Sample records for aggregate distribution stability

  1. Stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates affected by application of apatite, lime, and charcoal. (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Ma, Kaiqiang; Fan, Yuchao; Peng, Xinhua; Mao, Jingdong; Zhou, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhongbin; Zhou, Jing


    Only a few studies have been reported on the stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates after soil treatments to reduce the availability of heavy metals. In this study, apatite (22.3 t ha(-1)), lime (4.45 t ha(-1)), and charcoal (66.8 t ha(-1)) were applied to a heavy metal-contaminated soil for 4 years. The stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates were investigated by dry and wet sieving. No significant change in the dry mean weight diameter was observed in any treatments. Compared with the control, three-amendment treatments significantly increased the wet mean weight diameter, but only charcoal treatment significantly increased the wet aggregate stability. The soil treatments increased the content of soil organic carbon, and the fraction 0.25-2 mm contained the highest content of soil organic carbon. Amendments' application slightly increased soil total Cu and Cd, but decreased the concentrations of CaCl2 -extractable Cu and Cd except for the fraction 2 and 0.25-2 mm contained the highest concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd, accounted for about 74.5-86.8 % of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd in soil. The results indicated that amendments' application increased the wet soil aggregate stability and decreased the available Cu and Cd. The distribution of available heavy metals in wet soil aggregates was not controlled by soil aggregate stability, but possibly by soil organic carbon.

  2. Dynamics of aggregate stability and soil organic C distribution as affected by climatic aggressiveness: a mesocosm approach (United States)

    Pellegrini, Sergio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Costanza Andrenelli, Maria; Barbetti, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Tomozeiu, Rodica; Razzaghi, Somayyeh; Vignozzi, Nadia


    In the framework of a research project aimed at evaluating the adaptation scenarios of the Italian agriculture to the current climate change, a mesocosm experiment under controlled conditions was set up for studying the dynamics of soil aggregate stability and organic C in different size fractions. Three alluvial loamy soils (BOV - Typic Haplustalfs coarse-loamy; CAS - Typic Haplustalfs fine-loamy; MED - Typic Hapludalfs fine-loamy) along a climatic gradient (from dryer to moister pedoclimatic conditions) in the river Po valley (northern Italy), under crop rotation for animal husbandry from more than 40 years, were selected. The Ap horizons (0-30cm) were taken and placed in 9 climatic chambers under controlled temperature and rainfall. Each soil was subjected to three different climate scenarios in terms of erosivity index obtained by combining Modified Fournier and Bagnouls-Gaussen indexes: i) typical (TYP), the median year of each site related to the 1961-1990 reference period; ii) maximum aggressive year (MAX) observed in the same period, and iii) the simulated climate (SIM), obtained by projections of climate change precipitation and temperature for the period 2021-2050 as provided by the IPCC-A1B emission scenario. In the climatic chambers the year climate was reduced to six months. The soils were analyzed for particle size distribution, aggregate stability by wet and dry sieving, and organic C content at the beginning and at the end of the trial. The soils showed different behaviour in terms of aggregate stability and dynamics of organic C in the diverse size fractions. The soils significantly differed in terms of initial mean weight diameter (MWD) (CAS>MED>BOV). A general reduction of MWD in all sites was observed at the end of the experiment, with the increase of the smallest aggregate fractions (0.250-0.05 mm). In particular, BOV showed the maximum decrease of the aggregate stability and MED the lowest. C distribution in aggregate fractions significantly

  3. Frozen-state storage stability of a monoclonal antibody: aggregation is impacted by freezing rate and solute distribution. (United States)

    Miller, Maria A; Rodrigues, Miguel A; Glass, Matthew A; Singh, Satish K; Johnston, Keith P; Maynard, Jennifer A


    Freezing of protein solutions perturbs protein conformation, potentially leading to aggregate formation during long-term storage in the frozen state. Macroscopic protein concentration profiles in small cylindrical vessels were determined for a monoclonal antibody frozen in a trehalose-based formulation for various freezing protocols. Slow cooling rates led to concentration differences between outer edges of the tank and the center, up to twice the initial concentration. Fast cooling rates resulted in much smaller differences in protein distribution, likely due to the formation of dendritic ice, which traps solutes in micropockets, limiting their transport by convection and diffusion. Analysis of protein stability after more than 6 months storage at either -10°C or -20°C [above glass transition temperature (T'g )] or -80°C (below T'g ) revealed that aggregation correlated with the cooling rate. Slow-cooled vessels stored above T'g exhibited increased aggregation with time. In contrast, fast-cooled vessels and those stored below T'g showed small to no increase in aggregation at any position. Rapid entrapment of protein in a solute matrix by fast freezing results in improved stability even when stored above T'g . © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1194-1208, 2013.

  4. Improving Frequency Stability Based on Distributed Control of Multiple Load Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Guerrero, Josep M.;


    loads, to provide frequency regulation services. Specifically, a leader-following communication protocol is considered for the load aggregators in which there is a centralized pinner (leader) and multiple load aggregators (followers). The regulation objective is generated from the pinner and only shared...

  5. Automatic Sieve-Shaker for Determining Soil Aggregate Stability and Dimensional Distribution Using a Vertical Oscillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Dell’Aquila

    Full Text Available The soil aggregate stability is determined generally by sifting the soil samples in water using a sieve-shaker (wet sieving. The Author has developed an original model of automatic sieve-shaker using a vertical oscillation system to the aim of an its possible use to determine the soil aggregate stability and dimensional distribution. The purpose of this note is to describe the construction and performance of the prototype currently used in the Laboratory for the Soil Structure Study of the ISAFOM – CNR. The proposed sieve-shaker, with the introduction of some innovations (protected by Italy Patent 0001332102, realizes the submersion and levelling of the soil samples using a lifter to support the containers with the water. With 6 workplaces it allows to process simultaneously up to 6 soil samples according to different test cycles. By means of the control panel it is possible to set up various determinations with the stroke of 3 cm and the oscillation frequency from 4 up to 80 oscillations per minute. The performance of the proposed sieve-shaker was verified with a technical test to verify the performance of the 6 workplaces to oscillation speed increasing up to 60 oscillations per minute and an agronomic test. The results have been submitted to analysis of variance considering the plots of the field from which have been taken the samples for repetitions and the six workplaces of the proposed sieve-shaker for experimental theses. The differences between the various workplaces have not been significant. This demonstrates that the behavior of the various workplaces is uniform. The dispersion in water at constant shaking time and increasing oscillation speed has evidenced a very significant inverse relation between the index of aggregate stability in water (IASW and number of oscillations per minute. This result demonstrates a constant performance of the proposed sieve-shaker to varying of the oscillation speed. The agnonomic test has demonstrated

  6. Energy storage systems impact on the short-term frequency stability of distributed autonomous microgrids, an analysis using aggregate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, Corneliu


    is on autonomous MGs that dynamically behave similarly to the classical power systems. This is the systems case with classical distributed generators (DGs), but which can also contain renewable energy sources (RESs) in a certain penetration level. During MG islanded operation, the local generators take over most...... with both inertial response and an adaptive droop characteristic during battery state-of-charge limitations. The conducted analysis is accomplished by adopting aggregated models for the involved control mechanisms. The developed model is analysed in frequency domain, whereas an experimental test bench...

  7. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...... and the techniques to process these queries. The paper also presents the methods for computing the probability distributions, which enables pre-aggregation, and for using the pre-aggregated distributions for further aggregation. In order to achieve good time and space efficiency, the methods perform approximate...... multidimensional data analysis that is considered in this paper (i.e., approximate processing of probabilistic OLAP queries over probability distributions)....

  8. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...... and the techniques to process these queries. The paper also presents the methods for computing the probability distributions, which enables pre-aggregation, and for using the pre-aggregated distributions for further aggregation. In order to achieve good time and space efficiency, the methods perform approximate...... computations of aggregate values. The paper also reports on the experiments with the methods. The work is motivated with a real-world case study, based on our collaboration with a leading Danish vendor of location-based services. No previous work considers the combination of the aspects of uncertain...

  9. A Survey of Distributed Data Aggregation Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio


    Distributed data aggregation is an important task, allowing the decentralized determination of meaningful global properties, that can then be used to direct the execution of other applications. The resulting values result from the distributed computation of functions like COUNT, SUM and AVERAGE. Some application examples can found to determine the network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities and many others. In the last decade, many different approaches have been proposed, with different trade-offs in terms of accuracy, reliability, message and time complexity. Due to the considerable amount and variety of aggregation algorithms, it can be difficult and time consuming to determine which techniques will be more appropriate to use in specific settings, justifying the existence of a survey to aid in this task. This work reviews the state of the art on distributed data aggregation algorithms, providing three main contributions. First, it formally defines the concept of aggregation, characterizin...

  10. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)


    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  11. Effects of land use patterns on soil aggregate stability in Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhang; Chaofu Wei; Deti Xie; Ming Gao; Xibai Zeng


    Soil aggregate stability as a key indicator of soil structure, is a product of interactions between soil environment, management practices, and land use patterns. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of various land use patterns on soil aggregate stability in Sichuan Basin of southwestern China. The dry- and water-stable aggregate size distributions were determined by manual dry sieving procedure and Yoder's wet sieving procedure, respectively, while microaggregates and its mechanical and chemical stabilities by Kachisky's method, oscillator method, and citrate-dithionate (C-D) reagent method, separately. The results indicated that fractal dimension and surface fractal dimension were useful indicators to reflect soil aggregate distribution. Land use patterns have an obvious influence on soil aggregate stability. In the study area, water stability, mechanical stability, and chemical stability followed the sequence, Barren landforestlandorchardcropland, and the original stability and collapse velocity were sensitive to soil properties and soil structure. The difference of aggregate stability under different land use patterns is mainly due to the intensity of human disturbance and cultivation. Improper land use patterns will lead to breakdown of unstable aggregates, producing finer and more-easily transportable particles and microaggregates. In the future, inappropriate cultivation and land use patterns should be changed to protect soil structure, to improve soil aggregate stability and soil fertility in Sichuan Basin.

  12. Fire effects on soil aggregate stability: a review and synthesis (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerdà, A.; Arcenegui, V.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.


    Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency and soil mineralogy. Opinions differ concerning the effect of fire on AS. Some authors have observed a decrease in AS in soils affected by intense wildfire or severe laboratory heating. However, others have reported increases. We provide an up to date review of the research on this topic and an analysis of the causes for the different effects observed. The implications for soil system functioning and for the hydrology of the affected areas are also discussed. Generally, low severity fires do not produce notable changes in AS, although in some cases an increase has been observed and attributed to increased water repellency. In contrast, high severity fires can induce important changes in this property, but with different effects depending on the type of soil affected. The patterns observed can vary from a disaggregation as a consequence of the organic matter destruction, to a strong aggregation if a recrystallization of some minerals such as Fe and Al oxyhydroxides occurs when they are present in sufficient quantities in the soil, after exposure to high temperatures. Because of the complexity of the different possible effects and reasons for the potential changes in the fire-affected soil aggregates, the inclusion of other parameters in the studies is necessary to understand the results. The suggested parameters to include in the examination of AS are: soil organic matter, microbial biomass, water repellency, texture, aggregate size distribution

  13. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales (United States)

    Jordán López, Antonio; García-Moreno, Jorge; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Cerdà, Artemi; Alanís, Nancy; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth


    Water repellency (WR) is a property of some soils that inhibits or delays water infiltration between a few seconds and days or weeks. Inhibited or delayed infiltration contributes to ponding and increases runoff flow generation, often increasing soil erosion risk. In water-repellent soils, water infiltrates preferentially through cracks or macropores, causing irregular soil wetting patterns, the development of preferential flow paths and accelerated leaching of nutrients. Although low inputs of hydrophobic organic substances and high mineralization rates lead to low degrees of WR in cropped soils, it has been reported that conservative agricultural practices may induce soil WR. Although there are many studies at catchment, slope or plot scales very few studies have been carried out at particle or aggregate scale. Intra-aggregate heterogeneity of physical, biological and chemical properties conditions the transport of substances, microbial activity and biochemical processes, including changes in the amount, distribution and chemical properties of organic matter. Some authors have reported positive relationships between soil WR and aggregate stability, since it may delay the entry of water into aggregates, increase structural stability and contribute to reduce soil erosion risk. Organic C (OC) content, aggregate stability and WR are therefore strongly related parameters. In the case of agricultural soils, where both the type of management as crops can influence all these parameters, it is important to evaluate the interactions among them and their consequences. Studies focused on the intra-aggregate distribution of OC and WR are necessary to shed light on the soil processes at a detailed scale. It is extremely important to understand how the spatial distribution of OC in soil aggregates can protect against rapid water entry and help stabilize larger structural units or lead to preferential flow. The objectives of this research are to study [i] the OC content and the

  14. Soil aggregate stability within the morphologically diverse area (United States)

    Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Kubis, Adam; Klement, Ales; Fer, Miroslav


    . The highest aggregate stability was measured on soils sampled at relatively flat upper parts, which were only slightly influenced by erosion processes. Higher stability was also obtained on base slope, where the sedimentation of previously eroded soil material occurred. Following correlations were obtained between different test results: R=0.911 for WSA and KV1, R=0.481 for WSA and KV2, R=0.700 for WSA and KV3. The statistical significant correlation was found between WSA index and SOM (R=0.403), WSA and pH_CaCl2 (R=-0.360), WSA and Mnd (R=0.408), WSA and Mno (R=0.355), KV1 and SOM (R=-0.377), KV1 and pH_CaCl2 (R=0.352), KV2 and CO3 (R=0.379), KV3 and pH_CaCl2 (R=0.376). We also found statistical significant correlation between WSA index and two terrain attributes (plan curvature R=-0.490, and total curvature R=-0.501). Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (QJ1230319). References Le Bissonnais Y. 1996. Aggregate stability and assessment of soil crustability and erodibility: Theory and methodology. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 47: 425-437. Nimmo J.R., Perkins K.S. 2002. Aggregate stability and size distribution, pp. 317-328. In: Dane J. H. & Topp G.C. (eds), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4 - Physical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, USA.

  15. Stability of zinc oxide nanofluids prepared with aggregated nanocrystalline powders. (United States)

    Leonard, J P; Chung, S J; Nettleship, I; Soong, Y; Martello, D V; Chyu, M K


    Aqueous zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions were prepared using a two-step preparation method in which an aggregated nanocrystalline ZnO powder was dispersed in water using a polyelectrolyte. The fluid showed anomalously high thermal conductivity when compared with the Maxwell and Hamilton-Crosser predictions. However, analysis of the particle size distribution showed that the fluid contained aggregated 20 nm crystallites of ZnO with a high volume fraction of particles larger than 100 nm. Sedimentation experiments revealed that particles settled out of the stationary fluid over times ranging from 0.1 hours to well over 10,000 hours. The size of the particles remaining in suspension agreed well with predictions made using Stoke's law, suggesting flocculation was not occurring in the fluids. Finally, a new concept of nanofluid stability is introduced based on the height of the fluid, sedimentation, Brownian motion and the kinetic energy of the particles.

  16. Quality guaranteed aggregation based model predictive control and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeWei; XI YuGeng


    The input aggregation strategy can reduce the online computational burden of the model predictive controller. But generally aggregation based MPC controller may lead to poor control quality. Therefore, a new concept, equivalent aggregation, is proposed to guarantee the control quality of aggregation based MPC. From the general framework of input linear aggregation, the design methods of equivalent aggregation are developed for unconstrained and terminal zero constrained MPC, which guarantee the actual control inputs exactly to be equal to that of the original MPC. For constrained MPC, quasi-equivalent aggregation strategies are also discussed, aiming to make the difference between the control inputs of aggregation based MPC and original MPC as small as possible. The stability conditions are given for the quasi-equivalent aggregation based MPC as well.

  17. A quantitative investigation of the effect of pore morphology on soil aggregate stability (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A.


    Soil structure determines the operating environment for all physical, chemical and biological processes within the soil. Soil aggregate stability is an important measure for assessing soil structure quality. Non-destructive tomography techniques such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) offer great opportunities to quantitatively investigate the soil porous architecture which can provide important information for understanding soil processes and function in a multi-scale manner. For instance, the intra-aggregate pore space is of great importance for microbial activity, the sequestration of organic carbon and water flow. This paper investigates the effect of pore morphology on soil aggregate stability. Apparent porosity, pore size distribution, average pore size and fractal perimeter dimension (pore roughness) were measured from the images of the reconstructed 2-D image stacks. A new theoretical concept of soil aggregate stability is proposed. A strong relationship was observed between soil aggregate stability and pore morphological complexity.

  18. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.


    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  19. Pre-Aggregation with Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex, uncertain multidimensional data this paper proposes probabilistic OLAP queries that are computed using probability distributions rather than atomic values. The paper describes how to create probability distributions from base data, and how...... the distributions can be subsequently used in pre-aggregation. Since the probability distributions can become large, we show how to achieve good time and space efficiency by approximating the distributions. We present the results of several experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods. The work...... is motivated with a real-world case study, based on our collaboration with a leading Danish vendor of location-based services. This paper is the first to consider the approximate processing of probabilistic OLAP queries over probability distributions....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi


    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  1. Role of Organic Matter in Formation and Stability of Aggregates in Mulberry Plantation Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The role of organic matter in the formation and stability of soil aggregates in mulberry plantation in the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain,northern Zhejiang Province,was evaluated in this study.A positive correlation was found between water-stable aggregate contents and organic matter contents in the mulberry plantation soils,which supported the hypothesis that organic matter was the main cementing agent in formation of aggregates.A close correlation was also found between stability of aggregate and organic matter contents.Regression analysis showed that total nitrogen content was also an indicator of water-stable aggregate content and stability.The aggregate size distribution indicated that the water-stable aggregates 1~0.25 mm in diameter were the major component of the aggregates in the mulberry plantation soils.The organic matter contents of aggregates ranging from 5 to 0.25 mm in diameter increased with the decrease of aggregate sizes,and the aggregates 1~0.25 mm in diameter had the maximum organic matter content.

  2. Aggregate size distributions in hydrophobic flocculation

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    Chairoj Rattanakawin


    Full Text Available The evolution of aggregate (floc size distributions resulting from hydrophobic flocculation has been investigated using a laser light scattering technique. By measuring floc size distributions it is possible to distinguish clearly among floc formation, growth and breakage. Hydrophobic flocculation of hematite suspensions with sodium oleate under a variety of agitating conditions produces uni-modal size distributions. The size distribution of the primary particles is shifted to larger floc sizes when the dispersed suspension is coagulated by pH adjustment. By adding sodium oleate to the pre-coagulated suspension, the distribution progresses further to the larger size. However, prolonged agitation degrades the formed flocs, regressing the distribution to the smaller size. Median floc size derived from the distribution is also used as performance criterion. The median floc size increases rapidly at the initial stage of the flocculation, and decreases with the extended agitation time and intensity. Relatively weak flocs are produced which may be due to the low dosage of sodium oleate used in this flocculation study. It is suggested that further investigation should focus on optimum reagent dosage and non-polar oil addition to strengthen these weak flocs.

