrease of damping, with the consequent upward shift of amplitudes that happens during curing and strength gain, was observed to be reversed during the application of damaging loads.

  20. Pigmented macrophage aggregates as a biomarker of oxidative damage in yellow bullhead catfish, Ameiurus natalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented macrophage aggregates (PMs) occur when peroxidized lipids resulting from oxidative damage in tissues are scavenged by macrophages. Ionizing radiation causes oxidative damage, so the authors evaluated PMs as a biomarker in the pronephros of yellow bullheads (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting Pond B, Savannah River Site, SC, a reservoir contaminated with low levels of 137Cs. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and stepwise regression were used to relate the mean number of PMs, per 0.15 mm2 of tissue section, to fish sex (females: N = 61; males: N = 84), age (1--6 yrs), body-condition, and muscle 137Cs concentration. Mean pronephric PMs differed by six and with fish muscle 137Cs concentration. Among males, PMs were positively correlated with fish age and 137Cs. In females, PMs were also correlated with fish age and 137Cs. ANCOVA, with age as covariate, affirmed that sex and muscle 137Cs were significantly associated with the mean number of pronephric PMs. Using stepwise regression, the interaction of age and 137Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs in males. Among females, the product of age, body-condition, and 137Cs concentration was most strongly associated with pronephric PMs. The positive relationships between the number of pronephric PMs and 137Cs concentration suggest that oxidative damage related to long-term exposure to low-level radiation is detectable in these fish. Secondarily, these results demonstrate the importance of considering covariates such as age and sex when evaluating effects of environmental contaminants

  1. Nighttime lights time series of tsunami damage, recovery, and economic metrics in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Thomas W; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Chum, Kai Fung; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake off the west coast of the northern Sumatra, Indonesia resulted in 160,000 Indonesians killed. We examine the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light imagery brightness values for 307 communities in the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a household survey in Sumatra from 2004 to 2008. We examined night light time series between the annual brightness and extent of damage, economic metrics collected from STAR households and aggregated to the community level. There were significant changes in brightness values from 2004 to 2008 with a significant drop in brightness values in 2005 due to the tsunami and pre-tsunami nighttime light values returning in 2006 for all damage zones. There were significant relationships between the nighttime imagery brightness and per capita expenditures, and spending on energy and on food. Results suggest that Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime light imagery can be used to capture the impacts and recovery from the tsunami and other natural disasters and estimate time series economic metrics at the community level in developing countries.

  2. Smart-aggregate-based damage detection of fiber-reinforced-polymer-strengthened columns under reversed cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howser, Rachel; Moslehy, Yashar; Gu, Haichang; Dhonde, Hemant; Mo, Y. L.; Ayoub, Ashraf; Song, Gangbing

    2011-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is an important aspect of the maintenance of large civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns in areas of high seismic activity. In this project, recently developed innovative piezoceramic-based sensors were utilized to perform the health monitoring of a shear-critical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge column subjected to reversed cyclic loading. After the column failed, it was wrapped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, commonly used to retrofit seismically damaged structures. The FRP-strengthened column was retested under the same reversed cyclic loading pattern. Innovative piezoceramic-based sensors, called 'smart aggregates', were utilized as transducers for health monitoring purposes. On the basis of the smart aggregates developed, an active-sensing approach and an impact-hammer-based approach were used to evaluate the health status of the RC column during the loading procedure. Wave transmission energy is attenuated by the existence of cracks during the loading procedure, and this attenuation phenomenon alters the curve of the transfer function between the actuator and sensor. To detect the damage occurrence and evaluate the damage severity, transfer function curves were compared with those obtained during the period of healthy status. A transfer-function-based damage index matrix was developed to demonstrate the damage severity at different locations. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the smart aggregates in health monitoring of the FRP-strengthened column as well as the unstrengthened column. The experimental results show that the proposed smart-aggregate-based approach can successfully detect damage occurrence and evaluate its severity.

  3. Smart-aggregate-based damage detection of fiber-reinforced-polymer-strengthened columns under reversed cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural health monitoring is an important aspect of the maintenance of large civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns in areas of high seismic activity. In this project, recently developed innovative piezoceramic-based sensors were utilized to perform the health monitoring of a shear-critical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge column subjected to reversed cyclic loading. After the column failed, it was wrapped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, commonly used to retrofit seismically damaged structures. The FRP-strengthened column was retested under the same reversed cyclic loading pattern. Innovative piezoceramic-based sensors, called 'smart aggregates', were utilized as transducers for health monitoring purposes. On the basis of the smart aggregates developed, an active-sensing approach and an impact-hammer-based approach were used to evaluate the health status of the RC column during the loading procedure. Wave transmission energy is attenuated by the existence of cracks during the loading procedure, and this attenuation phenomenon alters the curve of the transfer function between the actuator and sensor. To detect the damage occurrence and evaluate the damage severity, transfer function curves were compared with those obtained during the period of healthy status. A transfer-function-based damage index matrix was developed to demonstrate the damage severity at different locations. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the smart aggregates in health monitoring of the FRP-strengthened column as well as the unstrengthened column. The experimental results show that the proposed smart-aggregate-based approach can successfully detect damage occurrence and evaluate its severity

  4. Experimental Investigation of CFRP Confined Columns Damaged by Alkali Aggregate Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Radziah Abdullah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer is the most effective repair material in use to enhance the strength and ductility of deteriorated reinforced concrete columns. Often, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP provides passive confinement to columns until the dilation and cracking of concrete occurs. In the case of concrete suspected of Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR where concrete undergoes expansion, FRP wrap provides active confinement to the expanded concrete. In this study, the performance of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP wrapped columns damaged by AAR is evaluated based on the number of FRP layers and the time of the polymer application which provides two types of confinement: active or passive. The columns were tested under axial compression to evaluate the residual strength of the columns in comparison with unwrapped columns. The results reveal that the strength of the wrapped columns is enhanced with an increase in the number of CFRP layers. The strength of the columns under passive confinement is higher than the columns under active confinement. Under active confinement, early CFRP wrapping leads to improvement in the strength of the columns.

  5. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  6. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  7. Damage Simulation of a Random Aggregate Model Induced by Microwave under Different Discontinuous Ratios and Exposure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A random aggregate algorithmic method and a numerical model for two-phase materials (composed of quartz and plagioclase with different discontinuous ratios and irradiation times were studied based on the discrete element method using two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. The results showed that this algorithm can simulate random irregular aggregate shapes. Furthermore, crack initiation and development and the coalescence process of microwave-induced material damage could be predicted using the discrete element method. After analysis of this study, the micro crack originated from the boundary of the high-absorption-phase plagioclase crystal and expanded around the plagioclase, extending into the quartz material. The crack morphology presented a radial network.

  8. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa. The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

  9. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  10. Economizer water-wall damages initiated by feedwater impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković Sonja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main causes of efficiency loss in thermal power plants are boiler tube failures that diminish unit reliability and availability, and raise the cost of the electric energy. For that reason, regular examination of boiler tubes is indispensable measure for prevention future malfunctions of power units. Microscopic examination of economizer inner wall microstructure, analysis of chemical composition of deposit using x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS has been performed in a subcritical power plant. Stress corrosion cracking, pitting corrosion, destroyed protective magnetite layer, presence of magnetite and hematite in deposit and corrosive impurities within the cracks were indicated the effect of inadequate quality of feedwater that can not entirely ensure reliable operation of the boiler. It may be stated that maintenance of present boiler does not provide its reliable operation. Extensive chemical control of water/steam cycle was recommended. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009 i br. III 45012

  11. Economic valuation of landslide damage in hilly regions: a case study from Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Liesbet; Van Turnhout, Pieter; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Vandekerckhove, Liesbeth; Poesen, Jean

    2013-03-01

    Several regions around the globe are at risk of incurring damage from landslides, but only few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in a 2,910 km study area located west of Brussels, a low-relief region susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil servants and the owners and providers of lifelines such as electricity and sewage, a quantitative damage assessment is provided. For private properties (houses, forest and pasture land) we estimate the real estate and production value losses for different damage scenarios, while for public infrastructure the costs of measures to repair and prevent landslide induced damage are estimated. In addition, the increase in amenity value of forests and grasslands due to the occurrence of landslides is also calculated. The study illustrates that a minority of land (only 2.3%) within the study area is used for dwellings, roads and railway lines, but that these land use types are responsible for the vast majority of the economic damage due to the occurrence of landslides. The annual cost of direct damage due to landsliding amounts to 688,148 €/year out of which 550,740 €/year for direct damage to houses, while the annual indirect damage augments to 3,020,049 €/year out of which 2,007,375 €/year for indirect damage to real estate. Next, the study illustrates that the increase of the amenity value of forests and grasslands outweighs the production value loss. As such the study does not only provide quantitative input data for the estimation of future risks, but also important information for government officials as it clearly informs about the costs associated with certain land use types in landslide areas.

  12. Economic damage caused by consequences of the environmental impact of mining complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Veniaminovich Kosolapov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews issues of environmental consequences and its related economic and social consequences at field development. The need of allocation and classification of ecological zones for functioning of mining complex is proved. Methodical recommendations of the forecast of consequences of environmental impact of mining complexes within these zones are submitted. Basic methodological provisions of the economic damage estimation caused by consequences of impact on the environment of mining complex, providing appraisal of damage, calculation of the economic damage forming in the conditions of influences of evolutionary and catastrophic character, and the priority of factors of impact are formulated. Methodology and appropriate algorithm of the economic damage assessment caused by extraction of mineral resources and pollution (damage of the environment within projected ecological zones making negative effect on material values, natural resources and the population are offered. The forecast and assessment of arising consequences at developing mineral deposits are crucial stages in taking management decisions concerning development of mineral resources of a region.

  13. In situ luminescence qualification of radiation damage in aluminas: F-aggregation and Al colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, M., E-mail: marta.malo@ciemat.es; Moroño, A.; Hodgson, E.R.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Correlation between IBIL and surface electrical degradation. •Potential to remotely monitor degradation of insulating materials. •Possibility for in situ recovery of the insulating properties by thermal annealing. -- Abstract: Recent work for in situ sequential measurement of ion beam induced luminescence and surface electrical conductivity has identified a correlation between surface electrical degradation and the luminescence for aluminas and sapphire during 45 keV He ion bombardment. Detailed measurements for the initial stages of degradation where rapid changes in the luminescence emission bands occur, have now identified processes related to oxygen vacancy (F centre) aggregation and aluminium colloid production as precursors to measurable surface electrical degradation in the irradiated region. This understanding enhances the possibility of using ion beam induced luminescence as a potential monitoring tool for material evolution and insulator surface degradation during irradiation, not only in ITER and future fusion devices, but also in present experimental reactor materials test programmes.

  14. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R.; dos Santos, Claudia T.; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A. M.; Souza, Felipe O.; Soares, Christiane P.; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a “crown.” This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  15. A methodological approach for landslide economic damage estimation in rural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aucelli, Pietro P.; Balteanu, Dan; Pisano, Luca; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Zumpano, Veronica

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation due to mass wasting and accelerated water erosion represents at global scale a serious threat to socio-economic development not only in urban areas but also in rural and hence less populated territories where the main economic resources are frequently directly linked to the exploitation of the agricultural, pastoral and natural resources, often threatened especially by landslide phenomena. The assessment of damage induced by landslides, thus, provides an important contribution to support decision making concerning the sustainable management of land use. In this paper a methodological approach developed in GIS environment for valuing the economic damage induced by landslides in rural areas is presented. It allows direct damage estimation related to landslide phenomena by means of a synthetic approach which considers the loss of land value associated with landslides state of activity. This approach was tested in a study area (a small-scale catchment in Molise Region, Southern Italy) which is highly representative of the Adriatic flank of the Molise Apennine, highly exploited for farming and, in the same time, very sensible to slope instability. Several environmental calculation matrices were defined at the pixel scale in relation to different states of activity of landslides. For each cell, soil uses and related Average Agricultural Values (AAVs) were determined. The economic damage value (DV) was computed by multiplying the obtained specified AAV with a specific landslide-damage index (LDI) which was calculated on the basis of the extent and state of activity of landslides within each cell. This procedure allowed the estimation of the DV and the real agricultural value for each cell. Summing up the results coming from each cell, the total loss of land value due to landslides and the residual total agricultural value for the entire study area were calculated. Furthermore, in order to assess for the entire study area the landslide exposition of rural

  16. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a neo-classical aggregate production model where capital, labor and energy are treated as separate inputs, this paper tests for the existence and direction of causality between output growth and energy use in China at both aggregated total energy and disaggregated levels as coal, oil and electricity consumption. Using the Johansen cointegration technique, the empirical findings indicate that there exists long-run cointegration among output, labor, capital and energy use in China at both aggregated and all three disaggregated levels. Then using a VEC specification, the short-run dynamics of the interested variables are tested, indicating that there exists Granger causality running from electricity and oil consumption to GDP, but does not exist Granger causality running from coal and total energy consumption to GDP. On the other hand, short-run Granger causality exists from GDP to total energy, coal and oil consumption, but does not exist from GDP to electricity consumption. We thus propose policy suggestions to solve the energy and sustainable development dilemma in China as: enhancing energy supply security and guaranteeing energy supply, especially in the short run to provide adequate electric power supply and set up national strategic oil reserve; enhancing energy efficiency to save energy; diversifying energy sources, energetically exploiting renewable energy and drawing out corresponding policies and measures; and finally in the long run, transforming development pattern and cut reliance on resource- and energy-dependent industries

  17. An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainio Marko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems. Methods We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones. Results We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 50–70%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies. Conclusion Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic.

  18. LEDGF1-326 Decreases P23H and Wild Type Rhodopsin Aggregates and P23H Rhodopsin Mediated Cell Damage in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Baid; Scheinman, Robert I; Toshimichi Shinohara; Singh, Dhirendra P; Kompella, Uday B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: P23H rhodopsin, a mutant rhodopsin, is known to aggregate and cause retinal degeneration. However, its effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of P23H rhodopsin in RPE cells and further assess whether LEDGF(1-326), a protein devoid of heat shock elements of LEDGF, a cell survival factor, reduces P23H rhodopsin aggregates and any associated cellular damage. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were transiently transfect...

  19. Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

  20. Physically-based Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Damage and Economic Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating damage and economic losses caused by tropical cyclones (TC) is a topic of considerable research interest in many scientific fields, including meteorology, structural and coastal engineering, and actuarial sciences. One approach is based on the empirical relationship between TC characteristics and loss data. Another is to model the physical mechanism of TC-induced damage. In this talk we discuss about the physically-based approach to predict TC damage and losses due to extreme wind and storm surge. We first present an integrated vulnerability model, which, for the first time, explicitly models the essential mechanisms causing wind damage to residential areas during storm passage, including windborne-debris impact and the pressure-debris interaction that may lead, in a chain reaction, to structural failures (Lin and Vanmarcke 2010; Lin et al. 2010a). This model can be used to predict the economic losses in a residential neighborhood (with hundreds of buildings) during a specific TC (Yau et al. 2011) or applied jointly with a TC risk model (e.g., Emanuel et al 2008) to estimate the expected losses over long time periods. Then we present a TC storm surge risk model that has been applied to New York City (Lin et al. 2010b; Lin et al. 2012; Aerts et al. 2012), Miami-Dade County, Florida (Klima et al. 2011), Galveston, Texas (Lickley, 2012), and other coastal areas around the world (e.g., Tampa, Florida; Persian Gulf; Darwin, Australia; Shanghai, China). These physically-based models are applicable to various coastal areas and have the capability to account for the change of the climate and coastal exposure over time. We also point out that, although made computationally efficient for risk assessment, these models are not suitable for regional or global analysis, which has been a focus of the empirically-based economic analysis (e.g., Hsiang and Narita 2012). A future research direction is to simplify the physically-based models, possibly through

  1. Economic Load Dispatch - A Comparative Study on Heuristic Optimization Techniques With an Improved Coordinated Aggregation-Based PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Lee, KY

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization (ICA-PSO) algorithm is introduced for solving the optimal economic load dispatch (ELD) problem in power systems. In the ICA-PSO algorithm each particle in the swarm retains a memory of its best position ever...... encountered, and is attracted only by other particles with better achievements than its own with the exception of the particle with the best achievement, which moves randomly. Moreover, the population size is increased adaptively, the number of search intervals for the particles is selected adaptively...... and the particles search the decision space with accuracy up to two digit points resulting in the improved convergence of the process. The ICA-PSO algorithm is tested on a number of power systems, including the systems with 6, 13, 15, and 40 generating units, the island power system of Crete in Greece...

  2. Geometrical exposition of structural axiomatic economics (II): qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. Part (I) of the structural axiomatic analysis submits three nonbehavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the simplest possible case of the pure consumption economy. The geometrical analysis makes the interrelations between income, profit and...

  3. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  4. Evidence of Economic Regularities and Disparities of Italian Regions From Aggregated Tax Income Size Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the size distribution, - in economic terms - of the Italian municipalities over the period 2007-2011. Yearly data are rather well fitted by a modified Lavalette law, while Zipf-Mandelbrot-Pareto law seems to fail in this doing. The analysis is performed either at a national as well as at a local (regional and provincial) level. Deviations are discussed as originating in so called king and vice-roy effects. Results confirm that Italy is shared among very different regional realities. The case of Lazio is puzzling.

  5. Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto Basu; John G. Fernald

    1997-01-01

    Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology are meaningful but distinct concepts. We show that a slightly-modified Solow productivity residual measures changes in economic welfare, even when productivity and technology differ because of distortions such as imperfect competition. We then present a general accounting framework that identifies several new non-technological gaps between productivity and technology, gaps reflecting imperfections and frictions in output and factor markets. Empi...

  6. On predicting future economic losses from tropical cyclones: Comparing damage functions for the Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    for the Eastern USA until the year 2100. The projection is based on downscaling five different GCM model runs for the RCP8.5 scenario, as conducted by Emanuel et al. [7], and accounts for population and GDP changes relying on the newly developed Shared Socioenonomic Pathways (SSPs) [8]. We hereby contribute valuable input to the scientific community as well as the societies at risk. The possibility of extending this work to different regions in order to access the future impact of tropical cyclones on a global scale will also be discussed. References [1] Thomas R. Knutson, John L. McBride, Johnny Chan, Kerry Emanuel, Greg Holland, Chris Landsea, Isaac Held, James P. Kossin, A. K. Srivastava, and Masato Sugi. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience, 3(3):157-163, 2010. [2] Robert Mendelsohn, Kerry Emanuel, Shun Chonabayashi, and Laura Bakkensen. The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage. Nature Climate Change, 2(3):205-209, 2012. [3] Silvio Schmidt, Claudia Kemfert, and Peter Höppe. The impact of socio-economics and climate change on tropical cyclone losses in the USA. Regional Environmental Change, 10(1):13-26, 2009. [4] William D. Nordhaus. The Economics of Hurricanes and Implications of Global Warming. Climate Change Economics, 01(01):1-20, 2010. [5] Kerry Emanuel. Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage. Weather, Climate, and Society, 3(4):261-268, 2011. [6] Richard J. Murnane and James B. Elsner. Maximum wind speeds and US hurricane losses. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(16):707, 2012. [7] Kerry Emanuel. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(30):12219-24, 2013. [8] Detlef P. van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi, and Richard Moss. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities. Global Environmental Change, 22

  7. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial flood in Japan using rainfall data and socio-economic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhattarai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of flood risk is important for policy makers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately JPY 100 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial flood only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope, and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993–2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  8. The courthouse doors do not close: constitutional challenges to non-economic damage caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashshur, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Following efforts at addressing health care reform that spanned decades, the US Congress passed massive health reform legislation in 2010, with key provisions to be implemented over the next few years. This legislation has been heralded as the ultimate legislative response to the spiraling cost of care and inequity of access to care. Yet, these reforms have left many unanswered questions about the perennial issue of tort reform, in particular, caps on non-economic damages. This article begins with a broad perspective on tort reform and the debate surrounding the issue, and ends with a search for common ground where the threat of litigation may be reduced while the constitutional rights of citizens remain safeguarded. PMID:21812354

  9. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  10. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3 to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  11. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Kanasugi, H.; Shibasaki, R.; Kaneda, H.

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3) to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  12. Closure to Discussion on "Economic Load Dispatch-A Comparative Study on Heuristic Optimization Techniques With an Improved Coordinated Aggregation-Based PSO"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Lee, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization algorithm is introduced for solving the optimal economic load dispatch problem in power systems. In the improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization algorithm each particle in the swarm retains...... a memory of its best position ever encountered, and is attracted only by other particles with better achievements than its own with the exception of the particle with the best achievement, which moves randomly.The ICA-PSO algorithm is tested on a number of power systems, including the systems with 6, 13...

  13. Positive Research on China's Economic Growth Quality——Analyze the Fluctuating Situation of the Factor Input and Aggregative Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBtanhua

    2005-01-01

    To analyze China's fluctuating situation of the factor input and aggregative productivity is not only the main method to seek the source of the economic growth but also the main way to weigh the level of economic growth quality. As to economic growth of a country, the improvement of the productivity is extremely important. The growth of the output can be realized through two kinds of ways: increasing the quantity of factor input of orimproving the effciency of the input and output. Therefore, the level of economic growth quafity does not mainly depend on the amount of invesTed factor, but the importance of improving the produtivity since Pesources are rare.The relative improvement of efficiency in use of the invested factor marks the economic growing quality. So, in order to understand the economic growth quafity of China to some extent, it must analyze Chinese factor input and aggregative productivity. This is the main topic that this text wilt be probed into.

  14. Economic Lacks of Balance and the Policies of Adjusting to the Shocks of Aggregated Demand and Offer

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Măcriş; Ana Petrina Stanciu

    2009-01-01

    The paper draws out an analysis of the manners of adjusting economy to a shock that affects aggregated demand and offer. The adjusting manner is implemented according to specialized works on the basis of classical monetarist conceptions and Keynes’s conception. At the same time, in order to influence aggregated demand and offer monetary, fiscal, and budget policies are employed.

  15. A Methodology for Forecasting Damage & Economic Consequences to Floods: Building on the National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootle, G. A.; Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE) held June 3-July 17, 2015 at the National Water Center (NWC) in Tuscaloosa, Alabama sought to demonstrate an increase in flood predictive capacity for the coterminous United States (CONUS). Accordingly, NFIE-derived technologies and workflows offer the ability to forecast flood damage and economic consequence estimates that coincide with the hydrologic and hydraulic estimations these physics-based models generate. A model providing an accurate prediction of damage and economic consequences is a valuable asset when allocating funding for disaster response, recovery, and relief. Damage prediction and economic consequence assessment also offer an adaptation planning mechanism for defending particularly valuable or vulnerable structures. The NFIE, held at the NWC on The University of Alabama (UA) campus led to the development of this large scale flow and inundation forecasting framework. Currently, the system can produce 15-hour lead-time forecasts for the entire coterminous United States (CONUS). A concept which is anticipated to become operational as of May 2016 within the NWC. The processing of such a large-scale, fine resolution model is accomplished in a parallel computing environment using large supercomputing clusters. Traditionally, flood damage and economic consequence assessment is calculated in a desktop computing environment with a ménage of meteorology, hydrology, hydraulic, and damage assessment tools. In the United States, there are a range of these flood damage/ economic consequence assessment software's available to local, state, and federal emergency management agencies. Among the more commonly used and freely accessible models are the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Flood Damage Reduction Analysis (HEC-FDA), Flood Impact Assessment (HEC-FIA), and Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) United States Multi-Hazard (Hazus-MH). All of which exist only in a desktop environment. With this

  16. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial floods in Japan using rainfall data and socioeconomic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rajan; Yoshimura, Kei; Seto, Shinta; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Oki, Taikan

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policymakers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately USD 1 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial floods only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  17. RILEM recommendations for the prevention of damage by alkali-aggregate reactions in new concrete structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 219-ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Sims, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the full set of RILEM Recommendations which have been produced to enable engineers, specifiers and testing houses to design and produce concrete which will not suffer damage arising from alkali reactions in the concrete. There are five recommended test methods for aggregates (designated AAR-1 to AAR-5), and an overall recommendation which describes how these should be used to enable a comprehensive aggregate assessment (AAR-0). Additionally, there are two Recommended International Specifications for concrete (AAR-7.1 & 7.2) and a Preliminary International Specification for dams and other hydro structures (AAR-7.3), which describe how the aggregate assessment can be combined with other measures in the design of the concrete to produce a concrete with a minimised risk of developing damage from alkali-aggregate reactions.

  18. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  19. Using Integrated Assessment Models to Estimate the Economic Damages from Temperature Related Human Health Effects in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, E.; Calvin, K. V.; Puett, R.; Sapkota, A.; Schwarber, A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase risks to human health. One pathway that may be particularly difficult to manage is adverse human health impacts (e.g. premature mortality and morbidity) from increases in mean temperatures and changing patterns of temperature extremes. Modeling how these health risks evolve over decadal time-scales is challenging as the severity of the impacts depends on changes in climate as well as socioeconomic conditions. Here, we show estimates of health damages as well as both direct and indirect economic damages that span climate and socioeconomic dimensions for each US state to 2050. We achieve this objective by extending the integrated assessment model (IAM), Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA). First, we quantify the change in premature mortality. We identify a range of exposure-response relationships for temperature related mortality through a critical review of the literature. We then implement these relationships in the GCAM by coupling them with projections of future temperature patterns and population estimates. Second, we monetize the effect of these adverse health effects, including both direct and indirect economic costs through labor force participation and productivity along a range of possible economic pathways. Finally, we evaluate how uncertainty in the parameters and assumptions affects the range of possible estimates. We conclude that the model is sensitive to assumptions regarding exposure-response relationship and population growth. The economic damages, however, are driven by the estimates of income and GDP growth as well as the potential for adaptation measures, namely the use and effectiveness of air conditioning.