  3. Aggregate size distributions in sweep flocculation

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    Chairoj Rattanakawin


    Full Text Available The evolution of aggregate size distributions resulting from sweep flocculation has been investigated using laser light scattering technique. By measuring the (volume distributions of floc size, it is possible to distinguish clearly among floc formation, growth and breakage. Sweep flocculation of stable kaolin suspensions with ferric chloride under conditions of the rapid/slow mixing protocol produces uni-modal size distributions. The size distribution is shifted to larger floc size especially during the rapid mixing step. The variation of the distributions is also shown in the plot of cumulative percent finer against floc size. From this plot, the distributions maintain the same S-shape curves over the range of the mixing intensities/times studied. A parallel shift of the curves indicates that self-preserving size distribution occurred in this flocculation. It is suggested that some parameters from mathematical functions derived from the curves could be used to construct a model and predict the flocculating performance. These parameters will be useful for a water treatment process selection, design criteria, and process control strategies. Thus the use of these parameters should be employed in any further study.

  4. Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.


    Soil aggregate stability is a key property for soil and water conservation, and a synthetic parameter to quantify the soil degradation. Aggregation is relevant in soils where vegetation cover is scarce (Cerdà, 1996). Most of the research carried out to determine the soil aggregate stability was done in forest soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011) and little is done on farms (Cerdà, 2000). The research have show the effect of vegetation cover on soil aggregate stability (Cerdà, 1998) but little is known when vegetation is scarce, rare or not found such it can be seeing in agriculture soils. Then, aggregation is the main factor to control the soil losses and to improve the water availability. Moreover, agriculture management can improve the soil aggregate characteristics and the first step in this direction should be to quantify the aggregate stability. There is no information about the aggregate stability of soils under citrus production, although the research did show that the soil losses in the farms with citrus plantations is very high (Cerdà et al., 2009), and that aggregation should play a key role as the soils are bare due to the widespread use of herbicides. From 2009 to 2011, samples were collected in summer and winter in a chemically managed farm in Montesa, Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ten irrigated patches and ten non-irrigated patches were selected to compare the effect of the drip irrigation on the soil aggregate stability. The Ten Drop Impacts (TDI) and the Counting the number of drops (CND) tests were applied at 200 aggregates (10 samples x 10 aggregates x 2 sites) in winter and summer in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results show that the irrigated patches had TDI values that ranged from 43 to 56 % and that the non-irrigated reached values of 41 to 54 %. The CND samples ranged from 29 to 38 drops in the non-irrigated patches to 32 to 42 drop-impacts in the irrigated soil patches. No trends were found from winter to summer during the three years time period

  5. Soil aggregation and slope stability related to soil density, root length, and mycorrhiza (United States)

    Graf, Frank; Frei, Martin


    Eco-engineering measures combine the use of living plants and inert mechanical constructions to protect slopes against erosion and shallow mass movement. Whereas in geotechnical engineering several performance standards and guidelines for structural safety and serviceability of construction exist, there is a lack of comparable tools in the field of ecological restoration. Various indicators have been proposed, including the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution, microbiological parameters, and soil aggregate stability. We present results of an soil aggregate stability investigation and compare them with literature data of the angle of internal friction ?' which is conventionally used in slope stability analysis and soil failure calculation. Aggregate stability tests were performed with samples of differently treated moraine, including soil at low (~15.5 kN/m³) and high (~19.0 kN/m³) dry unit weight, soil planted with Alnus incana (White Alder) as well as the combination of soil planted with alder and inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Melanogaster variegatus s.l. After a 20 weeks growth period in a greenhouse, a total of 100 samples was tested and evaluated. Positive correlations were found between the soil aggregate stability and the three variables dry unit weight, root length per soil volume, and degree of mycorrhization. Based on robust statistics it turned out that dry unit weight and mycorrhization degree were strongest correlated with soil aggregate stability. Compared to the non-inoculated control plants, mycorrhized White Alder produced significantly more roots and higher soil aggregate stability. Furthermore, the combined biological effect of plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelia on aggregate stability on soil with low density (~15.5 kN/m³) was comparable to the compaction effect of the pure soil from 15.5 to ~19.0 kN/m³. Literature data on the effect of vegetation on the angle of internal friction ?' of the same moraine showed

  6. Effect of Cultivation on Soil Organic Matter and Aggregate Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Agricultural sustainability relates directly to maintaining or enhancing soil quality. Soil quality studies in Canada during the 1980's showed that loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability was standard features of non-sustainable land management in agroecosystems. In this study total soil organic carbon (SOC), particulate organic matter (POM), POM-C as a percentage of total SOC, and aggregate stability were determined for three cultivated fields and three adjacent grassland fields to assess the impact of conventional agricultural management on soil quality. POM was investigated using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine any qualitative differences that may be attributed to cultivation. Results show a highly significant loss in total SOC, POM and aggregate stability in the cultivated fields as compared to the grassland fields and a significant loss of POM-C as a percentage of total SOC.Integrated results of the NMR spectra of the POM show a loss in carbohydrate-C and an increase in aromatic-C in the cultivated fields, which translates to a loss of biological lability in the organic matter. Conventional cultivation decreased the quantity and quality of SOM and caused a loss in aggregate stability resulting in an overall decline in soil quality.

  7. A novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication (United States)

    Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, R. M.; Wragg, J.


    Regulatory authorities need to establish rapid, cost-effective methods to measure soil physical indicators - such as aggregate stability - which can be applied to large numbers of soil samples to detect changes of soil quality through monitoring. Limitations of sieve-based methods to measure the stability of soil macro-aggregates include: i) the mass of stable aggregates is measured, only for a few, discrete sieve/size fractions, ii) no account is taken of the fundamental particle size distribution of the sub-sampled material, and iii) they are labour intensive. These limitations could be overcome by measurements with a Laser Granulometer (LG) instrument, but this technology has not been widely applied to the quantification of aggregate stability of soils. We present a novel method to quantify macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability. We measure the difference between the mean weight diameter (MWD; μm) of aggregates that are stable in circulating water of low ionic strength, and the MWD of the fundamental particles of the soil to which these aggregates are reduced by sonication. The suspension is circulated rapidly through a LG analytical cell from a connected vessel for ten seconds; during this period hydrodynamic forces associated with the circulating water lead to the destruction of unstable aggregates. The MWD of stable aggregates is then measured by LG. In the next step, the aggregates - which are kept in the vessel at a minimal water circulation speed - are subject to sonication (18W for ten minutes) so the vast majority of the sample is broken down into its fundamental particles. The suspension is then recirculated rapidly through the LG and the MWD measured again. We refer to the difference between these two measurements as disaggregation reduction (DR) - the reduction in MWD on disaggregation by sonication. Soil types with more stable aggregates have larger values of DR. The stable aggregates - which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the

  8. Role of arginine in the stabilization of proteins against aggregation. (United States)

    Baynes, Brian M; Wang, Daniel I C; Trout, Bernhardt L


    The amino acid arginine is frequently used as a solution additive to stabilize proteins against aggregation, especially in the process of protein refolding. Despite arginine's prevalence, the mechanism by which it stabilizes proteins is not presently understood. We propose that arginine deters aggregation by slowing protein-protein association reactions, with only a small concomitant effect on protein folding. The associated rate effect was observed experimentally in association of globular proteins (insulin and a monoclonal anti-insulin) and in refolding of carbonic anhydrase. We suggest that this effect arises because arginine is preferentially excluded from protein-protein encounter complexes but not from dissociated protein molecules. Such an effect is predicted by our gap effect theory [Baynes and Trout (2004) Biophys. J. 87, 1631] for "neutral crowder" additives such as arginine which are significantly larger than water but have only a small effect on the free energies of isolated protein molecules. The effect of arginine on refolding of carbonic anhydrase was also shown to be consistent with this hypothesis.

  9. Aggregate distribution and associated organic carbon influenced by cover crops (United States)

    Barquero, Irene; García-González, Irene; Benito, Marta; Gabriel, Jose Luis; Quemada, Miguel; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá


    Replacing fallow with cover crops during the non-cropping period seems to be a good alternative to diminish soil degradation by enhancing soil aggregation and increasing organic carbon. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of replacing fallow by different winter cover crops (CC) on the aggregate distribution and C associated of an Haplic Calcisol. The study area was located in Central Spain, under semi-arid Mediterranean climate. A 4-year field trial was conducted using Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as CC during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.) under irrigation. All treatments were equally irrigated and fertilized. Maize was directly sown over CC residues previously killed in early spring. Composite samples were collected at 0-5 and 5-20 cm depths in each treatment on autumn of 2010. Soil samples were separated by wet sieving into four aggregate-size classes: large macroaggregates ( >2000 µm); small macroaggregates (250-2000 µm); microaggregates (53-250 µm); and Organic carbon associated to each aggregate-size class was measured by Walkley-Black Method. Our preliminary results showed that the aggregate-size distribution was dominated by microaggregates (48-53%) and the cover crops increased aggregate size resulting in a higher MWD (0.28 mm) in comparison with fallow (0.20 mm) in the 0-5 cm layer. Barley showed a higher MWD than fallow also in 5-20 cm layer. Organic carbon concentrations in aggregate-size classes at top layer followed the order: large macroaggregates > small macroaggregates > microaggregates > silt + clay size. Treatments did not influence C concentration in aggregate-size classes. In conclusion, cover crops improved soil structure increasing the proportion of macroaggregates and MWD being Barley more effective than Vetch at subsurface layer.

  10. Formation and Water Stability of Aggregates in Red Soils as Affected by Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The water stability of aggregates in various size classes separated from 18 samples of red soils under different managements,and the mechanisms responsible for the formation of waer-stable soil aggregates were studied.The results showed that the water stbility of soil aggregates declined with increasing size,especially for the low organic matter soils.Organic matter plays a key role in the formation of water-stable soil aggregates.The larger the soil aggregate size.the greater the impact of organic matter on the water stability of soil aggregates.Removal of organic matter markedly disintegrated the large water-stable aggregates(>2.0mm)and increased the small ones(2.0mm)were mainly glued up by organic mater,Both free oxides and organic matter contribute to the formation and water stability of aggregates in red soils.

  11. Aggregate stability in mine residues after reclamation with biochar (United States)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl


    This study aims to assess how the addition of biochar and marble waste to acidic mine residues affected aggregate stability (AS) and contributed to the improvement of soil texture. For this purpose, a lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1, with the aim of increasing pH from 3 to 8 (pH of the native soils of the area). Biochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control treatment was used without application of amendments. The evolution of AS was periodically monitored at 2, 4, 7, 15, 30 and 90 days by the method of artificial rainfall. Results showed, at the end of the incubation, that the addition of MW alone did not significantly increased AS with comparison to CT (30%). However, the biochar, alone or together with MW, significantly increased AS, the treatment receiving CR derived biochar being the one with the highest values (46%). Increments in AS were significant from the day 30 of incubation. AS showed a significant correlation with the total organic carbon content, but was not correlated with organic carbon fractions (soluble, labile, recalcitrant), inorganic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, enzyme activities, exchangeable fraction of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), pH, electrical conductivity nor greenhouse gas emissions (NO₂, CH₄). Thus, the application of biochar (alone or in combination with MW as a source of calcium carbonate) significantly increased the formation of stable aggregates in former acidic mine residues, favoring the development of soil structure, essential to create a soil from residues. It seems that the total content of organic carbon is directly controlling aggregation, rather than other labile organic sources. Moreover, pH, salinity or the presence of exchangeable metals did not seem to affect soil aggregation

  12. Stability of Soil Carbon Fractions - from molecules to aggregates (United States)

    Mueller, C. W.; Mueller, K. E.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.; Kögel-Knabner, I.


    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled both by its chemical composition, its spatial bioavailability and the association with the mineral phase. Separation by physical fractionation of bulk soils and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of the study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin and plant lipids (e.g. cutin and suberin) in the course of SOM decomposition within aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions. By the parallel incubation of physically-separated size fractions and bulk soils of the Ah horizon from a forested soil (Picea abies L.Karst) over a period of 400 days, a unique set of samples was created to study SOM dynamics. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). A relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand cutin, and suberin monomers measured by GC-MS before and after the incubation indicate selective degradation and preservation patterns at the molecular scale that are rarely observed and are unresolved by NMR analyses. We suggest that the monomer-specific patterns of lignin, cutin, and suberin decomposition facilitate better understanding and modelling of SOM dynamics by providing a tool to potentially separate the influence of input rates from selective preservation on the abundance of these bipolymers in soil.

  13. Multirobot autonomous landmine detection using distributed multisensor information aggregation (United States)

    Jumadinova, Janyl; Dasgupta, Prithviraj


    We consider the problem of distributed sensor information fusion by multiple autonomous robots within the context of landmine detection. We assume that different landmines can be composed of different types of material and robots are equipped with different types of sensors, while each robot has only one type of landmine detection sensor on it. We introduce a novel technique that uses a market-based information aggregation mechanism called a prediction market. Each robot is provided with a software agent that uses sensory input of the robot and performs calculations of the prediction market technique. The result of the agent's calculations is a 'belief' representing the confidence of the agent in identifying the object as a landmine. The beliefs from different robots are aggregated by the market mechanism and passed on to a decision maker agent. The decision maker agent uses this aggregate belief information about a potential landmine and makes decisions about which other robots should be deployed to its location, so that the landmine can be confirmed rapidly and accurately. Our experimental results show that, for identical data distributions and settings, using our prediction market-based information aggregation technique increases the accuracy of object classification favorably as compared to two other commonly used techniques.

  14. Use of whey protein soluble aggregates for thermal stability-a hypothesis paper. (United States)

    Ryan, Kelsey N; Zhong, Qixin; Foegeding, Edward A


    Forming whey proteins into soluble aggregates is a modification shown to improve or expand the applications in foaming, emulsification, gelation, film-formation, and encapsulation. Whey protein soluble aggregates are defined as aggregates that are intermediates between monomer proteins and an insoluble gel network or precipitate. The conditions under which whey proteins denature and aggregate have been extensively studied and can be used as guiding principles of producing soluble aggregates. These conditions are reviewed for pH, ion type and concentration, cosolutes, and protein concentration, along with heating temperature and duration. Combinations of these conditions can be used to design soluble aggregates with desired physicochemical properties including surface charge, surface hydrophobicity, size, and shape. These properties in turn can be used to obtain target macroscopic properties, such as viscosity, clarity, and stability, of the final product. A proposed approach to designing soluble aggregates with improved thermal stability for beverage applications is presented.

  15. Scattering studies on cryoglobulins stability and aggregation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicev, R.N.; Oliveira, E.A.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Brandao, H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.E.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)


    Full text: Cryoglobulins are proteins of the immunoglobulin(Ig) type, which play an important role in infections, autoimmune diseases and neoplastic disorders[1]. When in abnormal concentrations in the blood, cryoglobulins can aggregate and precipitate at temperatures below 37 deg C, forming large complexes with dimensions in the range of 40 nm up to 1 {mu}m depending on the temperature, leading to damage of arteries and veins of small caliber. The objective of this study is to investigate the aggregation dynamics of cryoglobulin solutions through scattering techniques as SAXS (small angle X-Ray scattering). For the SAXS measures it was used the protein in aqueous and the system temperature was varied between 38:5 deg C and 4 deg C. The protein concentration was 10mg/mL.The GNOM [2] program was used for the first data analysis. This program performs the Fourier transform (IFT) of the scattering data, which provides the overall particle size, radius of gyration and some indications of the particle shape. The IFT analysis can be used to the so called ab initio modeling which provides a three-dimensional model for particle shape. This model was an attempt to obtain a real space representation for the particle system. Although it was possible to verify difference in the particle diameter for the different temperatures, the models provide a branched structure which can indicate polydispersity of shapes/sizes and also flexible structures. Interestingly, the construction of Kratky Plots, (I {center_dot} q{sup 2} vs q), which provide the compactness degree of a structure, indicated that the particles were highly flexible. Therefore another model procedure, which models the protein as polymer-like structure[3], have to be used. Using the recently developed Ensemble Optimization Method (EOM) [4] it was possible to obtain a very good fit for the experimental dataset, the distributions of radius of gyration and also three-dimensional representations of the possible

  16. Is it real or apparent increased aggregate stability sometimes found in burned soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arcenegui


    Full Text Available The increase in soil aggregate stability observed in many cases after burning is discussed in this paper. Soil samples under pine forest from two Mediterranean areas were collected for this experiment: acid soils from El Algibe Range (Los Alcornocales Natural Park, Cádiz, Southern Spain and calcareous soils of Sierra de la Grana (Alicante, Eastern Spain. In each case, soil aggregates (2 to 0.25 mm were selected and exposed to temperatures of 200, 250, 300, 500 and 700 oC during a 20-minutes period. In both cases weight loss after volatilization of substances and a significant destruction of aggregates with increasing temperature were observed. For acid soils, where organic matter is the main cementing agent, destruction of aggregates with temperature was more intense. Water repellency induced by combustion increased between 200 and 250 oC, also the remaining aggregates remaining increased within the initial size fraction after heating, increasing its stability. For temperatures above 300 oC, water repellency disappeared, although an increase in aggregate stability was observed, possibly due to changes in the mineral soil fraction. Therefore, it is concluded that burning may destroy part of the aggregates by combustion of organic matter, so selecting stable aggregates. Water repellency and transformations of soil minerals contribute to increased stability in selected aggregates.

  17. Unified stability condition for particulate and aggregative fluidization-Exploring energy dissipation with direct numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wei; Limin Wang; Jinghai Li


    Fully resolved simulations of particulate and aggregative fluidization systems are performed successfully with the so-called combined lattice Boltzmann method and time-driven hard-sphere model (LBM-TDHS).In this method,the discrete particle phase is described by time-driven hard-sphere model,and the governing equations of the continuous fluid phase are solved with lattice Boltzmann method.Particle-fluid coupling is implemented by immersed moving boundary method.Time averaged flow structure of the simulated results show the formation of core-annulus structure and sigmoid distribution of voidage in the axial direction,which are typical phenomena in fluidization systems.Combining the results of the simulation,the energy consumption Nst for suspending and transporting solids is calculated from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of fluidization,and the stability criterion Nst/NT =min proposed in EMMS/bubbling model is verified numerically.Furthermore the numerical results show that the value of Nst/NT in particulate fluidization is much higher than that in aggregative fluidization,but Nst/NT =min is effective for both particulate and aggregative fluidization.





    The soil management system can modify the natural d istribution of the soil attributes and, con- sequently, the variability of the soil aggregation and organic matter content. Thus, the aim of this w ork was to evaluate the aggregate stability and organic matter content spatial distribution on a Haplic Cambisol under sugar cane cultivation in the Southern Amazonas Sta te, Brazil. A 70 x 70 m square mesh, with regular 1 0 me- ters intervals, was designed over the cultivation a rea, resulting i...

  19. Order Quantity Distributions: Estimating an Adequate Aggregation Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Poul Svante


    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation into the demand, faced by a company in the form of customer orders, is performed both from an explorative numerical and analytical perspective. The aim of the research is to establish the behavior of customer orders in first-come-first-serve (FCFS systems and the impact of order quantity variation on the planning environment. A discussion of assumptions regarding demand from various planning and control perspectives underlines that most planning methods are based on the assumption that demand in the form of customer orders are independently identically distributed and stem from symmetrical distributions. To investigate and illustrate the need to aggregate demand to live up to these assumptions, a simple methodological framework to investigate the validity of the assumptions and for analyzing the behavior of orders is developed. The paper also presents an analytical approach to identify the aggregation horizon needed to achieve a stable demand. Furthermore, a case study application of the presented framework is presented and concluded on.

  20. Correlation between aggregate stability and microbiological activity in two Russian soil types


    Mustafa Ismail Umer; Shayma Mohammad Rajab


    Two Russian soil type, soddy-podzolic soil  from Vladimerskaya region and dark-gray forest soil from Korskya region  were taken .some microbiological parameters were assyed as basal respiration, substrate induced respiration, microbial biomass, microbial metabolic coefficient and correlated with soil aggregate stability concerning  soil organic matter ,soil texture and soil bulk density . The result shown a positive correlation between all microbiological parameters with soil aggregate stabil...

  1. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinan Hu

    Full Text Available Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+ at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  2. A distributed routing algorithm for data aggregation in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LUO; Fangchun YANG; Yonghe LIU


    Considering the impact of aggregation cost on the performance of aggregation routes in wireless sensor networks, an aggregation-decision-based distributed rout-ing algorithm for data aggregation is proposed. When source nodes arrive or leave, the algorithm can calculate the aggregation benefit according to data correlation, aggregation cost and transmission cost. Then the algo-rithm will adaptively make aggregation and routing decisions based on aggregation benefit. Therefore, it can jointly optimize the aggregation and transmission costs and reduce the energy consumption for data gathering. This distributed algorithm makes all the decisions only relying on the local information. Hence, the routing maintenance cost is limited. Simulation results show that the energy consumption difference between this distrib-uted online algorithm and the previous offilne one is within 17% under any network conditions.

  3. Friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil after 5 years of biochar application (United States)

    Utomo, Wani; Ganika, Shaory; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Islami, Titiek


    The effect of biochar application on soil friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil was studied at Brawijaya University field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The soil has been planted with cassava for 4 years continuously and 1 year planted with maiz. The biochar applied was made from cassava stem and farm yard manure. It was found that biochar application, either made from cassava stem or farm yard manure improved soil qualities. Soil applied with biochar was more friable compared to that of the no biochar soil, although biochar application did not influence Atterberg limits. It seems that the higher friability of biochar applied soil was associated with the higher soil organic matter. It was found that until 5 years application, the biochar treated soil had a higher soil organic matter content. Soil applied with biochar possessed a better soil aggregate stability, both dry and wet stability. This was shown by the higher aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) of biochar applied soil. The cassava biochar applied soil had MWD of 2.22 mm (dry stability) and 1.56 mm (wet stability), whereas the control soil had MWD of 1.45 mm (dry stability) and 1.25 (wet stability). There was a significant positive correlation between soil friability and dry aggregate stability. The biochar applied soils also had higher soil permeability. Key words: soil qualities, soil physical properties, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity

  4. Aggregate Stability in Monetary Economy with Consumption Tax and Taylor Rule


    Fujisaki, Seiya


    We analyze aggregate stability of a monetary economy with an interest-rate control type of monetary policy and endogenous consumption tax rate under balanced-budget rule, in terms of equilibrium determinacy. We find the effect of the response to income in monetary policy on macroeconomic stability depends on whether the consumption tax rate is adequately high.

  5. Approximate mechanism for measuring stability of Internet link in aggregated Internet pipe

    CERN Document Server

    M, Vipin


    In this article we propose a method for measuring internet connection stability which is fast and has negligible overhead for the process of its complexity. This method finds a relative value for representing the stability of internet connections and can also be extended for aggregated internet connections. The method is documented with help of a real time implementation and results are shared. This proposed measurement scheme uses HTTP GET method for each connections. The normalized responses to identified sites like gateways of ISPs, etc are used for calculating current link stability. The novelty of the approach is that historic values are used to calculate overall link stability. In this discussion, we also document a method to use the calculated values as a dynamic threshold metric. This is used in routing decisions and for load-balancing each of the connections in an aggregated bandwidth pipe. This scheme is a very popular practice in aggregated internet connections.

  6. Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Carbon Under Different Tillage Systems in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhang-liu; REN Tu-sheng; HU Chun-sheng; ZHANG Qing-zhong; Humberto Blanco-Canqui


    The inlfuences of tillage systems on soil carbon (C) stocks have been studied extensively, but the distribution of soil C within aggregate fractions is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the inlfuences of various tillage systems on soil aggregation and aggregate-associated C under wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) double cropping systems in the North China Plain. The experiment was established in 2001, including four treatments:moldboard plow (MP) with residue (MP+R) and without residue (MP-R), rotary tillage with residue (RT), and no-till with residue (NT). In 2007 soil samples were collected from the 0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm depths, and were separated into four aggregate-size classes (>2 000, 250-2 000, 53-250, and2 000 and 250-2 000 µm) compared with the MP-R and MP+R treatments. Averaged across all depths, mean weight diameters of aggregates (MWD) in NT and RT were 47 and 20% higher than that in MP+R. The concentration of bulk soil organic C was positively correlated with MWD (r=0.98; P=0.024) and macroaggregate fraction (r=0.96; P=0.036) in the 0-5 cm depth. In the 0-20 cm depth, comparing with MP+R, total C occluded in the>2 000 µm fraction was increased by 9 and 6%under NT and RT, respectively. We conclude that adoption of conservation tillage system, especially no-till, can increase soil macro-aggregation and total C accumulation in macroaggregates, which may improve soil C sequestration in the intensive agricultural region of the North China Plain.

  7. Role of organic matter on aggregate stability and related mechanisms through organic amendments (United States)

    Zaher, Hafida


    To date, only a few studies have tried to simultaneously compare the role of neutral and uronic sugars and lipids on soil structural stability. Moreover, evidence for the mechanisms involved has often been established following wetting of moist aggregates after various pre-treatments thus altering aggregate structure and resulting in manipulations on altered aggregates on which the rapid wetting process may not be involved anymore. To the best of our knowledge, the objective of this work was to study the role of neutral and uronic sugars and lipids in affecting key mechanisms (swelling rate, pressure evolution) involved in the stabilization of soil structure. A long-term incubation study (48-wk) was performed on a clay loam and a silty-clay loam amended with de-inking-secondary sludge mix at three rates (8, 16 and 24 Mg dry matter ha-1), primary-secondary sludge mix at one rate (18 Mg oven-dry ha-1) and composted de-inking sludge at one rate (24 Mg ha-1). Different structural stability indices (stability of moist and dry aggregates, the amount of dispersible clay and loss of soil material following sudden wetting) were measured on a regular basis during the incubation, along with CO2 evolved, neutral and uronic sugar, and lipid contents. During the course of the incubations, significant increases in all stability indices were measured for both soil types. In general, the improvements in stability were proportional to the amount of C added as organic amendments. These improvements were linked to a very intense phase of C mineralization and associated with increases in neutral and uronic sugars as well as lipid contents. The statistical relationships found between the different carbonaceous fractions and stability indices were all highly significant and indicated no clear superiority of one fraction over another. Paper sludge amendments also resulted in significant decreases in maximum internal pressure of aggregate and aggregate swelling following immersion in water

  8. Stabilization of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids against moisture-induced aggregation.


    Schwendeman, S P; Costantino, H R; Gupta, R.K.; Siber, G R; Klibanov, A M; Langer, R.


    The progress toward single-dose vaccines has been limited by the poor solid-state stability of vaccine antigens within controlled-release polymers, such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide). For example, herein we report that lyophilized tetanus toxoid aggregates during incubation at 37 degrees C and elevated humidity--i.e., conditions relevant to its release from such systems. The mechanism and extent of this aggregation are dependent on the moisture level in the solid protein, with maximum aggrega...

  9. Research on the relationship between water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement


    Zhao Bing; Zhao Bo


    In the early destruction of asphalt pavement, water damage is the most major form.In this paper, experimental study was conducted on the composition of asphalt concrete,Marshall specimens were made in different types of aggregate gradation with the same kind of asphalt. Water immersion tests were conducted in order to analysis the relationship between the water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement.

  10. Research on the relationship between water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Bing


    Full Text Available In the early destruction of asphalt pavement, water damage is the most major form.In this paper, experimental study was conducted on the composition of asphalt concrete,Marshall specimens were made in different types of aggregate gradation with the same kind of asphalt. Water immersion tests were conducted in order to analysis the relationship between the water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement.

  11. To what extent clay mineralogy affects soil aggregation? Consequences for soil organic matter stabilization (United States)

    Fernandez-Ugalde, O.; Barré, P.; Hubert, F.; Virto, I.; Chenu, C.; Ferrage, E.; Caner, L.


    Aggregation is a key process for soil functioning as it influences C storage, vulnerability to erosion and water holding capacity. While the influence of soil organic C on aggregation has been documented, much less is known about the role of soil mineralogy. Soils usually contain a mixture of clay minerals with contrasted surface properties, which should result on different abilities of clay minerals to aggregation. We took advantage of the intrinsic mineral heterogeneity of a temperate Luvisol to compare the role of clay minerals (illite, smectite, kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite) in aggregation. In a first step, grassland and tilled soil samples were fractionated in water in aggregate-size classes according to the hierarchical model of aggregation (Tisdall and Oades, 1982). Clay mineralogy and organic C in the aggregate-size classes were analyzed. The results showed that interstratified minerals containing swelling phases accumulated in aggregated fractions (>2 μm) compared to free clay fractions (500 μm) to micro-aggregates (50-250 μm). C concentration and C/N ratio followed the opposite trend. These results constitute a clay mineral-based evidence for the hierarchical model of aggregation, which postulates an increasing importance of the reactivity of clay minerals in the formation of micro-aggregates compared to larger aggregates. In the latter aggregates, formation relies on the physical enmeshment of particles by fungal hyphae, and root and microbial exudates. In a second step, micro-aggregates from the tilled soil samples were submitted to increasingly disaggregating treatments by sonication to evaluate the link between their water stability and clay mineralogy. Micro-aggregates with increasing stability showed an increase of interstratified minerals containing swelling phases and C concentration for low intensities of disaggregation (from 0 to 5 J mL-1). This suggests that swelling phases promote their stability. Swelling phases and organic C

  12. Efficient Incremental Maintenance for Distributive and Non-Distributive Aggregate Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Ping Li; Shan Wang


    Data cube pre-computation is an important concept for supporting OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement.Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalence partitions. Such an approach not only is useful for distributive aggregate functions such as SUM but also can be applied to the maintenance of holistic aggregate functions like MEDIAN which will require the storage of a set of tuples for each equivalence class. Unfortunately, as changes are made to the data sources, maintaining the quotient cube is non-trivial since the partitioning of the cube cells must also be updated. In this paper, the authors design incremental algorithms to update a quotient cube efficiently for both SUM and MEDIAN aggregate functions. For the aggregate function SUM, concepts are borrowed from the principle of Galois Lattice to develop CPU-efficient algorithms to update a quotient cube. For the aggregate function MEDIAN, the concept of a pseudo class is introduced to further reduce the size of the quotient cube.Coupled with a novel sliding window technique, an efficient algorithm is developed for maintaining a MEDIAN quotient cube that takes up reasonably small storage space. Performance study shows that the proposed algorithms are efficient and scalable over large databases.

  13. Stabilizing Off-pathway Oligomers by Polyphenol Nanoassemblies for IAPP Aggregation Inhibition (United States)

    Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Kakinen, Aleksandr; Pilkington, Emily H.; Davis, Thomas P.; Chun Ke, Pu; Ding, Feng


    Experimental studies have shown that many naturally occurring polyphenols have inhibitory effect on the aggregation of several proteins. Here, we use discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations and high-throughput dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments to study the anti-aggregation effects of two polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol, on the aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin). Our DMD simulations suggest that the aggregation inhibition is caused by stabilization of small molecular weight IAPP off-pathway oligomers by the polyphenols. Our analysis indicates that IAPP-polyphenol hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking combined with hydrophobic interactions are responsible for the stabilization of oligomers. The presence of small oligomers is confirmed with DLS measurements in which nanometer-sized oligomers are found to be stable for up to 7.5 hours, the time frame within which IAPP aggregates in the absence of polyphenols. Our study offers a general anti-aggregation mechanism for polyphenols, and further provides a computational framework for the future design of anti-amyloid aggregation therapeutics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The soil management system can modify the natural d istribution of the soil attributes and, con- sequently, the variability of the soil aggregation and organic matter content. Thus, the aim of this w ork was to evaluate the aggregate stability and organic matter content spatial distribution on a Haplic Cambisol under sugar cane cultivation in the Southern Amazonas Sta te, Brazil. A 70 x 70 m square mesh, with regular 1 0 me- ters intervals, was designed over the cultivation a rea, resulting in 64 sample points. Soil blocks wit h preserved structure were collected at 0.0-0.2 m depth in orde r to analyze the aggregate stability and organic ma tter con- tent. The data were submitted to the descriptive an d geostatistical analysis. The soil attributes pres ented a spa- tial dependence structure and the greater range was observed for the mean weighted diameter and aggreg ate class 2.00 and 2.00-1.00 mm.

  15. Soil structure and soil organic matter: I. Distribution of aggregate size classes and aggregate associated carbon


    J. Six; K. Paustian; Elliott, E.T.; C. Combrink


    Metadata only record This study compares aggregate size and carbon in three different soils, each with three tillage treatments (native vegetation (NV), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage (CT)).

  16. Distribution of chromium contamination and microbial activity in soil aggregates. (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Wan, Jiamin; Hazen, Terry C; Schwartz, Egbert; Firestone, Mary K; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Olson, Keith R; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Rao, William


    Biogeochemical transformations of redox-sensitive chemicals in soils can be strongly transport-controlled and localized. This was tested through experiments on chromium diffusion and reduction in soil aggregates that were exposed to chromate solutions. Reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(II) occurred only within the surface layer of aggregates with higher available organic carbon and higher microbial respiration. Sharply terminated Cr diffusion fronts develop when the reduction rate increases rapidly with depth. The final state of such aggregates consists of a Cr-contaminated exterior, and an uncontaminated core, each having different microbial community compositions and activity. Microbial activity was significantly higher in the more reducing soils, while total microbial biomass was similar in all of the soils. The small fraction of Cr(VI) remaining unreduced resides along external surfaces of aggregates, leaving it potentially available to future transport down the soil profile. Using the Thiele modulus, Cr(VI) reduction in soil aggregates is shown to be diffusion rate- and reaction rate-limited in anaerobic and aerobic aggregates, respectively. Thus, spatially resolved chemical and microbiological measurements are necessary within anaerobic soil aggregates to characterize and predict the fate of Cr contamination. Typical methods of soil sampling and analyses that average over redox gradients within aggregates can erase important biogeochemical spatial relations necessary for understanding these environments.

  17. Server-side Filtering and Aggregation within a Distributed Environment (United States)

    Currey, J. C.; Bartle, A.


    Intercalibration, validation, and data mining use cases require more efficient access to the massive volumes of observation data distributed across multiple agency data centers. The traditional paradigm of downloading large volumes of data to a centralized server or desktop computer for analysis is no longer viable. More analysis should be performed within the host data centers using server-side functions. Many comparative analysis tasks require far less than 1% of the available observation data. The Multi-Instrument Intercalibration (MIIC) Framework provides web services to find, match, filter, and aggregate multi-instrument observation data. Matching measurements from separate spacecraft in time, location, wavelength, and viewing geometry is a difficult task especially when data are distributed across multiple agency data centers. Event prediction services identify near coincident measurements with matched viewing geometries near orbit crossings using complex orbit propagation and spherical geometry calculations. The number and duration of event opportunities depend on orbit inclinations, altitude differences, and requested viewing conditions (e.g., day/night). Event observation information is passed to remote server-side functions to retrieve matched data. Data may be gridded, spatially convolved onto instantaneous field-of-views, or spectrally resampled or convolved. Narrowband instruments are routinely compared to hyperspectal instruments such as AIRS and CRIS using relative spectral response (RSR) functions. Spectral convolution within server-side functions significantly reduces the amount of hyperspectral data needed by the client. This combination of intelligent selection and server-side processing significantly reduces network traffic and data to process on local servers. OPeNDAP is a mature networking middleware already deployed at many of the Earth science data centers. Custom OPeNDAP server-side functions that provide filtering, histogram analysis (1D

  18. On the distributional effects of income in an aggregate consumption relation


    Manisha Chakrabarty; Anke Schmalenbach; Jeffrey Racine


    In this paper we analyse the influence of characteristics of the income distribution in modelling aggregate consumption expenditure. We model the aggregate consumption relation of a heterogeneous population, using a statistical distributional approach of aggregation, and apply it to UK-Family Expenditure Survey data. A bootstrap test based on a non-parametric estimation methodology, which accounts for the presence of continuous and discrete variables, suggests that the mean and the dispersion...

  19. Serotype-dependent expression patterns of stabilized lipopolysaccharide aggregates in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Haruko; Fujise, Osamu; Miura, Mayumi; Tanaka, Ayako; Hisano, Kyoko; Haraguchi, Akira; Hamachi, Takafumi; Maeda, Katsumasa


    Above a critical concentration, amphiphilic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules in an aqueous environment form aggregate structures, probably because of interactions involving hydrophobic bonds. Ionic bonds involving divalent cations stabilize these aggregate structures, making them resistant to breakdown by detergents. The aim of this study was to examine expression patterns of stabilized LPS aggregates in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a microorganism that causes periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans strains of various serotypes and truncated LPS mutants were prepared for this study. Following treatment with a two-phase separation system using the detergent Triton X-114, crude LPS extracts of the study strains were separated into detergent-phase LPS (DP-LPS) and aqueous-phase LPS (AP-LPS). Repeated treatment of the aqueous phase with the two-phase separation system produced only a slight decrease in AP-LPS, suggesting that AP-LPS was resistant to the detergent and thus distinguishable from DP-LPS. The presence of divalent cations increased the yield of AP-LPS. AP-LPS expression patterns were serotype-dependent; serotypes b and f showing early expression, and serotypes a and c late expression. In addition, highly truncated LPS from a waaD (rfaD) mutant were unable to generate AP-LPS, suggesting involvement of the LPS structure in the generation of AP-LPS. The two-phase separation was able to distinguish two types of LPS with different physical states at the supramolecular structure level. Hence, AP-LPS likely represents stabilized LPS aggregates, whereas DP-LPS might be derived from non-stabilized aggregates. Furthermore, time-dependent expression of stabilized LPS aggregates was found to be serotype-dependent in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  20. Morphology and stability of aggregates of an Oxisol according to tillage system and gypsum application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régis de Souza


    Full Text Available Morphological characterization and aggregate stability is an important factor in evaluating management systems. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the stability and morphology of the aggregates of a dystrophic Oxisol managed with no-tillage and conventional tillage with and without the residual action of gypsum. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in split-split plot, where the treatments were two soil management systems (plots with 0 and 2000 kg ha-1 of gypsum (subplots and five depths (0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15, 0.15-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m as the subsubplots, with four replications. The aggregate morphology was determined through images and later evaluated by the Quantporo software. Stability was determined by the wet method. The results showed that the no-tillage system, with or without gypsum residual effect, provided the aggregates with the largest geometric diameters. The combination of no-tillage system and the gypsum residual effect provided rougher aggregates.