  20. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  1. NOx emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of the measurement of the health damage of ozone (O3) produced from nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) emitted by individual large point sources in the eastern United States. We use a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States, the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NOx emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface O3, depending on temperature and local biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. We also examine the dependence of resulting O3-related health damages on the size of the exposed population. The investigation is relevant to the increasingly widely used 'cap and trade' approach to NOx regulation, which presumes that shifts of emission over time and space, holding the total fixed over the course of the summer O3 season, will have minimal effect on the environmental outcome. By contrast, we show that a shift of a unit of NOx emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in resulting health effects due to O3 formation and exposure. We indicate how the type of modeling carried out here might be used to attach externality-correcting prices to emissions. Charging emitters fees that are commensurate with the damage caused by their NOx emissions would create an incentive for emitters to reduce emissions at times and in locations where they cause the largest damage. (author)

  2. 中国经济增长质量的实证研究%Positive Research on China's Economic Growth Quality-Analyze the Fluctuating Situation of the Factor Input and Aggregative Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李变花

    2005-01-01

    To analyze China's fluctuating situation of the factor input and aggregative productivity is not only the main method to seek the source of the economic growth but also the main way to weigh the level of economic growth quality. As to economic growth of a country, the improvement of the productivity is extremely important. The growth of the output can be realized through two kinds of ways: increasing the quantity of factor input of or improving the efficiency of the input and output. Therefore, the level of economic growth quality does not mainly depend on the amount of invested factor, but the importance of improving the productivity since resources are rare.The relative improvement of efficiency in use of the invested factor marks the economic growing quality. So, in order to understand the economic growth quality of China to some extent, it must analyze Chinese factor input and aggregative productivity. This is the main topic that this text will be probed into.

  3. Economic Valuation of the Damage to Tourism Benefits by Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nohara, Katsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Main purpose of this study is to evaluate the lost benefits of tourism by harmful rumors or misinformation proceeded from Higashi Nihon Daishinsai, literally Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster on 11 March 2011. Its great earthquake disaster has done a lot of damages to many people, buildings, key infrastructures, and regional economy. Most regions have recovered from a devastating earthquake, but tourism industry of Tohoku region which include Aomori, Akita Iwate, Yamagata, Miyagi and Fu...

  4. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  5. Estimating the Economic Damage of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Commercial and Recreational Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Caffey, Rex H.; Kazmierczak, Richard F., Jr.; Diop, Hamady; Keithly, Walter R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A USGS analysis of land change data from satellite imagery and field observation indicated that 217 square miles of Louisiana's coastal wetlands were converted to open water because of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Because of their physical location and marine-dependence, commercial and recreational fishing sectors in Louisiana received a disproportional economic impact from the hurricanes of 2005. Storm surge modeling was accomplished using the ADCIRC model with data generated by the National...

  6. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  7. An Analysis of The Economic Causes Upon The Social Damage ( with an Emphasis on the Relationship between Inflation and Crime in the Years 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihallah Makipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crime is an extremely important social and economic issue in our day. The considerable costs imposed by crime on its victims and society greatly exceed the private benefits of crime (Becker, 1968; .Economics of crime is an interdisciplinary topic that is intended to analyze crimes economically. Regarding the increase in crimes rates in our country, a comprehensive study of the causes of crime, especially economic crimes such as robbery is necessary, because it is directly related to the economy and accurate understanding of causal relationship between the two will help policymakers in planning for a better society. The causal relationship between crime and unemployment is an age-old question in the social science literature. There have been many studies of the relationship between crime and unemployment from a range of perspectives, but this research effort to produce clear evidence of a causal link between crimes and inflation rate and unemployment rate. A large empirical literature investigating the link between macroeconomic conditions and aggregate crime rates has developed over the last thirty years. The majority of these studies focus on the relationship between unemployment and crime. As a result, the literature largely neglects the role of inflation as a potential determinant of crime. One of the most important effects of economic policies in Iran is increase in inflation. This has led to different crimes specially economic crimes and robbery, by widening the gap between different social classes and income groups. As inflation and unemployment rates were the only variables used in this study the results might not fully capture the criminal behavior. Results imply that inflation and unemployment rates cause crime rate, but there is no strong evidence of the reverse causality. An individual will engage in criminal activities because of their inability to maintain a particular level of living as a consequence of inflation and

  8. Yeast prions: protein aggregation is not enough.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael Y

    2004-01-01

    Although many proteins -- both damaged and normal -- have a tendency to aggregate, only some are capable of dividing and propagating. What does it take to turn a protein aggregate into an infectious prion?

  9. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  10. Impact estimation of disasters : a global aggregate for 1960 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Okuyama, Yasuhide; Sahin, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the global aggregate of disaster impacts during 1960 to 2007 using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) methodology. The authors selected 184 major disasters in terms of the size of economic damages, based on the data available from the International Emergency Disasters and MunichRe (NatCat) databases for natural catastrophes. They estimate the losses and total impact...

  11. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law

    1995-12-31

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  13. The impact of acquired brain damage in terms of epidemiology, economics and loss in quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrañaga Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acquired brain damage (ABD have suffered a brain lesion that interrupts vital development in the physical, psychological and social spheres. Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI are the two main causes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre in 2008, to calculate the associated cost of the care required and finally to assess the loss in health-related quality of life. Methods On the one hand, a cross-sectional survey was carried out, in order to estimate the incidence of ABD and its consequences in terms of costs and loss in quality of life from the evolution of a sample of patients diagnosed with stroke and TBI. On the other hand, a discrete event simulation model was built that enabled the prevalence of ABD to be estimated. Finally, a calculation was made of the formal and informal costs of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre (2,750,000 people. Results The cross-sectional study showed that the incidences of ABD caused by stroke and TBI were 61.8 and 12.5 cases per 100,000 per year respectively, while the overall prevalence was 657 cases per 100,000 people. The SF-36 physical and mental component scores were 28.9 and 44.5 respectively. The total economic burden was calculated to be 382.14 million euro per year, distributed between 215.27 and 166.87 of formal and informal burden respectively. The average cost per individual was 21,040 € per year. Conclusions The main conclusion of this study is that ABD has a high impact in both epidemiological and economic terms as well as loss in quality of life. The overall prevalence obtained is equivalent to 0.7% of the total population. The substantial economic burden is distributed nearly evenly between formal and informal costs. Specifically, it was found that the physical dimensions of quality of life are the most severely affected. The prevalence

  14. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Zia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, especially Prais-Winston and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA models, are estimated to forecast the economic impacts of hurricanes of varying intensity, given that various patterns of land use emerge in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states of the U.S. The Prais-Winston and ARMA models use observed time series data from 1900 to 2005 for inflation adjusted hurricane damages and socio-economic and land-use data in the coastal or inland regions where hurricanes caused those damages. The results from this study provide evidence that increases in housing density and agricultural cover cause significant rise in the de-trended inflation-adjusted damages. Further, higher intensity and frequency of land-falling hurricanes also significantly increase the economic damages. The evidence from this study implies that a medium to long term land use adaptation in the form of capping housing density and agricultural cover in the coastal (and adjacent inland states can significantly reduce economic damages from intense hurricanes. Future studies must compare the benefits of such land use adaptation policies against the costs of development controls implied in housing density caps and agricultural land cover reductions.

  15. Study of the reactivity of an aggregative explosive sensitized by dynamical damage; Etude de la reactivite d`un explosif agregataire sensibilise par endommagement dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertuis, Ch.

    1997-11-13

    The thermal decomposition of a TATB-based explosive that have been exposed to a projectile impact, is studied in order to determine its sensitivity based on the morphological state of the damaged material. Two self-maintained thermal decomposition modes have been identified, one is a slow mode, the other is a rapid mode; four media have been differentiated in the damaged explosive: sound, porous, micro-cracked and fractured media, and thermal decomposition is studied for each media, using two experimental techniques, manometric bomb and a specifically designed strand burner. Laws giving the regression speed of each media has been established considering confinement pressure and initial temperature of the explosive. Analytical calculations yield the regression speed evolution as a function of certain parameters

  16. Categories of risk and damage in context of innovative ecological-economic activity’s theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Prokopenko O. V.; Petrushenko M.M.; Shevchenko H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the necessity of environmental risks problem’s actualization in the course of the innovative ecological-economic activities is grounded. Nature and content of damage’s categories arising from increased risk of environmentally relevant conflict situations and accordingly ineffective risk management in the context of innovative ecological-economic activity’s theoretical analysis are details researched.

  17. Polyacrylic acid attenuates ethylene glycol induced hyperoxaluric damage and prevents crystal aggregation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Badrinathan; Ganesh, Rajesh Nachiappa; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2016-05-25

    The study explores calcium oxalate crystal inhibiting characteristic of polyacrylic acid (pAA), an anionic polymer in in vitro and in vivo. Animals were divided into 5 groups where group 1 served as control, group 2 were made hyperoxaluric by supplementing with Ethylene glycol (EG) 0.75% (v/v) for 30 days. Group 3, 4 & 5 were also given with EG and treated simultaneously with 2.5, 5 & 10 mg of pAA/kg of body weight, respectively. Urine, serum and tissue analyses along with histological studies were performed at the end of the 30 days study. In vitro crystallization was significantly inhibited by pAA and further it was supported by particle size analyses, XRD and FT-IR studies. Toxicological analyses showed that pAA was safe to use in animals at concentrations below 100 mg/kg BW. In vivo anti-urolithic study showed significant improvement in urinary lithogenic factors (calcium, oxalate, phosphate, citrate & magnesium) and renal function parameters (creatinine, urea and protein). Tissue analyses on anti-oxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxides showed maintenance of tissue antioxidant status in the pAA supplemented rats and histological studies demonstrated the nephroprotection offered by pAA and were concurrent to the biochemical analyses. Supplementation of pAA not only reduces the crystal aggregation but also regulates the expression and localization of crystal inhibiting proteins and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in experimental animals. In summary, pAA is a potent anti-urolithic agent in rats and we can propose that 10 mg/kg body weight is the effective dosage of pAA and this concentration can be used for further studies.

  18. Aggregate Demand and Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Roger E.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader project that provides a microfoundation to the General Theory of J.M. Keynes. I call this project 'old Keynesian economics' to distinguish it from new-Keynesian economics, a theory that is based on the idea that to make sense of Keynes we must assume that prices are sticky. I describe a multi-good model in which I interpret the definitions of aggregate demand and supply found in the General Theory through the lens of a search theory of the labor market. I argue...

  19. NO x emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, Denise L.; Sultan, Babar; Kim, Namsoug; Bradford, David F.

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of the measurement of the health damage of ozone (O 3) produced from nitrogen oxides (NO=NO+NO) emitted by individual large point sources in the eastern United States. We use a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States, the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NO x emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface O 3, depending on temperature and local biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. We also examine the dependence of resulting O 3-related health damages on the size of the exposed population. The investigation is relevant to the increasingly widely used "cap and trade" approach to NO x regulation, which presumes that shifts of emissions over time and space, holding the total fixed over the course of the summer O 3 season, will have minimal effect on the environmental outcome. By contrast, we show that a shift of a unit of NO x emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in resulting health effects due to O 3 formation and exposure. We indicate how the type of modeling carried out here might be used to attach externality-correcting prices to emissions. Charging emitters fees that are commensurate with the damage caused by their NO x emissions would create an incentive for emitters to reduce emissions at times and in locations where they cause the largest damage.

  20. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment. A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Siong Lee; Lim, Yun Seng [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    The challenges faced by the developing countries are unique in that they need to meet the increasing energy demands for their economic growths at a competitive price without damaging the environments. In this paper, a case study on the electricity demand issue in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented to investigate potential solutions in addressing this current need for a typical developing economy from the technical, economical and environmental perspectives. Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, is currently experiencing a serious power shortage, especially at the east coast. A 300 MW coal plant is proposed by the electricity utility company. However, the proposal has been rejected in the past several years due to the negative environmental impacts of the plant. In this paper, a number of alternative solutions were evaluated and proposed with respect to the viability of technologies, financial return and minimum environmental impact in terms of GHG emission. (author)

  1. Disassembly and aggregation in computer aided overhaul preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Janik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Disassembly and aggregation procedures are main aspects of an overhaul process. The paper presents the example of an application that solves automation of technical mean recirculation procedures. Automation in the aspect of overhaul process preparation should be obtained through new tools specially oriented to refurbish mechanically used or damaged components.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology is based on complex overhaul process analysis that conclude technical mean recirculation method. This method brings technical mean back to operation with procedures (like: disassembly, aggregation, examination, preparation of refurbishing technology, overhaul process report generation determined in specific order.Findings: Method of technical mean refurbishing with computer aid application. Proposition of automation in aspects of: disassembly (disassembly correct sequence and aggregation procedures (which elements should be examined.Research limitations/implications: Important limitations are: disassembly based on assembly order, automation widest range possible when disassembly and aggregation is based on existing documentation. Aggregation algorithm based on machined type of elements.Practical implications: Nowadays overhaul processes are based directly in most cases on leading technologist experience. Elaborated method and application leads to more objective solutions (decisions based on algorithms results.Originality/value: CAO is an original and new approach that should be considered especially in heavy industry. Nowadays subjective decisions about how to refurbish in overhaul processes could be replaced by automated computer aided solutions. Positive economic impact to future and present overhaul processes execution in industry.

  2. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  3. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  4. Economic Losses and Damages Induced by Climate Changes on Rural Livelihood of Northern Part of Bangladesh: An Exploratory GIS Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TanjinulHoque Mollah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh have generally a sub-tropical monsoon climate and maximum rainfall is recorded in the coastal areas of Chittagong and northern part of Sylhet district, whereasSundarganjUpazila of Gaibandha district is positioned in northern part belongs to the drought prone area in Bangladesh. Due to climate change agricultural land affected by drought, water scarcity and temperature variation. GDP growth rate of Bangladesh mainly depends on the performance of the agricultural sector [5]. Due to natural calamities like drought,losses of production crops are almost a regular phenomenonwhich induces sufferings of economically and environmentally. From field observation total area of SundarganjUpazilla is about 410.83 sq. kmwhere total agricultural land is 298.38sq.km or 29838 hectares and total drought prone area is 113.23 sq. km/11323 hectares which is the 27.56% of total land area [8]. In 2006 there main crops was Boro rice, Aman rice, wheat, potato and can but in 2012 observed that all crops production are decreases for temperature rise and water scarcity by drought[8].This paper aims at bringing up the reality of climate induced economic losses and damages mainly on agricultural crops in the SundarganjUpazila of Gaibandha district.

  5. GFRP管约束再生混凝土柱抗震性能与损伤评价%On the seismic behavior and damage assessment of recycled aggregate concrete filled GFRP tube column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建庄; 黄一杰

    2012-01-01

    以再乍粗骨料取代率、混凝土强度为主要参数,开展了6个玻璃纤维增强翅料(GFRP)管再生混凝土柱试件的低周反复试验,对试件的承载力、刚度退化过程、滞刚特性、延件、耗能能力、破坏形态等抗震性能进行研究。研究结果表明:GFRP管约束再生混凝土柱的耗能能力、延性、滞回特性随着再生粗骨料取代率、混凝土强度的改变而略有变化;粘结滑移的效应对试件的抗震性能影响很小;GFRP僻约束再生混凝土柱极限承载力受混凝土强度作用影响并小明显。最后,提出GFRP约束再生混凝土杜归一化损伤计算公式,该模型能较好地反映GFRP管约束再生混凝土柱的损伤发展。%Low frequency cyclic loading test of six recycled concrete filled Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) tube (RCFF) columns was performed. The main parameters in tbe test are the Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) replacement percentage, the strength of core concrete. The bearing capacity, the stiffness degradation, the ductility and the energy dissipation capacity and the failure pattern of columns with different RCA replacement percentage were studied. The findings indicate that the energy dissipation capacity, ductility and hysteresis vary slightly with the RCA replacement percentage and concrete strength. It is shown that the bond-slip has little effect on the seismic performance of the specimens. The effect of RCA replacement percentage on the bearing capacity of confined recycled concrete columns is not obvious. Finally, a normalization damage assessment method was developed for the RCFF columns. The model could well explain the damage development of RCFF columns.

  6. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Aggregate Polishing as a function of Load and Velocity : Application to the Prediction of Damages on Skid Resistance of Pavement Surface due to Trucks and Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Malal; ZHAO, Dan; De Larrard, François; Do, Minh Tan

    2012-01-01

    Skid resistance of road surfaces depends mostly on pavement texture. This texture is usually divided to two components:microtexture and macrotexture. Microtexture refers to the smallscale texture of the road aggregate component while macrotexture refers to the large-scale texture of the road as a whole due to the aggregate particle arrangement. Both components contribute to the generation of friction between tyre and road. However, due to traffic, the firstcited component is continuously poli...

  8. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  9. 7 CFR 51.2966 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.2966 Section 51.2966 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2966 Serious damage. Serious damage means any... serious damage: (a) Discoloration (or stain) which covers, in the aggregate, one-third or more of...

  10. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has

  11. An Analysis of The Economic Causes Upon The Social Damage ( with an Emphasis on the Relationship between Inflation and Crime in the Years 1991-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihallah Makipour; Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Crime is an extremely important social and economic issue in our day. The considerable costs imposed by crime on its victims and society greatly exceed the private benefits of crime (Becker, 1968;) .Economics of crime is an interdisciplinary topic that is intended to analyze crimes economically. Regarding the increase in crimes rates in our country, a comprehensive study of the causes of crime, especially economic crimes such as robbery is necessary, because it is directly relate...

  12. A look at construction aggregates production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

  13. Aggregating Reputation Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Florent; Faltings, Boi; Jurca, Radu

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental task in reputation systems is to aggregate multiple feedback ratings into a single value that can be used to compare the reputation of different entities. Feedback is most commonly aggregated using the arithmetic mean. However, the mean is quite susceptible to outliers and biases, and thus may not be the most informative aggregate of the reports. We consider three criteria to assess the quality of an aggregator: the informativness, the robustness and the strategyproofness, and a...

  14. 影子价格思想在中原经济区各地市经济发展集团排序中的应用%Aggregative Rank and Its Application in Economic Development of Central Plains Economic Zone Various Regions Based on the Idea of Shadow Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜娜

    2013-01-01

    With the Central Plains Economic Zone development strategy proposed,it is an important issue for decision makers to make the differentiated development strategies.This paper,from the traditional economic analysis indicators angle,the idea of the shadow price was used by gross domestic product (GDP) and fixed assets investment.Based on the method of aggregative rank,the different levels within the differential were used to get a satisfactory rank result.This result not only provides a theoretical basis for the Central Plains Economic Zone to make differentiated development strategies but also provides a new method and a new idea for relative research.%随着中原经济区发展战略的提出,如何根据各地市经济发展的实际情况制定差异化的发展战略是摆在决策者面前的一个重要问题.从传统的经济分析指标出发,基于集团排序方法,以国内生产总值和固定资产投出为基础,运用影子价格的思想,通过确定不同的级内级差得到了满意的排序结果.这一结果不仅为中原经济区差异化发展战略的制定提供了理论依据,也为相关研究提供了新的方法和思路.

  15. 会计盈余与未来经济增长相关性研究--基于上市公司总体水平会计盈余视角%Study on the Correlation between Accounting Earnings and Future Economic Growth:Based on the Perspective of the Aggregate Accounting Earnings of Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李补喜; 毋丹

    2015-01-01

    以上市公司季度会计数据构建上市公司总体水平的会计盈余,采用回归和计量模型分析总体水平会计盈余与未来宏观经济增长的相关性。研究表明,上市公司总体水平的会计盈余与未来经济增长正相关,并能够预测未来一个季度的经济增长。%We construct aggregate accounting earnings using the listed companies’ basic quarterly accounting data, research the relationship between the aggregate accounting earnings and future economic growth by construct regression models and econometric models.The result shows that aggregate earnings contains the information which is related to the economic growth, and is positive related to the economic growth in the coming quarter.

  16. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  17. Environmental Sustainability by Use of Recycled Aggregates - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Gandhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimum utilization of available natural resources is the major component to achieve the environmental sustainability. Development in urban infrastructure demands for large quantity of aggregates for construction. Infrastructural waste in the form of demolished aggregates is one of the major components of solid waste. By efficient use of these demolished aggregates in the form of recycled aggregates along with fresh aggregates can achieve a better solid waste management and also cope up with the rising demands of aggregates leading to economy. Present study is an attempt to increase the awareness about economical viability and technical feasibility for the use of recycled aggregates as a construction material in concrete and to show that the use of recycled aggregates is also an efficient measure to reduce the intensity of environmental impact.

  18. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  19. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  20. Testing the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy in Malaysia Using Alternative Monetary Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Choi-Meng; Puah, Chin-Hong; Abu Mansor, Shazali; Evan, Lau

    2008-01-01

    The capability of monetary aggregates to generate stable link with fundamental economic indicators verifies the effectiveness of monetary targeting. However, traditional monetary aggregates have become flawed when financial reforms take place. As official monetary aggregates fail to maintain stable link with crucial economic indicators in Malaysia, monetary targeting has been substituted by interest rate targeting. Therefore, Divisia monetary aggregates, which are considered more superior tha...

  1. Methods for Measuring Aggregate Costs of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods for measuring the economic cost of conflict. Estimating the economic costs of conflict requires a counterfactual calculation, which makes this a very difficult task. Social researchers have resorted to different estimation methods depending on the particular effect in question. The method used in each case depends on the units being analyzed (firms, sectors, regions or countries), the outcome variable under study (aggregate output, market valuation of firms, mar...

  2. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consists of spherical, or cylindrical or plane aggregates, which do not represent the individual aggregates of the soil, however. The radii of the spheres, cylinders or plane sheets represent different le...

  3. Provenance for Aggregate Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Amsterdamer; Daniel Deutch; Val Tannen

    2011-01-01

    We study in this paper provenance information for queries with aggregation. Provenance information was studied in the context of various query languages that do not allow for aggregation, and recent work has suggested to capture provenance by annotating the different database tuples with elements of a commutative semiring and propagating the annotations through query evaluation. We show that aggregate queries pose novel challenges rendering this approach inapplicable. Consequently, we propose...

  4. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Objective was to develop a lightweight, high alumina refractory aggregate for use in various high performance insulating (low thermal conductivity) refractory applications (e.g., in the aluminium, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries). A new aggregate process was developed through bench and pilot-scale experiments involving extrusion of a blend of calcined and activated alumina powders and organic extrusion aids and binders. The aggregate, with a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cc, exhibited reduced thermal conductivity and adequate fired strength compared to dense tabular aggregate. Refractory manufacturers were moderately enthusiastic over the results. Alcoa prepared an economic analysis for producing lightweight aggregate, based on a retrofit of this process into existing Alcoa production facilities. However, a new, competing lightweight aggregate material was developed by another company; this material (Plasmal{trademark})had a significantly more favorable cost base than the Alcoa/DOE material, due to cheap raw materials and fewer processing steps. In late 1995, Alcoa became a distributor of Plasmal. Alcoa estimated that {ge}75% of the market originally envisioned for the Alcoa/DOE aggregate would be taken by Plasmal. Hence, it was decided to terminate the contract without the full- scale demonstration.

  5. Effect of sulfur aggregates on mechanical resistance and durability for SFRHPC with the addition of slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutiba Aldjia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of sulfides present in the aggregate to sulfates causes internal sulfate attack (ISA by formation of secondary ettringite in the hardened concrete. This pathological ettringite crystallizes, the generated pressure is greater than the tensile strength of the concrete. It generates internal swelling and causes disorders that can severely damage the structures. Favors to their structural and economic performance, high performance concrete steel fiber (SFRHPC are increasingly used in construction. Increase productivity and reduce construction time on site. They provide substantial weight savings, therefore it is possible to build with less formwork, less concrete to set up and fewer reinforcement than ordinary concrete. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of sulfur present in the hornfels crushed aggregates, on the mechanical strength, durability, and the microstructure of SFRHPC with the addition of blast furnace slag. In ordinary concrete, the pyrite aggregates cause cracking by expansion when they are in wet land. In high performance concretes this phenomenon is greatly reduced or absent. This is the result of a very low porosity, reduced flow of moisture that cannot propagate to aggregate. And sulfide is stable and cannot be transformed into aggressive sulfate.

  6. The Aggregate-Supply/Aggregate-Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    BARRO, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The aggregate-supply/ aggregate-demand (AS-AD) model is popular in textbooks, but has problems with logical consistency. In one interpretation, the Keynesian underpinnings of the AD curve-derived from the IS/LM model with downward price stickiness-conflict with the determination of the price level at the intersection of the AS and AD curves. In another view, the model corresponds to rational-expectations theories in which Keynesian properties are absent. In a third interpretation, the model i...

  7. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth in Mena Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Panahi; Ahmad Assadzadeh; Ramiar Refaei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between economic freedom and growth of GDP have found a positive correlation. One problem in this area is the choice of measure of economic freedom. A single measurement does not reflect the complex economic environment and a highly aggregated index makes it difficult to draw policy conclusions. This paper attempts to answer the question: How does economic freedom impact economic growth? Using data from 13 selected MENA countries over the period of 2000 to 200...

  8. Pirated Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Babutsidze, Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    I argue that the impact of piracy engines for scholarly content on science depends on the nature of the research. Social sciences are more likely to reap benefits from such engines without inflicting much damage to journal publisher revenues. To validate the claim, I examine the data from illegal downloads of economics content from Sci-Hub over five-month period. I conclude that: (a) the extent of piracy in economics is not pervasive; (b) as downloads are coming mostly from under-developed co...

  9. Software for Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    The equations below provide an algebraic example of the AD-AS model in G.Wells, 'Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models", Journal of Economic Education. The initial equilibrium is illustrated in the diagram on this sheet.

  10. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Zia

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, ...

  11. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Zia

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, ...

  12. Estimating Aggregate Demand in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha EMARA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This econometric study seeks to determine the most important factors of aggregate demand in Egypt so as to provide insight into how this developing nation can grow economically in the coming years. The Ordinary Least Squares estimation method was used in order to estimate nominal GDP for the time period 1975 to 2009. Based on the results the real interest rate, the inflation rate, the growth rate of government expenditure, and the growth rate of the money supply are the most statistically and economically significant factors of the growth rate of nominal GDP for the coming year. A one percent change in the growth rate of the previous year government expenditure is predicted to cause the growth rate of the current year nominal GDP to increase by 54%.The role of government expenditures on public sector wage expansion is discussed in this study as to shed light on this factor’s significant influence on income inequality post-1975 in Egypt, which will continue to impact nominal GDP and social conditions for the developing nation in the coming years.Keywords. GDP, Aggregate Demand, Egypt.JEL. E25, O40, Q11.