  1. Effect of cover crops management in aggregate stability of a vineyard in Central Spain. (United States)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose


    Our research focuses in cover crop treatments used to avoid soil degradation in hillsides. The soil-plant interaction can influence the soil structure. In this study we pay special attention to the soil aggregates in a hillside vineyard (average slope of 14%), under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions (average annual temperature 14°C, annual rainfall around 400 mm), in the South East of Madrid located at an altitude of 800 masl. The soil classification according to USDA (2006) is Calcic Haploxeralf. Its particle size yields 58% sand, 18% silt and 24% clay, so that according to USDA classification it is a sandy clay loam soil. The bulk density of the first 10 cm of topsoil is 1.2 g cm-3 and its real density is 2.4 g cm-3. It has low organic matter content: 1.3 ± 0.1% (Walkley and Black, 1934). Three treatments were tested: i) traditional tillage ii) soil covered by Brachypodium distachyon allowing self-sowing, and iii) soil covered by Secale cereale, mown in early spring. In each treatment the aggregate stability was measured. These cover crops were established in a 2m wide strip at the center of the rows. We have collected samples of soil for each treatment along 2 years and we analyzed the aggregates, trying to find changes in their stability. Aggregates of 4 to 4.75 mm diameter were selected by dry sieving. The stability was measured with Drop-test: CND and TDI (Imeson and Vis, 1984). An improvement in the stability of aggregates was observed after two years of cover crop treatment. There are significant differences among the treatments analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, being Brachypodium distachyon the treatment with more stable aggregates, it is necessary a mean higher than 8 drops to disintegrate every aggregate completely. Organic carbon was also measured by Loss on Ignition method (Schulte and Hopkins, 1996). This method can lead to an overestimation of the organic matter in soil samples but is considered suitable for aggregates. Again, those

  2. Aggregated Modelling for Wind Farms for Power System Transient Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe


    Wind energy is consistently attracting great research effort and actively developed in many countries. As a result, the penetration level of wind power in the power grid is increasing as well as the size of wind farms. A large-scale wind farm may consist of hundreds of wind turbines and its total...... on a wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines. Simulation results of the aggregated models and the detailed model are compared and analyzed respectively to prove the effectiveness of the aggregating techniques....... installed capacity could be at a level of 1000MW or even more. Consequently, the large-scale wind farm could seriously impact the operation and control of the grid. To represent a large-scale wind farm, aggregated modelling takes advantage of fast computation and simplified implementation compared...... to detailed modelling that models every wind turbines individually and the interconnections among them. In this paper, three aggregated modelling techniques, namely, multi-machine equivalent aggregation, full aggregation and semi-aggregation are presented for power system transient stability studies based...

  3. [Effects of human disturbance on soil aggregates content and their organic C stability in Karst regions]. (United States)

    Wei, Ya-wei; Su, Yi-rong; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang; Qin, Wen-geng; Wei, Guo-fu


    Taking the primary forest land (PF), natural restoration land (NR), grazing grassland burned annually in winter (GB), and maize-sweet potato cropland (MS) in Karst regions of Northwest Guangxi as test objects, this paper studied the soil aggregates content and their organic C stability in the four ecosystems under different human disturbance patterns. The soil water-stable aggregates (>0.25 mm) content in PF, NR, and GB accounted for more than 70%, while that in MS was only 37%. The destruction rate of soil aggregates structure in the four ecosystems decreased in the sequence of MS (54.9%) > GB (23.2%) > NR (9.8%) and PF (9.6%), with significant differences among them (Psoil aggregate organic C decreased after an initial increase and kept stable after 20 days, and increased with decreasing aggregate size. In the same size aggregates, the mineralization rate of organic C in the four ecosystems increased in the sequence of MS soil organic C was 1.7% - 3.8%, being significantly higher than that in NR, GB, and MS. The cumulative mineralization amount of soil organic C had the same change trend with the mineralization rate. The contents of soil organic C and aggregate organic C were significantly positively correlated with the mineralization rate and cumulative mineralization amount of organic C, respectively, and significantly negatively correlated with the mineralization ratio of organic C.

  4. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.


    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  5. Spatial Prediction of Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Organic Carbon Content at the Catchment Scale Using Geostatistical Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The association of organic carbon with secondary parzicles (aggregates) results in its storage and retention in soil. A study was carried out at a catchment covering about 92 km2 to predict spatial variability of soil water-stable aggregates (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and organic carbon (OC) content in macro- (> 2 mm), meso- (1-2 mm), and micro-aggregate (< 1 mm) fractions, using geostatistical methods. One hundred and eleven soil samples were c(o)llected at the 0-10 cm depth and fractionated into macro-, meso-, and micro-aggregates by wet sieving. The OC content was determined for each fraction. A greater percentage of water-stable aggregates was found for micro-aggregates, followed by meso-aggregates. Aggregate OC content was greatest in meso-aggregates (9 g kg-1), followed by micro-aggregates (7 g kg-1), while the least OC content was found in macro-aggregates (3 g kg-1). Although a significart effect (P = 0.000) of aggregate size on aggregate OC content was found, however, our findings did not support the model of aggregate hierarchy.Land use had a significant effect (P = 0.073) on aggregate OC content. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for OC contents associated with each aggregate fraction indicated macro-aggregates as the most variable (CV = 71%). Among the aggregate fractions, the micro-aggregate fraction had a lower CV value of 27%. The mean content of WSA ranged from 15% for macro-aggregates to 84% for micro-aggregates. Geostatistical analysis showed that the measured soil variables exhibited differences in their spatial patterns in both magnitude and space at each aggregate size fraction. The relative nugget variance for most aggregate-associated properties was lower than 45%. The range value for the variogram of water-stable aggregates was almost similar (about 3 km) for the three studied aggregate size classes. The range value for the variogram of aggregate-associated OC contents ranged from about 3 km for macro-aggregates

  6. Stability of Iowa mutant and wild type Aβ-peptide aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alred, Erik J.; Scheele, Emily G.; Berhanu, Workalemahu M.; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)


    Recent experiments indicate a connection between the structure of amyloid aggregates and their cytotoxicity as related to neurodegenerative diseases. Of particular interest is the Iowa Mutant, which causes early-onset of Alzheimer's disease. While wild-type Amyloid β-peptides form only parallel beta-sheet aggregates, the mutant also forms meta-stable antiparallel beta sheets. Since these structural variations may cause the difference in the pathological effects of the two Aβ-peptides, we have studied in silico the relative stability of the wild type and Iowa mutant in both parallel and antiparallel forms. We compare regular molecular dynamics simulations with such where the viscosity of the samples is reduced, which, we show, leads to higher sampling efficiency. By analyzing and comparing these four sets of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we probe the role of the various factors that could lead to the structural differences. Our analysis indicates that the parallel forms of both wild type and Iowa mutant aggregates are stable, while the antiparallel aggregates are meta-stable for the Iowa mutant and not stable for the wild type. The differences result from the direct alignment of hydrophobic interactions in the in-register parallel oligomers, making them more stable than the antiparallel aggregates. The slightly higher thermodynamic stability of the Iowa mutant fibril-like oligomers in its parallel organization over that in antiparallel form is supported by previous experimental measurements showing slow inter-conversion of antiparallel aggregates into parallel ones. Knowledge of the mechanism that selects between parallel and antiparallel conformations and determines their relative stability may open new avenues for the development of therapies targeting familial forms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Organic Matter Enrichment and Aggregate Stabilization in a Severely Degraded Ultisol After Reforestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; PENG Xin-Hua


    Three types of soils: an eroded barren soil under continuous fallow, an eroded soil transplanted with Lespedeza shrubs(Lespedeza bicolor), and an eroded soil transplanted with camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) were investigated to quantify organic matter pools and aggregates in reforested soils using physical fractionation techniques and to determine aggregate stability in relation to the enrichment of soil organic carbon (SOC). Soil organic matter (SOM) was physically fractionalized into free particulate organic matter (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM), and mineralassociated organic matter (mOM). The SOM was concentrated on the surface soil (0-5 cm), with an average C sequestration rate of 20-25 g C m-2 year-1 over 14 years. As compared to the eroded barren land, organic C content of fPOM, oPOM,and mOM fractions of the soil under Lespedeza and under camphor tree increased 12-15, 45-54, and 3.1-3.5 times,respectively. A linear relationship was found between aggregate stability and organic C (r2 = 0.45, P < 0.01), oPOM(r2 = 0.34, P < 0.05), and mOM (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01) of aggregates. The enrichment of organic C improved aggregate stability of the soil under Lespedeza but not that under camphor tree. However, further research is needed on the physical and biological processes involved in the interaction of soil aggregation and SOC sequestration in ecosystem.

  8. Stability of Iowa mutant and wild type Aβ-peptide aggregates (United States)

    Alred, Erik J.; Scheele, Emily G.; Berhanu, Workalemahu M.; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.


    Recent experiments indicate a connection between the structure of amyloid aggregates and their cytotoxicity as related to neurodegenerative diseases. Of particular interest is the Iowa Mutant, which causes early-onset of Alzheimer's disease. While wild-type Amyloid β-peptides form only parallel beta-sheet aggregates, the mutant also forms meta-stable antiparallel beta sheets. Since these structural variations may cause the difference in the pathological effects of the two Aβ-peptides, we have studied in silico the relative stability of the wild type and Iowa mutant in both parallel and antiparallel forms. We compare regular molecular dynamics simulations with such where the viscosity of the samples is reduced, which, we show, leads to higher sampling efficiency. By analyzing and comparing these four sets of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we probe the role of the various factors that could lead to the structural differences. Our analysis indicates that the parallel forms of both wild type and Iowa mutant aggregates are stable, while the antiparallel aggregates are meta-stable for the Iowa mutant and not stable for the wild type. The differences result from the direct alignment of hydrophobic interactions in the in-register parallel oligomers, making them more stable than the antiparallel aggregates. The slightly higher thermodynamic stability of the Iowa mutant fibril-like oligomers in its parallel organization over that in antiparallel form is supported by previous experimental measurements showing slow inter-conversion of antiparallel aggregates into parallel ones. Knowledge of the mechanism that selects between parallel and antiparallel conformations and determines their relative stability may open new avenues for the development of therapies targeting familial forms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Correlation between aggregate stability and microbiological activity in two Russian soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ismail Umer


    Full Text Available Two Russian soil type, soddy-podzolic soil from Vladimerskaya region and dark-gray forest soil from Korskya region were taken .some microbiological parameters were assyed as basal respiration, substrate induced respiration, microbial biomass, microbial metabolic coefficient and correlated with soil aggregate stability concerning soil organic matter ,soil texture and soil bulk density . The result shown a positive correlation between all microbiological parameters with soil aggregate stability at this rank, microbial metabolic coefficient > microbial biomass = substrate induced respiration > basal respiration. Microbiological parameters and soil aggregate stability in dark-gray forest soil are greater than soddy-podzolic soil except basal respiration as a result of high organic content in this soil as will as the biomass as a percent of soil total organic matter. aggregate disintegration coefficient of dark-gray forest soil is 0.0028 with R2 0.927 and need 85 rain drop (equivalent to an energy of 83385 J Kg-1 greater than soddy-podzolic which had disintegration coefficient 0.0039 with R2 0.849 and needed only 40 rain drop (equivalent to an energy of 39240 J Kg-1.

  10. Transient stability analysis of a distribution network with distributed generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xyngi, I.; Ishchenko, A.; Popov, M.; Van der Sluis, L.


    This letter describes the transient stability analysis of a 10-kV distribution network with wind generators, microturbines, and CHP plants. The network being modeled in Matlab/Simulink takes into account detailed dynamic models of the generators. Fault simulations at various locations are investigat

  11. Soy protein nanoparticle aggregates as pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. (United States)

    Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He


    In recent years, there have been increasing interests in developing food-grade Pickering stabilizers, due to their potential applications in formulations of novel functional foods. The present work was to investigate the potential of soy proteins to be developed into a kind of Pickering-like stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions. The nanoparticle aggregates of soy protein isolate (SPI) were formed by sequential treatments of heating at 95 °C for 15 min and then electrostatic screening with NaCl addition. The particle size and microstructure of these aggregates were characterized using dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy, indicating that the fabricated nanoparticle aggregates were ∼100 nm in size with more surface hydrophobic nature (relative to unheated SPI). The influence of particle concentration (c; 0.5-6.0%, w/w) and increasing oil fraction (ϕ; in the range 0.2-0.6) on the droplet size and coalescence and/or creaming stability of the emulsions stabilized by these nanoparticle aggregates was investigated. The results showed that, at ϕ = 0.2, increasing the c resulted in a progressive but slight decrease in droplet size, and improved the stability against coalescence and creaming; at a specific c, the creaming stability was progressively increased by increasing the ϕ, with better improvement observed at a higher c (e.g., 6.0% vs 2.0%). The improvement of creaming stability was largely associated with the formation of a gel-like network that could entrap the oil droplets within the network. The observations are generally consistent with those observed for the conventional Pickering emulsions, confirming that soy proteins could be applied as a kind of effective Pickering-like stabilizer. The finding may have important implications for the design and fabrication of protein-based emulsion formulations, and even for the development of soy protein products with some unique functions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first work to report

  12. Effect of Aggregate Gradation with Fuller Distribution on Properties of Sulphoaluminate Cement Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chenchen; ZHANG Jie; WANG Shoude; LU Lingchao


    Experimental investigations on mechanical property and durability of sulphoaluminate cement concrete with aggregate gradations according to Fuller distribution are presented in this paper. Compressive strength, water impermeability and resistance capability to sulfate attack of SACC have the same trend of concrete with fine aggregates of Fuller distribution gradationaggregates of Fuller distribution gradationaggregates of Fuller distribution gradation. The relationship between bulk density of aggregate and water penetration depth obeyed the second-order polynomialy=0.002x2-6.863 8x+5 862.3, and had a notable correlationR2=0.979 9. The sulphoaluminate cement concrete with total aggregate gradation with Fuller distribution forh=0.50 had the best resistance capability to sulfate attack. It was a second-order polynomial relationship between bulk density of aggregates and water penetration depth of y=0.002x2-6.863 8x+5 862.3 withR2=0.979 9, which indicated notable correlation. The iftting formula between bulk density of aggregates and sulfate resistance coefifcient of SACC wasy=0.000 5x+0.370 4 withR2=0.958 5.

  13. The protective effects of osmolytes on yeast alcohol dehydrogenase conformational stability and aggregation. (United States)

    Han, Hong-Yan; Yao, Zhi-Gang; Gong, Cheng-Liang; Xu, Wei-An


    The protective effects of four osmolytes (trehalose, dimethysulfoxide, glycine and proline) on the conformational stability and aggregation of guanidine-denatured yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) have been investigated in this paper. The results show that the four osmolytes protect YADH against unfolding and inactivation by reducing ki (inactivation rate constants), increasing DeltaDeltaGi (transition free energy changes at 25 degrees C), increasing Cm (value for the midpoint of denaturation) and decreasing its ANS-binding fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, these osmolytes can prevent YADH aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner during YADH refolding.

  14. Aggregated Representation of Distribution Networks for Large-Scale Transmission Network Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Altin, Müfit; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar


    As a common practice of large-scale transmission network analysis the distribution networks have been represented as aggregated loads. However, with increasing share of distributed generation, especially wind and solar power, in the distribution networks, it became necessary to include...... the distributed generation within those analysis. In this paper a practical methodology to obtain aggregated behaviour of the distributed generation is proposed. The methodology, which is based on the use of the IEC standard wind turbine models, is applied on a benchmark distribution network via simulations....

  15. Effect of visible and UV irradiation on the aggregation stability of CdTe quantum dots (United States)

    Tsipotan, Aleksei S.; Gerasimova, Marina A.; Aleksandrovsky, Aleksandr S.; Zharkov, Sergey M.; Slabko, Vitaliy V.


    The possibility of controlling the aggregation stability of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) stabilized by thioglycolic acid (TGA) is important for implementation of quasi-resonant laser-induced self-assembly. This study examines the influence of irradiation by the UV as well as by the visible light on the photostimulated aggregation of QDs. Different photochemical mechanisms are identified, depending on whether light wavelength falls into an interband transition or the first exciton transition. Irradiation by visible light does not lead to changes in the absorption spectra but decreases luminescence intensity through the detachment of TGA and the formation of dangling bonds, leading to the creation of radiativeless relaxation centers. UV irradiation (in the 300-370 nm range), at an intensity of 0.4 W/cm2, initially (during the first 75 min) leads to the degradation of the stabilizer and QDs' surface. After 75 min of combined UV and visible light irradiation, a gradual increase in spontaneous aggregation takes place, testifying excessive decrease in stabilizing potential barrier height. Hence, the laser-induced self-assembly of CdTe QDs is recommended to be performed over a time period of between 80 and 100 min after the beginning of low-intensity UV irradiation under conditions equivalent to those applied in this study.

  16. Anionic Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Extracellular Polysaccharides (EPS) effects on flocculation and aggregate stability of soil (United States)

    Albalasmeh, A. A.; Gharaibeh, M. A.; Ghezzehei, T. A.


    Soil structure influences many soil properties including aeration, water retention, drainage, bulk density, and resistance to erosion and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. A significant amount of literature showed that PAM plays an important role to control erosion. However, researchers are looking for more natural alternative for PAM. This study evaluated two anionic polymers including low and high molecular weight (MW), root exudates and bacterial exudates. We evaluated their influence on the rate and efficacy of colloid flocculation and the percent of water stable aggregates. We found that PAM was more effective than EPS in flocculating the colloids and all polymers increased the percent of stable soil aggregates although the PAM was more effective. These data suggest that the EPS would be less effective than PAM for reducing water erosion owing to its lesser flocculation and aggregate stabilizing potential.

  17. [Effect of Biochar Application on Soil Aggregates Distribution and Moisture Retention in Orchard Soil]. (United States)

    An, Yan; Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Shi-xiang; Wang, Xu-dong


    Applying biochar to soil has been considered to be one of the important practices in improving soil properties and increasing carbon sequestration. In order to investigate the effects of biochar application on soil aggregates distribution and its organic matter content and soil moisture constant in different size aggregates, various particle-size fractions of soil aggregates were obtained with the dry-screening method. The results showed that, compared to the treatment without biochar (CK), the application of biochar reduced the mass content of 5-8 mm and soil aggregates at 0-10 cm soil horizon, while increased the content of 1-2 mm and 2-5 mm soil aggregates at this horizon, and the content of 1-2 mm aggregates significantly increased along with the rates of biochar application. The mean diameter of soil aggregates was reduced by biochar application at 0-10 cm soil horizon. However, the effect of biochar application on the mean diameter of soil aggregates at 10-20 cm soil horizon was not significant. Compared to CK, biochar application significantly increased soil organic carbon content in aggregates, especially in 1-2 mm aggregates which was increased by > 70% compared to CK. Both the water holding capacity and soil porosity were significantly increased by biochar application. Furthermore, the neutral biochar was more effective than alkaline biochar in increasing soil moisture.

  18. Distribution and Aggregate Thickness of Salt Deposits of the United States (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The map shows the distribution and aggregate thickness of salt deposits of the United States. This information is from contour map sheets, scanned and processed for...

  19. Applying a new procedure to assess the controls on aggregate stability - including soil parent material and soil organic carbon concentrations - at the landscape scale (United States)

    Turner, Gren; Rawlins, Barry; Wragg, Joanna; Lark, Murray


    Aggregate stability is an important physical indicator of soil quality and influences the potential for erosive losses from the landscape, so methods are required to measure it rapidly and cost-effectively. Previously we demonstrated a novel method for quantifying the stability of soil aggregates using a laser granulometer (Rawlins et al., 2012). We have developed our method further to mimic field conditions more closely by incorporating a procedure for pre-wetting aggregates (for 30 minutes on a filter paper) prior to applying the test. The first measurement of particle-size distribution is made on the water stable aggregates after these have been added to circulating water (aggregate size range 1000 to 2000 µm). The second measurement is made on the disaggregated material after the circulating aggregates have been disrupted with ultrasound (sonication). We then compute the difference between the mean weight diameters (MWD) of these two size distributions; we refer to this value as the disaggregation reduction (DR; µm). Soils with more stable aggregates, which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation, have larger values of DR. We made repeated analyses of DR using an aggregate reference material (RM; a paleosol with well-characterised disaggregation properties) and used this throughout our analyses to demonstrate our approach was reproducible. We applied our modified technique - and also the previous technique in which dry aggregates were used - to a set of 60 topsoil samples (depth 0-15 cm) from cultivated land across a large region (10 000 km2) of eastern England. We wished to investigate: (i) any differences in aggregate stability (DR measurements) using dry or pre-wet aggregates, and (ii) the dominant controls on the stability of aggregates in water using wet aggregates, including variations in mineralogy and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and any interaction between them. The sixty soil

  20. Field soil aggregate stability kit for soil quality and rangeland health evaluations (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.


    Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.

  1. Fractal analysis of the effect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cai, Jianchao, E-mail: [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Xiangyun, E-mail: [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Qi, E-mail: [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Yingfang, E-mail: [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, FN 264, King' s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)


    A theoretical effective thermal conductivity model for nanofluids is derived based on fractal distribution characteristics of nanoparticle aggregation. Considering two different mechanisms of heat conduction including particle aggregation and convention, the model is expressed as a function of the fractal dimension and concentration. In the model, the change of fractal dimension is related to the variation of aggregation shape. The theoretical computations of the developed model provide a good agreement with the experimental results, which may serve as an effective approach for quantitatively estimating the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. - Highlights: • A thermal conductivity model is derived based on fractal aggregation distribution. • The relationship between aggregation shape and fractal dimension is analyzed. • Predictions of the proposed model show good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Interfacial aggregation of a nonionic surfactant: Effect on the stability of silica suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano-Palmino, F.; Denoyel, R.; Rouquerol, J. (CNRS, Marseille (France). Centre de thermodynamique et Microcalorimetrie)


    Nonionic surfactants are in widespread use in technological applications such as flotation, detergency, suspension stabilization (paints, ceramic preparation, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics), and enhanced oil recovery. The adsorption of the nonionic surfactant TX 100 in two silica suspensions (Ludox HS40 and Syton W30) has been studied with the aim of relating the structure of the adsorbed layer to the stability of the suspension. First, a thermodynamic study based on the determination of adsorption isotherms and displacement enthalpies as a function of pH and solid/liquid ratio was carried out and lead to the conclusion that such a surfactant forms micelle-like aggregates on the silica surface. Then, a stability study based on visual observation, turbidimetry, and particle size determination (by photon correlation spectroscopy) was performed in order to determine the TX 100 concentration range in which flocculation occurs. Considering that the surface is covered with micelle-like aggregates in the flocculation range and that the [zeta]-potential (determined by microelectrophoresis) has varied only slightly at the onset of flocculation, it is concluded that the flocculation mechanism is a bridging of particles by surface micelles. This bridging of particles by aggregates similar in size and shape could be an explanation of the presence, in such systems, of optimum flocculation at half surface coverage.

  3. [Impact of land use type on stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates in Jinyun Mountain]. (United States)

    Li, Jian-Lin; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju


    Soil aggregates have the important effect on soil fertility, soil quality and the sustainable utilization of soil, and they are the mass bases of water and fertilizer retention ability of soil and the supply or release of soil nutrients. In this paper, in order to study the impact of land use type on stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates in Jinyun Mountain, we separated four land use types of soil, which are woodland, abandoned land, orchard and sloping farmland by wet sieving method, then we got the proportion of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0.25-2 mm), microaggregates (53 μm-0.25 mm) and silt + clay (organic carbon in each aggregate fraction in soil depth of 0-60 cm and calculated the total content of organic carbon of all aggregates fraction in each soil. The results showed that reclamation of woodland will lead to fragmentation of macroaggregates and deterioration of soil structure, and the proportion of macroaggrgates (> 0.25 mm) were 44.62% and 32.28% respectively in the soils of orchard and sloping farmland, which reduced 38.58% (P soil fraction from silt + clay to large macroaggregates and small macroaggregates, so it will improve the soil structure. MWD (mean weight diameter) and GMD (geometric mean diameter) are important indicators of evaluating the stability of soil aggregates. We found the MWD and GWD in soil depth of 0-60 cm in orchards and sloping farmland were significantly lower than those in woodland (P soil aggregates, and they will be separated more easily by water. However, after changing the sloping farmland to abandoned land will enhance the stability of soil aggregates, and improve the ability of soil to resist external damage. The organic carbon content in each soil aggregate of four land use types decreased with the increase of soil depth. In soil depth of 0-60 cm, the storage of organic carbon of large macroaggregates in each soil are in orders of woodland (14.98 Mg x hm(-2)) > abandoned land (8.71 Mg

  4. Dynamic Relationship Between Biologically Active Soil Organic Carbon and Aggregate Stability in Long-Term Organically Fertilized Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-Liang; XU Jiang-Bing; HE Yuan-Qiu; LIU Yan-Li; FAN Jian-Bo


    Biologically active soil organic carbon (BASOC) is an important fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC),but our understanding of the correlation between BASOC and soil aggregate stability is limited.At an ecological experimental station (28° 04′-28° 37′ N,116°41′-117° 09′ E) in Yujiang County,Jiangxi Province,China,we analyzed the dynamic relationship between soil aggregate stability and BASOC content over time in the red soil (Udic Ferrosols) fertilized with a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium chemical fertilizer (NPK)without manure or with NPK plus livestock manure or green manure.The dynamics of BASOC was evaluated using CO2 efflux,and soil aggregates were separated according to size using a wet-sieving technique.The soils fertilized with NPK plus livestock manure had a significantly higher content of BASOC and an improved aggregate stability compared to the soils fertilized with NPK plus green manure or NPK alone The BASOC contents in all fertilized soils decreased over time The contents of large aggregates (800-2000μm) dramatically decreased over the first 7 d of incubation,but the contents of small aggregates (< 800.μm) either remained the same or increased,depending on the incubation time and specific aggregate sizes.The aggregate stability did not differ significantly at the beginning and end of incubation,but the lowest stability inall fertilized soils occurred in the middle of the incubation,which implied that the soils had a strong resilience for aggregate stability.The change in BASOC content was only correlated with aggregate stability during the first 27 d of incubation.

  5. Formulation of artificial aggregates from dredged harbour sediments for coastline stabilization. (United States)

    Brakni, Samira; Abriak, Nor Edine; Hequette, Arnaud


    Coastal erosion is a common phenomenon along the shores of the member states of the European Union. In 2004, approximately 20,000 km of coastlines, accounting for 20% of the whole of the EU coastline, were considered particularly affected by this phenomenon. Coastal erosion and shoreline retreat already affect a significant proportion of the French coast, the beaches in the north of France being no exception, and will probably increase during the 21st Century because of climate change. Because erosion is often accentuated by sedimentary deficits, artificial beach replenishment often represents an appropriate engineering solution for coastline stabilization. Meanwhile, large quantities of sediments are dredged every year from ports, with approximately 25 to 45 million tons of sediments (dry matter) per year being dredged for the maintenance of harbours. The purpose of the study presented in this article is to report on the potential use of artificial aggregates formulated with harbour sediments in order to recharge beaches and/or nearshore environments. The manufacture of the aggregates consisted of several stages, beginning with the characterization and the preparation of the sediment before the fabrication of aggregates by extrusion, associating the sediments with a specific hydraulic binder. Various parameters, such as water content of the mixing sediment, the cement content and the shape of the aggregates, were taken into account, in order to ensure the criteria regarding the strength of these aggregates are entirely fulfilled. The first simulations in a wave flume are encouraging and reveal the possibilities for use of the aggregates in coastal engineering.

  6. Cache-Based Aggregate Query Shipping: An Efficient Scheme of Distributed OLAP Query Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Ming Liao; Guo-Shun Pei


    Our study introduces a novel distributed query plan refinement phase in an enhanced architecture of distributed query processing engine (DQPE). Query plan refinement generates potentially efficient distributed query plan by reusable aggregate query shipping (RAQS) approach. The approach improves response time at the cost of pre-processing time. If theoverheads could not be compensated by query results reusage, RAQS is no more favorable. Therefore a global cost estimation model is employed to get proper operators: RR_Agg, R_Agg, or R_Scan. For the purpose of reusing results of queries with aggregate function in distributed query processing, a multi-level hybrid view caching (HVC) scheme is introduced. The scheme retains the advantages of partial match and aggregate query results caching. By our solution, evaluations with distributed TPC-H queries show significant improvement on average response time.

  7. Assessment of soil erodibility and aggregate stability for different parts of a forest road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Majid Lotfalian; Ataollah Kavian; Seyed Ataollah Hosseini


    We measured erodibility and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in different parts of a forest road. Samples of topsoil were collected from cutslope, fillslope, road surface and forest ground to assess the texture, bulk density, moisture, CaCO3 and organic matter. Soil aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving. Soil erodibility on the road surface was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than on the fillslope and cutslope, respectively. The forest soil had the lowest erodibility. Aggregate stability of cutslope and road surface were low and very low, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between cutslope erodibility with CaCO3 and sand content. Cutslope erodibility increased with increasing silt, clay and moisture content. On fillslopes, MWD increased with in-creasing rock fragment cover, plant cover, litter cover, organic matter and sand. There was a strong negative correlation between fillslope erodibility and organic matter, sand and MWD. There was no significant difference between erodibility of bare soil and soils beneathRubus hyrcanusL. and Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid.

  8. Salt bridge stabilization of charged zwitterionic arginine aggregates in the gas phase. (United States)

    Julian, R R; Hodyss, R; Beauchamp, J L


    The discovery of several new unusually stable aggregates of arginine that are intermolecularly bound by salt bridges is reported. Quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry provides evidence for the stability of arginine in the zwitterionic state, where the protonated guanidinium group of one arginine interacts strongly with the carboxylate of another to form stable noncovalent complexes, coordinated to either a cation or anion. Clusters of arginine with itself, sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, chloride, fluoride, bromide, iodide, and nitrate are observed. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G level are used to assess the structures and energetics of particularly prominent clusters. An examination of mixtures of D-arginine with isotopically labeled L-arginine indicates that the stability of these clusters does not depend on arginine enantiomeric purity. The cyclic trimers of arginine, capped with either Cl(-) or NO(3)(-), possess exceptional stability.

  9. On the stability of multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical network for IPTV delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Luo; Yaohui Jin; Qingji Zeng; Weiqiang Sun; Wei Guo; Weisheng Hu


    The stable multicast flow aggregation (MFA) problem in internet protocol (IP) over optical network under the dynamical scenario is studied. Given an optical network topology, there is a set of head ends and access routers attached to the optical network, in which each head end can provide a set of programs (IP multicasting flows) and each access router requests a set of programs, we find a set of stable light-trees to accommodate the optimally aggregated multicast IP flows if the requests of access routers changed dynamically. We introduce a program correlation matrix to describe the preference of end users' requests. As the original MFA problem is NP-complete, a heuristic approach, named most correlated program first (MCPF), is presented and compared with the extended least tree first (ELTF) algorithm which is topologyaware. Simulation results show that MCPF can achieve better performance than ELTF in terms of stability with negligible increment of network resource usage.

  10. Kinetics and cluster morphology evolution of shear-driven aggregation of well-stabilized colloids. (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo


    We investigate the shear-driven aggregation of polystyrene colloids that are stabilized by both fixed and surfactant charges, using a microchannel device, in various particle volume fractions. The objective is to understand how the primary particles evolve to clusters with shearing time, how the cluster morphology develops along the aggregation with the effect of breakage and restructuring, and whether non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions are present, affecting the kinetics. The time evolution of the primary particle conversion to big clusters is characterized by an induction time, followed by an explosive increase when the cluster size reaches a certain critical value, which confirms the self-acceleration kinetics developed in the literature. The size of the critical clusters has been quantified for the first time, and its scaling with the shear rate follows the literature prediction well. Moreover, analysis of the shear-driven kinetics confirms the presence of substantial non-DLVO interactions in the given system.

  11. A uniform measurement expression for cross method comparison of nanoparticle aggregate size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wagner, Stephan; Lehner, Angela


    Available measurement methods for nanomaterials are based on very different measurement principles and hence produce different values when used on aggregated nanoparticle dispersions. This paper provides a solution for relating measurements of nanomaterials comprised of nanoparticle aggregates...... by increased retention of smaller nanomaterials (SEM). This study thereby presents a successful and conclusive cross-method comparison of size distribution measurements of aggregated nanomaterials. The authors recommend the uniform MED size expression for application in nanomaterial risk assessment studies...... determined by different techniques using a uniform expression of a mass equivalent diameter (MED). The obtained solution is used to transform into MED the size distributions of the same sample of synthetic amorphous silica (nanomaterial comprising aggregated nanoparticles) measured by six different...

  12. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates]. (United States)

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen


    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF.

  13. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang


    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  14. Fractal analysis of the effect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanofluids (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Cai, Jianchao; Hu, Xiangyun; Han, Qi; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Yingfang


    A theoretical effective thermal conductivity model for nanofluids is derived based on fractal distribution characteristics of nanoparticle aggregation. Considering two different mechanisms of heat conduction including particle aggregation and convention, the model is expressed as a function of the fractal dimension and concentration. In the model, the change of fractal dimension is related to the variation of aggregation shape. The theoretical computations of the developed model provide a good agreement with the experimental results, which may serve as an effective approach for quantitatively estimating the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

  15. Stability of aggregates of some weathered soils in south-eastern Nigeria in relation to their geochemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C A Igwe; M Zarei; K Stahr


    The stability of some highly weathered soils of the tropics is controlled by their organo-mineral substances. Highly weathered soils from 10 different locations were sampled from their A and B horizons to determine their aggregate stability. The objective of the study was to determine the aggregate stability of the soils and their relationships with geochemical constituents. The major geochemical elements of the soils are quartz and kaolinite, SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3, while the dithionite extractable Fe and Al was greater than their corresponding oxalate and pyrophosphate forms. The mean-weight diameter from dried aggregates (MWDd) and their corresponding wet mean-weight diameter (MWDw) were related significantly (r = 0.64*). The dithionite extracted Al and Fe or the crystalline forms of these elements were outstanding in the stability of the aggregates. However, this did not diminish the influence of SOC reduced to third order level in the stability of the soils. The influence of SOC in these soils, however, indirectly manifested on the role of Fep and Alp in the aggregation of these soils. The crystalline Fe and Al sesquioxides were very prominent in the aggregation and stability of these soils.

  16. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui;


    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator......In this paper, we present a real-time trading framework for distribution networks where a rational aggregator is identified as a broker by contracting with individual demands and dealing with the distribution company. Demand response capability is characterized by the coexistence of elastic...

  17. Rational design of mutations that change the aggregation rate of a protein while maintaining its native structure and stability (United States)

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sala, Benedetta Maria; Sormanni, Pietro; Porcari, Riccardo; Corazza, Alessandra; De Rosa, Matteo; Zanini, Stefano; Barbiroli, Alberto; Esposito, Gennaro; Bolognesi, Martino; Bellotti, Vittorio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Ricagno, Stefano


    A wide range of human diseases is associated with mutations that, destabilizing proteins native state, promote their aggregation. However, the mechanisms leading from folded to aggregated states are still incompletely understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we used a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to compare the native state dynamics of Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m), whose aggregation is associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, and its aggregation-resistant mutant W60G. Our results indicate that W60G low aggregation propensity can be explained, beyond its higher stability, by an increased average protection of the aggregation-prone residues at its surface. To validate these findings, we designed β2m variants that alter the aggregation-prone exposed surface of wild-type and W60G β2m modifying their aggregation propensity. These results allowed us to pinpoint the role of dynamics in β2m aggregation and to provide a new strategy to tune protein aggregation by modulating the exposure of aggregation-prone residues.

  18. A formal method for rule analysis and validation in distributed data aggregation service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbanescu, V.N.; Pop, F.; Cristea, V.; Antoniu, G.


    The usage of Cloud Serviced has increased rapidly in the last years. Data management systems, behind any Cloud Service, are a major concern when it comes to scalability, flexibility and reliability due to being implemented in a distributed way. A Distributed Data Aggregation Service relying on a sto

  19. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.