  13. Comment 2 on workshop in economics - issues in benefit-cost analysis: Amplification channels and discounting long-term environmental damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many environmental problems have long-term effects. Acid rain has long-term effects on soils, forests, and exposed materials. Global climate change has even longer-term effects. This difference in timing - between the near-term cost of environmental protection and the long-term environmental effects - makes it difficult to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of any program designed to abate environmental damages. The rate at which to discount long-term environmental damages becomes a key question in comparisons of benefits and costs. This comment points out an important facet of the discounting issue. The discount rate for calculating the present value of future environmental benefits may be much lower than the rate of return on investment. Cost-benefit analysis is a framework in which to evaluate policies and decisions. Because global climate change is a complex problem, extensions of cost-benefit theory can be expected to add additional insights, particularly in the following areas: distinguishing distributional effects among nations, over time, and among generations; determining the rate of discount that is appropriate for long-term environmental damages and separating risk aspects from the rate of discount; and assessing amplification effects when policies involve large expenditures relative to the economy or when affected sectors are significant sectors of the economy

  14. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  15. Aggregate stability and soil degradation in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregate stability is a measure of the structural stability of soils. Factors that influence aggregate stability are important in evaluating the ease with which soils erode by water and/or wind, the potential of soils to crust and/or seal, soil permeability, quasi-steady state infiltration rates and seedling emergence and in predicting the capacity of soils to sustain long-term crop production. Aggregate stability of soils can be measured by the wet-sieving or raindrop techniques. A reduction in soil aggregate stability implies an increase in soil degradation. Hence aggregate stability and soil degradation are interwoven. The measures used can either be preventive or remedial. Preventive practices minimize the chances of soil degradation occurring or the magnitude or severity of the damage when the degradation manifests. These include in Nigeria, (i) manuring and mulching, (ii) planted fallows and cover crops, (iii) sustainable farming systems, (iv) adequate rotations, (v) home gardens or compound farms, (vi) alley cropping and related agro forestry systems, and (vii) chemical fertilizers which are mainly remedial measures. Because of alterations in soil properties that affect particular land uses, soils may degrade for one crop (maize rather sorghum). As long as some land use is possible soil degradation is not always an absolute concept. Decline in agricultural productivity should be evaluated in terms of inputs such as fertilizer use, water management and tillage methods. We can alleviate some types of soil degradation by use of micronutrients, inorganic fertilizers and organic residues. Soil that responds to management practices cannot be said to be degraded. Since crop growth depends on weather, degraded soils may be more sensitive to harsh weather (e.g. drought, temperature) than undegraded soils. A soil is degraded if its productivity falls below the economic threshold even under favourable weather conditions or with judicious inputs. All human

  16. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  17. Economic Security in Nova Scotia

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Osberg; Andrew Sharpe

    2008-01-01

    The report uses an aggregate index, based on security from the economic risks imposed by four key factors – unemployment, illness, old age, and single parenthood – to examine trends in economic security in Nova Scotia from 1981 to 2007. It concludes that economic security in Nova Scotia decreased during the 1981-2007 period.

  18. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...... by tissue factor evaluated by means of impedance aggregometry. Citrated whole blood from healthy volunteers and haemophilia A patients with the addition of inhibitors of the contact pathway and fibrin polymerization was evaluated. In healthy persons, a second wave of platelet aggregation was found...

  19. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  20. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  1. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  2. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  3. Which economic freedoms contribute to growth? A comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, J.E.; Leertouwer, E.; de Haan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Most studies on the relationship between economic freedom and growth employ a measure of economic freedom based on an (ad hoc) aggregation of various underlying components. We argue that the alternative aggregation procedure as recently suggested by Heckelman and Stroup (2000) - in which aggregation

  4. Climate change: Unattributed hurricane damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

  5. How expensive is vole damage?

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, B; Fülling, O.; Malevez, J.; Pelz, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Vole species, especially Arvicola terrestris and Microtus arvalis cause significant economical damage in organic pomiculture by gnawing the root system of trees. The importance of voles as pest organisms is well known. Nevertheless, the estimation of financial loss caused by voles is difficult for German fruit growers. We conducted a survey among organic fruit growers to get data on kind and amount of annual damage. Using the available publications and official statistics we calculated econom...

  6. Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes: economic evolution and spatial modelling of the damage potential in the lower Weser region; Risiko einer Kuestenregion bei Klimaaenderung: Oekonomische Bewertung und raeumliche Modellierung des Schadenspotentials in der Unterweserregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiese, M.; Leineweber, B.

    2001-07-01

    An accelerated increase of the sea-level causes the coastal protection to change from an absolute necessity (coastal protection at any price) to a decision problem due to empty public cash boxes. In order to guarantee an efficient distribution of the scarce financial means the most urgent coastal protection investments must be assessed by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The benefit of a coastal protection measure corresponds to the avoided damage in case of failure (''if the flood comes''). Taking into account equal conditions extension measures must be carried out where the damage potential to the hinterland is the highest. The part of the project ''Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes: Economic evaluation and spatial modelling of the damage potential in the Lower Weser region Bremerhaven - Butjadingen - Land Wursten'' worked on by the Department of Economic Geography of the Geographic Institute of the University Hanover, is supposed to assess the ''protected values'' located behind the dike, evaluate the monetary value and develop a spatial model. The obtained protected values, which are related with damage functions, indicate the damage potential that would have to be expected in case of flooding. The results of this project are incorporated in the research project ''Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes'' that is carried out by the Franzius Institute for water construction and coastal engineering in cooperation with the Department of Economic Geography. (orig.) [German] Ein beschleunigter Meeresspiegelanstieg macht den Kuestenschutz angesichts leerer oeffentlicher Kassen zunehmend von einer Unbedingtheit (Kuestenschutz um jeden Preis) zu einem Entscheidungsproblem. Um eine effiziente Allokation der knappen Mittel zu gewaehrleisten, sind die vordringlichsten Kuestenschutzinvestitionen mit Hilfe von Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen zu ermitteln. Dabei entspricht

  7. 12 CFR 621.7 - Rule of aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Performance and Valuation Assessment § 621.7 Rule of aggregation. (a) When one loan to a borrower is placed in... related borrower are so financially interdependent with the borrower's operations that the economic survival of one will materially affect the economic survival of the other, determined in accordance...

  8. "Paul Davidson's Economics"

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P.F. Holt; J. Barkley Rosser; Jr,; L. Randall Wray

    1998-01-01

    Paul Davidson is one of the best known and most influential Post Keynesian economists. He has insisted throughout his career that economists should focus on real world problems and that the purpose of economic policy is to help society become more humane and civilized. He is also known for his insistence on adhering to the words and ideas of John Maynard Keynes. This article reviews his contributions to monetary theory, international economics, aggregate supply theory, and environmental econo...

  9. The economics and ethics of aerosol geoengineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Marlos; Keller, Klaus; Tuana, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for a different approach: geoengineering climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) a potential failure to sustain the aerosol forcing and (ii) due to potential negative impacts associated with aerosol forcings. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcings. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes considerable caveats. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of future learning and is based on a simple representation of climate change impacts. We use this integrated assessment model to show three main points. First, substituting aerosol geoengineering for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions can fail the test of economic efficiency. One key to this finding is that a failure to sustain the aerosol forcing can lead to sizeable and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to such a discontinuous aerosol geoengineering can dominate the cost-benefit analysis because the monetary damages of climate change are expected to increase with

  10. Sustainable Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, P

    2012-01-01

    Concretes produced with recycled aggregates are the subject of several papers recently published in the technical literature. Substitution of natural aggregates can be one of possibilities to take care of landfills and increase of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere in Latvia. Recycled aggregate is a valuable resource; value-added consumption of recycled aggregate, as replacement for virgin aggregate in concrete, can yield significant energy and environmental benefits. In present study recycled...

  11. Creative destruction and aggregate productivity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Fujita

    2008-01-01

    Productivity growth is the engine of economic growth and is responsible for rising standards of living. But all firms do not partake equally in the nation's productivity growth. Rather, according to economist Joseph Schumpeter's theory, firms undergo a process of "creative destruction": New firms that adapt to new knowledge cause the decline and eventual demise of incumbent firms. In "Creative Destruction and Aggregate Productivity Growth," Shigeru Fujita surveys recent studies that examine t...

  12. Aggregate Demand Model for Theatre in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rusnė Kregždaitė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse aggregate demand for theatre which is the demand for the whole theatre sector described by the box office performance. In reference to foreign authors’ models a demand model for theatre in Lithuania was created which allows to analyse the relations between theatre demand and social or economical structure. The econometric models with time series model expression were used. Proposed methods could be applied to the analysis of the other sectors of cultural ...

  13. Aggregation on heterogeneous surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hang-Jun; Wu Feng-Min; Fang Yun-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Chessboard-like substrates are introduced in this paper, in order to study the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA)and the motion of poly-atoms on heterogeneous surfaces. The effect of morphology of such substrates upon the cluster aggregation is investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the growth process and the cluster morphology are governed by the energetic topography of the substrates. Our simulation also indicate that the island density and the fractal dimension of the clusters depend strongly on the substrate topography and the activation energy.

  14. High School Economics. Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  15. Metaconcrete: Engineered aggregates for enhanced dynamic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.

    to resist damage induced by a propagating shock wave. The various analyses presented in this work provide the theoretical and numerical background necessary for the informed design and development of metaconcrete aggregates for dynamic loading applications, such as blast shielding, impact protection, and seismic mitigation.

  16. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  17. Determination of the dynamic elastic constants of recycled aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumani, A. A.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, construction and demolition waste constitutes a major portion of the total solid waste production in the world. Due to both environmental and economical reasons, an increasing interest concerning the use of recycled aggregate to replace aggregate from natural sources is generated. This paper presents an investigation on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Concrete mixes are prepared using recycled aggregates at a substitution level between 0 and 100% of the total coarse aggregate. The influence of this replacement on strengthened concrete's properties is being investigated. The properties estimated are: density and dynamic modulus of elasticity at the age of both 7 and 28 days. Also, flexural strength of 28 days specimens is estimated. The determination of the dynamic elastic modulus was made using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method. The results reveal that the existence of recycled aggregates affects the properties of concrete negatively; however, in low levels of substitution the influence of using recycled aggregates is almost negligible. Concluding, the controlled use of recycled aggregates in concrete production may help solve a vital environmental issue apart from being a solution to the problem of inadequate concrete aggregates.

  18. Aggregation of MBP in chronic demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Kati; Einstein, Ofira; Friedman-Levi, Yael; Binyamin, Orli; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Gabizon, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Misfolding of key disease proteins to an insoluble state is associated with most neurodegenerative conditions, such as prion, Parkinson, and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this work, and by studying animal models of multiple sclerosis, we asked whether this is also the case for myelin basic protein (MBP) in the late and neurodegenerative phases of demyelinating diseases. Methods To this effect, we tested whether MBP, an essential myelin component, present prion-like properties in animal models of MS, as is the case for Cuprizone-induced chronic demyelination or chronic phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Results We show here that while total levels of MBP were not reduced following extensive demyelination, part of these molecules accumulated thereafter as aggregates inside oligodendrocytes or around neuronal cells. In chronic EAE, MBP precipitated concomitantly with Tau, a marker of diverse neurodegenerative conditions, including MS. Most important, analysis of fractions from Triton X-100 floatation gradients suggest that the lipid composition of brain membranes in chronic EAE differs significantly from that of naïve mice, an effect which may relate to oxidative insults and subsequently prevent the appropriate insertion and compaction of new MBP in the myelin sheath, thereby causing its misfolding and aggregation. Interpretation Prion-like aggregation of MBP following chronic demyelination may result from an aberrant lipid composition accompanying this pathological status. Such aggregation of MBP may contribute to neuronal damage that occurs in the progressive phase of MS. PMID:26273684

  19. Metaconcrete: designed aggregates to enhance dynamic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Pandolfi, Anna; Ortiz, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We propose a new type of concrete for the attenuation of elastic waves induced by dynamic excitation. In this metamaterial, which we call metaconcrete, the stone, sand, and gravel aggregates of standard concrete are replaced with spherical inclusions consisting of a heavy metal core coated with a soft outer layer. These engineered aggregates can be tuned so that particular frequencies of a propagating blast wave will activate resonant oscillations of the heavy mass within the inclusions. The resonant behavior causes the system to exhibit negative effective mass, and this interaction between the wave motion and the resonant aggregates results in the attenuation of the applied dynamic loading. We introduce the concept of negative mass by deriving the effective momentum mass for the system and we define the geometrical and material parameters for the design of resonant aggregates. We develop finite element models for the analysis of metaconcrete behavior, defining a section of slab containing a periodic arrangement of inclusions. By computing the energy histories for the system when subject to a blast load, we show that there is a transfer of energy between the inclusions and the surrounding mortar. The inclusions are able to absorb a significant portion of the applied energy, resulting in a reduction in the amount of stress carried by the mortar phase and greatly improving the ability of the material to resist damage under explosive dynamic loading.

  20. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  1. The Theory of Monetary Aggregation (book front matter)

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Apostolos Serletis; W. Erwin Diewert

    2005-01-01

    This is the front matter from the book, William A. Barnett and Apostolos Serletis (eds.), The Theory of Monetary Aggregation, published in 2000 by Elsevier in its Contributions to Economic Anaysis mongraph series. The front matter includes the Table of Contents and the Introduction by Barnett and Serletis and the Preface by W. Erwin Diewert. The volume contains a unified collection and discussion of W. A. Barnett's most important published papers on financial aggregation theory and monetary e...

  2. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound effect over years of exposure ... changes. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun accounts for most premature skin aging. Many skin ...

  4. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  5. Damage Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2.2 of the HARDER project is according to the work package description: For various structural configurations of the struck ship and using the results of Task 2.1, the probability distributions for the damage location and size will be derived. The format will be similar to the...... damage statistics and bow height statistics for vessels in the world fleet. The proposals for the p-, r-, and v-factors have been compared to factors from current regulation by examples.......The purpose of Task 2.2 of the HARDER project is according to the work package description: For various structural configurations of the struck ship and using the results of Task 2.1, the probability distributions for the damage location and size will be derived. The format will be similar to the p...... between the damage location, the damage sizes and the main particulars of the struck vessel. From the numerical simulation and the analyse of the damage statistics it is found that the current formulation from the IMO SLF 43/3/2 can be used as basis for determination of the p-, r-, and v...

  6. INTERTEMPORALLY NON-SEPARABLE MONETARYASSET RISK ADJUSTMENT AND AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Shu Wu

    2004-01-01

    Modern aggregation theory and index number theory were introduced into monetary economics by Barnett (1980). The widely used Divisia monetary aggregates were based upon that paper. A key result upon which the rest of the theory depended was Barnett¡¯s derivation of the user-cost price of monetary assets. To make that critical part of Barnett¡¯s results available prior to publication of that paper in the Journal of Econometrics, Barnett repeated that proof two years earlier in Economics Letter...

  7. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  8. Important Features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko V. Šolar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  9. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  10. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  11. Hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ping; HU Yue-hua; LIU Run-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite in cationic surfactant suspension was investigated by sedimentation test, zeta potential measurement and SEM observation. SEM images reveal that kaolinite particles show the self-aggregation of edge-face in acidic media, the aggregation of edge-face and edge-edge in neutral media, and the dispersion in alkaline media due to electrostatic repulsion. In the presence of the dodecylammonium acetate cationic surfactant and in neutral and alkaline suspension, the hydrophobic aggregation of face-face is demonstrated. The zeta potential of kaolinite increases with increasing the concentration of cationic surfactant. The small and loose aggregation at a low concentration but big and tight aggregation at a high concentration is presented At pH=7 alkyl quarterly amine salt CTAB has the best hydrophobic aggregation among three cationic surfactants, namely, dodecylammonium acetate, alkyl quarterly amine salts 1227 and CTAB.

  12. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Huffaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs, and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also

  13. The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, M.; Keller, K.; Tuana, N.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for the deployment of a different approach: to geoengineer climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically suggest that substituting aerosol geoengineering for abatement of carbon dioxide emissions results in large net monetary benefits. However, these studies neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) the potential for future geoengineering failures and (ii) the negative impacts associated with the aerosol forcing. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcing. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes severe caveats on the interpretation of the results. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on the question of intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of endogenous learning about the climate system. We show that the risks associated with a future geoengineering failure and negative impacts of aerosol forcings can cause geoenginering strategies to fail an economic cost-benefit test. One key to this finding is that a geoengineering failure would lead to dramatic and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to this failure can

  14. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  15. Interactive Web Graphs for Economic Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Dennis A.; Kaufman, Rebecca S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Web site with animation and interactive activities containing graphs and basic economics concepts. Features changes in supply and market equilibrium, the construction of the long-run average cost curve, short-run profit maximization, long-run market equilibrium, and changes in aggregate demand and aggregate supply. States the…

  16. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  17. Growth rates and aggregate welfare : an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Kakwani, Nanak

    1991-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between growth rates and changes in welfare, using alternative procedures for measuring growth. The Bank and other organizations often compute growth rates by fitting a least-squares linear trend line to the logarithmic values of economic indicators for a period. This paper questions the use of the least-squares procedure for measuring people's economic welfare over time. Instead, the author develops a conceptual framework for deriving an aggregate growth ...

  18. Using of Local Limestone as Aggregate in Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Muyasser M. Jomaa'h

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the field investigations and construction properties for using limestone as a lightweight course aggregate in concrete mixture in stead of normal coarse aggregate. Concrete cubes samples have been prepared with dimensions of 150*150*150 mm according to ASTM. For these samples the normal coarse aggregate was replaced by 100% coarse crushed limestone. Three types of limestone which were used (Al-Sinea, Makhool and Himreen, it was found that the Al-Sinea type of limestone gave a good combination (fcu =32.11MPa without admixtures. The obtained results showed a suitable reduction in dead loads of structural elements and cost. Accordingly, the usage of limestone will improve the structural applications and concrete mix properties to attain economic viability. These above results make limestone as a good alternative of normal coarse aggregate

  19. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  20. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  1. Benzbromarone, Quercetin, and Folic Acid Inhibit Amylin Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Laura C.; Varea, Olga; Navarro, Susanna; Carrodeguas, José A.; Sanchez de Groot, Natalia; Ventura, Salvador; Sancho, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Human Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), is a small hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells that forms aggregates under insulin deficiency metabolic conditions, and it constitutes a pathological hallmark of type II diabetes mellitus. In type II diabetes patients, amylin is abnormally increased, self-assembled into amyloid aggregates, and ultimately contributes to the apoptotic death of β-cells by mechanisms that are not completely understood. We have screened a library of approved drugs in order to identify inhibitors of amylin aggregation that could be used as tools to investigate the role of amylin aggregation in type II diabetes or as therapeutics in order to reduce β-cell damage. Interestingly, three of the compounds analyzed—benzbromarone, quercetin, and folic acid—are able to slow down amylin fiber formation according to Thioflavin T binding, turbidimetry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy assays. In addition to the in vitro assays, we have tested the effect of these compounds in an amyloid toxicity cell culture model and we have found that one of them, quercetin, has the ability to partly protect cultured pancreatic insulinoma cells from the cytotoxic effect of amylin. Our data suggests that quercetin can contribute to reduce oxidative damage in pancreatic insulinoma β cells by modulating the aggregation propensity of amylin. PMID:27322259

  2. Benzbromarone, Quercetin, and Folic Acid Inhibit Amylin Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, is a small hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells that forms aggregates under insulin deficiency metabolic conditions, and it constitutes a pathological hallmark of type II diabetes mellitus. In type II diabetes patients, amylin is abnormally increased, self-assembled into amyloid aggregates, and ultimately contributes to the apoptotic death of β-cells by mechanisms that are not completely understood. We have screened a library of approved drugs in order to identify inhibitors of amylin aggregation that could be used as tools to investigate the role of amylin aggregation in type II diabetes or as therapeutics in order to reduce β-cell damage. Interestingly, three of the compounds analyzed—benzbromarone, quercetin, and folic acid—are able to slow down amylin fiber formation according to Thioflavin T binding, turbidimetry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy assays. In addition to the in vitro assays, we have tested the effect of these compounds in an amyloid toxicity cell culture model and we have found that one of them, quercetin, has the ability to partly protect cultured pancreatic insulinoma cells from the cytotoxic effect of amylin. Our data suggests that quercetin can contribute to reduce oxidative damage in pancreatic insulinoma β cells by modulating the aggregation propensity of amylin.

  3. Modifiers of mutant huntingtin aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Teuling, Eva; Bourgonje, Annika; Veenje, Sven; Thijssen, Karen; Boer, Jelle de; van der Velde, Joeri; Swertz, Morris; Nollen, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common hallmark of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and polyglutamine-expansion disorders such as Huntington’s disease, but how aggregation-prone proteins lead to pathology is not known. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen in a C. elegans-model for polyglutamine aggregation, we previously identified 186 genes that suppress aggregation. Using an RNAi screen for human orthologs of these genes, we here present 26 human g...

  4. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  5. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  6. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  7. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  8. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED......). Inclusion criteria were trauma team activation and arterial cannula insertion on arrival. Blood samples were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry initiated by thrombin receptor agonist peptide 6 (TRAP) or collagen using a Multiplate device. Blood was sampled median 65 min after injury; median injury...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...

  9. Ballistic impact response of a coarse-aggregate barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical understanding of the damage inflicted to a protective barrier resulting from impact with a projectile is paramount to the intelligent design of advanced protective systems. The configuration of the protective barrier used for ballistic impact studies depends upon the overall protective device that the barrier is to represent. Although many barriers are homogeneous in configuration, a much broader class of barriers involves a non-uniform agglomeration of components. Such barriers can conceivably represent the means of protection for ammunition bunkers, nuclear reactors, armored military vehicles, or any asset for which protection against projectile impact is desired. Here, an experiment-oriented investigation aimed at gaining insight and understanding of the physical phenomena that occur when a projectile impacts a thin barrier consisting of a uniform, coarse aggregate was performed at the US Army Research Laboratory. The thin barrier target was an assembly of solid steel cylinders oriented in a 15-by-15 rod square-packed array. The projectile consisted of a solid aluminum cylinder with a diameter of approximately 2.5 aggregate diameters and a length of 1.25 aggregate element lengths. The impact velocity was 2 km/s. The data collected consisted of the crater size in the barrier, plastic deformation of individual cylinders, a lateral damage wave velocity from the strain gage signals, and the residual penetrator length. A detailed analysis of the damage inflicted on the aggregate elements of the barrier was performed. The analysis focused primarily on the steel cylinders that resided outside of the eroded crater zone. Iso-strain contours were mapped on the face of the barrier to shed insight into the contact mechanics of the individual aggregate elements. A semi-empirical aggregate deformation model was created to predict the magnitude of deformation that occurs to cylinders located outside the physical crater

  10. Intertemporally non-separable monetary-asset risk adjustment and aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, William A.; Shu Wu

    2004-01-01

    Modern aggregation theory and index number theory were introduced into monetary aggregation by Barnett (1980). The widely used Divisia monetary aggregates were based upon that paper. A key result upon which the rest of the theory depended was Barnett's derivation of the user-cost price of monetary assets. To make that critical part of Barnett''s results available prior to publication of that paper in the Journal of Econometrics, Barnett repeated that proof two years earlier in Economics Lette...

  11. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  12. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  13. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  14. Hypertension and cerebrovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglio, Franco; Paglieri, Cristina; Rabbia, Franco; Bisbocci, Daniela; Bergui, Mauro; Cerrato, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable factor for cerebrovascular disease. Stroke and dementia are growing health problems that have considerable social and economical consequences. Hypertension causes brain lesions by several mechanisms predisposing to lacunar infarctions, leucoaraiosis, and white matter changes as well as to intracerebral haemorrhages. These parenchymal damages determine evident or silent neurological alterations that often precede the onset of cognitive decline. It is important to recognize cerebrovascular disease and, above all, to correlate typical lesions to hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy has shown clinical benefits in primary and secondary prevention of stroke. These drugs represent important instruments against cerebrovascular disease but their effects on cognition are still matter of debate. Cerebral parenchymal and functional damages have to be considered together to make medical intervention more incisive. PMID:19100549

  15. Reconstructing Economics in Light of the 2007-? Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    The lessons learned from the recent financial crisis should significantly reshape the economics profession's thinking, including, importantly, what we teach our students. Five such lessons are that we live in a monetary economy and therefore aggregate demand and policies that affect aggregate demand are determinants of real economic outcomes; that…

  16. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  17. Logical Constraints on Judgement Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Martin van; Pauly, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Logical puzzles like the doctrinal paradox raise the problem of how to aggregate individual judgements into a collective judgement, or alternatively, how to merge collectively inconsistent knowledge bases. In this paper, we view judgement aggregation as a function on propositional logic valuations,

  18. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the characteri

  19. Aggregate resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Gessel, S.F. van; Veldkamp, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have built a 3D lithological model of the Netherlands, for the purpose of mapping on-land aggregate resources down to 50 m below the surface. The model consists of voxel cells (1000 · 1000 · 1 m), with lithological composition and aggregate content estimates as primary attributes. These attribute

  20. Optical monitoring of particle aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Methods for monitoring particle aggregation are briefly reviewed. Most of these techniques are based on some form of light scattering and may be greatly dependent on the optical properties of aggregates, which are not generally known. As fractal aggregates grow larger their density can become very low and this has important practical consequences for light scattering. For instance, the scattering coefficient may be much less than for solid objects, which means that the aggregates can appear much smaller than their actual size by a light transmission method. Also, for low-density objects, a high proportion of the scattered light energy is within a small angle of the incident beam, which may also be relevant for measurements with aggregates.Using the 'turbidity fluctuation' technique as an example, it is shown how the apparent size of hydroxide flocs depends mainly on the included impurity particles, rather than the hydroxide precipitate itself. Results using clay suspensions with hydrolyzing coagulants and under are discussed.

  1. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  2. DRAG ON SUBMICRON NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; Einar; Kruis

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure was developed for estimating the effective collision diameter of an aggregate composed of primary particles of any size. The coagulation coefficient of two oppositely charged particles was measured experimentally and compared with classic Fuchs theory, including a new method to account for particle non-sphericity. A second set of experiments were performed on well-defined nanoparticle aggregates at different stages of sintering, i.e. from the aggregate to the fully sintered stage. Here, electrical mobility was used to characterize the particle drag. The aggregates are being built from two different size-fractionated nanoparticle aerosols, the non-aggregated particles are discarded by an electrofilter and then they are passed through a furnace at concentrations low enough not to induce coagulation.

  3. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Blum, Janice S; Joubert, Marisa K; Narhi, Linda O; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins have a propensity for aggregation during manufacturing, shipping, and storage. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products can induce adverse immune responses in patients that may affect safety and efficacy, and so it is of concern to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In this vein, there is a lack of understanding of the physicochemical determinants of immunological responses and a lack of standardized analytical methods to survey the molecular properties of aggregates associated with immune activation. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic immune mechanisms in the context of interactions with protein aggregates. We then critically examine the literature with emphasis on the underlying immune mechanisms as they relate to aggregate properties. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our current understanding of this issue and offer recommendations for future research. PMID:26869409

  4. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.

  5. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...