    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Influence of sustainable management on aggregate stability and soil organic matter on agricultural soil of southern Spain (United States)

    Morugan-Coronado, Alicia; Arcenegui, Victoria; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Gomez-Lucas, Ignacio; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta


    Intensive agriculture has increased crop yields but also posed severe environmental problems. Unsustainable land management such as excessive tillage can lead to a loss of soil fertility and a drastic reduction in the aggregate stability and soil organic matter content. However sustainable agriculture can keep good crop yields with minimal impact on ecological factors conserving the soil quality and its ecosystem services. Sustainable agriculture management promotes the maintenance of soil organic matter levels providing plant nutrients through the microbial decomposition of organic materials. Also this management has a positive effect on soil structure with the improvement of stability of aggregates. The resistance of soil aggregates to the slaking and dispersive effects of water (aggregate stability) is important for maintaining the structure in arable soils. Our purpose was to investigate and compare the effects of sustainable agricultural practices versus intensive agriculture on aggregate stability and soil organic matter. Three agricultural areas are being monitored in the southern of Spain, two of them with citrus orchards (AL) and (FE) and one with grapevine(PA). In all of them two agricultural treatments are being developed, organic with no-tillage management(O) and inorganic fertilization with herbicide application and intensive tillage (I). The sustainable agricultural management (manure, no tillage and vegetation cover) contributed to the improve of soil conditions, increasing organic matter and aggregate stability. Meanwhile, herbicide treatment and intensive tillage with inorganic fertilization managements resulted in the decreasing of aggregate stability and low levels of soil organic carbon. Soil organic matter content is generally low in all unsustainable treatments plots and tends to decline in aggregate stability and soil physical condition. In both treatments the crop yield are comparable.

  1. The influence of organic amendments on soil aggregate stability from semiarid sites (United States)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose


    Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health. Under these conditions, vegetation cover in areas having degraded soils may be better sustained if the soil is amended with an external source of organic matter. The addition of organic materials to soils also increases infiltration rates and reduces erosion rates; these factors contribute to an available water increment and a successful and sustainable land management. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of various organic amendments on the aggregate stability of soils in afforested plots. An experimental paired-plot layout was established in southern of Spain (homogeneous slope gradient: 7.5%; aspect: N170). Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. The vegetation was planted in a grid pattern with 0.5 m between plants in each plot. During the afforestation process the soil was tilled to 25 cm depth from the surface. Soil from the afforested plots was sampled in: i) 6 months post-afforestation; ii) 12 months post-afforestation; iii) 18 months post-afforestation; and iv) 24 months post-afforestation. The sampling strategy for each plot involved collection of 4 disturbed soil samples taken from the surface (0-10 cm depth). The stability of aggregates was measured by wet-sieving. Regarding to soil aggregate stability, the percentage of stable aggregates has increased slightly in all the treatments in relation to control. Specifically, the differences were recorded in the fraction of macroaggregates (≥ 0.250 mm). The largest increases have been associated with straw mulch, pinus mulch and sludge. Similar results have been registered for the soil organic carbon content

  2. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema


    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  3. Distribution of β-Glucosidase Activity within Aggregates of a Soil Amended with Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hojati


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Distribution pattern of enzyme activities in soil aggregate size classes as affected by organic amendments is not well understood. Approach: A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of repeated annual application of Cow Manure (CM, Sewage Sludge (SS and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSW on the distribution of β-Glucosidase (βG activity within aggregates of a soil. Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm of a soil which, had been treated annually from 1999-2006 at 4 application rates with three replications. A control (with no application was also run. Soil organic C content and βG activity were measured in 5 aggregate size fractions. Results: Results illustrated that application of the amendments decreased the proportion of microaggregates (0.25 mm diameter enhanced from 35% in control to 65% in MSW. Application of organic amendments modified the distribution of Soil Organic C (SOC content and βG activity. Distribution of SOC in macroaggregate classes was not identical in CM, SS and MSW treatments. The distribution pattern of βG activities in aggregate size classes was dissimilar to those of SOC contents. In general, an increasing trend was observed in βG activity as the aggregate sizes increased. The highest level of βG activity was observed in aggregate size classes of >2 mm of all applied soils. Among the solid waste treatments, CM induced greater βG activity in macroaggregates. For all aggregate size classes, the lowest level of βG activity was observed in control. Conclusion/Recommendations: To conclude, organic fertilization increased the proportion of macroaggregates to microaggregates. The highest activities of βG and SOC contents were observed in macroaggregates and in soils received the highest rates of organic fertilizer applications.

  4. Distribution of algal aggregates under summer sea ice in the Central Arctic. (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Nicolaus, Marcel

    The sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has changed dramatically in the last decades, and the resulting consequences for the sea-ice-associated ecosystem remain difficult to assess. Algal aggregates underneath sea ice are of great importance for the ice-associated ecosystem and the pelagic-benthic coupling. However, the frequency and distribution of their occurrence is not well quantified. During the IceArc expedition (ARK-27/3) of RV Polarstern in late summer 2012, we observed different types of algal aggregates floating underneath various ice types in the Central Arctic basins. We investigated the spatial distribution of ice algal aggregates and quantified their biomass, using under-ice image surveys obtained by an upward-looking camera on a remotely operated vehicle. On basin scale, filamentous aggregates of Melosira arctica are more frequently found in the inner part of the Central Arctic pack ice, while rounded aggregates mainly formed by pennate diatoms are found closer to the ice edge, under melting sea ice. On the scale of an ice floe, the distribution of algal aggregates in late summer is mainly regulated by the topography of the ice underside, with aggregates accumulating in dome-shaped structures and at the edges of pressure ridges. The average biomass of the aggregates from our sites and season was 0.1-6.0 mg C m(-2). However, depending on the approach used, differences in orders of magnitude for biomass estimates may occur. This highlights the difficulties of upscaling observations and comparing results from surveys conducted using different methods or on different spatial scales.

  5. Effect of the slope and initial moisture content on soil loss, aggregate and particle size distribution (United States)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Jakab, Gergely; Szabó, Boglárka


    Soil structure degradation has effect through the soil water balance and nutrient supply on the agricultural potential of an area. The soil erosion process comprises two phases: detachment and transport by water. To study the transport phase nozzle type laboratory-scale rainfall simulator was used with constant 80 mmhr-1 intensity on an arable haplic Cambisol. Measuring the aggregate and particle size distribution of the soil loss gives a good approach the erosion process. The primary objective of this study was to examine the sediment concentration, and detect the quality and quantity change of the soil loss during a single precipitation under six treatment combinations (recently tilled and crusty soil surface on two different slope steepness, inland inundation and drought soil conditions). Soil loss were collected continually, and separated per aggregate size fractions with sieves in three rounds during a rain to measure the weights. The particle size distribution was measured with Horiba LA-950 particle size analyzer. In general the ratio of the macro aggregates decreases and the ratio of the micro aggregates and clay fraction increases in the sediment with time during the precipitation due to the raindrop impact. Sediment concentration depends on the slope steepness, as from steeper slopes the runoff can transport bigger amount of sediment, but from the tilled surface bigger aggregates were washing down. Micro aggregate fraction is one of the indicators of good soil structure. The degradation of micro aggregates occurs in steeper slopes and the most erosive time period depends on the micromorphology of the surface. And while the aggregate size distribution of the soil loss of the treatments shows high variety of distribution and differs from the original soil, the particle size distribution of each aggregate size fraction shows similar trends except the 50-250 µm fraction where the fine sand fraction is dominating instead of the loam. This anomaly may be

  6. Dynamics of Soil Organic Carbon and Aggregate Stability with Grazing Exclusion in the Inner Mongolian Grasslands. (United States)

    Wen, Ding; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Jinjing


    Grazing exclusion (GE) has been deemed as an important approach to enhance the soil carbon storage of semiarid grasslands in China; however, it remains unclear how different organic carbon (OC) components in soils vary with the duration of GE. Here, we observed the changing trends of different OC components in soils with increased GE duration in five grassland succession series plots, ranging from free grazing to 31-year GE. Specifically, we measured microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily oxidizable OC (EOC), water-soluble OC (WSOC), and OC in water stable aggregates (macroaggregates [250-2000 μm], microaggregates [53-250 μm], and mineral fraction [soil depths. The results showed that GE significantly enhanced EOC and WSOC contents in soils, but caused a decline of MBC at the three decade scale. Macroaggregate content (F = 425.8, P soil aggregates (F = 371.3, P soil increases under three-decade GE with soil organic matter (SOM) stability improving to some extent. Long-term GE practices enhance the formation of soil aggregates through higher SOM input and an exclusion of animal trampling. Therefore, the practice of GE may be further encouraged to realize the soil carbon sequestration potential of semi-arid grasslands, China.

  7. Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf


    Full Text Available Conceptual models suggest that stability of organic carbon (OC in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Density fractionation is a useful tool to study the relevance of OC stabilization in aggregates and in association with minerals, but it has rarely been applied to full soil profiles. We aim to determine factors shaping the depth profiles of physically unprotected and mineral associated OC and test their relevance for OC stability across a range of European soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions – fLF, occluded light fractions – oLF, heavy fractions – HF were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN, δ14C, and Δ14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine CO2 evolution per g OC in the samples (specific mineralization rates as an indicator for OC stability. Depth profiles of OC in the light fraction (LF-OC matched those of roots for undisturbed grassland and forest sites, suggesting that roots are shaping the depth distribution of LF-OC. Organic C in the HF declined less with soil depth than LF-OC and roots, especially at grassland sites. The decrease in Δ14C (increase in age of HF-OC with soil depth was related to soil pH as well as to dissolved OC fluxes. This indicates that dissolved OC translocation contributes to the formation of subsoil HF-OC and shapes the Δ14C profiles. The LF at three sites were rather depleted in 14C, indicating the presence of fossil material such as coal and lignite, probably inherited from the parent material. At the other sites, modern Δ14C signatures and positive correlations between specific mineralization rates and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is a potentially available energy and

  8. Stability and aggregation of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in seawater: role of salinity and dissolved organic carbon. (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Burgess, Robert M; Cantwell, Mark G; Portis, Lisa M; Perron, Monique M; Wu, Fengchang; Ho, Kay T


    The behavior and fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment are largely unknown and potentially have important environmental and human health implications. The aggregation and fate of NPs in the marine environment are greatly influenced by their interactions with seawater and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In the present study, the stability and aggregation of 30-nm-diameter silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) capped with citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and 21-nm-diameter titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) NPs as affected by seawater salinity and DOC were investigated by measuring hydrodynamic diameters and zeta potentials. The added DOC (in humic acid form) stabilized the 3 types of NPs when the seawater salinities were ≤5 parts per thousand (ppt), but the stabilizing effect of DOC was reduced by a higher salinity (e.g., 30 ppt). In addition, AgNP-PVP was more stable than AgNP-citrate in seawater, indicating that surface capping agents and stabilization mechanisms govern the stability and aggregation of NPs. Statistical analysis showed that salinity is the most dominant influence on the stability and aggregation of AgNPs and TiO(2) NPs, followed by DOC. These findings expand our knowledge on the behavior of AgNPs and TiO2 NPs in seawater and indicate that the fate of these NPs will be primarily to aggregate in the water column, precipitate, and accumulate in sediments following release into the marine environment.

  9. Effect of tillage system on distribution of aggregates and organic carbon in a hydragric anthrosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ming; LUO You-Jin; WANG Zi-Fang; TANG Xiao-Hong; WEI Chao-Fu


    The effect of different tillage systems on the size distribution of aggregates and organic carbon distribution and storage in different size aggregates in a Hydragric Anthrosol were studied in a long-term experiment in Chongqing,China.The experiment included three tillage treatments:conventional tillage with rotation of rice and winter fallow (CT-r) system,no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape (RT-rr) system,and conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape (CT-rr) system.The results showed that the aggregates 0.02-0.25 mm in diameter accounted for the largest portion in each soil layer under all treatments.Compared with the CT-r system,in the 0-10 cm layer,the amount of aggregates>0.02 mm was larger under the RT-rr system,but smaller under the CT-rr system.In the 0-20 cm layer,the organic carbon content of all fractions of aggregates was the highest under the RT-rr system and lowest under the CT-rr system.The total organic carbon content showed a positive linear relationship with the amount of aggregates with diameter ranging from 0.25 to 2 ram.The storage of organic carbon in all fractions of aggregates under the RT-rr system was higher than that under the CT-r system in the 0-20 cm layer,but in the 0-60 cm soil layer,there was no distinct difference.Under the CT-rr system,the storage of organic carbon in all fractions of aggregates was lower than that under the CT-r system;most of the newly lost organic carbon was from the aggregates 0.002-0.02 and 0.02-0.25 mm in diameter.

  10. On the Distributions of Two Classes of Multiple Dependent Aggregate Claims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-ming Wang; Kam C. Yuen; Li-xing Zhu


    In this paper we examine two classes of correlated aggregate claims distributions, with univariate claim counts and multivariate claim sizes. Firstly, we extend the results of Hesselager [ASTIN Bulletin, 24: 19-32(1994)] and Wang &Sobrero's [ASTIN Bulletin, 24:161-166 (1994)] concerning recursions for compound distributions to a multivariate situation where each claim event generates a random vector. Then we give a multivariate continuous version of recursive algorithm for calculating a family of compound distribution.Especially, to some extent, we obtain a continuous version of the corresponding results in Sundt [ASTIN Bulletin,29:29-45 (1999)] and Ambagaspitiya [Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 24:301-308 (1999)]. Finally,we give an example and show how to use the algorithm for aggregate claim distribution of first class to compute recursively the compound distribution.

  11. Tsunami Size Distributions at Far-Field Locations from Aggregated Earthquake Sources (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.


    The distribution of tsunami amplitudes at far-field tide gauge stations is explained by aggregating the probability of tsunamis derived from individual subduction zones and scaled by their seismic moment. The observed tsunami amplitude distributions of both continental (e.g., San Francisco) and island (e.g., Hilo) stations distant from subduction zones are examined. Although the observed probability distributions nominally follow a Pareto (power-law) distribution, there are significant deviations. Some stations exhibit varying degrees of tapering of the distribution at high amplitudes and, in the case of the Hilo station, there is a prominent break in slope on log-log probability plots. There are also differences in the slopes of the observed distributions among stations that can be significant. To explain these differences we first estimate seismic moment distributions of observed earthquakes for major subduction zones. Second, regression models are developed that relate the tsunami amplitude at a station to seismic moment at a subduction zone, correcting for epicentral distance. The seismic moment distribution is then transformed to a site-specific tsunami amplitude distribution using the regression model. Finally, a mixture distribution is developed, aggregating the transformed tsunami distributions from all relevant subduction zones. This mixture distribution is compared to the observed distribution to assess the performance of the method described above. This method allows us to estimate the largest tsunami that can be expected in a given time period at a station.

  12. Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improves Root Tensile Strength and Soil Aggregate Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust is a widely planted tree species on Loess Plateau for revegetation. Due to its symbiosis forming capability with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, we explored the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass, root morphology, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability in a pot experiment. We inoculated R. pseudoacacia with/without AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis or Glomus versiforme, and measured root colonization, plant growth, root morphological characters, root tensile force and tensile strength, and parameters for soil aggregate stability at twelve weeks after inoculation. AM fungi colonized more than 70% plant root, significantly improved plant growth. Meanwhile, AM fungi elevated root morphological parameters, root tensile force, root tensile strength, Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP content in soil, and parameters for soil aggregate stability such as water stable aggregate (WSA, mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD. Root length was highly correlated with WSA, MWD and GMD, while hyphae length was highly correlated with GRSP content. The improved R. pseudoacacia growth, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability indicated that AM fungi could accelerate soil fixation and stabilization with R. pseudoacacia, and its function in revegetation on Loess Plateau deserves more attention.

  13. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui


    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator...

  14. [Effects of gaps on distribution of soil aggregates and organic carbon in Pinus massoniana plantation]. (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Ju; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jian-Ping; Deng, Chang-Chun; Deng, Chao


    The effects of forest gap size on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon were investigated in a 39-year-old Pinus massoniana plantation in Yibin, Sichuan Province. The results showed that the composition of soil aggregates was dominated by particles > 2 mm, which accounted for 51.7%-78.7% of the whole soil samples under different sized forest gaps and beneath P. massoniana plantation. Soil organic carbon content and labile organic carbon content in > 5 mm aggregates were significantly positively correlated with the soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon contents. Furthermore, the amounts of organic carbon and labile organic carbon storage > 5 mm particles were higher than those in other size particles. Therefore, particles > 5 mm of aggregates dominated the soil carbon pool. Compared with those P. massoniana plantations, the contents of organic carbon in aggregates and total topsoil decreased during the formation of forest gaps, whereas the soil organic carbon storage under 1225 m2 gap was higher. In addition, the soil labile organic carbon content under 225 and 400 m2 gaps and the labile organic carbon storage under 225, 400, 900 and 1225 m2 gaps were higher than those the plantations, but were lower than under the other gaps. It was suggested that an appropriate size of forest gap would increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon content. The size of forest gap had significant effects on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon. The soil sample under 1225 m2 gap had the highest organic carbon content and storage and a better aggregate proportion, and the higher labile organic carbon storage. Therefore, it was suggested that 1225 m2 gap might be an optimal logging gap size.

  15. Primary and Aggregate Size Distributions of PM in Tail Pipe Emissions form Diesel Engines (United States)

    Arai, Masataka; Amagai, Kenji; Nakaji, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shinji

    Particulate matter (PM) emission exhausted from diesel engine should be reduced to keep the clean air environment. PM emission was considered that it consisted of coarse and aggregate particles, and nuclei-mode particles of which diameter was less than 50nm. However the detail characteristics about these particles of the PM were still unknown and they were needed for more physically accurate measurement and more effective reduction of exhaust PM emission. In this study, the size distributions of solid particles in PM emission were reported. PMs in the tail-pipe emission were sampled from three type diesel engines. Sampled PM was chemically treated to separate the solid carbon fraction from other fractions such as soluble organic fraction (SOF). The electron microscopic and optical-manual size measurement procedures were used to determine the size distribution of primary particles those were formed through coagulation process from nuclei-mode particles and consisted in aggregate particles. The centrifugal sedimentation method was applied to measure the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Aerodynamic diameters of nano and aggregate particles were measured with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The peak aggregate diameters detected by SMPS were fallen in the same size regime as the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Both of primary and Stokes diameters of dry-soot decreased with increases of engine speed and excess air ratio. Also, the effects of fuel properties and engine types on primary and aggregate particle diameters were discussed.

  16. Shear-driven aggregation of binary colloids for randomly distributing nanoparticles in a matrix. (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo


    We propose a methodology for preparing composite materials where A nanoparticles (NPs) are uniformly and randomly distributed inside a matrix of B NPs. It is based on intense shear-driven aggregation of binary colloids composed of A and B NPs, without using any additives. Its feasibility has been demonstrated using stable binary colloids composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles and polystyrene (PS) particles. The PS particles alone undergo shear-driven aggregation (shear-active), while the PMMA particles alone do not exhibit any aggregation under the same conditions (shear-inactive). It is found that the shear-driven aggregation of the binary colloids does occur, and the formed clusters are composed of both the "shear-active" PS and "shear-inactive" PMMA particles. The SEM pictures demonstrate that the PMMA particles are uniformly and randomly distributed among the PS particles in the clusters, thus confirming the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The mechanism leading to the aggregation of the binary colloids has been discussed based on the experimental observations.

  17. Pair distribution function of strongly coupled quark gluon plasma in a molecule-like aggregation model

    CERN Document Server

    Meiling, Yu; Lianshou, Liu


    Pair distribution function for delocalized quarks in the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP) as well as in the states at intermediate stages of crossover from hadronic matter to sQGP are calculated using a molecule-like aggregation model. The shapes of the obtained pair distribution functions exhibit the character of liquid. The increasing correlation length in the process of crossover indicates a diminishing viscosity of the fluid system.

  18. Methods for Improving Volume Stability of Steel Slag as Fine Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Yunxia; ZilOU Mingkai; CAI Xiao; XU Fang


    Suitable methods for enhancing the volume stability of steel slag utilized as fine aggregate were determined. The effects of steam treatment at 100 ℃ and autoclave treatment under 2.0 Mpa on the soundness of steel slag sand were investigated by means of powder ratio, linear expansion, compressive and flexural strength. DTA, EDX, XRD and ethylene glycol methods were employed to analyze both the treated slags and susceptible expansion grains. Experimental results indicate that powder ratio, content of free lime and rate of linear expansion can express the improvement in volume stability of different treated methods. Steam treatment process cannot ultimately prevent specimens from cracking and decrease of strength, but mortar made from autoclave treated slag keeps integration subjected to hot water of 80 ℃ until 28 d and its strength do not show significant decrement. The hydration of over-burn free lime and periclase phase are the main cause for the disintegration or crack of untreated and steam treated steel slag's specimens. Autoclave treatment process is more effective than steam treatment process on enhancement of volume stability of steel slag.

  19. Stabilization/solidification of incinerator fly ash for the manufacture of artificial aggregate by cementitious granulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, F.; Cioffi, R. [Univ. Pathenope of Naples (Italy). Dept. of Technology; Montagnaro, F.; Santoro, L. [Univ. Federico 2 of Naples (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Di Giacomo, C.; Roncone, A. [Extra Group Co., Citta Sant' Angelo (Italy)


    This paper presented the results of a study in which municipal, hospital, and industrial waste ash from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces was used in a stabilization/solidification granulation process with cement, lime, and coal fly ash as binder components. The ash from the incineration plant was classified as hazardous. The granulation process was conducted with a range of waste ash mixtures in order to determine the appropriate waste ash percentage for the safe manufacture of artificial aggregates. Waste ash content ranging from 50 to 70 per cent was incorporated within the binding matrix. A 2-step granulation process was then conducted with a pure binder in order to encapsulate the granules from the initial process within an outer shell. The granules obtained from the processes were tested to assess their physico-mechanical and leaching properties. Concrete mixtures were then prepared with some of the artificial aggregates made using the granulation process. Results of the study demonstrated that the granules were suitable for the manufacture of concrete blocks. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Treated wastewater irrigation effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability of loamy soils in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schacht Karsten


    Full Text Available The use of treated wastewater (TWW for agricultural irrigation becomes increasingly important in water stressed regions like the Middle East for substituting fresh water (FW resources. Due to elevated salt concentrations and organic compounds in TWW this practice has potential adverse effects on soil quality, such as the reduction of hydraulic conductivity (HC and soil aggregate stability (SAS. To assess the impact of TWW irrigation in comparison to FW irrigation on HC, in-situ infiltration measurements using mini disk infiltrometer were deployed in four different long-term experimental orchard test sites in Israel. Topsoil samples (0-10 cm were collected for analyzing SAS and determination of selected soil chemical and physical characteristics.

  1. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve


    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  2. Microbial Aggregate and Functional Community Distribution in a Sequencing Batch Reactor with Anammox Granules

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shan


    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process is a one-step conversion of ammonia into nitrogen gas with nitrite as an electron acceptor. It has been developed as a sustainable technology for ammonia removal from wastewater in the last decade. For wastewater treatment, anammox biomass was widely developed as microbial aggregate where the conditions for enrichment of anammox community must be delicately controlled and growth of other bacteria especially NOB should be suppressed to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. Little is known about the distribution of microbial aggregates in anammox process. Thus the objective of our study was to assess whether segregation of biomass occurs in granular anammox system. In this study, a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) was successfully operated for a period of 80 days with granular anammox biomass. Temporal and spatial distribution of microbial aggregates was studied by particle characterization system and the distribution of functional microbial communities was studied with qPCR and 16s rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Our study revealed the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass aggregates based on their sizes and density. Granules (>200 μm) preferentially accumulated in the bottom of the reactor while floccules (30-200 μm) were relatively rich at the top layer. The average density of aggregate was higher at the bottom than the density of those at the top layer. Degranulation caused by lack of hydrodynamic shear force in the top layer was considered responsible for this phenomenon. NOB was relatively rich in the top layer while percentage of anammox population was higher at the bottom, and anammox bacteria population gradually increased over a period of time. NOB growth was supposed to be associated with the increase of floccules based on the concurrent occurrence. Thus, segregation of biomass can be utilized to develop an effective strategy to enrich anammox and wash out NOB by shortening the settling

  3. Restructuring of plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates with arbitrary particle size distribution in pulsed laser fields (United States)

    Ershov, A. E.; Gavrilyuk, A. P.; Karpov, S. V.; Polyutov, S. P.


    We have studied processes of interaction of pulsed laser radiation with resonant groups of plasmonic nanoparticles (resonant domains) in large colloidal nanoparticle aggregates having different interparticle gaps and particle size distributions. These processes are responsible for the origin of nonlinear optical effects and photochromic reactions in multiparticle aggregates. To describe photo-induced transformations in resonant domains and alterations in their absorption spectra remaining after the pulse action, we introduce the factor of spectral photomodification. Based on calculation of changes in thermodynamic, mechanical, and optical characteristics of the domains, the histograms of the spectrum photomodification factor have been obtained for various interparticle gaps, an average particle size, and the degree of polydispersity. Variations in spectra have been analyzed depending on the intensity of laser radiation and various combinations of size characteristics of domains. The obtained results can be used to predict manifestation of photochromic effects in composite materials containing different plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates in pulsed laser fields.

  4. Prion protein insertional mutations increase aggregation propensity but not fiber stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    True Heather L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PRNP gene account for ~15% of all prion disease cases. Little is understood about the mechanism of how some of these mutations in PRNP cause the protein to aggregate into amyloid fibers or cause disease. We have taken advantage of a chimeric protein system to study the oligopeptide repeat domain (ORD expansions of the prion protein, PrP, and their effect on protein aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. We replaced the ORD of the yeast prion protein Sup35p with that from wild type and expanded ORDs of PrP and compared their biochemical properties in vitro. We previously determined that these chimeric proteins maintain the [PSI+] yeast prion phenotype in vivo. Interestingly, we noted that the repeat expanded chimeric prions seemed to be able to maintain a stronger strain of [PSI+] and convert from [psi-] to [PSI+] with a much higher frequency. In this study we have attempted to understand the biochemical properties of these chimeric proteins and to establish a system to study the properties of the ORD of PrP both in vivo and in vitro. Results Investigation of the chimeric proteins in vitro reveals that repeat-expansions increase aggregation propensity and that the kinetics of fiber formation depends on the number of repeats. The fiber formation reactions are promiscuous in that the chimeric protein containing 14 repeats can readily cross-seed fiber formation of proteins that have the wild type number of repeats. Morphologically, the amyloid fibers formed by repeat-expanded proteins associate with each other to form large clumps that were not as prevalent in fibers formed by proteins containing the wild type number of repeats. Despite the increased aggregation propensity and lateral association of the repeat expanded proteins, there was no corresponding increase in the stability of the fibers formed. Therefore, we predict that the differences in fibers formed with different repeat lengths may not be due to

  5. Stability of Drinking Water Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal;


    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of R^n. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability...

  6. Stability of Drinking Water Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Sloth, Christoffer;


    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of R^n. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability of...

  7. Tryptophan-mPEGs: novel excipients that stabilize salmon calcitonin against aggregation by non-covalent PEGylation. (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit


    Protein aggregation, which is triggered by various factors, is still one of the most prevalent problems encountered during all stages of protein formulation development. In this publication, we present novel excipients, tryptophan-mPEGs (Trp-mPEGs) of 2 and 5 kDa molecular weight and suggest their use in protein formulation. The synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of the excipients are described. Possible cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the Trp-mPEGs were examined. Turbidity, 90° static light scatter, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence after staining the samples with Nile Red and fluorescence microscopy were used to study the inhibitory effect of the Trp-mPEGs on the aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in different buffer systems and at various molar ratios. Aggregation of sCT was reduced significantly with increasing concentrations of Trp-mPEG 2 kDa. A 10-fold molar excess of Trp-mPEG 2 kDa suppressed almost completely the aggregation of sCT in 10mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6) for up to 70 h. Trp-mPEG 5 kDa also reduced the aggregation of sCT, though less pronounced than Trp-mPEG 2 kDa. Low aggregation of sCT was measured after approximately 10 days in 10mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 5, with a 10-fold molar excess of Trp-mPEG 2 kDa. This paper shows that Trp-mPEGs are potent excipients in reducing the aggregation of sCT. Trp-mPEGs are superior to dansyl-PEGs concerning the stabilization of sCT in a harsh environment, wherein sCT is prone to aggregation. Trp-mPEGs might therefore also be used for stabilization of other biopharmaceuticals prone to aggregation.

  8. Coagulation and Fragmentation in molecular clouds. II. The opacity of the dust aggregate size distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ormel, C W; Tielens, A G G M; Dominik, C; Paszun, D


    The dust size distribution in molecular clouds can be strongly affected by ice-mantle formation and (subsequent) grain coagulation. Following previous work where the dust size distribution has been calculated from a state-of-the art collision model for dust aggregates that involves both coagulation and fragmentation (Paper I), the corresponding opacities are presented in this study. The opacities are calculated by applying the effective medium theory assuming that the dust aggregates are a mix of 0.1{\\mu}m silicate and graphite grains and vacuum. In particular, we explore how the coagulation affects the near-IR opacities and the opacity in the 9.7{\\mu}m silicate feature. We find that as dust aggregates grow to {\\mu}m-sizes both the near-IR color excess and the opacity in the 9.7 {\\mu}m feature increases. Despite their coagulation, porous aggregates help to prolong the presence of the 9.7{\\mu}m feature. We find that the ratio between the opacity in the silicate feature and the near-IR color excess becomes lowe...

  9. Depletion induced encapsulation by dumbbell-shaped patchy colloids stabilize microspheres against aggregation. (United States)

    Wolters, Joost Robert; Verweij, Joanne E; Avvisati, Guido; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K


    In this paper, we demonstrate the stabilization of polystyrene microspheres by encapsulating them with dumbbell-shaped colloids with a sticky and a non-sticky lobe. Upon adding a depletant, an effective short ranged attraction is induced between the microspheres and the smaller, smooth lobes of the dumbbells, making those specifically sticky, whereas the interaction with the larger lobes of the dumbbells is considerably less attractive due to their rough surface, which reduces the overlap volume and leaves them non-sticky. The encapsulation of the microspheres by these rough-smooth patchy dumbbells is investigated using a combination of experiments and computer simulations, both resulting in partial coverage of the template particles. For larger microspheres, the depletion attraction is stronger, resulting in a larger fraction of dumbbells that are attached with both lobes to the surface of microspheres. We thus find a template curvature dependent orientation of the dumbbells. In the Monte Carlo simulations, the introduction of such a small, curvature dependent attraction between the rough lobes of the dumbbells resulted in an increased coverage. However, kinetic constraints imposed by the dumbbell geometry seem to prevent optimal packing of the dumbbells on the template particles under all investigated conditions in experiments and simulations. Despite the incomplete coverage, the encapsulation by dumbbell particles does prevent aggregation of the microspheres, thus acting as a colloid-sized steric stabilizer.

  10. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions. (United States)

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping


    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  11. Non-native plants and soil microbes: potential contributors to the consistent reduction in soil aggregate stability caused by the disturbance of North American grasslands. (United States)

    Duchicela, Jessica; Vogelsang, Keith M; Schultz, Peggy A; Kaonongbua, Wittaya; Middleton, Elizabeth L; Bever, James D


    • Soil aggregate stability is an important ecosystem property that is altered by anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the generalization of these alterations and the identification of the main contributors are limited by the absence of cross-site comparisons and the application of inconsistent methodologies across regions. • We assessed aggregate stability in paired remnant and post-disturbance grasslands across California, shortgrass and tallgrass prairies, and in manipulative experiments of plant composition and soil microbial inoculation. • Grasslands recovering from anthropogenic disturbance consistently had lower aggregate stability than remnants. Across all grasslands, non-native plant diversity was significantly associated with reduced soil aggregate stability. A negative effect of non-native plants on aggregate stability was also observed in a mesocosm experiment comparing native and non-native plants from California grasslands. Moreover, an inoculation study demonstrated that the degradation of the microbial community also contributes to the decline in soil aggregate stability in disturbed grasslands. • Anthropogenic disturbance consistently reduced water-stable aggregates. The stability of aggregates was reduced by non-native plants and the degradation of the native soil microbial community. This latter effect might contribute to the sustained decline in aggregate stability following anthropogenic disturbance. Further exploration is advocated to understand the generality of these potential mechanisms.

  12. Speciation and distribution of P associated with Fe and Al oxides in aggregate-sized fraction of an arable soil (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Bol, R.; Willbold, S.; Vereecken, H.; Klumpp, E.


    To maximize crop productivity fertilizer P is generally applied to arable soils, a significant proportion of which becomes stabilized by mineral components and in part subsequently becomes unavailable to plants. However, little is known about the relative contributions of the different organic and inorganic P bound to Fe/Al oxides in the smaller soil particles. Alkaline (NaOH-Na2EDTA) extraction with solution 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy is considered a reliable method for extracting and quantifying organic P and (some) inorganic P. However, any so-called residual P after the alkaline extraction has remained unidentified. Therefore, in the present study, the amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) Fe/Al oxide minerals and related P in soil aggregate-sized fractions (> 20, 2-20, 0.45-2 and citrate-bicarbonate (DCB, both a- and c-Fe/Al oxides). These soil aggregate-sized fractions with and without the oxalate and DCB pre-treatments were then sequentially extracted by alkaline extraction prior to solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy. This was done to quantify the P associated with a- and c-Fe/Al oxides in both alkaline extraction and the residual P of different soil aggregate-sized fractions. The results showed that overall P contents increased with decreasing size of the soil aggregate-sized fractions. However, the relative distribution and speciation of varying P forms were found to be independent of soil aggregate-size. The majority of alkaline-extractable P was in the a-Fe/Al oxide fraction (42-47 % of total P), most of which was ortho-phosphate (36-41 % of total P). Furthermore, still significant amounts of particularly monoester P were bound to these oxides. Intriguingly, however, Fe/Al oxides were not the main bonding sites for pyrophosphate. Residual P contained similar amounts of total P associated with both a- (11-15 % of total P) and c-Fe oxides (7-13 % of total P) in various aggregate-sized fractions, suggesting that it was likely occluded

  13. Relaxation times and modes of disturbed aggregate distribution in micellar solutions with fusion and fission of micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Anatoly I.; Adzhemyan, Loran Ts.; Shchekin, Alexander K., E-mail: [Department of Statistical Physics, Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 1, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)


    We have performed direct numerical calculations of the kinetics of relaxation in the system of surfactant spherical micelles under joint action of the molecular mechanism with capture and emission of individual surfactant molecules by molecular aggregates and the mechanism of fusion and fission of the aggregates. As a basis, we have taken the difference equations of aggregation and fragmentation in the form of the generalized kinetic Smoluchowski equations for aggregate concentrations. The calculations have been made with using the droplet model of molecular surfactant aggregates and two modified Smoluchowski models for the coefficients of aggregate-monomer and aggregate-aggregate fusions which take into account the effects of the aggregate size and presence of hydrophobic spots on the aggregate surface. A full set of relaxation times and corresponding relaxation modes for nonequilibrium aggregate distribution in the aggregation number has been found. The dependencies of these relaxation times and modes on the total concentration of surfactant in the solution and the special parameter controlling the probability of fusion in collisions of micelles with other micelles have been studied.

  14. Aggregation and Stability of Reduced Graphene Oxide: Complex Roles of Divalent Cations, pH, and Natural Organic Matter (United States)

    The aggregation and stability of graphene oxide (GO) and three successively reduced GO (rGO) nanomaterials were investigated. Reduced GO species were partially reduced GO (rGO-1h), intermediately reduced GO (rGO-2h), and fully reduced GO (rGO-5h). Specifically, influence of pH, i...

  15. Stability of Child Behavioral Style in the First 30 Months of Life: Single Timepoint and Aggregated Measures (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Schiller, Masha; Hayden, Lisa; Seifer, Ronald


    The current study examined the stability of temperament over time. Observers and mothers rated child behavior at eight timepoints across three assessment waves (8, 15, and 30 months of age). Internal consistency reliability of aggregates of the eight observer reports and eight mother reports were high. When considering single timepoint…

  16. Trifluoroethanol modulates α-synuclein amyloid-like aggregate formation, stability and dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Carlo, Maria Giovanna; Vetri, Valeria; Buscarino, Gianpiero


    The conversion of proteins into amyloid fibrils and other amyloid-like aggregates is closely connected to the onset of a series of age-related pathologies. Upon changes in environmental conditions, amyloid-like aggregates may also undergo disassembly into oligomeric aggregates, the latter being r...

  17. Effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly


    Kang, Kwon-Young


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons were randomly divided into an experimental group which performed core strengthening exercises, and a control group which performed standard strengthening exercises for 8 weeks. A Tetrax Interactive Balance System was used to evaluate the weight distribution index (WDI) and the stability index (SI). [Results] The ...

  18. Formation of enzyme polymer engineered structure for laccase and cross-linked laccase aggregates stabilization. (United States)

    Hassani, Thanina; Ba, Sidy; Cabana, Hubert


    Laccase and laccase-based cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) were stabilized through the formation of a surrounding polymeric network made of chitosan and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The thermoresistance of the resulting enzyme polymer engineered structures of laccase (EPES-lac) and CLEAs (EPES-CLEA) were more than 30 times higher than that of free laccase and CLEAs at pH 3 and 40 °C. The EPES showed higher residual activity than the unmodified biocatalysts against chaotropic salts (up to 10 times), EDTA (up to 5 times), methanol (up to 15 times) and acetone (up to 20 times). The Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters revealed that the affinity for 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) has doubled for the EPES-lac and EPES CLEA compared to their unmodified forms. The EPES-lac structures acted optimally at pH 4 and their activity was nearly temperature-independent, while the laccase activity of EPES-CLEA was optimal at pH 4 and 60 °C. Globally, the EPES have shown significantly improved properties which make them attractive candidate for the development of laccase-based applications.