  6. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol on Asphaltic Concrete for Cubical and Rod shaped Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principle material in pavement construction. Conventional road aggregates in India are natural aggregates obtained by crushing rocks. Aggregate characteristics such as particle size, shape, and texture etc.., influence the performance and serviceability of pavement. Pavements laid with polymer modified asphalt exhibits greater resistance to rutting, thermal cracking and fatigue damages and hence these were used at locations of higher stress. The present work concentrates on aggregate characteristics which include the shape indices. The particle shapes namely Cubical and Rod are being used in the study. The study shows the behavior of the two shapes of aggregate in terms of Penetration, Ductility, Softening Point and Marshall Stability tests with varying percentages of asphalt and also with varying the percentages of PEG. The results of unmodified asphalt mix are compared with the modified asphalt mix against some critical Marshall Mix parameters.

  7. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  8. Cognitive Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  9. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, Johanna; Grass, Dieter; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günther

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy, water and population dynamics. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre, 2013, Viglione, 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This is the first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events: Investments in defense capital can avoid floods even when the water level is high, but on the other hand such investment competes with investment in productive capital and hence may reduce the level of consumption. When floods occur, the flood damage therefore depends on the existing defense capital. The aim is to find an optimal tradeoff between investments in productive versus defense capital such as to optimize the stream of consumption in the long-term. We assume a non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function (Yevjevich et.al. 1990, Zakaria 2001) which implies that the long-term equilibrium will be periodic . With our model we aim to derive mechanisms that allow consumption smoothing in the long term, and at the same time allow for optimal investment in flood defense to maximize economic output. We choose an aggregate welfare function that depends on the consumption level of the society as the objective function. I.e. we assume a social planer with perfect foresight that maximizes the aggregate welfare function. Within our model framework we can also study whether the path and level of defense capital (that protects people from floods) is related to the time preference rate of the social planner. Our model also allows to investigate how the frequency

  10. Evolution of pyrrhotite oxidation in aggregates for concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rocks containing pyrrhotite bands are sometimes used to produce concrete. These rocks oxidize and produce long-term expansive reactions that damage concrete structures, leading to important economic and risk related repercussions. The present study analyses several aspects that affect the oxidation process of the aggregate such as the existence of preferential paths for the entrance of the oxidizing agent and the conversion process of the chemical elements involved in the reaction. For that, host rock samples containing pyrrhotite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shows that the pyrrhotite appears in bands that create planes of weakness and present cracks that serve as preferential paths for the entrance of oxygen. Furthermore, a new representation is proposed for the oxidation process.Rocas con bandas de pirrotina han sido usadas para producir áridos destinados a la fabricación de hormigones. Las mismas son susceptible a un fenómeno de oxidación que a largo plazo produce la degradación del material, llevando a importantes repercusiones económica y en cuanto a la seguridad. El presente estudio evalúa la influencia de diferentes aspectos que pueden afectar dicho proceso de oxidación del agregado, tales como la existencia de caminos preferentes para la entrada del agente oxidante y los elementos químicos involucrados en la reacción. Para ello, muestras de roca con pirrotina han sido analizadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados indican que la pirrotina aparece en bandas que dan lugar a planos de debilidad y fisuración. Esas fisuras actúan como caminos preferentes a la entrada del oxígeno. Asimismo, con base en los análisis realizados se ha propuesto una nueva representación para el proceso de oxidación.

  11. DAMAGE FROM CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Ovsepyan S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a problem of identification and assessment of damage from corruption in public procurement. We have presented an analysis of the methodology for the calculation and assessment of accumulated financial and economic damage caused by corruption in public procurement. The conclusion about the need for further development of research on this issue has been made

  12. The role of residual cracks on alkali silica reactivity of recycled glass aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraghechi, Hamed; Shafaatian, Seyed-Mohammad-Hadi; Fischer, Gregor;

    2012-01-01

    Despite its environmental and economical advantages, crushed recycled glass has limited application as concrete aggregates due to its deleterious alkali-silica reaction. To offer feasible mitigation strategies, the mechanism of ASR should be well understood. Recent research showed that unlike some...... natural aggregates, soda-lime glass undergoes ASR within cracks in the interior of glass particles and not at glass–paste interface. These cracks originate during bottle crushing and propagate further by ASR. This paper examines whether glass aggregates could become innocuous if these cracks are healed...... percentages of reactive microcracks which may explain why ASR expansions are lowered by reducing the size of glass aggregates....

  13. Coupling Climate Models and Forward-Looking Economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, K.; Brock, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    Authors: Dr. Kenneth L. Judd, Hoover Institution, and Prof. William A. Brock, University of Wisconsin Current climate models range from General Circulation Models (GCM’s) with millions of degrees of freedom to models with few degrees of freedom. Simple Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCM’s) help us understand the dynamics of GCM’s. The same is true in economics with Computable General Equilibrium Models (CGE’s) where some models are infinite-dimensional multidimensional differential equations but some are simple models. Nordhaus (2007, 2010) couples a simple EBCM with a simple economic model. One- and two- dimensional ECBM’s do better at approximating damages across the globe and positive and negative feedbacks from anthroprogenic forcing (North etal. (1981), Wu and North (2007)). A proper coupling of climate and economic systems is crucial for arriving at effective policies. Brock and Xepapadeas (2010) have used Fourier/Legendre based expansions to study the shape of socially optimal carbon taxes over time at the planetary level in the face of damages caused by polar ice cap melt (as discussed by Oppenheimer, 2005) but in only a “one dimensional” EBCM. Economists have used orthogonal polynomial expansions to solve dynamic, forward-looking economic models (Judd, 1992, 1998). This presentation will couple EBCM climate models with basic forward-looking economic models, and examine the effectiveness and scaling properties of alternative solution methods. We will use a two dimensional EBCM model on the sphere (Wu and North, 2007) and a multicountry, multisector regional model of the economic system. Our aim will be to gain insights into intertemporal shape of the optimal carbon tax schedule, and its impact on global food production, as modeled by Golub and Hertel (2009). We will initially have limited computing resources and will need to focus on highly aggregated models. However, this will be more complex than existing models with forward

  14. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  15. Metaphor and Economics: The Case of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discuses the use of metaphor in business and economics, both in the subject itself and in language for specific purposes instruction. Investigates how variation in economic aggregates is put across in discourse and concludes that the concept of growth plays a key role in this respect. (Author/VWL)

  16. Energy and economic tables 1950-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication, prepared by the Planning and Economic Studies Section of the Division of Nuclear Power, presents summaries of data contained in the IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB). The data for each country are presented in a standardized format and in consistent system units. Aggregated data for the whole world, and for eight world subdivisions, are also presented in the same format

  17. Health monitoring of reinforced concrete shear walls using smart aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a smart aggregate-based approach is proposed for the structural health monitoring of a concrete shear wall structure. The piezoceramic-based smart aggregates were distributed in predetermined locations prior to the casting of the concrete structure to form an active-sensing system for the health monitoring purpose. To evaluate the damage in different areas, the concrete shear wall was sectioned into sub-domains and a wavelet-packet-based damage index matrix is proposed to evaluate the health status in these sections. A cyclic loading procedure was applied to gradually fail the concrete shear wall and the proposed structural health monitoring approach was used to perform structural health monitoring during this loading procedure. The experimental results have shown that the proposed smart aggregate-based approach effectively evaluated the damage status in different areas and detected the precautionary point to predict the structural failure. The proposed approach has the potential to be applied to the structural health monitoring of large-scale concrete shear wall structures. (technical note)

  18. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  19. Quantum economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  20. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  1. Analysis on the Spring Low Temperature Cold Damage Characteristic of Economic Fruit-tree in Linxia Area%临夏地区经济果木春季低温冻害特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡广珍; 王琨; 贾小琴; 张淑芳

    2012-01-01

    利用临夏地区1983—2012年的低温冻害资料,阐述了花椒、啤特果、大接杏春季低温冻害的特征,划分了低温冷害的类型,分析各类型冻害对林果业的影响,找出了低温冻害的气象指标,发现当地冻害的形成与大气环境形势、气象因素、地形具有密切的关系。%Based on the data of low temperature cold damage in Linxia Area in 1983--2012 ,the spring cold damage characteristic of prickly ash, beer-fruit ,big meet were elaborated ,the types of low temperature damage were divided ,and influence of each type of cold damage to horticulture in Linxia Area was analyzed, and the meteorological index under low temperature cold damage was found out. It was found they had the close relationship between the local frost formation and atmospheric environmental situation, the meteorological factors, the terrain.

  2. Irradiation damage in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation response of two candidate tritium-breeding materials, LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3, was investigated using electron irradiation to produce atomic displacements, and EPR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect damage responses. In a first set of experiments, single crystals and sintered polycrystals of γ-LiAlO2 were irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at a temperature of 20 K. EPR measurements made at 4 K on samples kept at 77 K after electron irradiation confirm that paramagnetic defects are created during irradiation, and that most of these defects disappear at about 100 K. TEM observations at room temperature indicate, however, that annealing of these defects does not result in visible defect aggregates. In a second set of experiments, sintered polycrystalline LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3 samples were thinned to electron transparency and heavily irradiated in situ with 200 keV electrons. In LiAlO2, laths of LiAl5O8 grew intragranularly under irradiation. Li2ZrO3 showed little or no aggregate damage after extensive irradiation near room temperature. (orig.)

  3. Thresholded Range Aggregation in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Lin, Zhifeng; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in wireless sensor technologies (e.g., Mica, Telos motes) enable the economic deployment of lightweight sensors for capturing data from their surrounding environment, serving various monitoring tasks, like forest wildfire alarming and volcano activity. We propose a novel query...... called thresholded range aggregate query (TRA), which retrieves the IDs of the sensors for which the average measurement in their neighborhood exceeds a user-given threshold. This query provides results that they are robust against individual sensor abnormality, and yet precisely summarize the sensors......' status in each local region. In order to process the (snapshot) TRA query, we develop energy-efficient protocols based on appropriate operators and filters in sensor nodes. The design of these operators and filters is non-trivial, due to the fact that each sensor measurement influences the actual results...

  4. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  5. Pirated Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Babutsidze, Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    We examine the data from illegal downloads of economics content from Sci-Hub over five-month period. The most pirated economics articles and the most pirated economics journals are identified. We analyze the contribution of this particular piracy engine toward open science (economics). We conclude that economics is benefitting from Sci-Hub: (a) as downloads are not pervasive, publishers are not losing much revenues; (b) as downloads are coming mostly from under-developed countries, the exposu...

  6. Adjustments in Demand during Lithuania's Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdaus Hossain; Jensen, Helen H.

    1998-01-01

    Significant economic changes have occurred in Lithuania since 1992. Major market reforms were introduced through phased liberalization of producer and consumer prices. In this study, panel data from a Lithuanian Household Budget Survey conducted during 1992-94 were used to estimate demand parameters for aggregated commodity groups. The researchers evaluated consumer demand behavior during the period of economic transition and assessed the effects of the economic changes on Lithuanian households.

  7. Composition of abraded dust from asphalt pavement produced using ferrochromium smelter slag (OKTO-aggregate)

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, Michalina; Leveinen, Jussi; Pellinen, Terhi; Marjamaa, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This report describes an investigation that took place at Aalto University commissioned by the Finnish Transport Agency about asphalt dust containing OKTO-aggregate. In the fall of 2013, Finnish newspaper headlines began to raise the issue of the occurrence of damaged timing belts in the Oulu region. It seemed to only concern certain models and was found in the form of a dust. The press reasoned that this "mysterious" dust must have originated from the aggregates abraded from the local Oulu r...

  8. Research on the relationship between water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Bing; Zhao Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the early destruction of asphalt pavement, water damage is the most major form.In this paper, experimental study was conducted on the composition of asphalt concrete,Marshall specimens were made in different types of aggregate gradation with the same kind of asphalt. Water immersion tests were conducted in order to analysis the relationship between the water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement.

  9. Quantum Diffusion-Limited Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David B

    2011-01-01

    Though classical random walks have been studied for many years, research concerning their quantum analogues, quantum random walks, has only come about recently. Numerous simulations of both types of walks have been run and analyzed, and are generally well-understood. Research pertaining to one of the more important properties of classical random walks, namely, their ability to build fractal structures in diffusion-limited aggregation, has been particularly noteworthy. However, only now has research begun in this area in regards to quantum random motion. The study of random walks and the structures they build has various applications in materials science. Since all processes are quantum in nature, it is important to consider the quantum variant of diffusion-limited aggregation. Recognizing that Schr\\"odinger equation and a classical random walk are both diffusion equations, it is possible to connect and compare them. Using similar parameters for both equations, we ran various simulations aggregating particles....

  10. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  11. Photostimulated Aggregation of Metal Aerosols

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, Sergei V

    2010-01-01

    The effect of optical radiation on the rate of aggregation of nanoscopic particles is studied in metal aerosols. It has been shown that under light exposure, polydisperse metal aerosols can aggregate up to two orders faster due to the size dependent photoelectron effect from nanoparticles. Different size nanoparticles undergo mutual heteropolar charging when exchanging photoelectrons through the interparticle medium to result in an increased rate of aggregation. It is shown that long-range electrostatic attractive forces drive the particles into closer distances where the short-range Van-der-Waals forces become dominating. Attention is drawn to the fact that this effect may occur in various types of dispersed systems as well as in natural heteroaerosols.

  12. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already......One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... during aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  13. Individual income, incomplete information, and aggregate consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Pischke, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper I study a model of life-cycle consumption in which individuals react optimally to their own income process but ignore economy wide information. Since individual income is less persistent than aggregate income consumers will react too little to aggregate income variation. Aggregate consumption will be excessively smooth. Since aggregate information is slowly incorporated into consumption, aggregate consumption will be autocorrelated and correlated with lagged income. The second p...

  14. Erythrocyte aggregation: Basic aspects and clinical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanis...

  15. The methodological convention 2,0 for the estimation of environmental costs. An economic evaluation of environmental damages; Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten. Oekonomische Bewertung von Umweltschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The reliable estimation of environmental damage costs requires a high degree of transparency of the objectives, assumptions and methods of assessment in order to ensure a correct classification and comparability of the cost factors. The methods convention under consideration aims to develop uniform standards for the technical evaluation of environmental costs and to improve the transparency of the estimates.

  16. Beyond the business cycle: factors driving aggregate mortality rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hanewald, Katja

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive econometric analysis of factors driving aggregate mortality rates over time. It differs from previous studies in this field by simultaneously considering an extensive set of macroeconomic, socio-economic and ecological factors as explanatory variables. Germany is chosen as an indicative example for other industrialized countries due to its advanced demographic transition process. Our regression analysis, which covers the time interval 1956-2004, indicates...

  17. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  18. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  19. Western economics versus Buddhist economics

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Zsolnai

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative prin...

  20. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

  1. Autophagy and mitophagy in cellular damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy and mitophagy are important cellular processes that are responsible for breaking down cellular contents, preserving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated biomolecules. This graphic review gives a broad summary of autophagy and discusses examples where autophagy is important in controlling protein degradation. In addition we highlight how autophagy and mitophagy are involved in the cellular responses to reactive species and mitochondrial dysfunction. The key signaling pathways for mitophagy are described in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction.

  2. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  3. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design. PMID:16784165

  4. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Rijke

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous que

  5. Excitons in tubular molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didraga, C; Knoester, J

    2004-01-01

    We present a brief overview of recent work on the optical properties of molecular aggregates with a tubular (cylindrical) shape. The exciton states responsible for these properties can be distinguished with regard to a transverse wave number, which directly relates to optical selection rules and pol

  6. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  7. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  8. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  9. Interpretation of wind hazard damage in conifer plantation forests from remotely sensed imagery

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Kay B.; Donoghue, D.N.M.; Dunford, R. W.; Watt, P J

    2005-01-01

    Damage caused by wind poses a significant threat to the economic management of forests. In recent times, large storm events such as the 1999 Lothar storm and January 2005 gales have caused significant economic damage to areas of forest across Europe. However, wind damage also occurs at a smaller scale that may be harder to detect. Traditionally, vertical or oblique aerial photography has been the main method used to assess extent of new wind damage. Smaller areas of localised damage may not e...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Recycled Concrete Using Convex Aggregate Model and Base Force Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Base Force Element Method (BFEM on potential energy principle, a new numerical concrete model, random convex aggregate model, is presented in this paper to simulate the experiment under uniaxial compression for recycled aggregate concrete (RAC which can also be referred to as recycled concrete. This model is considered as a heterogeneous composite which is composed of five mediums, including natural coarse aggregate, old mortar, new mortar, new interfacial transition zone (ITZ, and old ITZ. In order to simulate the damage processes of RAC, a curve damage model was adopted as the damage constitutive model and the strength theory of maximum tensile strain was used as the failure criterion in the BFEM on mesomechanics. The numerical results obtained in this paper which contained the uniaxial compressive strengths, size effects on strength, and damage processes of RAC are in agreement with experimental observations. The research works show that the random convex aggregate model and the BFEM with the curve damage model can be used for simulating the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of RAC.

  11. Constitutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Van den Hauwe

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the main points discussed at the seminar ?Constitutional Economics: Cinderella in the Czech Economic Community? held by the Czech Economic Association in February 2000. The main speaker at the seminar was Prof. Karel Kouba (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague), who characterized constitutional economics as a still relatively new and promising research program. The ensuing discussion concerned several topics, including the relationship between public ...

  12. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    Poterba, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  13. Using Information Aggregation Markets for Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Buckley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Aggregation Markets, often referred to as prediction markets, are markets that are designed to aggregate information from a disparate pool of human individuals to make predictions about the likely outcome of future uncertain events. This paper looks at how Information Aggregation Markets can be incorporated into the standard body of decision making theory. It examines how Information Aggregation Markets can be used as decision support systems, and provides empirical evidence from a wide variety of sources as to the effectiveness and practicality of Information Aggregation Markets. Finally, this paper details some future research questions to be addressed in the area of Information Aggregation Markets.

  14. Good economics, bad economics, and European economics

    OpenAIRE

    Backhaus, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The editors of Kyklos have asked the question: Is there a European economics? This short essay tries to give an answer by first trying to provide a framework for a sensible answer in economics, and then following suit by illustrating how in the context of this frame-work, the answer can be given. In so doing, the essay touches on theories of regulation, the ORDO-approach, the sub-discipline of law and economics and the problem of European institutions as they are different from American ones ...

  15. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb; Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of t...

  16. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  17. The Economics of Internet Media

    OpenAIRE

    Peitz, Martin; Reisinger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We survey the economics literature on media as it applies to the Internet. The Internet is an important driver behind media convergence and connects information and communication technologies. While new Internet media share some properties with traditional media, several novel features have appeared: On the content side, aggregation by third parties that have no editorial policy and user-generated content have become increasingly important. On the advertiser side, fine-tuned tailoring and tar...

  18. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  19. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...... the roots and paradigm of contemporary economic theory. But advances economics along a pathway to becoming a science. The book presents a strong set of core philosophical arguments directed toward making economics a true science. In short, this volume will lead to further debate and discussion of economics...... becoming a science. As all scientific inquiry should do - review data and information in order to create a new or different perspective. Part I reviews the philosophical roots of the Lifeworld tradition are primarily European. Lifeworld can be traced in order to set the stage for the interactionism...

  20. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  1. IMITATION MODELING WHEN ANALYSING THE EFFICIENCY OF AGGREGATES FOR TILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osykin S. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the most optimal composition of aggregates for tillage for work in a certain economy is very difficult from many determined and casual factors. In connection with what, it is suggested to conduct researches with the use of quantificational and quantifier algebra logic. Also we need minimum influences on ecology, being characterized as a predicate of "minimum of expenses on indemnification of erosive losses of soil". For the agricultural technique of Russia, countries of the CIS and distant foreignness with the well-known norms of making (by the productivity and expense of fuel imitation modeling is applied, on the method of Monte Carlo (Monte - Carlo Simulation, allowing to build a mathematical model for prognostication of necessary amount of aggregates at different normative agroterms with corresponding damages

  2. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  3. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  4. Elections, information aggregation, and strategic voting

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, Timothy; Pesendorfer, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    A central role of elections is the aggregation of information dispersed within a population. This article surveys recent work on elections as mechanisms for aggregating information and on the incentives for voters to vote strategically in such elections.

  5. Estimation of Line Efficiency by Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPresents a multi-stage flow lines with intermediate buffers approximated by two-stage lines using repeated aggregation. Characteristics of the aggregation method; Problems associated with the analysis and design of production lines.

  6. Debt and Economic Activity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin M. Friedman

    1981-01-01

    This paper documents a long-standing stability in the relationship between outstanding debt and economic activity in the United States, and explores the implications for capital formation of several hypotheses that could explain this observed phenomenon. The aggregate of outstanding credit liabilities of all nonfinancial borrowers in the United States bears as close a relationship to U.S. non- financial economic activity as do the more familiar asset aggregates like the money stock (however m...

  7. Acetone:isomedzation and aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhan; JIN Ming-xing; XU Xue-song; CHENG Xi-hui; DING Da-jun

    2006-01-01

    The advanced experimental and theoretical techniques enable us to obtain information on the rearrangement of atoms or molecules in a reaction nowadays.As an example,we report on our research work on acetone isomerization and aggregation to give an insight into the reaction pathways,the products and their structures,and the growth regularity of aggregation.The evidences on the structural change of acetone and the stability of acetone clusters are found by a laser ionization mass spectrometer and the results are interpreted from theoretical analysis based on the DFT/B3LYP method.Various isomerization channels of acetone have been established and the optimal structures of the neutral clusters (CH3COCH3)n and the protonated acetone clusters (CH3COCHa)n H+ for n=1-7 have been determined.

  8. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja;

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... of such objects while preserving flexibility. Hence, this paper formally defines the concept of flexibility objects (flex-objects) and provides a novel and efficient solution for aggregating and disaggregating flex-objects. Out of the broad range of possible applications, this paper will focus on smart grid...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...

  9. Containing Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Yadin, Ariel; Yehudayoff, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation (IDLA) is a model that describes the growth of a random aggregate of particles from the inside out. Shellef proved that IDLA processes on supercritical percolation clusters of integer-lattices fill Euclidean balls, with high probability. In this article, we complete the picture and prove a limit-shape theorem for IDLA on such percolation clusters, by providing the corresponding upper bound. The technique to prove upper bounds is new and robust: it only requires the existence of a "good" lower bound. Specifically, this way of proving upper bounds on IDLA clusters is more suitable for random environments than previous ways, since it does not harness harmonic measure estimates.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF FINE RECYCLED AGGREGATES IN MORTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Feys, Charles; Joseph, Miquel; Boehme, Luc; Zhang, Yunlian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the influence of fine recycled concrete aggregates as replacement for sand in mortar and the use as cement replacement and filler is investigated. Mortar with fine recycled aggregates is examined on its mechanical and physical properties. The samples are also examined on a microscopic scale. The fine recycled concrete aggregates are made with one-year old concrete made in the laboratory. Fine recycled aggregates (FRCA) are added as a cement replacement (0 %, 10 %...

  11. Computers and Productivity: Are Aggregation Effects Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. McGuckin; Kevin Stiroh

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical implications of aggregation bias when measuring the productive impact of computers. To isolate two specific aggregation problems relating to "aggregation in variables" and "aggregation in relations," we compare various production function estimates across a range of specifications, econometric estimators, and data levels. The results show that both sources of bias are important, especially as one moves from the sector to the economy level, and when the elasti...

  12. Revisiting Aggregation Techniques for Data Intensive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation has been an important operation since the early days of relational databases. Today's Big Data applications bring further challenges when processing aggregation queries, demanding robust aggregation algorithms that can process large volumes of data efficiently in a distributed, share-nothing architecture. Moreover, aggregation on each node runs under a potentially limited memory budget (especially in multiuser settings). Despite its importance, the design and evaluation of aggrega...

  13. Recycled aggregate concrete; an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sorato, Renan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to investigate whether recycled materials can be incorporated into the production of concrete without compromising the compressive strength of the concrete produced. In order to shed light on the compressive strength of concrete made from recycled materials, the thesis reviewed studies in which waste materials are utilised as recycled aggregates in the composition of concrete and presented the results of this synthesis and analysis. It was found that som...

  14. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  15. Belt conveyor for recycle aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrodný, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the belt conveyor for the transport of recycled aggregate in an oblique direction. The aim is to find constructional solutions to the belt conveyor for the assigned transport capacity of 95 000 kg per hour, and the assigned axial distance of 49 m and different height of 12 m. The thesis contains a brief description of the belt conveyor and a description of basic constructional components. It also contains a functional calculation of the capacity and forces acco...

  16. Aggregating Labels in Crowdsourcing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Priisalu, Maria; Grey, Francois; Segal, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Project Specification Crowdsourcing is gaining popularity in academia with the launch of crowdsourcing platforms such as Crowdcrafting [Lombraña, 2015] and GeoTagX [UNOSAT, 2015]. There have been a number of proposed algorithms for the aggregation of true labels and a confusion matrix from crowdsourced labels for ordinal, nominal and binary labels. The work here consists of an implementation of the Dawid Skene [Dawid 1979] adaptation of the Expectation Maximization algorithm [D...

  17. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  18. Water Proton NMR for In Situ Detection of Insulin Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Marc B; Truong, Huy C; Feng, Yue; Jouravleva, Elena V; Anisimov, Mikhail A; Yu, Yihua Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The need for quality control during the manufacturing and distribution of biopharmaceuticals is becoming increasingly necessary. At present, detecting drug degradation through the monitoring of active factor aggregation is accomplished through "invasive" techniques, such as size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), and so on. Unfortunately, these analytical methods require sampling the drug by opening the drug container that renders the remaining drug unusable regardless of the outcome of the test. Visual inspection, the current non-invasive quality control method is qualitative and can only detect visible particulates. Thus, it will miss sub-visible protein aggregates. In this paper, human insulin preparations were used to demonstrate that the transverse relaxation rate of water protons R2 ((1) H2 O) can serve as a sensitive and reliable indicator to detect and quantify both visible and sub-visible protein aggregates. R2 ((1) H2 O) is measured using a wide-bore low-field bench-top NMR instrument with permanent magnets. Such analysis could be carried out without opening the drug container, thus saving a drug for further use. The results suggest a novel, economical, non-destructive in situ analytical technique that allows for on-the-site quantification of protein aggregation in biopharmaceutical products. PMID:26344698

  19. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  20. Network Provisioning Using Multimedia Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Vila-Carbó

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic makes network provisioning a key issue. Optimal provisioning of network resources is crucial for reducing the service cost of multimedia transmission. Multimedia traffic requires not only provisioning bandwidth and buffer resources in the network but also guaranteeing a given maximum end-to-end delay. In this paper we present methods and tools for the optimal dimensioning of networks based on multimedia aggregates. The proposed method minimises the network resources reservations of traffic aggregates providing a bounded delay. The paper also introduces several methods to generate multimedia traffic aggregation using real video traces. The method is evaluated using a network topology based on the European GÉANT network. The results of these simulations allow us to discover the relationship between a required delay and the necessary bandwidth reservation (or the achievable utilisation limit. An interesting conclusion of these scenarios is that, following several recommendations, the network utilisation can reach values of around 80% or higher.

  1. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Hora, P.

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  2. Aggregated Authentication (AMAC) Using Universal Hash Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaidi, Wassim; Minier, Marine; Lauradoux, Cédric

    Aggregation is a very important issue to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs). There is currently a lack of cryptographic primitives for authentication of aggregated data. The theoretical background for Aggregated Message Authentication Codes (AMACs) has been proposed by Chan and Castelluccia at ISIT 08.

  3. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem....

  4. Swinger Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio D'Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Swinging is a sexual behavior of increasing relevance but substantially ignored in theoretical economic investigation. This paper has two major goals. The first is to describe what swinging is, discuss its economic relevance and single out the main characteristics of swinger behavior. To this end, the Italian situation has been considered as a type of case study. The second goal is to use standard and less-standard tools from economic theory to propose some preliminary assessments of the caus...

  5. Green Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Pearce

    1992-01-01

    Economists assume that people are fundamentally greedy, though not exclusively so. If environmental improvement is to be achieved, it will require policies that use selfishness rather than opposing it. Such policies are to be found in the basics of green economics in which market signals are modified by environmental taxes and tradeable pollution certificates to 'decouple' the economic growth process from its environmental impact. Green economic policies avoid the infringements of human liber...

  6. Institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiaud, Sylvain; Locatelli, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of institutional economics has gained increasing prominence in recent years, because standard economic explanations can often not come to grips with major contemporary policy issues, such as economic reform in affluent, but dysfunctional economies, the transformation of the failed socialist command economies and the governance problems of the new industrial economies. Institutional economists point out that rule systems matter greatly to explaining these problems and that insti...

  7. Evolutionary Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dopfer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of major recent contributions in evolutionary economics. It starts of demonstrating that the pioneers of this approach such as Veblen, Schumpeter, Marshall and Hayek saw the economy as continuously changing and that this kind of "realism of perception" guides essentially also contemporary evolutionary economics. The economy is viewed as an evolving system of structured knowledge governing economic operations. Theoretically, a micro-meso-macro architecture is pro...

  8. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  10. Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubertot, Jean-Noël; Robin, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests) in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i) develop, and to a lesser extent ii) combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies (vertical integration), there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration). Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator), a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat). In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

  11. Injury Profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict crop injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and the abiotic and biotic environment. I. Conceptual bases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Aubertot

    Full Text Available The limitation of damage caused by pests (plant pathogens, weeds, and animal pests in any agricultural crop requires integrated management strategies. Although significant efforts have been made to i develop, and to a lesser extent ii combine genetic, biological, cultural, physical and chemical control methods in Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategies (vertical integration, there is a need for tools to help manage Injury Profiles (horizontal integration. Farmers design cropping systems according to their goals, knowledge, cognition and perception of socio-economic and technological drivers as well as their physical, biological, and chemical environment. In return, a given cropping system, in a given production situation will exhibit a unique injury profile, defined as a dynamic vector of the main injuries affecting the crop. This simple description of agroecosystems has been used to develop IPSIM (Injury Profile SIMulator, a modelling framework to predict injury profiles as a function of cropping practices, abiotic and biotic environment. Due to the tremendous complexity of agroecosystems, a simple holistic aggregative approach was chosen instead of attempting to couple detailed models. This paper describes the conceptual bases of IPSIM, an aggregative hierarchical framework and a method to help specify IPSIM for a given crop. A companion paper presents a proof of concept of the proposed approach for a single disease of a major crop (eyespot on wheat. In the future, IPSIM could be used as a tool to help design ex-ante IPM strategies at the field scale if coupled with a damage sub-model, and a multicriteria sub-model that assesses the social, environmental, and economic performances of simulated agroecosystems. In addition, IPSIM could also be used to help make diagnoses on commercial fields. It is important to point out that the presented concepts are not crop- or pest-specific and that IPSIM can be used on any crop.

  12. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  13. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create nine (9) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  14. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  15. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  16. Government Policy and Aggregate Fluctuations Government Policy and Aggregate Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. McGrattan

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Government Policy and Aggregate Fluctuations This paper investigates the effect of including fiscal and monetary variables in a simple real business cycle model. The starting point is the stochastic growth model with fuctuations driven by technological shocks. The growth model is first extended to include government spending and taxes on factors of production. A second extension imposes a cash-in-advance constraint on purchases of consumption goods. For the three models, equilibrium decision functions and predictions for second moments are compared.

  17. Evaluating damage potential of cryogenic concrete using acoustic emission sensors and permeability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B.; Parsaei, Boback; Iyengar, Srinath R.; Grasley, Zachary C.; Masad, Eyad A.; Zollinger, Dan G.

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the damage potential of concrete of different mix designs subjected to cryogenic temperatures, using acoustic emission (AE) and permeability testing. The aim is to investigate design methodologies that might be employed to produce concrete that resists damage when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Such concrete would be suitable for primary containment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and could replace currently used 9% Ni steel, thereby leading to huge cost savings. In the experiments described, concrete cubes, 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm, were cast using four different mix designs. The four mixes employed siliceous river sand as fine aggregate. Moreover, limestone, sandstone, trap rock and lightweight aggregate were individually used as coarse aggregates in the mixes. The concrete samples were then cooled from room temperature (20°C) to cryogenic temperature (-165°C) in a temperature chamber. AE sensors were placed on the concrete cubes during the cryogenic freezing process. The damage potential was evaluated in terms of the growth of damage as determined from AE, as a function of temperature and concrete mixture design. The damage potential observed was validated with water permeability testing. Initial results demonstrate the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the aggregates on damage growth. Concrete damage (cracking) resistance generally decreased with increasing coarse aggregate CTE, and was in the order, limestone ≥ trap rock concrete due to differential CTE of its components.

  18. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang

    2014-01-01

    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  19. Behavioral Economics and Health Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Frank

    2004-01-01

    The health sector is filled with institutions and decision-making circumstances that create friction in markets and cognitive errors by decision makers. This paper examines the potential contributions to health economics of the ideas of behavioral economics. The discussion presented here focuses on the economics of doctor-patient interactions and some aspects of quality of care. It also touches on issues related to insurance and the demand for health care. The paper argues that long standing ...

  20. Economic Freedom and Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the politically contested association between the degree of capitalism, captured by measures of economic freedom, and the risk and characteristics of economic crisis. After offering some brief theoretical considerations, I estimate the effects of economic freedom on crisis risk in the post-Cold War period 1993-2010. I further estimate the effects on the duration, peak-to-trough GDP ratios and recovery times of 212 crises across 175 countries within this period. Estima...

  1. Economics Online

    OpenAIRE

    John McMillan; Drucilla Ekwurzel

    2001-01-01

    The internet is bringing profound changes in scholarly publishing. The American Economic Association maintains a web site (www.AEAweb.org) containing the three AEA journals, bibliographic information, links to various economics information, and various services for AEA members. This note surveys the AEA's on-line initiatives.

  2. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  3. Microwave extinction characteristics of nanoparticle aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. P.; Cheng, J. X.; Liu, X. X.; Wang, H. X.; Zhao, F. T.; Wen, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    Structure of nanoparticle aggregates plays an important role in microwave extinction capacity. The diffusion-limited aggregation model (DLA) for fractal growth is utilized to explore the possible structures of nanoparticle aggregates by computer simulation. Based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, the microwave extinction performance by different nano-carborundum aggregates is numerically analyzed. The effects of the particle quantity, original diameter, fractal structure, as well as orientation on microwave extinction are investigated, and also the extinction characteristics of aggregates are compared with the spherical nanoparticle in the same volume. Numerical results give out that proper aggregation of nanoparticle is beneficial to microwave extinction capacity, and the microwave extinction cross section by aggregated granules is better than that of the spherical solid one in the same volume.

  4. Bouncing Behavior of Microscopic Dust Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Context: Bouncing collisions of dust aggregates within the protoplanetary may have a significant impact on the growth process of planetesimals. Yet, the conditions that result in bouncing are not very well understood. Existing simulations studying the bouncing behavior used aggregates with an artificial, very regular internal structure. Aims: Here, we study the bouncing behavior of sub-mm dust aggregates that are constructed applying different sample preparation methods. We analyze how the internal structure of the aggregate alters the collisional outcome and determine the influence of aggregate size, porosity, collision velocity, and impact parameter. Methods: We use molecular dynamics simulations where the individual aggregates are treated as spheres that are made up of several hundred thousand individual monomers. The simulations are run on GPUs. Results: Statistical bulk properties and thus bouncing behavior of sub-mm dust aggregates depend heavily on the preparation method. In particular, there is no uni...

  5. The Economics of Land Use Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hubacek, K.; Vazquez, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview for non-economists of how land has been treated in economic theory. Land is an aggregate of many different attributes, providing many important functions, which are not part of market transactions. An analysis of the economics of land use change has to include the unique character of land. This uniqueness arises from its distinct "physical, ecological, and institutional" properties. Land use decisions are influenced by three groups of factors. F...

  6. The Economics of Natural Disasters: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Eduardo; Noy, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophes caused by natural disasters are by no means new, yet our evolving understanding regarding their relevance to economic development and growth is still at its infancy. In order to facilitate further necessary research on this topic, we summarize the state of the economic literature that examines the aggregate impact of disasters. We review the main disaster data sources available, discuss the determinants of the direct effects of disasters, and distinguish between the short- and lo...

  7. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific....

  8. Economic hotspots: Visualizing Vulnerability to Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der A.; Logtmeijer, C.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We simulate a large-scale flooding in the province of South-Holland in the economic centre of the Netherlands. In traditional research, damage due to flooding is computed with a unit loss method coupling land use information to depth-damage functions. Normally only direct costs are incorporated as a

  9. PERCOLATION OF RANDOM CYLINDER AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Jeulin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The percolation threshold ρc of Boolean models of cylinders with their axis parallel to a given direction is studied by means of simulations. An efficient method of construction of percolating connected components was developed, and is applied to one or two scales Boolean model, in order to simulate the presence of aggregates. The invariance of the percolation threshold with respect to affine transformations in the common direction of the axis of cylinders is approximately satisfied on simulations. The prediction of the model (ρc close to 0.16 is consistent with experimental measurements on plasma spray coatings, which motivated this study.

  10. Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.

  11. Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Bernanke, Ben S.; Alan S. Blinder

    1988-01-01

    Standard models of aggregate demand treat money and credit asymmetrically; money is given a special status, while loans, bonds, and other debt instruments are lumped together in a "bond market" and suppressed by Walras' Law. This makes bank liabilities central to the monetary transmission mechanism, while giving no role to bank assets. We show how to modify a textbook IS-UI model so as to permit a more balanced treatment. As in Tobin (1969) and Brunner-Meltzer (1972), the key assumption is th...

  12. An aggregated energy security performance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► AESPI shows a country’s (or province’s) energy security status. ► AESPI considers social, economic and environmental aspects using 25 indicators. ► AESPI shows the impact of the trend of energy policies/measures. ► AESPI could be a tool for monitoring and evaluating the impact of energy policies. -- Abstract: An “Aggregated Energy Security Performance Indicator (AESPI)” has been developed by considering 25 individual indicators representing social, economy and environmental dimensions. The principle used, data required and the methodology for the development of AESPI have been detailed. AESPI requires time series data for its development and its value ranges from 0 to 10. The characteristics of AESPI have been compared with the existing indicators in terms of methodology, data requirements, analysis possible and the applications. The advantages of AESPI is that it not only assists in knowing the past energy security status of a country, but also helps in assessing the future status considering the energy policies and plans of the country, thus enabling the monitoring of the impacts of the policies.

  13. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  14. Tensile strength and fracture of cemented granular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Delenne, J-Y; Monerie, Y; Radjaï, F; Topin, V

    2012-11-01

    Cemented granular aggregates include a broad class of geomaterials such as sedimentary rocks and some biomaterials such as the wheat endosperm. We present a 3D lattice element method for the simulation of such materials, modeled as a jammed assembly of particles bound together by a matrix partially filling the interstitial space. From extensive simulation data, we analyze the mechanical properties of aggregates subjected to tensile loading as a function of matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adhesion. We observe a linear elastic behavior followed by a brutal failure along a fracture surface. The effective stiffness before failure increases almost linearly with the matrix volume fraction. We show that the tensile strength of the aggregates increases with both the increasing tensile strength at the particle-matrix interface and decreasing stress concentration as a function of matrix volume fraction. The proportion of broken bonds in the particle phase reveals a range of values of the particle-matrix adhesion and matrix volume fraction for which the cracks bypass the particles and hence no particle damage occurs. This limit is shown to depend on the relative toughness of the particle-matrix interface with respect to the particles.

  15. Evaluation method of cracking resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季韬; 张彬彬; 陈永波; 庄一舟

    2014-01-01

    The cracking behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) was investigated by mechanical analysis, SEM and cracking-resistant test where a shrinkage-restrained ring with a clapboard was used. The relationship between the ceramsite type and the cracking resistance of LWAC was built up and compared with that of normal-weight coarse aggregate concrete (NWAC). A new method was proposed to evaluate the cracking resistance of concrete, where the concepts of cracking coefficient ζt(t) and the evaluation index Acr(t) were proposed, and the development of micro-cracks and damage accumulation were recognized. For the concrete with an ascending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the lower cracking resistance of concrete is. For the concrete with a descending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the stronger the cracking resistance of concrete is. The evaluation results show that in the case of that all the three types of coarse aggregates in concrete are pre-soaked for 24 h, NWAC has the lowest cracking resistance, followed by the LWAC with lower water absorption capacity ceramsite and the LWAC with higher water absorption capacity ceramsite has the strongest cracking resistance. The proposed method has obvious advantages over the cracking age method, because it can evaluate the cracking behavior of concrete even if the concrete has not an observable crack.

  16. Utilization Possibility of Natural Aggregate Resources in Central Town of Tokat as Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tutmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aggregates of three quarries sampled from Tokat Province were tested to evaluate their suitability for concrete production. The aggregates were supplied from Yesilirmak River, and largely used in agricultural structures constructed in Tokat. Standard aggregate tests approved by Turkish Standards Institute were carried out to analyze the samples. Granulation, unit weight, specific weight, water absorption rate, resistance to frost, resistance against abrasion, ratio of fine materials, organic material contents and, mineralogical analysis of aggregates sampled from aggregate quarries were determined. Pressure resistance tests were conducted on concrete prepared by the aggregates. The results indicated that the aggregate granulation distribution of aggregate quarries evaluated was not suitable however other parameters determined were appropriate for concrete production. The resultant concrete had sufficient pressure resistance. The possible solutions to improve the improper characteristics of aggregates used in concrete were also determined and introduced with this study.

  17. Asphaltene Aggregation and Fouling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshesh, Marzie

    This thesis explored the properties of asphaltene nano-aggregates in crude oil and toluene based solutions and fouling at process furnace temperatures, and the links between these two phenomena. The link between stability of asphaltenes at ambient conditions and fouling at the conditions of a delayed coker furnace, at over 450 °C, was examined by blending crude oil with an aliphatic diluent in different ratios. The stability of the blends were measured using a S-value analyzer, then fouling rates were measured on electrically heated stainless steel 316 wires in an autoclave reactor. The less stable the blend, the greater the rate and extent of fouling. The most severe fouling occurred with the unstable asphaltenes. SEM imaging of the foulant illustrates very different textures, with the structure becoming more porous with lower stability. Under cross-polarized light, the coke shows the presence of mesophase in the foulant layer. These data suggest a correlation between the fouling rate at high temperature furnace conditions and the stability index of the crude oil. Three organic polysulfides were introduced to the crude oil to examine their effect on fouling. The polysulfides are able to reduce coking and carbon monoxide generation in steam crackers. The fouling results demonstrated that polysulfide with more sulfur content increased the amount of corrosion-fouling of the wire. Various additives, solvents, ultrasound, and heat were employed to attempt to completely disaggregate the asphaltene nano-aggregates in solution at room temperature. The primary analytical technique used to monitor the nano-aggregation state of the asphaltenes in solution was the UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicate that stronger solvents, such as pyridine and quinoline, combined with ionic liquids yield a slight reduction in the apparent absorbance at longer wavelengths, indicative of a decrease in the nano-aggregate size although the magnitude of the decrease is not significant

  18. Aggregation Tool to Create Curated Data albums to Support Disaster Recovery and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in science and technology of prediction and simulation of natural hazards, losses incurred due to natural disasters keep growing every year. Natural disasters cause more economic losses as compared to anthropogenic disasters. Economic losses due to natural hazards are estimated to be around $6-$10 billion dollars annually for the U.S. and this number keeps increasing every year. This increase has been attributed to population growth and migration to more hazard prone locations such as coasts. As this trend continues, in concert with shifts in weather patterns caused by climate change, it is anticipated that losses associated with natural disasters will keep growing substantially. One of challenges disaster response and recovery analysts face is to quickly find, access and utilize a vast variety of relevant geospatial data collected by different federal agencies such as DoD, NASA, NOAA, EPA, USGS etc. Some examples of these data sets include high spatio-temporal resolution multi/hyperspectral satellite imagery, model prediction outputs from weather models, latest radar scans, measurements from an array of sensor networks such as Integrated Ocean Observing System etc. More often analysts may be familiar with limited, but specific datasets and are often unaware of or unfamiliar with a large quantity of other useful resources. Finding airborne or satellite data useful to a natural disaster event often requires a time consuming search through web pages and data archives. Additional information related to damages, deaths, and injuries requires extensive online searches for news reports and official report summaries. An analyst must also sift through vast amounts of potentially useful digital information captured by the general public such as geo-tagged photos, videos and real time damage updates within twitter feeds. Collecting and aggregating these information fragments can provide useful information in assessing damage in real time and help direct

  19. Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events

    OpenAIRE

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Brouwer, Roy; Hofkes, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static or dynamic way, and describe economic processes at a high level of aggregation. As a consequence, they typically fail to account for the complexity of social interactions and other behavioural res...

  20. ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains many of the classic articles in economic sociology, both from the early period (especially Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter) and from the current generation (such as Mark Granovetter and Viviana Zelizer).

  1. Aggregate Demand and Its Pattern in the Contemporary Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA K. DEMCHENKO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a correlation analysis of the aggregate demand pattern in the Russian economy. The analysis findings showed maximal dependence of dynamic pattern of the gross domestic product (GDP on consumer spending and the dynamics of government expenditure. The authors revealed a segmented reduction in the growth rate of economic indicators, considered factors that influenced the change in the GDP breakdown as well as suggested and proved the development trends of Russian economy based on the data obtained.

  2. Economically Challenged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers must wrestle with how China can maintain stable GDP growth while overcoming inflation and natural disasters some economists believe that the country’s red-hot economic growth could slow down slightly this year. Yu Yongding,Director of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,forecasts that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate,which was 11.9 percent

  3. Welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This major three-volume work contains key papers which reflect the innovation and imagination that has characterised the field of welfare economics during the last 50 years. The selections range from literary treatments to the most advanced mathematical presentation. However, all readers, regardless of their mathematical sophistication or methodological predilections, will find a large number of the papers interesting and worthwhile in giving an overview of the present state of welfare econom...

  4. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  5. Forensic Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Zitzewitz

    2012-01-01

    A new meta-field of "forensic economics" has begun to emerge, uncovering evidence of hidden behavior in a variety of domains. Examples include teachers cheating on exams, road builders skimping on materials, violations of U.N. sanctions, unnecessary heart surgeries, and racial biases in employment decisions, traffic stops, auto retailing, and even sports judging. In each case, part of the contribution of economic analysis is in uncovering evidence of wrongdoing. Although research questions di...

  6. Environmental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This article, prepared for the forthcoming second edition of the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, provides an overview of the economics of environmental policy. Included are the setting of goals and targets, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion, and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. Also reviewed are the means of environmental policy, that is, the choice of specific policy instruments, featuring an examination of potential criteria for assessing alternative i...

  7. Tropical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Meng, Kyle C.

    2015-01-01

    Why wealth is systematically lower in the tropics remains a puzzle. We point out that latitude may have fundamental economic consequence because it plays a key role in how countries experience geophysical processes that have economic implications. We demonstrate that annual fluctuations in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) leads to hotter and dryer local weather across tropical countries and subsequently to substantial losses in agricultural yields, output, and value-added. If volatilit...

  8. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  9. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA....

  10. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  11. Ecological Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  12. One-dimensional long-range diffusion-limited aggregation III -- The limit aggregate

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of the limit aggregate (the union of all finite-time aggregates) of the one-dimensional long range diffusion limited aggregation process defined in [arXiv:0910.4416] . We show (under some regularity conditions) that for walks with finite third moment the limit aggregate has renewal structure and positive density, while for walks with finite variance the renewal structure no longer exists and the limit aggregate has 0 density. We define a tree structure on the aggregates and show some results on the degrees and number of ends of these random trees.

  13. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...... and changes in morphology suggest the existence of different aggregate species. Although beta-sheet content increases from 0 to ca. 40% upon aggregation, the aggregates retain significant amounts of alpha-helix structure, and lack a protease-resistant core. Thus BSA is able to form well-ordered beta...... significant amounts of alpha-helix, highlights the universality of the fibrillation mechanism. However, the presence of non-beta-sheet structure may influence the final fibrillar structure and could be a key component in aggregated BSA's lack of cytotoxicity....

  14. A dimension map for molecular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Cuiying; Tang, Tian; Bhattacharjee, Subir

    2015-05-01

    A pair of gyradius ratios, defined from the principal radii of gyration, are used to generate a dimension map that describes the geometry of molecular aggregates in water and in organic solvents. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the aggregation of representative biomolecules and polyaromatic compounds to demonstrate application of the dimension map. It was shown that molecular aggregate data on the dimension map were bounded by two boundary curves, and that the map could be separated into three regions representing three groups of structures: one-dimensional rod-like structures; two-dimensional planar structures or short-cylinder-like structures; and three-dimensional sphere-like structures. Examining the location of the aggregates on the dimension map and how the location changes with solvent type and solute material parameter provides a simple yet effective way to infer the aggregation manner and to study solubility and mechanism of aggregation. PMID:25768393

  15. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris Kriest; Geoffrey T Evans

    2000-12-01

    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the distribution of aggregate sizes and sinking speeds. The distribution of sizes is described by two parameters, the mass and number of aggregates, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the models. Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations is small, and it presents the difference in timing between settlement of aggregates and fecal pellets.

  16. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  17. Automation of aggregate characterization using laser profiling and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2002-08-01

    technologies. Finally, in order to provide a generalized, quantitative, and representative way to characterize aggregate particles, 3D particle descriptors are developed using the multi-resolution analysis feature of wavelet transforms. Verification tests show that this approach could characterize various aggregate properties in a fast, accurate, and reliable way. When implemented, this ability to automatically analyze multiple characteristics of an aggregate sample is expected to provide not only economic but also intangible strategic gains.

  18. Simulations of kinetically irreversible protein aggregate structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S Y; Przybycien, T M

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated the structure of kinetically irreversible protein aggregates in two-dimensional space using a lattice-based Monte-Carlo routine. Our model specifically accounts for the intermolecular interactions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein surfaces and a polar solvent. The simulations provide information about the aggregate density, the types of inter-monomer contacts and solvent content within the aggregates, the type and extent of solvent exposed perimeter, and the short-...

  19. Diffusion Limited Aggregation: Algorithm optimization revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F. L.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) model developed by Witten and Sander in 1978 is useful in modeling a large class of growth phenomena with local dependence. Besides its simplicity this aggregation model has a complex behavior that can be observed at the patterns generated. We propose on this work a brief review of some important proprieties of this model and present an algorithm to simulate a DLA aggregates that simpler and efficient compared to others found in the literature.

  20. Constraint Aggregation Principle in Convex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Y.M. Ermoliev; Kryazhimskiy, A.V.; Ruszczynski, A.

    1995-01-01

    A general constraint aggregation technique is proposed for convex optimization problems. At each iteration a set of convex inequalities and linear equations is replaced by a single inequality formed as a linear combination of the original constraints. After solving the simplified subproblem, new aggregation coefficients are calculated and the iteration continues. This general aggregation principle is incorporated into a number of specific algorithms. Convergence of the new methods is pro...

  1. Testing aggregation consistency across geography and commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qinghua; Shumway, C. Richard

    2004-01-01

    Consistent aggregation of production data across commodities and states was tested using Lewbel's generalized composite commodity theorem (GCCT). This was the first empirical GCCT test for consistent geographic aggregation and was applied to two groups of states. Consistent commodity aggregation was tested in all states for two output groups and three input groups and in one state for a larger number of groups. Using a more powerful test procedure than previously applied to production data, m...

  2. Modeling pluvial flooding damage in urban environments: spatial relationships between citizens' complaints and overland catchment areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are expected to cause severe economic losses in The Netherlands. Cumulative damage due to pluvial flooding can be considerable, especially in lowland areas where this type of floods occurs relatively frequently. Currently, in The Netherlands, water-related damages to property and contents are covered through private insurance. As pluvial flooding is becoming heavier and more likely to occur, sound modelling of damages is required to ensure that insurance systems are able to stand as an adaptation measure. Current damage models based on rainfall intensity, registries of insurance claims, and classifications of building types are unable to fully explain damage variability. Further developments assessing additional explanatory factors and reducing uncertainties, are required in order to significantly explain damage. In this study, urban topography is used as an explanatory factor for modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Flood damage is evaluated based on complaints data, a valuable resource for assessing vulnerability to urban pluvial flooding. Though previous research has shown coincidences between the localization of high complaint counts and large size catchments areas in Rotterdam, additional research is needed to establish the precise spatial relationship of those two variables. This additional task is the focus of the presented work. To that end a data base of complaints, that was made available by the Municipality Administration of the City, will be analysed. It comprises close to 36800 complaints from 2004 to 2011. The geographical position of the registries is aggregated into 4 to 6-digit Postal Code zones, which represents entire streets or relative positions along a street, respectively. The Municipality also provided the DEM, characterized by a spatial resolution of 0.5 m × 0.5 m, a vertical precision of 5 cm, and an accuracy better than two standard deviations of 15 cm. First the localization of complaints

  3. The Principles of Economics from Now until Then.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Carolyn Shaw

    1988-01-01

    Examining economics textbooks, Bell states that today's texts descend from Samuelson's "Economics" published in 1948. States that the closed economy model used to present aggregate analysis has become irrelevant. Argues that introductory textbooks should develop a student understanding of the interdependent world economy as well as standard…

  4. Information and Communication Technology and Economic Growth in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erumban, Abdul; Das, Deb Kusum

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of economic growth in Indian economy since the 1980s, with particular focus on the role of information and communication technology (ICT). The impact of ICT on economic growth is analyzed via two main channels. The direct contribution of ICT investment to aggregate ec

  5. The influence of expectations on the mechanism of economic cycle

    OpenAIRE

    D. Shiyan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the economic cycle mechanism are reviewed through the prism of the rational expectations theory. The author proposes his own methods of evaluation of the economic activity that takes into account the volume of GDP and the real aggregate investments based on the sliding expectations method.

  6. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...... and the techniques to process these queries. The paper also presents the methods for computing the probability distributions, which enables pre-aggregation, and for using the pre-aggregated distributions for further aggregation. In order to achieve good time and space efficiency, the methods perform approximate...... multidimensional data analysis that is considered in this paper (i.e., approximate processing of probabilistic OLAP queries over probability distributions)....

  7. Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graph Generation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs can assist programmers to uncover the main data paths of a given algorithm. This information can be useful when scaling a singlethreaded program into a multi-core architecture. The amount of data movements is crucial when targeting for cache incoherent and/or heterogeneous platforms. This paper presents two methods for generating function-level Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs. Instruction level trace log was used as a basis, which was generated by Microsoft Giano processor simulator platform. Top-down aggregation strategy and relational database was used to speed up the generation of different views of the aggregated dataflow and call graphs.

  8. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent

  9. Collisional Aggregation due to Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pumir, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars, and also to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favoured by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles, and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modelling these processes. These advances lead to a semi-quantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates, and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  11. The Discounted Economic Stock of Money with VAR Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, William A.; Unja Chae; John W. Keating

    2005-01-01

    We measure the United States capital stock of money implied by the Divisia monetary aggregate service flow, in a manner consistent with the present-value model of economic capital stock and asset pricing theory. The resulting measures differ substantially from the usual simple sum accounting monetary aggregates. We permit non-martingale expectations and time varying discount rates. Based on Barnett¡¯s (1991) definition of the economic stock of money, we compute the U.S. economic stock of mone...

  12. Economic Convergence and Economic Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Jeffrey D; Andrew M. Warner

    1995-01-01

    Many of the crucial debates in development economics are encapsulated in the question of economic convergence. Is there a tendency for the poorer countries to grow more rapidly than the richer countries, and thereby to converge in living standards? Some recent research on endogenous growth has emphasized increasing returns as a possible reason not to expect convergence. Other research has suggested that convergence may be achieved only after poor countries attain a threshold level of income o...

  13. Use of recycled fine aggregate in concretes with durable requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Claudio Javier; Di Maio, Angel Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The use of construction waste materials as aggregates for concrete production is highly attractive compared to the use of non-renewable natural resources, promoting environmental protection and allowing the development of a new raw material. Several countries have recommendations for the use of recycled coarse aggregate in structural concrete, whereas the use of the fine fraction is limited because it may produce significant changes in some properties of concrete. However, during the last decade the use of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) has achieved a great international interest, mainly because of economic implications related to the shortage of natural sands suitable for the production of concrete, besides to allow an integral use of this type of waste. In this study, the durable behaviour of structural concretes made with different percentage of RFA (0%, 20%, and 30%) is evaluated. Different properties related to the durability of concretes such as absorption, sorptivity, water penetration under pressure, and carbonation are determined. In addition, the results of compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage are presented. The obtained results indicate that the recycled concretes have a suitable resistant and durable behaviour, according to the limits indicated by different international codes for structural concrete. PMID:21775123

  14. Utilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregates in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA is considered as one of the largest wastes in the entire world which is produced by demolishing concrete structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams. It is the intention of scientists and researchers, as well as people in authority, to explore waste material recycling for environmental and economic advantages. The current paper presents an experimental research on the feasibility of reusing RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures as a partial replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The engineering properties of SMA mixtures containing RCA have been evaluated for different percentages of binders based on the Marshall mix design method. The outcomes were statistically analyzed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA. Test results revealed that the performance of SMA mixtures is affected by RCA due to higher porosity and absorption of RCA in comparison with virgin granite aggregates. However, the engineering properties of SMA mixtures containing a particular amount of RCA showed the acceptable trends and could satisfy the standard requirements. Moreover, to achieve desirable performance characteristics, more caution should be made on properties of SMA mixtures containing RCA.

  15. The effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Gaber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the evidence on the practice and effects of discretionary fiscal policy, particularly in the context of recent efforts to stimulate the economy, reaching two main conclusions. First, policy interventions have increased in this decade, pre-dating the 2009 stimulus. Second, despite a large economic literature on the topic, the state of theory and evidence is not as "shovel ready" as one would like. Although consumption and investment clearly respond to tax incentives and structural vector autoregressions show that lower taxes and higher government purchases can boost output, it is difficult to apply the findings in the current context, in part because multipliers and policy lags are likely to vary with economic conditions. This paper surveys the theoretical predictions and recent empirical Vector Autoregression (VAR evidence on the short-run effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates.

  16. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the “inter-aggregate” and “intra-aggregate” pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates

  17. Aggregate size distribution of the soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Jakab, Gergely; Szabó, Boglárka; Józsa, Sándor; Szalai, Zoltán; Centeri, Csaba

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural areas the soil erosion and soil loss estimation is vital information in long-term planning. During the initial period of the erosion a part of the soil particles and aggregates get transportable and nutrients and organic matter could be transported due to the effect of water or wind. This preliminary phase was studied with laboratory-scale rainfall simulator. Developed surface crust and aggregate size composition of the runoff was examined in six different slope-roughness-moisture content combination of a Cambisol and a Regosol. The ratio of micro- and macro aggregates in the runoff indicate the stability of the aggregates and determine the transport capacity of the runoff. Both soil samples were taken from field where the water erosion is a potential hazard. During the experiment the whole amount of runoff and sediment was collected through sieve series to a bucket to separate the micro- and macro aggregates. In case of both samples the micro aggregates dominate in the runoff and the runoff rates are similar. Although the runoff of the Regosol - with dominant >1000μm macro aggregate content - contained almost nothing but ratio 250-1000μm sized macro aggregates. This difference occurred because the samples are resistant against drop erosion differently. In case of both sample the selectivity of the erosion and substance matrix redistribution manifested in mineral crusts in the surface where the quartz deposited in place while the lighter organic matter transported with the sediment. The detachment of the aggregates and the redistribution of the particles highly effect on the aggregate composition of the runoff which is connected with the quality of the soil loss. So while the estimation of soil loss quantity is more or less is easy, measuring aggregate size distribution which is led to nutrient and organic matter redistribution is one of a key questions to improve erosion estimation. G. Jakab was supported by the János Bolyai fellowship of the

  18. Preformed Seeds Modulate Native Insulin Aggregation Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Colina; Yang, Mu; Long, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-12-10

    Insulin aggregates under storage conditions via disulfide interchange reaction. It is also known to form aggregates at the site of repeated injections in diabetes patients, leading to injection amyloidosis. This has fueled research in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry as well as in academia to understand factors that modulate insulin stability and aggregation. The main aim of this study is to understand the factors that modulate aggregation propensity of insulin under conditions close to physiological and measure effect of "seeds" on aggregation kinetics. We explored the aggregation kinetics of insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C in the presence of disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), using spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy) techniques. We prepared insulin "seeds" by incubating disulfide-reduced insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C for varying lengths of time (10 min to 12 h). These seeds were added to the native protein and nucleation-dependent aggregation kinetics was measured. Aggregation kinetics was fastest in the presence of 10 min seeds suggesting they were nascent. Interestingly, intermediate seeds (30 min to 4 h incubation) resulted in formation of transient fibrils in 4 h that converted to amorphous aggregates upon longer incubation of 24 h. Overall, the results show that insulin under disulfide reducing conditions at pH and temperature close to physiological favors amorphous aggregate formation and seed "maturity" plays an important role in nucleation dependent aggregation kinetics.

  19. Aggregate composition and stability of structural aggregates of non-calcareous rendzinas in Eastern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Boško; Živković Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    The present study includes the results of comparative investigations of aggregate composition and water stability of structural aggregates in humus horizons of non-calcareous rendzina under native forest and pasture vegetations and the same rendzina utilized long-term as arable field. The results show that aggregate composition and water stability of structural aggregates in the cultivated non-calcareous rendzina are significantly impaired due to a long-term anthropogenization. In the cultiva...

  20. Towards Better Understanding of Concrete Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Qasrawi; Iqbal Marie

    2013-01-01

    The effect of using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) on the basic properties of normal concrete is studied. First, recycled aggregate properties have been determined and compared to those of normal aggregates. Except for absorption, there was not a significant difference between the two. Later, recycled aggregates were introduced in concrete mixes. In these mixes, natural coarse aggregate was partly or totally replaced by recycled aggregates. Results show that the use of recycled aggregates...

  1. Impact of Particle Aggregation on Nanoparticle Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassby, David

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence of nanoparticles in the environment is expected to grow in the coming years due to their increasing pervasiveness in consumer and industrial applications. Once released into the environment, nanoparticles encounter conditions of pH, salinity, UV light, and other solution conditions that may alter their surface characteristics and lead to aggregation. The unique properties that make nanoparticles desirable are a direct consequence of their size and increased surface area. Therefore, it is critical to recognize how aggregation alters the reactive properties of nanomaterials, if we wish to understand how these properties are going to behave once released into the environment. The size and structure of nanoparticle aggregates depend on surrounding conditions, including hydrodynamic ones. Depending on these conditions, aggregates can be large or small, tightly packed or loosely bound. Characterizing and measuring these changes to aggregate morphology is important to understanding the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactive properties. Examples of decreased reactivity due to aggregation include the case where tightly packed aggregates have fewer available surface sites compared to loosely packed ones; also, photocatalytic particles embedded in the center of large aggregates will experience less light when compared to particles embedded in small aggregates. However, aggregation also results in an increase in solid-solid interfaces between nanoparticles. This can result in increased energy transfer between neighboring particles, surface passivation, and altered surface tension. These phenomena can lead to an increase in reactivity. The goal of this thesis is to examine the impacts of aggregation on the reactivity of a select group of nanomaterials. Additionally, we examined how aggregation impacts the removal efficiency of fullerene nanoparticles using membrane filtration. The materials we selected to study include ZnS---a metal chalcogenide

  2. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  3. Damage correlation in theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common to all reactor development work is the problem of differences between the irradiation environments used for materials testing and those typical of service conditions. Efforts are being made to develop damage models that incorporate irradiation parameters such as type and energy of radiation, flux, and exposure. Models relating radiation damage production and microstructural evolution to changes in mechanical properties are primitive. Nevertheless, they suggest that the inability to account quantitatively for differences in test and service neutron spectra leads to overly conservative design of out-of-core components. Direct experimental corroboration is difficult because of the low neutron fluxes associated with the desired soft spectra. Further development of mechanistic models and new approaches to model testing are needed. Models of the growth stage of swelling, on the other hand, are relatively advanced. These models are discussed briefly as an example of how damage models can be used to help guide and analyze irradiation experiments. Accelerated damage studies using charged particles are expected to continue. Current empirical correlations of damage rates can be given a firmer theoretical basis as analysis of experiments and modeling of damage continue to improve. Damage correlation methodology practices in reactor design must necessarily follow different rules from that practiced in materials research and development. Nevertheless, decreasing the gap between them is a laudable objective with potentially significant economic impact

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  5. Morphology and mobility of synthetic colloidal aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melas, Anastasios D; Isella, Lorenzo; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Drossinos, Yannis

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between geometric and dynamic properties of fractal-like aggregates is studied in the continuum mass and momentum-transfer regimes. The synthetic aggregates were generated by a cluster-cluster aggregation algorithm. The analysis of their morphological features suggests that the fractal dimension is a descriptor of a cluster's large-scale structure, whereas the fractal prefactor is a local-structure indicator. For a constant fractal dimension, the prefactor becomes also an indicator of a cluster's shape anisotropy. The hydrodynamic radius of orientationally averaged aggregates was calculated via molecule-aggregate collision rates determined from the solution of a Laplace equation. An empirical expression that relates the aggregate hydrodynamic radius to its radius of gyration and the number of primary particles is proposed. The suggested expression depends only on geometrical quantities, being independent of statistical (ensemble-averaged) properties like the fractal dimension and prefactor. Hydrodynamic radius predictions for a variety of fractal-like aggregates are in very good agreement with predictions of other methods and literature values. Aggregate dynamic shape factors and DLCA individual monomer hydrodynamic shielding factors are also calculated. PMID:24407656

  6. Protein aggregation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Anna M.; Groen, Ewout J. N.; Koppers, Max; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in affected motor neurons. Recent studies have identified several new molecular constituents of ALS-linked cellular aggregates, including FUS, TDP-43, OPTN, UBQLN2 and the tr

  7. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  8. Streaming instability of aggregating slime mold amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert; Reynolds, William

    1991-05-01

    We propose a new model of aggregation in the cellular slime mold D. Discoideum. Our approach couples the excitable signaling system to amoeba chemotaxis; the resultant system of equations is tractable to analytical and numerical approaches. Using our model, we derive the existence of a streaming instability for the concentric target aggregation pattern.

  9. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  10. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases...

  11. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    This note analyses the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the Aggregate Demand-Aggregate Supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. The paper shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and supply shocks of various kinds.

  12. Oxidation, aggregation and immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torosantucci, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis is to study the chemical mechanisms responsible for protein aggregation induced by metal catalyzed oxidation and to investigate the relationship between protein oxidation, aggregation and immunogenicity. To this end, recombinant human insulin rhIFNβ-1

  13. Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  14. Economic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China bounces back from several setbacks during the first half of this year to maintain its double-digit economic growth China’s economy withstood dis- ruptions to its agricultural sector caused by snow storms at the beginning of this year and the Sichuan earthquake in May and posted eco-

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  16. Mystical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Dinu

    2012-01-01

    The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  17. Pharmaceutical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical Economics begins with an investigation of the structure of the industry and its three main components: the research firms which produce innovative products; the generic drug industry and its expanding role; and the biotech industry, which is regarded as the future for pharmaceuticals. Further sections discuss topics including demand and incentives, pricing and regulation.

  18. Economic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At a hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on August 22,2006, James A. Dorn, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Cato Institute, offers his ideas on the impact of China's financial system and monetary policies on U.S. exchange rates, capital markets and interest rates. Excerpts follow.

  19. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)

  20. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  1. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  2. Aggregation of Composite Solutions: strategies, models, examples

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses aggregation issues for composite (modular) solutions. A systemic view point is suggested for various aggregation problems. Several solution structures are considered: sets, set morphologies, trees, etc. Mainly, the aggregation approach is targeted to set morphologies. The aggregation problems are based on basic structures as substructure, superstructure, median/consensus, and extended median/consensus. In the last case, preliminary structure is built (e.g., substructure, median/consensus) and addition of solution elements is considered while taking into account profit of the additional elements and total resource constraint. Four aggregation strategies are examined: (i) extension strategy (designing a substructure of initial solutions as "system kernel" and extension of the substructure by additional elements); (ii) compression strategy (designing a superstructure of initial solutions and deletion of some its elements); (iii) combined strategy; and (iv) new design strategy to build a new s...

  3. Competitive aggregation dynamics using phase wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Maeyama, Satomi

    2014-10-21

    Coupled equations of the phase equation and the equation of cell concentration n are proposed for competitive aggregation dynamics of slime mold in two dimensions. Phase waves are used as tactic signals of aggregation in this model. Several aggregation clusters are formed initially, and target patterns appear around the localized aggregation clusters. Owing to the competition among target patterns, the number of the localized aggregation clusters decreases, and finally one dominant localized pattern survives. If the phase equation is replaced with the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, several spiral patterns appear, and n is localized near the center of the spiral patterns. After the competition among spiral patterns, one dominant spiral survives. PMID:24956327

  4. Dynamic Approaches to In-Network Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Oliver; Demers, Al

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration between small-scale wireless devices hinges on their ability to infer properties shared across multiple nearby nodes. Wireless-enabled mobile devices in particular create a highly dynamic environment not conducive to distributed reasoning about such global properties. This paper addresses a specific instance of this problem: distributed aggregation. We present extensions to existing unstructured aggregation protocols that enable estimation of count, sum, and average aggregates in highly dynamic environments. With the modified protocols, devices with only limited connectivity can maintain estimates of the aggregate, despite \\textit{unexpected} peer departures and arrivals. Our analysis of these aggregate maintenance extensions demonstrates their effectiveness in unstructured environments despite high levels of node mobility.

  5. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  6. DNA Damage Response

    OpenAIRE

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damag...

  7. Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate as Complete Replacement of Natural Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Osei, Daniel Yaw

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a report of an experimental investigation on the effect of complete replacement of natural aggregate by recycled concrete aggregate in the production of concrete on the compressive strength of concrete. Two sets of concrete mixtures of ratios 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:11/2:3, 1:1:2 by mass were cast using natural aggregates and recycled aggregates concrete respectively. The 28-day compressive strengths of 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:11/2:3, 1:1:2 concrete using recycled concrete aggregates were...

  8. Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F

    2004-06-01

    Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564

  9. The fractal aggregation of asphaltenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepfner, Michael P; Fávero, Cláudio Vilas Bôas; Haji-Akbari, Nasim; Fogler, H Scott

    2013-07-16

    This paper discusses time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering results that were used to investigate asphaltene structure and stability with and without a precipitant added in both crude oil and model oil. A novel approach was used to isolate the scattering from asphaltenes that are insoluble and in the process of aggregating from those that are soluble. It was found that both soluble and insoluble asphaltenes form fractal clusters in crude oil and the fractal dimension of the insoluble asphaltene clusters is higher than that of the soluble clusters. Adding heptane also increases the size of soluble asphaltene clusters without modifying the fractal dimension. Understanding the process of insoluble asphaltenes forming fractals with higher fractal dimensions will potentially reveal the microscopic asphaltene destabilization mechanism (i.e., how a precipitant modifies asphaltene-asphaltene interactions). It was concluded that because of the polydisperse nature of asphaltenes, no well-defined asphaltene phase stability envelope exists and small amounts of asphaltenes precipitated even at dilute precipitant concentrations. Asphaltenes that are stable in a crude oil-precipitant mixture are dispersed on the nanometer length scale. An asphaltene precipitation mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the experimental findings. Additionally, it was found that the heptane-insoluble asphaltene fraction is the dominant source of small-angle scattering in crude oil and the previously unobtainable asphaltene solubility at low heptane concentrations was measured. PMID:23808932

  10. Familial aggregation of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Except for smoking and certain occupational exposures, the etiology of bladder cancer is largely unknown. Several case reports have described familial aggregation of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Although the majority of patients with bladder cancer do not have family history of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract, the study of familial transitional cell carcinoma may lead to the knowledge on the pathogenesis of this disease. The purpose of this study was to describe three cases of urinary bladder cancer in a single three-member family, i.e. in two generations (mother and son and a family member related by marriage (the patient’s wife. Case report. Three cases of urinary bladder cancer occurred in a three-member family within the interval of 5 years. The following common characteristics were detected in our patients: old age (over 60, working as farmers for more than 50 years, negative personal medical history on relevant health disorders, place of birth - village, place of residence - village, the same water supply, similar nutrition, positive family history on urinary bladder cancer or other malignant tumors, the first sign of illness was macroscopic hematuria in all the patients and the same pathohistological type of cancer - carcinoma papillare transitiocellulare. Conclusion. The stated common characteristics in our cases indicate, above all, the impact of exposure to external surrounding factors on the occurrence of urinary bladder cancer.

  11. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  12. The second generation of natural resource damage assessments: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), under the Office of General Counsel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has centered its efforts on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures will likely lower the costs associated with damage assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments and simplify most assessments. The DART team of NOAA is developing new regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration, and economic valuation. Various methods are currently being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources. The proposed means include: compensation tables for spills under 50,000 gallons, Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive procedures. They are being developed to provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages for each oil spill

  13. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...... and social force with high environmental impact (Part I), · explaining consumption as an attempt of individuals to satisfy different types of needs while being embedded in certain lifestyles and constrained by time and daily routines (Part II), and · changing consumption towards less environmentally damaging...

  14. ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF RUSTIC ANIMAL BREEDS IN BANAT WITH CO-ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Luminita Matiuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th and the 20th centuries, they developed in the Banat of Temeswar animalbreeds with economic performances comparable to those of other breeds in Europe.Traditionally, they also breed animal breeds and populations developed in Transylvania, amulti-cultural, multi-ethnic historical region that resembles the Banat of Temeswar verymuch from this point of view. Some of the rustic breeds from the Banat of Temeswar orfrom Transylvania are economically behind other specialised breeds. These rustic breedsare, in exchange, well adapted to the areas and they have genes that endow them withparticular disease-resistance. Reform of farm support policies in OECD countries is awelcome step which has led to a decline in the aggregate trade distortion coefficient from0.96 in 1986 to 0.74 in 2007. Climate change and increased biofuel production representmajor risks for long-term food security. Although countries in the Southern hemisphere arenot the main originators of climate change, they may suffer the greatest share of damage inthe form of declining yields and greater frequency of extreme weather events. Nowadays asustainable economy must become rural, based on Agrifood Biodiversity. Bioeconomy andEco-Economy scientifically applied to the rural economy, in the context of a sustainablerural development, the possibility exists to issue the following tentative terms forconsideration in the future: a. Bioeconomic sustainable development of the rural areas;b.Eco-Economic sustainable development of the agrifood production; c. Eco-Bioeconomicsustainable development of the agrifood green power.

  15. AN ECONOMIC ESTIMATION OF DAMAGE TO RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINE PROJECTS ——TAKING SHAN-GAN GAS PIPELINES AS A CASE%输油气管道工程对资源与环境损害的经济评估 ——以陕-甘天然气输气管道为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春霞; 贾慧兰; 于云江

    2000-01-01

    Pipeline engineering of natural gas and oil can influence natural resources and environment such as biological and land resources, atmospheric environment, hydrological and geological environment. Based on the case of Shan-Gan (Shaanxi-Gansu) Gas Pipeline, this paper discusses the adverse effect of pipeline engineering on the Loess Plateau and estimated economic loss by valuation methods such as market approach and rehabilitation approach. Four aspects are analysed which include the loss of crop yield, the damage of woodland and grassland, soil erosion and desertification. The results showed that construction of pipelines has more seriously destroyed land and forest resources. These activities have not only caused decrease in crop yield, carrying capacity of grassland and growth of trees but also loss of land fertility, damage of surface stable structure, the higher risk of geological disasters and other hazards. So the economic loss assessment should take external cost into account. But the conventional approaches of environmental effect assessment readily neglected these potential factors and their persistent effects and underestimated the economic loss. Thus, two main problems were caused: 1) the estimate of resources and environmental loss was incorrect and 2) the economic responsibility was unclear. It was disadvantage for conservation and rehabilitation of eco-environment.%长输油气管线的修建对于沿线地区的资源及其环境具有一定的破坏作用。本文应用环境经济学的方法如市场价值法、恢复和防护费用法等方法,评价修建油气管道对环境资源影响的经济损害程度。以陕-甘天然气输气管道为例,从农作物产量损失、林地和草地资源的损害、水土流失损失以及沙漠化对土地资源的损害4个方面评估了修建该管道对资源的经济损害。结果表明,管道施工对林业资源和土地资源的危害程度最大,影响力也比较长久。同时也表

  16. Correlating Growth with Well-Being during Economic Reforms Evidence from India and China

    OpenAIRE

    Sudip Ranjan Basu

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the hypothesis that economic growth is critical in inducing well-being during economic reforms. The regional (16 Indian states and 28 Chinese provinces) level study of India and China show that the quality of growth has been essential for well-being. We estimate level of economic well-being by aggregating different socio- economic indicators through multivariate statistical method of factor analysis. We estimate economic growth (per capita income, real) along with thei...

  17. Efficient clustering aggregation based on data fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J; Zhu, Mingliang; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    Clustering aggregation, known as clustering ensembles, has emerged as a powerful technique for combining different clustering results to obtain a single better clustering. Existing clustering aggregation algorithms are applied directly to data points, in what is referred to as the point-based approach. The algorithms are inefficient if the number of data points is large. We define an efficient approach for clustering aggregation based on data fragments. In this fragment-based approach, a data fragment is any subset of the data that is not split by any of the clustering results. To establish the theoretical bases of the proposed approach, we prove that clustering aggregation can be performed directly on data fragments under two widely used goodness measures for clustering aggregation taken from the literature. Three new clustering aggregation algorithms are described. The experimental results obtained using several public data sets show that the new algorithms have lower computational complexity than three well-known existing point-based clustering aggregation algorithms (Agglomerative, Furthest, and LocalSearch); nevertheless, the new algorithms do not sacrifice the accuracy. PMID:22334025

  18. Economic Optimism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ever since January 14 when the Chinese Government unveiled plans to revamp the steel and automobile sectors, the country has embarked on an ambitious and comprehensive scheme of restructuring some of its key industries. This was done in an effort to keep the economy on track amid an adverse economic situation. Eight other sectors have been added into this revitalization package, ranging from electronics and information technologies to textiles, shipbuilding and petrochemicals,

  19. Schlock economics

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Hayat

    2010-01-01

    Economists are blind to reality which is evident from the recent financial crisis. The superstructures of mainstream economics are based on scarcity of resources, pursuit of self-interest, and the policy of Laissez Faire. Ground reality exhibits that there is no such thing like scarcity of resources but rather abundance of resources. In the earth there are enough resources for everyone needs but not enough resources for everyone greed. Self interest makes individual indifferent to collective...

  20. Situational Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, R A

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the various theories of economics have the potential to add value when they are applied to the appropriate situation, yet educational institutions each seem overly committed to only a single theory. The resulting intense debates between economists are destructive and should be replaced with attempts to combine multiple theories in situations where they are most appropriate. An econometric example demonstrates that combining the valuable information and relationships in ...

  1. Contested economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kallioniemi, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: After the financial crisis of 2008 the discipline of economics has come under a torrent of criticism - both from within and outside the profession. Alongside bankers and regulators, economists have been singled out as the culprits of the crisis. Among other things, critics claim that economists were lost in their own theoretical constructs and pushed unrealistic intellectual frameworks which abstracted away important characteristics of the economy and allowed risks to build up w...

  2. Economics - Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the overall picture of the state of economic science in Bulgaria in the early 21st century, achieved as a result of changes in it since 1989. The analysis is carried out in five main areas - redefining the discipline, basic theoretical and methodological orientations, thematic orientation and funding, public space and academic debates and views on further development. The situation before 1989 is briefly presented, in order to understand more clearly the problems and proce...

  3. Relationships Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, L. Dwight; Ratliff, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of the importance of healthy relationships in the economic system can be traced back to Adam Smith's writings of the last quarter of the 18th century. Smith believed that self-interest, the profit motive, competition, and frequent human interaction in the marketplace, within the framework of the rule of law, would induce market participants to develop moral virtues of honesty, generosity, and trust. Sellers who failed to develop these attributes would lose customers to competitors...

  4. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Mevel, Simon; Bouet, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    India is considering approving genetically modified (GM) rice, but it fears losing rice exports to sensitive countries with import regulations on GM food, and may wait for China to lead the way. Using a multiregion, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the economic effects of introducing GM rice in India with or without China in the presence of labeling and import approval regulations of GM food in GM sensitive importing countries. We find that the welfare gains with GM ric...

  5. Reorienting economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohun, Simon; Veneziani, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Reorienting economics analyses many important issues in the social sciences. This paper focuses on Lawson’s key methodological and epistemological claims concerning the role of mathematics in social theory. Lawson provides several forceful criticisms of the search of mathematical rigour for the mere sake of formalism. Yet his stronger claims on the extremely limited, if nonexistent, scope for formal analysis in the social sciences are less convincing. In general, his purely methodological app...

  6. Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Cahuc, Pierre; Carcillo, Stéphane; Zylberberg, André

    2014-01-01

    This landmark textbook published by The MIT Press combines depth and breadth of coverage with recent, cutting-edge work in all the major areas of modern labor economics. Its command of the literature and its coverage of the latest theoretical, methodological, and empirical developments make it also a valuable resource for practicing labor economists. This second edition has been substantially updated and augmented. It devotes more space to the analysis of public policy and the levers availab...

  7. Economic Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriu Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The economic war is a silent war, but not entirely. Resources, technology, productivity, markets, profit – an arsenal used by actors of a generalized conflict. As any wars it makes victims. Not necessarily dead or wounded, but, usually, unemployed and poor, orphans of an economy which refuses to satisfy everybody’s needs. Unethical and merciless in fulfilling a single objective: the permanent extension of its scope of influence. Companies are the main actors of this war in which they fight wi...

  8. The Economic Reunification of Korea: A Dynamic General Equilibrium Model

    OpenAIRE

    Scott C. Bradford; Kerk L. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    This paper constructs a dynamic specific factors model to examine the impact of the economic reunification of North and South Korea. The model is a compromise between the highly stylized neoclassical models of trade found in the theoretical trade literature, and the highly aggregated models used in dynamic macroeconomics. We find that the policies with the biggest effects on aggregate output are changes in government tax and spending rates, particularly spending on infrastructure. In contr...

  9. Stock market firm-level information and real economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    di Mauro, Filippo; Fornari, Fabio; Mannucci, Dario

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence that changes in the equity price and volatility of individual firms (measures that approximate the definition of 'granular shock' given in Gabaix, 2010) are key to improve the predictability of aggregate business cycle fluctuations in a number of countries. Specifically, adding the return and the volatility of firm-level equity prices to aggregate financial information leads to a significant improvement in forecasting business cycle developments in four economic areas, at ...

  10. The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.

  11. DNA damage response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Giglia-Mari (Giuseppina); A. Zotter (Angelika); W. Vermeulen (Wim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStructural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network ofDNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance p

  12. DNA damage and autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Panayiotidis, Mihalis I. [School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Franco, Rodrigo, E-mail: rfrancocruz2@unl.edu [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  13. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  14. Compression Dispersion Efficiency of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Struts At Different Load Concentration Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Dr.P.K Mehta,Devbrat Singh, Anup Kumar Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure development activities in India have increased many folds in recent times. This has resulted in increase in the demand of construction materials like cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate etc. Huge quantities of concrete wastes are produced due to demolition of old structures. If recycled aggregate from this waste is used for construction purpose, it will not only make the structures economical and eco-friendly butwill also solve the problem of waste disposal.Recycling old waste concrete by crushing and grading into coarse aggregates for use in new structural concrete is drawing the attention of engineers, environmentalists and researchers since last three decades. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the compression dispersion behaviour of struts of natural coarse aggregate (NCA and recycle coarse aggregate (RCA at different load concentration ratio and aspect ratio. For the study, struts of 450 mm height and 75mm thickness with varying widths starting from 75mm to 450mm, using NCA and RCA concrete, were cast. The testing of struts was carriedout on loading frame of capacity 500 kN. The struts were tested to failure under in-plane compressive load applied through symmetrically placed steel plate (75×75×10 mm at top andbottom of the struts.

  15. Confinement to Organelle-Associated Inclusion Structures Mediates Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Protein in Budding Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Spokoini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The division of the S. cerevisiae budding yeast, which produces one mother cell and one daughter cell, is asymmetric with respect to aging. Remarkably, the asymmetry of yeast aging coincides with asymmetric inheritance of damaged and aggregated proteins by the mother cell. Here, we show that misfolded proteins are retained in the mother cell by being sequestered in juxtanuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ and insoluble protein deposit (IPOD inclusions, which are attached to organelles. Upon exposure to stress, misfolded proteins accumulate in stress foci that must be disaggregated by Hsp104 in order to be degraded or processed to JUNQ and IPOD. Cells that fail to deliver aggregates to an inclusion pass on aggregates to subsequent generations.

  16. The shakeout scenario: Meeting the needs for construction aggregates, asphalt, and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    An Mw 7.8 earthquake as described in the ShakeOut Scenario would cause significantdamage to buildings and infrastructure. Over 6 million tons of newly mined aggregate would be used for emergency repairs and for reconstruction in the five years following the event. This aggregate would be applied mostly in the form of concrete for buildings and bridges, asphalt or concrete for pavement, and unbound gravel for applications such as base course that goes under highway pavement and backfilling for foundations and pipelines. There are over 450 aggregate, concrete, and asphalt plants in the affected area, some of which would be heavily damaged. Meeting the increased demand for construction materials would require readily available permitted reserves, functioning production facilities, a supply of cement and asphalt, a source of water, gas, and electricity, and a trained workforce. Prudent advance preparations would facilitate a timely emergency response and reconstruction following such an earthquake. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  17. Chuetsu earthquake damages in Niigata County of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An Earthquake ML= 6.8 occurred on October 23, 2004 in Chuetsu area of Niigata County in Japan, which caused 40 people dead, more than 4500 people injured and 1000000 people homeless; nearly 140000 buildings were damaged or collapsed. The estated total loss of this earthquake was about 3000 billions Yen. In this paper, we investigate the Chuetsu earthquake damage from different aspects, including the seismic outline, seismicity, intensity distribution, wave feature, damage analyses, and economic losses. Finally, experiences and lessons from the earthquake damage are given. The content in this paper may be a reference for structural seismic design and code modification.

  18. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui

    2016-05-01

    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  19. Antiplatelet aggregation principles from Ephemerantha lonchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Huang, Y L; Teng, C M

    2000-05-01

    Bioactivity-directed separation led to the identification of four compounds, viz. denbinobin (1), 3,7-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (2), 3-methylgigantol (3), and erianthridin (4) from the ethanolic extract of Ephemerantha lonchophylla. Antiplatelet tests were carried out using 4 different aggregation inducers, viz. arachidonic acid (AA), thrombin, collagen and platelet activating factor (PAF). The results indicated that only compounds 2, 3, and 4 exhibited generally significant anti-aggregation activities with that against AA-induced aggregation being most effective. Estimated IC50, values in this regard for 2, 3, and 4 were 24 microM, 30 microM and 9 microM, respectively. PMID:10865460

  20. Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...... mechanism. It provides network-wide time synchronization for sensor network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure in the network and then perform the pair - wise synchronization. SDA aggregate data with a global time scale throughout the network. The aggregated packets...

  1. Blood viscosity: influence of erythrocyte aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S; Usami, S; Dellenback, R J; Gregersen, M I; Nanninga, L B; Guest, M M

    1967-08-18

    The addition of purified canine or bovine fibrinogen to suspensions of canine erythocytes in Ringer solution caused an increase in viscosity and the formation of aggregates of erythocytes. Both of these effects became increasingly pronounced as the fibrinogen concentration was raised, and they approached plateaus with 1 gram of fibrinogen per 100 milliliters. An increase in shear rate (or shear stress) reduced both the effect on viscosity and the aggregate size. The data suggest that fibrinogen causes an increase in blood viscosity and a departure from Newtonian behavior by interacting with erythrocytes to form cell aggregates which can be dispersed by shear stress. PMID:17842794

  2. On Aggregating Human Capital Across Heterogeneous Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian

    Based on a general framework for computing the aggregate human capital stock under heterogeneity across population cohorts, the paper derives aggregate human capital stocks in the whole population and in the labor force, and relates these variables to average years of schooling and average work...... experience. Under the scenarios considered here, the "macro-Mincer" (log-linear) relationship between aggregate human capital and average years of schooling is obtained only in cases which are inconsistent with heterogeneity in years of schooling and based on empirically implausible demographic survival laws...

  3. Aggregate Formed by a Cationic Fluorescence Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Juan; SANG, Da-Yong; JI, Guo-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of a cationic fluorescence probe 10-(4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxa-1-azacyclooctadecyl-methyl)anthracen-9-ylmethyl dodecanoate (1) was observed and studied by a fluorescence methodology in acidic and neutral conditions. By using the Py scale, differences between simple aggregates and micelles have been discussed. The stability of simple aggregates was discussed in terms of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. The absence of excimer emission of the anthrancene moiety of probe 1 in neutral condition was attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism instead of photodimerization.

  4. Linear aggregation theory in cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    This is an account of the theory, probability, and thermodynamics of linear aggregation. The emphasis is on basic principles illustrated by simple models, not on particular applications or polymers. The general physical aggregate systems - attached single-stranded polymers, single-stranded polymers modified by a second component, long multistranded polymers, attached multistranded polymers - are given extensive treatment. Also included are a discussion of the GTPase and ATPase activity accompanying the aggregation of microtubules and action, and the properties of the kinetic two-phase model of the end of a microtubule.

  5. Fractal aggregation of DNA after thermal denaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Lifeng; Iwasaki, Hiroshi E-mail: iwasaki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2004-05-01

    DNA thermal denaturation was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the surface of newly cleaved mica. It was found that at temperatures higher than the melting point, denaturation of DNA molecules took place and globular particles with size distribution were formed, and these particles could aggregate together to form fractal structures, which followed the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. At 100 deg. C, degradation of DNA took place and small particles of about 20 nm in size were formed, and they also aggregated in fractal structures with a lower dimension. Evaporating speed of water affects the fractal dimension.

  6. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  7. Spectrum Aggregation: initial outcomes from SAMURAI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vivier, Guillame; Badic, Biljana; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio;

    2011-01-01

    Multi-user MIMO and Spectrum Aggregation (also referred to Carrier Aggregation) are two key enablers of next generation wireless systems. Although those techniques were already quite well investigated at theoretical level, their practical implementation is not immediate and raises numerous...... challenges. The SAMURAI project aims at investigating such challenges as well as at providing realistic performance results. This paper presents first outcomes of the project, with a specific focus of Carrier Aggregation (CA). Two aspects are discussed: CA at PHY/RF level with implementation challenges. Then...

  8. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  9. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  10. Mechanisms of plastein formation, and prospective food and nutraceutical applications of the peptide aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plastein is a protease-induced peptide aggregate with prospective application in enhancing the nutritional quality of proteins and debittering protein hydrolysates. These properties are yet to be applied in product development possibly due to economic considerations (production cost vs. product yields. This paper reviews currently proposed mechanisms of plastein formation including condensation, transpeptidation and physical interaction of aggregating peptides. Emerging findings indicate that plastein possesses bioactivities, thereby expanding its prospective application. The role of proteases in inducing peptide interaction in plastein remains unclear. Understanding the protease function will facilitate the development of efficient proteases and scalable industrial processes for plastein production.

  11. Acid Resistance of Concrete Containing Laterite Aggregate as Partial Coarse Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issues of granite aggregate depletion in future due to increasing use in concrete industry and the availability of laterite aggregate locally has initiated studies on concrete produced using laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement. Although, replacement of laterite aggregate up to 30% able to produce concrete with the targeted strength but durability of this concrete towards acid attack yet to be investigated. Thus, this study presents and discusses the performance of concrete consisting various percentage of laterite aggregate integrated as partial coarse aggregate replacement upon exposure to acidic environment. Mixes consisting various content of laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement ranging from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively were prepared in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing for 28 days before immersed in hydrochloric acid solution for 1800 h. Performance of the specimens were observed through mass loss and strength reduction. Generally, durability performance of concrete produced using up to 20% of laterite aggregate is comparable to plain concrete.

  12. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  13. p53 Aggregates penetrate cells and induce the co-aggregation of intracellular p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyn J Forget

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are unique pathologies in which the infectious particles are prions, a protein aggregate. The prion protein has many particular features, such as spontaneous aggregation, conformation transmission to other native PrP proteins and transmission from an individual to another. Protein aggregation is now frequently associated to many human diseases, for example Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or type 2 diabetes. A few proteins associated to these conformational diseases are part of a new category of proteins, called prionoids: proteins that share some, but not all, of the characteristics associated with prions. The p53 protein, a transcription factor that plays a major role in cancer, has recently been suggested to be a possible prionoid. The protein has been shown to accumulate in multiple cancer cell types, and its aggregation has also been reproduced in vitro by many independent groups. These observations suggest a role for p53 aggregates in cancer development. This study aims to test the «prion-like» features of p53. Our results show in vitro aggregation of the full length and N-terminally truncated protein (p53C, and penetration of these aggregates into cells. According to our findings, the aggregates enter cells using macropinocytosis, a non-specific pathway of entry. Lastly, we also show that once internalized by the cell, p53C aggregates can co-aggregate with endogenous p53 protein. Together, these findings suggest prion-like characteristics for p53 protein, based on the fact that p53 can spontaneously aggregate, these aggregates can penetrate cells and co-aggregate with cellular p53.

  14. Piceatannol and Other Wine Stilbenes: A Pool of Inhibitors against α-Synuclein Aggregation and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsamani, Hamza; Krisa, Stéphanie; Decossas-Mendoza, Marion; Lambert, Olivier; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Richard, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is one on the key pathogenic events in Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory capacities of stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity. Thioflavin T fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of three stilbenes against α-synuclein aggregation: piceatannol, ampelopsin A, and isohopeaphenol. Lipid vesicle permeabilization assays were performed to screen stilbenes for protection against membrane damage induced by aggregated α-synuclein. The viability of PC12 cells was examined using an MTT assay to assess the preventive effects of stilbenes against α-synuclein-induced toxicity. Piceatannol inhibited the formation of α synuclein fibrils and was able to destabilize preformed filaments. It seems to induce the formation of small soluble complexes protecting membranes against α-synuclein-induced damage. Finally, piceatannol protected cells against α-synuclein-induced toxicity. The oligomers tested (ampelopsin A and hopeaphenol) were less active. PMID:27314384

  15. The theory of judgment aggregation: an introductory review

    OpenAIRE

    List, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an introductory review of the theory of judgment aggregation. It introduces the paradoxes of majority voting that originally motivated the field, explains several key results on the impossibility of propositionwise judgment aggregation, presents a pedagogical proof of one of those results, discusses escape routes from the impossibility and relates judgment aggregation to some other salient aggregation problems, such as preference aggregation, abstract aggregation and proba...

  16. A Survey of Distributed Data Aggregation Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Distributed data aggregation is an important task, allowing the decentralized determination of meaningful global properties, that can then be used to direct the execution of other applications. The resulting values result from the distributed computation of functions like COUNT, SUM and AVERAGE. Some application examples can found to determine the network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities and many others. In the last decade, many different approaches have been proposed, with different trade-offs in terms of accuracy, reliability, message and time complexity. Due to the considerable amount and variety of aggregation algorithms, it can be difficult and time consuming to determine which techniques will be more appropriate to use in specific settings, justifying the existence of a survey to aid in this task. This work reviews the state of the art on distributed data aggregation algorithms, providing three main contributions. First, it formally defines the concept of aggregation, characterizin...

  17. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERA INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association or modification of antecedent growth conditions. uring the course of investigating a major waterborne V. Cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA investigat...

  18. Modeling In-Network Aggregation in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, Stefan; Kargl, Frank; Heijenk, Geert; Schaub, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The multitude of applications envisioned for vehicular ad hoc networks requires efficient communication and dissemination mechanisms to prevent network congestion. In-network data aggregation promises to reduce bandwidth requirements and enable scalability in large vehicular networks. However, most

  19. Silt-clay aggregates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking observations suggest abundant silt and clay particles on Mars. It is proposed that some of these particles agglomerate to form sand size aggregates that are redeposited as sandlike features such as drifts and dunes. Although the binding for the aggregates could include salt cementation or other mechanisms, electrostatic bonding is considered to be a primary force holding the aggregates together. Various laboratory experiments conducted since the 19th century, and as reported here for simulated Martian conditions, show that both the magnitude and sign of electrical charges on windblown particles are functions of particle velocity, shape and composition, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition and other factors. Electrical charges have been measured for saltating particles in the wind tunnel and in the field, on the surfaces of sand dunes, and within dust clouds on earth. Similar, and perhaps even greater, charges are proposed to occur on Mars, which could form aggregates of silt and clay size particles

  20. Trade Openness and Aggregate Productive Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios E. Chortareas; Evangelia Desli; Theodore Pelagidis

    2003-01-01

    We consider whether openness is related to the aggregate technical efficiency in the OECD countries. We obtain efficiency measures using Data Envelopment Analysis and we find that our measure of openness is positively related to the technical efficiency scores.

  1. Blue-emitting pyrene-based aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Jorge S; Calbo, Joaquín; Gómez, Rafael; Ortí, Enrique; Sánchez, Luis

    2015-06-25

    The supramolecular polymerization of pyrene imidazoles 1 and 2, governed by H-bonding and C-H···π interactions, yields aggregates showing the characteristic bluish emission pattern of pyrene-based monomers.

  2. Salt-induced aggregation of stiff polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to study the process of aggregation of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes due to the presence of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one polyelectrolyte meeting others at right angles, and the kinetic pathway to bundle formation is found to be similar to that of flocculation dynamics of colloids as described by Smoluchowski. The aggregation process is found to favor the formation of finite bundles of 10-11 filaments at long times. Comparing the distribution of the cluster sizes with the Smoluchowski formula suggests that the energy barrier for the aggregation process is negligible. Also, the formation of long-lived metastable structures with similarities to the raft-like structures of actin filaments is observed within a range of salt concentration.

  3. Inverted aggregates of luminescent ruthenium metallosurfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Domínguez-Gutiérrez; G. de Paoli; A. Guerrero-Martinez; G. Ginocchietti; D. Ebeling; E. Eiser; L. De Cola; C.J. Elsevier

    2008-01-01

    Metallosurfactants and their resulting aggregates combine unique spectroscopic and reactivity properties due to space confinement. We have found the requirements to obtain the first inverted micelles with luminescent metallosurfactants. The compounds possess several long linear chains that favour th

  4. Fish Aggregation Sites in the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...

  5. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  6. Geopolymerization of lightweight aggregate waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrincha, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymerization is a viable way to process and re-use alumino-silicate industrial waste while producing highstrength, high chemical inertia materials that can effectively immobilize other industrial by-products, and even hazardous waste. In this study industrial waste from different stages of the manufacture of lightweight expanded clay aggregate was characterized for its possible transformation, via alkali activation, to geopolymers. The ultimate aim was to assess the possibility of using such geopolymers to develop thermal and acoustic insulation panels. The containment of hazardous materials is another important application for these new materials. Geopolymers were prepared for this study with different particles size distributions and activator concentrations. Their mechanical properties, composition and microstructure were characterized and a material with promising insulating properties was produced. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the salt formation observed in these geopolymers, the chief drawback to their use.La geopolimerización es una manera viable para procesar y agregar valor a los residuos industriales de alumino-silicato dando lugar a materiales con elevadas resistencias mecánmicas, alta inercia química y que permiten encapsular otros residuos, incluso peligrosos. Los residuos industriales que proceden de diversos tipos de arcillas para la fabricación de áridos ligeros se han caracterizado para la producción de geopolímeros mediante el proceso de ataque alcalino. Su incorporación en una matriz geopolimérica permite la posibilidad de desarrollo de paneles de aislamiento (térmico y acústico. Además, la inmovilización de materiales peligrosos es un logro adicional importante. Los geopolímeros se han producido con fórmulas diferentes y se han caracterizado sus propiedades mecánicas, composición y microestructura, para dar lugar a una composición interesante con propiedades aislantes. Se ha llevado a cabo

  7. Control of aggregation-induced emission by DNA hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shaoguang; Langenegger, Simon Matthias; Häner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was studied by hybridization of dialkynyl-tetraphenylethylene (DATPE) modified DNA strands. Molecular aggregation and fluorescence of DATPEs are controlled by duplex formation.

  8. Economic Facelift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wu Jinglian, 74, is a respected Chinese economist. He has been a visiting professor at Yale University, MIT, Stanford University and Oxford University and is now a member of the Executive Committee (2005-08) of the International Economic Association. Wu's outspoken viewpoint in 2001 that China's stock markets are more ruthless than casinos created a big stir, but it also earned him widespread respect. At a recent forum held by the China Europe International Business School, Wu talked about why and how Ch...

  9. Economic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Chamberlin

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThis month's Economic Review article looks at three aspects of the UK economy as described by the latest official statistics. First, preliminary estimates of Gross Domestic Product show that the economy expanded by 0.8 per cent in the third quarter of the year. Growth was broad‐based across the main sectors of the economy, with construction output recording a particularly strong increase for the second quarter in a row. Second, total employment increased by 178,000 in the three mo...

  10. Joyful Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Claar, Victor V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I reflect upon my life as a Christian and how it has connected to my work as an academic economist. I examine how my parents, teachers, colleagues, mentors, collaborators, and friends have influenced my path thus far. I outline five roles that may potentially be played by economists of faith in influencing the activity of economists. In particular I focus upon the significant yet daunting task of communicating sound economics to faith-based audiences who may not be naturally inc...

  11. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  12. Consistent GDP Aggregation and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Dumagan, Jesus C.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent aggregation ensures that real GDP level and growth do not change as the existing GDP components are merely rearranged. Otherwise, level or growth changes are spurious. This paper proposes a framework for consistent aggregation where components are converted to "purchasing power parity" (PPP) values that "add up exactly" to the same real GDP regardless of the grouping of components. This PPP framework applies to GDP either in constant prices or in chained prices. PPP is applied to U...

  13. An Analysis of Rank Aggregation Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Gattaca

    2014-01-01

    Rank aggregation is an essential approach for aggregating the preferences of multiple agents. One rule of particular interest is the Kemeny rule, which maximises the number of pairwise agreements between the final ranking and the existing rankings. However, Kemeny rankings are NP-hard to compute. This has resulted in the development of various algorithms. Fortunately, NP-hardness may not reflect the difficulty of solving problems that arise in practice. As a result, we aim to demonstrate that...

  14. The materials science of protein aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D L; Lashuel, H. A.; Lee, K. Y. C.; Singh, R. R. R.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous human diseases are associated with conformational change and aggregation of proteins, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion diseases (such as mad cow disease), familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease), Huntington's, and type II (mature onset) diabetes. In many cases, it has been demonstrated that conformational change and aggregation can occur outside living cells and complex biochemical networks. Hence, approaches from materials and physical science ...

  15. Two Scale Model for Aggregation and Etching

    CERN Document Server

    John, G C; John, George C.; Singh, Vijay A.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a dual scale drift-diffusion model for interfacial growth and etching processes. The two scales are: (i) a depletion layer width surrounding the aggregate and (ii) a drift length.The interplay between these two antithetical scales yields a variety of distinct morphologies reported in electrochemical deposition of metals, viscous fingering in fluids and in porous silicon formation. Further, our algorithm interpolates between existing growth models (diffusion limited aggregation, ballistic deposition and Eden) for limiting values of these variables.

  16. Aggregate Implications of Micro Asset Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Edmond; Pierre-Olivier Weill

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a consumption-based asset pricing model to explain and quantify the aggregate implications of a frictional financial system, comprised of many financial markets partially integrated with one another. Each of our micro financial market's is inhabited by traders who are specialized in that markets type of asset. We specify exogenously the level of segmentation that ultimately determines how much idiosyncratic risk traders bear in their micro market and derive aggregate asset...

  17. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contr...

  18. A Visibility Graph Averaging Aggregation Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The problem of aggregation is considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compare...

  19. Economic damage caused by a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of a nuclear reactor accident have been estimated for: the public water supply; the use of surface water for sprinkling in agriculture, for industry water supply, recreation, etc.; and fisheries. Contamination of water sources may affect the public water supply severely. In such a situation demand of water cannot always be met. Agriculture faces production losses, if demand for uncontaminated surface water cannot be met. The impacts on recreation can also be significant. The losses to other water users are less substantial. Fisheries may lose (export) markets, as people become reluctant to buy fish and fish products. 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 35 tabs

  20. Particle aggregation mechanisms in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Istvan; Szabo, Tamas; Desert, Anthony; Trefalt, Gregor; Oncsik, Tamas; Borkovec, Michal

    2014-05-28

    Aggregation of sub-micron and nano-sized polystyrene latex particles was studied in room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) and in their water mixtures by time-resolved light scattering. The aggregation rates were found to vary with the IL-to-water molar ratio in a systematic way. At the water side, the aggregation rate is initially small, but increases rapidly with increasing IL content, and reaches a plateau value. This behaviour resembles simple salts, and can be rationalized by the competition of double-layer and van der Waals forces as surmised by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). At the IL side, aggregation slows down again. Two generic mechanisms could be identified to be responsible for the stabilization in ILs, namely viscous stabilization and solvation stabilization. Viscous stabilization is important in highly viscous ILs, as it originates from the slowdown of the diffusion controlled aggregation due to the hindrance of the diffusion in a viscous liquid. The solvation stabilization mechanism is system specific, but can lead to a dramatic slowdown of the aggregation rate in ILs. This mechanism is related to repulsive solvation forces that are operational in ILs due to the layering of the ILs close to the surfaces. These two stabilization mechanisms are suspected to be generic, as they both occur in different ILs, and for particles differing in surface functionalities and size. PMID:24727976

  1. Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-aggregates, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these aggregates were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-aggregate of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the aggregates of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-aggregates. However, phenylalanine had no effect on aggregates of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly affected the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.

  2. An Identity Based Aggregate Signature from Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yike Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An aggregate signature is a useful digital signature that supports aggregation: Given n signatures on n distinct messages from n distinct users, aggregate signature scheme is possible to aggregate all these signature into a single short signature. This single signature, along with the n original messages will convince any verifier that the n users did indeed sign the n original messages respectively (i.e., for i=1,...,n user i signed message  mi. In this paper, we propose an identity based aggregate signature scheme which requires constant pairing operations in the verification and the size of aggregate signature is independent of the number of signers. We prove that the proposed signature scheme is secure against existential forgery under adaptively chosen message and identity attack in the random oracle model assuming the intractability of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  3. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  4. X-ray computed tomography and aggregate image system (AIMS for studying hot mix asphalt and aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex E. Álvarez Lugo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving reliable pavement design, durable roadway structures and effective maintenance and rehabilitation plans requires the suitable characterisation of the materials used in pavement construction. This paper describes two non-destructive techniques based on image acquisition and analysis and their successful application in pavement engi-neering: X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT and aggregate imaging system (AIMS. The former has been used for characterising the internal structure of asphalt mixes to analyse and model their performance; it has been particu-larly used for studying the content, size, distribution and connectivity of air-voids and these variables’ relationship with moisture damage susceptibility, capillarity and permeability within the mixes. AIMS was intended for characterri-sing aggregates’ morphological properties (i.e., form, angularity and texture. This technique provides important ad-vantages regarding the standard methods used for obtaining the same aggregate properties: it is objective, reliable, reproducible and can be carried out quickly. This paper was aimed at describing these two techniques’ theoretical backgrounds, mention some recent applications and provide insight into how existing characterisation of materials used in pavement construction can be improved.

  5. Influence of Aggregate Wettability with Different Lithology Aggregates on Concrete Drying Shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanchen Guo; Jueshi Qian; Xue Wang; Zhengyi Yan; Huadong Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The correlation of the wettability of different lithology aggregates and the drying shrinkage of concrete materials is studied, and some influential factors such as wettability and wetting angle are analyzed. A mercury porosimeter is used to measure the porosities of different lithology aggregates accurately, and the pore size ranges that significantly affect the drying shrinkage of different lithology aggregate concretes are confirmed. The pore distribution curve of the different coarse aggr...

  6. Effects of tau domain-specific antibodies and intravenous immunoglobulin on tau aggregation and aggregate degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Villanueva, Jose O; Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Loeffler, David A; Martić, Sanela

    2015-01-20

    Tau pathology, including neurofibrillary tangles, develops in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aggregation and hyperphosphorylation of tau are potential therapeutic targets for AD. Administration of anti-tau antibodies reduces tau pathology in transgenic "tauopathy" mice; however, the optimal tau epitopes and conformations to target are unclear. Also unknown is whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products, currently being evaluated in AD trials, exert effects on pathological tau. This study examined the effects of anti-tau antibodies targeting different tau epitopes and the IVIG Gammagard on tau aggregation and preformed tau aggregates. Tau aggregation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the binding affinity of the anti-tau antibodies for tau was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Antibodies used were anti-tau 1-150 ("D-8"), anti-tau 259-266 ("Paired-262"), anti-tau 341-360 ("A-10"), and anti-tau 404-441 ("Tau-46"), which bind to tau's N-terminus, microtubule binding domain (MBD) repeat sequences R1 and R4, and the C-terminus, respectively. The antibodies Paired-262 and A-10, but not D-8 and Tau-46, reduced tau fibrillization and degraded preformed tau aggregates, whereas the IVIG reduced tau aggregation but did not alter preformed aggregates. The binding affinities of the antibodies for the epitope for which they were specific did not appear to be related to their effects on tau aggregation. These results confirm that antibody binding to tau's MBD repeat sequences may inhibit tau aggregation and indicate that such antibodies may also degrade preformed tau aggregates. In the presence of anti-tau antibodies, the resulting tau morphologies were antigen-dependent. The results also suggested the possibility of different pathways regulating antibody-mediated inhibition of tau aggregation and antibody-mediated degradation of preformed tau aggregates. PMID:25545358

  7. Amorphous silica nanoparticles aggregate human platelets: potential implications for vascular homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalan, J Jose; Medina, Carlos; Jacoby, Adam; Malinski, Tadeusz; Radomski, Marek W

    2012-01-01

    Background Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNP) can be used in medical technologies and other industries leading to human exposure. However, an increased number of studies indicate that this exposure may result in cardiovascular inflammation and damage. A high ratio of nitric oxide to peroxynitrite concentrations ([NO]/[ONOO−]) is crucial for cardiovascular homeostasis and platelet hemostasis. Therefore, we studied the influence of SiNP on the platelet [NO]/[ONOO−] balance and platelet aggregation. Methods Nanoparticle–platelet interaction was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical nanosensors were used to measure the levels of NO and ONOO− released by platelets upon nanoparticle stimulation. Platelet aggregation was studied using light aggregometry, flow cytometry, and phase contrast microscopy. Results Amorphous SiNP induced NO release from platelets followed by a massive stimulation of ONOO− leading to an unfavorably low [NO]/[ONOO−] ratio. In addition, SiNP induced an upregulation of selectin P expression and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation on the platelet surface membrane, and led to platelet aggregation via adenosine diphosphate and matrix metalloproteinase 2-dependent mechanisms. Importantly, all the effects on platelet aggregation were inversely proportional to nanoparticle size. Conclusions The exposure of platelets to amorphous SiNP induces a critically low [NO]/[ONOO−] ratio leading to platelet aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the pharmacological profile of SiNP in platelets. PMID:22334785

  8. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  9. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant

  10. Aggregation of Dodecyl 1-Pyrenylmethyl Ether and Its Application in Structure-Polarity Relations of Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG,Da-Yong; TIAN,Juan; JI,Guo-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of dodecyl 1-pyrenylmethyl ether was studied in dioxane-water mixture solvents by fluorescence techniques. The labeled pyrenyl group was effective in monitoring the polarity change of its environment during aggregation processes. Based on the structural effects such as chain-length effect, self-coiling effect,and branch-group effect on the polarity of the probe environment, the structure features of aggregates were discussed and have been used to interpret the effect of the structural features on the aggregates formed by three cholesteryl esters and three long chain alkanes.

  11. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  12. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  13. Pore structure of natural and regenerated soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;

    2014-01-01

    of the soil type and organic matter amendment, and was vastly different from the state of natural aggregates. Aggregate porosity (> 30 Hm) was observed to be a good predictor for the mechanical properties of aggregates. In general, natural aggregates were stronger than lysimeter aggregates.......Quantitative characterization of aggregate pore structure can reveal the evolution of aggregates under different land use and management practices and their effects on soil processes and functions. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) provide powerful means to conduct such characterization....... This study examined aggregate pore structure of three differently managed same textured Danish soils (mixed forage cropping, MFC; mixed cash cropping, MCC; cereal cash cropping, CCC) for (i) natural aggregates, and (ii) aggregates regenerated after 20 months of incubation. In total, 27 aggregates (8-16 mm...

  14. The Economic Mobility in Money Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Ding; Ning Xi; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the economic mobility in some money transfer models which have been applied into the research on wealth distribution. We demonstrate the mobility by recording the time series of agents' ranks and observing their volatility. We also compare the mobility quantitatively by employing an index, "the per capita aggregate change in log-income", raised by economists. Like the shape of distribution, the character of mobility is also decided by the trading rule in these tr...

  15. Determinants of economic growth in BRIC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Rajjev K.

    2011-01-01

    We study economic growth in four emerging economies - Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC). Questions addressed are: (a) How do medium term growth determinants differ from short term determinants? (b) What are differences between growth effects of aggregate versus disaggregated exports? And (c) Does lower institutional quality hinder growth? Results show that while BRIC nations have higher growth, there are significant within-group differences. China and Russia mostly showed higher growth,...

  16. Population aging and endogenous economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Prettner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the consequences of population aging for long-run economic growth perspectives. We introduce age specific heterogeneity of households into a model of research and development (R&D) based technological change. We show that the framework incorporates two standard specifications as special cases: endogenous growth models with scale e ects and semi-endogenous growth models without scale effects. The introduction of an age structured population implies that aggregate laws...

  17. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  19. Adsorption of Magnesium Sulfate from Desulfurization Industrial Wastewater by Nano-Cerium Loaded Recycled Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Bak, Somi; Seo, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Jeongdong; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    In this research, the recycled aggregates (RAs) from blast furnace were solidified with nano-cerium (Ce), and applied to reduce the ionic species (e.g., magnesium sulfate) in the desulfurization industrial wastewater. Static batch experiments were performed based on different loading of recycled aggregates. Sulfate sorption isotherm studies were performed by Langmuir adsorption model. The physical morphologies were determined using scanning electron microscope. The results presented that the partial ions were captured with the different loading of the recycled aggregates during the batch tests. It was observed that 8 hr batch reaction equilibrated the electrical conductivity reduction, and 13% mass loading was estimated an optimal dosage of adsorbent. This study showed the nano-Ce loaded RAs could reduce ionic species in wastewater, and expected to be an economical adsorbent for wastewater treatment process. PMID:27433701

  20. The financial-economical risk limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an investigation into a financial-economic risk limit. An inventarization has been made of how the concept economical damage is used in various policy domains. It is investigated if therewith use has been made of a financial-economic risk limit. The height of this limit has been assessed. In order to give a checklist of the aspects which have to be taken into account in the calculation of the financial-economic damage, the character of the low probability-high consequence needs to be mentioned nearer. (author). 49 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Modeling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Grames, J.; Prskawetz, A.; Grass, D.; Viglione, A.; G. Blöschl

    2016-01-01

    Recently socio-hydrology models have been proposed to analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters such as floods. Complementary to these descriptive models, we develop a dynamic optimization model, where the inter-temporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. We assume a standard macro-economic growth model ...

  2. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-08-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  3. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pagnoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA. We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA – reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5, the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA – reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0 and the Cyprus Arc (CA – hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0, inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  4. Modelling and Laboratory Studies on the Adhesion Fatigue Performance for Thin-Film Asphalt and Aggregate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system.

  5. Modelling and laboratory studies on the adhesion fatigue performance for thin-film asphalt and aggregate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Yi, Junyan; Feng, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system. PMID:25054187

  6. The economic contribution of tourism in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2010-01-01

    How much tourism contributes to the economies of developing countries is controversial and often not measured rigorously. Focusing on Mozambique, this study presents a simple accounting tool – a tourist-focused Social Accounting Matrix – which makes it possible to estimate the economic contribution...... of various tourism sub-types. Multiplier analysis is applied to evaluate the strength of backward linkages from tourism to the domestic economy. The results show the sector is moderate in size but has the potential to contribute significantly to aggregate economic development. However, potential...

  7. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  8. Corporate environmental and economic performances of Japanese manufacturing firms: Empirical study for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Iwata, Kazuyuki; Kaneko, Shinji; Managi, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between environmental performance and economic performance in Japanese manufacturing firms. The environmental performance indicators include CO2 emissions and the aggregate toxic risk associated with chemical emissions relative to sales. Return on assets (ROA) is used as an indicator of economic performance. We demonstrate that there is a significant, inverted U-shaped relationship between ROA and environmental performance calculated by aggregated toxic r...

  9. Dynamics of final sectoral energy demand and aggregate energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern of change for aggregate energy intensity. The simulations performed show that there is no a priori reason for it to exhibit a bell-shape, as reported in the literature. Depending on initial conditions, the weight of basic needs in total consumption and the availability of modern commercial energy resources, various forms might emerge. - Research Highlights: → The residential sector accounts for most of final energy consumption at low income levels. → Its share drops at the benefit of the industrial, services and road transportation sectors in turn. → Sectoral shares' pattern is affected by changes in geographic, sociologic and economic factors. → Final energy intensity may show various shapes and does not exhibit necessarily a bell-shape.

  10. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate: Phase 3, Full-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Technical problems (higher than target fired density, and poor intermediate strength after burnout but before sintering) were addressed and solved; solution involved use of large loading of CP-5 alumina (controlled pore, rehydratable), increased loading of one of the binders, and a steam aging step. Resistance of the lightweight aggregate in a brick formulation to steel slag penetration was assessed in a preliminary test and found to be almost as good as that of T-64. Pelletized process economic feasibility study was updated, based on production levels of 10,000 and 20,000 mt/year, the most up- to-date raw material costs, and the assumption of a retrofit into the Arkansas plant tabular production facility. For the 10,000 mt/y production level, the required selling price of 35% more than the T- 64 selling price exceeds the {le}25% objective. The market survey will determine whether to proceed with the full scale demonstration that will produce at least 54.4 mt (120,000 lb) of the aggregate for incorporation into products, followed by end-user testing and evaluation.

  11. The Economic Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    TOL, Richard S.J.

    2008-01-01

    I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be pr...

  12. The Economic Effects of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    TOL, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be pr...

  13. Natural Disasters, Economic Development, and Humanitarian Aid

    OpenAIRE

    David Strömberg

    2007-01-01

    Natural disasters are one of the major problems facing humankind. Between 1980 and 2004, two million people were reported killed and five billion people cumulatively affected by around 7,000 natural disasters, according to the dataset maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at University of Louvain (Belgium). The economic costs are considerable and rising. The direct economic damage from natural disasters between 1980-2004 is estimated at around $1 trilli...

  14. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.

    2016-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  15. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  16. Spatial Prediction of Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Organic Carbon Content at the Catchment Scale Using Geostatistical Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.MOHAMMADI; M.H.MOTAGHIAN

    2011-01-01

    The association of organic carbon with secondary parzicles (aggregates) results in its storage and retention in soil. A study was carried out at a catchment covering about 92 km2 to predict spatial variability of soil water-stable aggregates (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and organic carbon (OC) content in macro- (> 2 mm), meso- (1-2 mm), and micro-aggregate (< 1 mm) fractions, using geostatistical methods. One hundred and eleven soil samples were c(o)llected at the 0-10 cm depth and fractionated into macro-, meso-, and micro-aggregates by wet sieving. The OC content was determined for each fraction. A greater percentage of water-stable aggregates was found for micro-aggregates, followed by meso-aggregates. Aggregate OC content was greatest in meso-aggregates (9 g kg-1), followed by micro-aggregates (7 g kg-1), while the least OC content was found in macro-aggregates (3 g kg-1). Although a significart effect (P = 0.000) of aggregate size on aggregate OC content was found, however, our findings did not support the model of aggregate hierarchy.Land use had a significant effect (P = 0.073) on aggregate OC content. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for OC contents associated with each aggregate fraction indicated macro-aggregates as the most variable (CV = 71%). Among the aggregate fractions, the micro-aggregate fraction had a lower CV value of 27%. The mean content of WSA ranged from 15% for macro-aggregates to 84% for micro-aggregates. Geostatistical analysis showed that the measured soil variables exhibited differences in their spatial patterns in both magnitude and space at each aggregate size fraction. The relative nugget variance for most aggregate-associated properties was lower than 45%. The range value for the variogram of water-stable aggregates was almost similar (about 3 km) for the three studied aggregate size classes. The range value for the variogram of aggregate-associated OC contents ranged from about 3 km for macro-aggregates

  17. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task

  18. I know what you did last summer - High resolution mapping of wild boar damages with drones

    OpenAIRE

    Michez, Adrien; Morelle, Kevin; Lehaire, François; Widar, Jérôme; Lejeune, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar ability to cause important damages to agricultural lands is not anymore to be demonstrated. These damages often raise conflicts between farmers and hunters due to the associated economic losses. Objective and accurate method for real impact assessment of losses suffered by farmers is thus needed. Currently,in Wallonia damage assessment is performed from the ground by experts, asked to evaluate precisely the area impacted. This task is time and man power consuming. Moreover, damaged ...

  19. Aggregate Particles in the Plumes of Enceladus

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Zhang, Xi; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll and Ewald (2011), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of large aggregates and spheres. The high mass plumes can be divided into a population of large aggregates with total particulate mass of 116 +/- 12 X 10^3 kg, and a mixed population of spheres and aggregates consisting of a few large monomers that has a total plume...

  20. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  1. Static compression of porous dust aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-07-01

    To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals (Okuzumi et al. 2012, ApJ, 752, 106). Thus, some other compression mechanisms are required to form planetesimals. We investigate the static compression of highly porous aggregates. First, we derive the compressive strength by numerical N-body simulations (Kataoka et al. 2013, A&A, 554, 4). Then, we apply the strength to protoplanetary disks, supposing that the highly porous aggregates can be quiasi-statically compressed by ram pressure of the disk gas and the self gravity. As a result, we find the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to compact planetesimals. Moreover, we find that the fluffy aggregates overcome the barriers in planetesimal formation, which are radial drift, fragmentation, and bouncing barriers. (The paper is now available on arXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.7984 )

  2. Oil-Price Shocks: Beyond Standard Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems of portraying oil-price shocks using the aggregate demand/aggregate supply model. Presents a simple modification of the model that differentiates between production and absorption of goods, which enables it to better reflect the effects of oil-price shocks on open economies. (RLH)

  3. Metastable Fractal Aggregates as a Result of Competition Between Diffusion-Limited Aggregation and Dissociation

    CERN Document Server

    Gordienko, Yuriy G

    2015-01-01

    The cellular automaton model is used to simulate diffusion and aggregation with dissociation of point particles in 2D. A continuous phase transition is found that separates creation of compact aggregates and fractal ones. The transition is the function of pair-interaction energy ($E_b$), type of neighborhood and temperature $T$. Manifestations of the transition in real physical systems are discussed.

  4. SENSOR indicator framework, and methods for aggregation/dis-aggregation - a guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, P.; Kristensen, P.; Briquel, V.;

    This report collects three guideline contributions to Sensor: the development and proposal of an indicator framework for sustainability impact assessment and criteria for indicator selection, an assessment of international indicator sets for identification of potential indicators for SENSOR impac...... issues, and a description of problems and methodologies for aggregation and dis-aggregation of data and indicators....

  5. The holy grail : predicting localized corrosion damage from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Centre for Electrochemical Science and Technology; Engelhardt, G. [OLI Systems Inc., Morris Plains, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The safe and economic operation of power plants, refineries and desalination systems can be threatened by localized corrosion in complex industrial systems. The development of effective localized corrosion damage prediction technology is essential for avoiding unscheduled downtime and for developing a strategy to extend the service life of the system. There is great interest in developing algorithms to predict the integrated damage as a function of time and as a function of the operating conditions of the system. This paper outlined the foundations of the deterministic prediction of damage due to localized corrosion. In the deterministic approach, damage development is described in terms of valid, physico-electrochemical mechanisms with the output being constrained by natural laws. The outline included the theoretical bases for predicting a complete cycle of damage development in terms of the nucleation, growth, and death of individual events and the evolution of damage in a series of events occurring in a progressive manner. Damage was expressed in terms of event frequency versus incremental depth. The use of damage function analysis (DFA) was also illustrated with reference to the prediction of pitting damage on aluminum in chloride-containing solution. The accumulation of damage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in type 305 stainless steel components in a water-cooled nuclear power reactor was also examined. 39 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Web Data Aggregation in MOLAP: Approach, Language, and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; TANG Hui-jia; MA Yong-qiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the Web data aggregation issues in multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP) and presents a rule-driven aggregation approach. The core of the approach is defining aggregate rules. To define the rules for reading warehouse data and computing aggregates, a rule definition language - array aggregation language (AAL) is developed. This language treats an array as a function from indexes to values and provides syntax and semantics based on monads. External functions can be called in aggregation rules to specify array reading, writing, and aggregating. Based on the features of AAL, array operations are unified as function operations, which can be easily expressed and automatically evaluated. To implement the aggregation approach, a processor for computing aggregates over the base cube and for materializing them in the data warehouse is built, and the component structure and working principle of the aggregation processor are introduced.

  7. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  8. Is Behavioral Economics Doomed?

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Levine

    2013-01-01

    It is fashionable to criticize economic theory for focusing too much on rationality and ignoring the imperfect and emotional way in which real economic decisions are reached. All of us facing the global economic crisis wonder just how rational economic men and women can be. Behavioral economics — an effort to incorporate psychological ideas into economics — has become all the rage. In this book, David K. Levine questions the idea that behavioral economics is the answer to economic problems. H...

  9. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    crop productivity, producers in some regions face adaptation costs through either intensification or spatial expansion of agricultural production. Impacts are relatively small in the first half of the century, but intensify later. Additional adaptation options are investigated through the use of different levels of trade liberalization in the model (Schmitz et al. 2012). MAgPIE results also have been compared to other global agro-economic models in AgMIP. Third, climate-induced changes are aggregated for major world regions as the sum of producer and consumer surplus across spatial units. Different equity weighting schemes are investigated based on Frankhauser et al. (1997), in order to take spatial differences in population density and economic wealth into account. Finally, agricultural damages are implemented into the macro-economic framework of ReMIND-R. This approach of a detailed study of climate change impacts along the effect chain from bio-physical impacts to economic assessment is an important next step in the development of damage assessments with regard to long-term climate change. It will be extended in the future to other impact areas. The separate models involved have benefitted from checks for robustness in the course of AgMIP and other model intercomparison exercises.

  10. Energy retrofits of damages of structures. Energiegerechte Bauschadensanierung; Ein Leitfaden fuer die Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, B.; Kerschberger, A.

    1992-01-01

    Damages of structure arise surprisingly early and with greater extent of damage on buildings of the post war period as in case of older buildings. One result is an increase in energy consumption which is already above-average. In this introduction possible combinations of damage repair and improvement of the thermal insulation are presented with components such as exterior walls and flat roofs which are particularly susceptible to damage. Types of damage, damage analyses, retrofitting concepts and economy data are gone into and useful information is given for decision-takers for the choice of a suitable low-cost and economic package of measures. (orig.)

  11. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  12. Wind energy aggregation: A coalitional game approach

    KAUST Repository

    Baeyens, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we explore the extent to which a group of N wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation and quantity risk sharing by forming a willing coalition to pool their variable power to jointly offer their aggregate power output as single entity into a forward energy market. We prove that wind power generators will always improve their expected profit when they aggregate their generated power and use tools from coalitional game theory to design fair sharing mechanisms to allocate the payoff among the coalition participants. We show that the corresponding coalitional game is super-additive and has a nonempty core. Hence, there always exists a mechanism for profit-sharing that makes the coalition stable. However, the game is not convex and the celebrated Shapley value may not belong to the core of the game. An allocation mechanism that minimizes the worst-case dissatisfaction is proposed. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Aggregation of Calcium Silicate Hydrate Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhorme, Maxime; Labbez, Christophe; Turesson, Martin; Lesniewska, Eric; Woodward, Cliff E; Jönsson, Bo

    2016-03-01

    We study the aggregation of calcium silicate hydrate nanoplatelets on a surface by means of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations at thermodynamic equilibrium. Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main component formed in cement and is responsible for the strength of the material. The hydrate is formed in early cement paste and grows to form platelets on the nanoscale, which aggregate either on dissolving cement particles or on auxiliary particles. The general result is that the experimentally observed variations in these dynamic processes generically called growth can be rationalized from interaction free energies, that is, from pure thermodynamic arguments. We further show that the surface charge density of the particles determines the aggregate structures formed by C-S-H and thus their growth modes. PMID:26859614

  14. Internal Aggregation Models on the Comb Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Huss, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    The comb C is a natural spanning tree of the Euclidean lattice Z^2. We study three related cluster growth models on C: internal diffusion limited aggregation (IDLA), in which random walkers move on the vertices of C until reaching an unoccupied site where they stop; rotor-router aggregation in which particles perform deterministic walks, and stop when reaching a site previously unoccupied; and the divisible sandpile model where at each vertex there is a pile of sand, for which, at each step, the mass exceeding 1 is distributed equally among the neighbours. We describe the shape of the divisible sandpile cluster on C, which is then used to give inner bounds for IDLA and rotor-router aggregation.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Autoclaved Shell-aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hailong; CUI Chong; LI Xing; Pierre Chevrier; Vanessa Bouchart; TANG Feng

    2011-01-01

    Waste solid propylene oxide sludge(POS)and fly ash were used as main raw material to prepare propylene oxide sludge aggregate(POSA)under the condition of autoclaved(180 ℃,1.0 MPa)curing.Three different test methods namely cylinder compressive strength(CCS),individual aggregate compressive strength(IACS)and strength contribution rate(SCR)proposed were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the autoclaved POSA.POS shell-aggregate with SCR of 94% were prepared under the hydrothermal synthesis and autoclaved curing.The experimental results indicate that CCS and IACS have good consistency in characterizing mechanical properties of POSA.It is suggested that SCR not only can characterize the strength of POSA core,but also can reflect the effect of shell on the performance of POSA.By means of least square method,relationships between CCS and IACS,CCS and SCR,IACS and SCR were deduced.

  16. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine.

  17. Multi-Dimensional Aggregation for Temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Business Intelligence solutions, encompassing technologies such as multi-dimensional data modeling and aggregate query processing, are being applied increasingly to non-traditional data. This paper extends multi-dimensional aggregation to apply to data with associated interval values that capture...... when the data hold. In temporal databases, intervals typically capture the states of reality that the data apply to, or capture when the data are, or were, part of the current database state. This paper proposes a new aggregation operator that addresses several challenges posed by interval data. First......, the intervals to be associated with the result tuples may not be known in advance, but depend on the actual data. Such unknown intervals are accommodated by allowing result groups that are specified only partially. Second, the operator contends with the case where an interval associated with data expresses...

  18. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. PMID:25529634

  19. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G

    2002-01-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  20. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Junko Okuda-Shimazaki; Saiko Takaku; Koki Kanehira; Shuji Sonezaki; Akiyohshi Taniguchi

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (titania) nanoparticle aggregation is an important factor in understanding cytotoxicity. However, the effect of the aggregate size of nanoparticles on cells is unclear. We prepared two sizes of titania aggregate particles and investigated their biological activity by analyzing biomarker expression based on mRNA expression analysis. The aggregate particle sizes of small and large aggregated titania were 166 nm (PDI = 0.291) and 596 nm (PDI = 0.417), respectively. These two siz...