  19. Introduction of d-Glutamate at a Critical Residue of Aβ42 Stabilizes a Prefibrillary Aggregate with Enhanced Toxicity. (United States)

    Warner, Christopher J A; Dutta, Subrata; Foley, Alejandro R; Raskatov, Jevgenij A


    The amyloid beta peptide 42 (Aβ42) is an aggregation-prone peptide that plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease. We report that a subtle perturbation to the peptide through a single chirality change at glutamate 22 leads to a pronounced delay in the β-sheet adoption of the peptide. This was accompanied by an attenuated propensity of the peptide to form fibrils, which was correlated with changes at the level of the fibrillary architecture. Strikingly, the incorporation of d-glutamate was found to stabilize a soluble, ordered macromolecular assembly with enhanced cytotoxicity to PC12 cells, highlighting the importance of advanced prefibrillary Aβ aggregates in neurotoxicity.

  20. The Kinetic and Equilibrium Cluster Size Distributions of Finite Bond Aggregation Processes (United States)

    Sherman, Derin Andrew

    Aggregation is a phenomenon central to many natural and synthetic processes. In this thesis, I explore in detail the phenomenon of antibody-induced colloidal aggregation. I use a new and novel system composed of highly charged uniform polystyrene microspheres to which antigens are covalently coupled. Bivalent antibodies in solution bind to the antigens on the spheres' surfaces and crosslink the spheres causing them to aggregate. As such, the bonds which form between the spheres are discrete and rigid. Using a single particle light scattering instrument developed in the Cohen laboratory, I have measured the temporal evolution of the cluster size distribution for the system of spheres and antibodies. The results show that the cluster size distribution exhibits dynamic scaling. Although antigen coated colloidal spheres have been used extensively in the past, the system I use is unique in that the bonds which form between the antibodies and the spheres are fragile making the aggregation process thermodynamically reversible. This effect causes the system to reach equilibrium in a finite amount of time. The classical theory which predicts the equilibrium cluster size distribution for a variety of aggregating systems is known as Flory -Stockmayer theory. Since each monomer possesses several antibodies and several antigens,m the colloidal system is expected to obey the statistics for the Flory A _{f}RB_{g} model where f,ggg 1. In Flory's model, the system is expected to gel. However, I see no evidence of gelation. I am able to resolve this discrepancy using the ideas of Ball and colleagues. I have also developed the theory by which this system may be used to measure the binding affinity between antibodies and antigens. I have used the light scattering instrument to measure the binding affinity between a monoclonal antibody and a number of different antigens covering a large range of binding affinities. I have demonstrated that the instrument is capable of detecting small


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the stability theory of functional differential equations, this paper studies the asymptotic stability of a singular system with distributed delays by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and applying the linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the main results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiye; Wu Pingbo; Dai Huanyun


    In this paper, without assuming the boundedness, monotonicity and differentiability of the activation functions, the conditions ensuring existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of the equilibrium point of Hopfield neural network models with distributed time delays are studied. Using M-matrix theory and constructing proper Liapunov functionals, the sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability are obtained.

  3. Particle aggregation at the edges of anticyclonic eddies and implications for distribution of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samuelsen


    Full Text Available Acoustic measurements show that the biomass of zooplankton and mesopelagic fish is redistributed by mesoscale variability and that the signal extends over several hundred meters depth. The mechanisms governing this distribution are not well understood, but influences from both physical (i.e. redistribution and biological processes (i.e. nutrient transport, primary production, active swimming, etc. are likely. This study examines how hydrodynamic conditions and basic vertical swimming behavior act to distribute biomass in an anticyclonic eddy. Using an eddy-resolving 2.3 km-resolution physical ocean model as forcing for a particle-tracking module, particles representing passively floating organisms and organisms with vertical swimming behavior are released within an eddy and monitored for 20 to 30 days. The role of hydrodynamic conditions on the distribution of biomass is discussed in relation to the acoustic measurements. Particles released close to the surface tend, in agreement with the observations, to accumulate around the edge of the eddy, whereas particles released at depth gradually become distributed along the isopycnals. After a month they are displaced several hundreds meters in the vertical with the deepest particles found close to the eddy center and the shallowest close to the edge. There is no evidence of aggregation of particles along the eddy rim in the last simulation. The model results points towards a physical mechanism for aggregation at the surface, however biological processes cannot be ruled out using the current modeling tool.

  4. [Pollutant distribution in organo-mineral aggregates in topsoils from a site contaminated by organochlorine pesticides]. (United States)

    Cong, Xin; Xue, Nan-dong; Liang, Gang; Wang, Shi-jie; Zhu, Shu-quan; Li, Fa-sheng


    Four different soil particle-size fractions that is clay, silt, fine sand and coarse sand ( 200 microm) from the topsoils in an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) field were separated by physical method to characterize the OCPs distribution in soils and to study the effect of organic matter and mineral composition in different separates on pollutants distribution. The results show that the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in silt with 463.1 mg x kg(-1) and 1225.6 mg x kg(-1) are higher than those in coarse sand, 157.8 mg x kg(-1) and 384.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There is a significant correlationship between IgKoc. and the contents of HCHs and DDTs in clay. The analysis on X-ray diffraction of organo-mineral aggregates demonstrates that clay and silt have a much higher content of the clay minerals than those in coarse sand within the contaminated soils. There are some differences with different particle-size fractions in the content and composition of the clay minerals in organo-mineral aggregates, which affect the OCP distribution in soils to some extents. The results also suggest that the distribution of HCHs and DDTs in the particle with more pollutants in the site is similar to that in airborne particles. So the environmental behavior of OCPs in topsoils from the contaminated site should be paid more attention especially in ambient air-soil interaction.

  5. Effects of straw and biochar amendments on aggregate stability, soil organic carbon, and enzyme activities in the Loess Plateau, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Cheng, Gong; Feng, Hao; Sun, Benhua; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Haixin; Chen, Jing; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Afeng


    Soil from the Loess Plateau of China is typically low in organic carbon and generally has poor aggregate stability. Application of organic amendments to these soils could help to increase and sustain soil organic matter levels and thus to enhance soil aggregate stability. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the application of wheat straw and wheat straw-derived biochar (pyrolyzed at 350-550 °C) amendments on soil aggregate stability, soil organic carbon (SOC), and enzyme activities in a representative Chinese Loess soil during summer maize and winter wheat growing season from 2013 to 2015. Five treatments were set up as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (N), wheat straw applied at 8 t ha(-1) with inorganic fertilizer (S8), and wheat straw-derived biochar applied at 8 t ha(-1) (B8) and 16 t ha(-1) (B16) with inorganic fertilizer, respectively. Compared to the N treatment, straw and straw-derived biochar amendments significantly increased SOC (by 33.7-79.6%), microbial biomass carbon (by 18.9-46.5%), and microbial biomass nitrogen (by 8.3-38.2%), while total nitrogen (TN) only increased significantly in the B16 plot (by 24.1%). The 8 t ha(-1) straw and biochar applications had no significant effects on soil aggregation, but a significant increase in soil macro-aggregates (>2 mm) (by 105.8%) was observed in the B16 treatment. The concentrations of aggregate-associated SOC increased by 40.4-105.8% in macro-aggregates (>2 mm) under straw and biochar amendments relative to the N treatment. No significant differences in invertase and alkaline phosphatase activity were detected among different treatments. However, urease activity was greater in the biochar treatment than the straw treatment, indicating that biochar amendment improved the transformation of nitrogen in the soil. The carbon pool index and carbon management index were increased with straw and biochar amendments, especially in the B16

  6. Stabilization of stochastic Hopfield neural network with distributed parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Qi; DENG Feiqi; BAO Jundong; ZHAO Birong; FU Yuli


    In this paper, the stability of stochastic Hopfield neural network with distributed parameters is studied. To discuss the stability of systems, the main idea is to integrate the solution to systems in the space variable. Then, the integration is considered as the solution process of corresponding neural networks described by stochastic ordinary differential equations. A Lyapunov function is constructed and It(o) formula is employed to compute the derivative of the mean Lyapunov function along the systems, with respect to the space variable. It is difficult to treat stochastic systems with distributed parameters since there is no corresponding It(o) formula for this kind of system. Our method can overcome this difficulty. Till now, the research of stability and stabilization of stochastic neural networks with distributed parameters has not been considered.

  7. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Jianhua


    Secure data aggregation (SDA) schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics) and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA), in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss.

  8. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Guo


    Full Text Available Secure data aggregation (SDA schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA, in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss.

  9. Soil aggregation and the stabilization of organic carbon as affected by erosion and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cammeraat, E.L.H.; Cerli, C.; Kalbitz, K.


    The importance of soil aggregation in determining the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) during erosion, transportation and deposition is poorly understood. Particularly, we do not know how aggregation contributes to the often-observed accumulation of SOC at depositional sites. Our objective was

  10. Particle Restabilization in Silica/PEG/Ethanol Suspensions: How Strongly do Polymers Need To Adsorb To Stabilize Against Aggregation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Youn; Zukoski, Charles F. (UIUC)


    We study the effects of increasing the concentration of a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol on the stability of 44 nm diameter silica nanoparticles suspended in ethanol. Polymer concentration, c{sub p}, is increased from zero to that characterizing the polymer melt. Particle stability is accessed through measurement of the particle second-virial coefficient, B{sub -2}, performed by light scattering and ultrasmall angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The results show that at low polymer concentration, c{sub p} < 3 wt %, B{sub -2} values are positive, indicating repulsive interactions between particles. B{sub -2} decreases at intermediate concentrations (3 wt % < c{sub p} < 50 wt %), and particles aggregates are formed. At high concentrations (50 wt % < c{sub p}) B{sub -2} increases and stabilizes at a value expected for hard spheres with a diameter near 44 nm, indicating the particles are thermodynamically stable. At intermediate polymer concentrations, rates of aggregation are determined by measuring time-dependent changes in the suspension turbidity, revealing that aggregation is slowed by the necessity of the particles diffusing over a repulsive barrier in the pair potential. The magnitude of the barrier passes through a minimum at c{sub p} {approx} 12 wt % where it has a value of {approx}12kT. These results are understood in terms of a reduction of electrostatic repulsion and van der Waals attractions with increasing c{sub p}. Depletion attractions are found to play a minor role in particle stability. A model is presented suggesting displacement of weakly adsorbed polymer leads to slow aggregation at intermediate concentration, and we conclude that a general model of depletion restabilization may involve increased strength of polymer adsorption with increasing polymer concentration.

  11. Distributed-Order Dynamic Systems Stability, Simulation, Applications and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Zhuang; Podlubny, Igor


    Distributed-order differential equations, a generalization of fractional calculus, are of increasing importance in many fields of science and engineering from the behaviour of complex dielectric media to the modelling of nonlinear systems. This Brief will broaden the toolbox available to researchers interested in modeling, analysis, control and filtering. It contains contextual material outlining the progression from integer-order, through fractional-order to distributed-order systems. Stability issues are addressed with graphical and numerical results highlighting the fundamental differences between constant-, integer-, and distributed-order treatments. The power of the distributed-order model is demonstrated with work on the stability of noncommensurate-order linear time-invariant systems. Generic applications of the distributed-order operator follow: signal processing and viscoelastic damping of a mass–spring set up. A new general approach to discretization of distributed-order derivatives and integrals ...

  12. The Fuzzy Logic Model for the Prediction of Marshall Stability of Lightweight Asphalt Concretes Fabricated using Expanded Clay Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan SERİN


    Full Text Available In the study, predictability of Marshall Stability (MS of light asphalt concrete that fabricated using expanded clay and had varied mix properties with Fuzzy Logic (FL were researched. With this aim, asphalt concrete samples that added expanded clay aggregate (EC in accordance with gradation determined in Highway Technical Specification, had different percentage of bitumen (POB (4.5%, 5%, 5.5%, 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%, 8.5%, 9%, 9.5%, 10%, 10.5% and unit weight (UW (1,75–1,87 (gr/cm3 were prepared and determined Marshall stabilities with Marshall test

  13. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: influence of aggregate formation on process stability. (United States)

    Kleyböcker, A; Liebrich, M; Kasina, M; Kraume, M; Wittmaier, M; Würdemann, H


    Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH>7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance after re-activation of biogas production. In contrast, during the counter measure with NaOH aggregate formation was only minor resulting in a rapid process failure subsequent the increase of the organic loading rate.

  14. Ecosystem stability and the distribution of community matrix eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harte, J.


    A definition or measure of ecological stability is introduced which is advantageous in that it may be empirically accessible and in that it relates to practical concerns in situations of environmental stress. It is shown how this measure can be analyzed, for an arbitrary system described by a community matrix, by model-independent mathematical methods. The relationship between the stability of any such system and both the distribution of community matrix eigenvalues and the pattern of pathway linkages is discussed.

  15. Stabilizing model predictive control for constrained nonlinear distributed delay systems. (United States)

    Mahboobi Esfanjani, R; Nikravesh, S K Y


    In this paper, a model predictive control scheme with guaranteed closed-loop asymptotic stability is proposed for a class of constrained nonlinear time-delay systems with discrete and distributed delays. A suitable terminal cost functional and also an appropriate terminal region are utilized to achieve asymptotic stability. To determine the terminal cost, a locally asymptotically stabilizing controller is designed and an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasoskii functional of the locally stabilized system is employed as the terminal cost. Furthermore, an invariant set for locally stabilized system which is established by using the Razumikhin Theorem is used as the terminal region. Simple conditions are derived to obtain terminal cost and terminal region in terms of Bilinear Matrix Inequalities. The method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  16. Stability and gelation behavior of bovine serum albumin pre-aggregates in the presence of calcium chloride. (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Arosio, Paolo; Podolskaya, Olga Gennadievna; Wei, Dan; Morbidelli, Massimo


    We study, using wide-angle and small-angle light scattering techniques, the stability and aggregation/gelation behaviors of denatured filamentous bovine serum albumin pre-aggregates (BSA-PAs), induced by CaCl(2). It is observed that transparent filamentous gels can be formed not only at low CaCl(2) concentrations but also at high CaCl(2) concentrations, while turbid gels are obtained at intermediate CaCl(2) concentrations. Although the filamentous gels at low CaCl(2) concentrations and the turbid gels at intermediate CaCl(2) concentrations are consistent with the literature observations, the filamentous gels at high CaCl(2) concentrations have to be explained by different mechanisms. The latter is attributed to the repulsive hydration interactions originating from increased surface dipoles generated by counterion binding. Since such surface dipole-induced hydration is very short-range and occurs mainly on charged or polar patches of proteins (thus protected from aggregation), the aggregation of the filamentous BSA-PAs at hydrophobic patches at the two ends is still possible, leading to formation of the filamentous gels.

  17. Effects of biodegradable plastics on the predominant culturable bacteria associated with soil aggregate formation and stability after 9 months of incubation in natural soil (United States)

    An in vitro study of the effects of biodegradable plastics on the predominant soil aggregating bacteria associated to soil aggregate formation and stability after 9 months of incubation in soil. Caesar-TonThat TC, Fukui R*, Caesar AJ., Lartey, RT, and Gaskin, JF. USDA-Agricultural Research Service, ...

  18. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.


    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  19. Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil (United States)

    Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.


    One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

  20. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs? (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin


    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  1. An Aggregate Model for the Particle Size Distribution in Saturn's Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai; Hayakawa, Hisao; Bodrova, Anna; Spahn, Frank; Schmidt, Juergen


    Saturn's rings are known to consist of a large number of water ice particles. They form a flat disk, as the result of an interplay of angular momentum conservation and the steady loss of energy in dissipative particle collisions. For particles in the size range from a few centimeters to about a few meters a power law distribution of radii r^(-q), with q = 3, is implied by the light scattering properties of the rings. In contrast, for larger sizes the distribution drops steeply with increasing r. It has been suggested that this size distribution may arise from a balance between aggregation and fragmentation of ring particles, but to date neither the power-law dependence, nor the upper size-cutoff have been explained or quantified within a unique theory. Here we present a new kinetic model for the collisional evolution of the size distribution and show that the exponent q is expected to be constrained to the interval 2.75 < q < 3.5. An exponential cutoff towards larger particle sizes establishes naturally...

  2. The distribution of deep-sea sponge aggregations in the North Atlantic and implications for their effective spatial management (United States)

    Howell, Kerry-Louise; Piechaud, Nils; Downie, Anna-Leena; Kenny, Andrew


    Sponge aggregations have been recognised as key component of shallow benthic ecosystems providing several important functional roles including habitat building and nutrient recycling. Within the deep-sea ecosystem, sponge aggregations may be extensive and available evidence suggests they may also play important functional roles, however data on their ecology, extent and distribution in the North Atlantic is lacking, hampering conservation efforts. In this study, we used Maximum Entropy Modelling and presence data for two deep-sea sponge aggregation types, Pheronema carpenteri aggregations and ostur aggregations dominated by geodid sponges, to address the following questions: 1) What environmental factors drive the broad-scale distribution of these selected sponge grounds? 2) What is the predicted distribution of these grounds in the northern North Atlantic, Norwegian and Barents Sea? 3) How are these sponge grounds distributed between Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and High Seas areas? 4) What percentage of these grounds in High Seas areas are protected by the current High Seas MPA network? Our results suggest that silicate concentration, temperature, depth and amount of particulate organic carbon are the most important drivers of sponge distribution. Most of the sponge grounds are located within national EEZs rather than in the High Seas. Coordinated conservation planning between nations with significant areas of sponge grounds such as Iceland, Greenland and Faroes (Denmark), Norway (coastal Norway and Svalbard), Portugal and the UK, should be implemented in order to effectively manage these communities in view of the increasing level of human activity within the deep-sea environment.

  3. Distributed formation stabilization for mobile agents using virtual tensegrity structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qingkai; Cao, Ming; Fang, Hao; Chen, Jie


    This paper investigates the distributed formation control problem for a group of mobile Euler-Lagrange agents to achieve global stabilization by using virtual tensegrity structures. Firstly, a systematic approach to design tensegrity frameworks is elaborately explained to confine the interaction rel

  4. Effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly. (United States)

    Kang, Kwon-Young


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons were randomly divided into an experimental group which performed core strengthening exercises, and a control group which performed standard strengthening exercises for 8 weeks. A Tetrax Interactive Balance System was used to evaluate the weight distribution index (WDI) and the stability index (SI). [Results] The experimental group showed a significant improvement in terms of WDI and the SI. However, the control group showed no significant improvement in either. [Conclusion] Core muscle stability training should be considered as a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve their WDI, and SI, and as a fall prevention measure.

  5. Relationship of Social and Lifestyle Factors with Central Fat Distribution Expressed by the Aggregate Fat Distribution Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suder Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is caused by several factors and the explanation of the level of its variability also depends on anthropometric indexes applied for its assessment. The aim was to determine the degree of explanation of the abdominal adiposity variation, presented by the aggregate fat distribution index (AFDI, through the socio-economic status and lifestyle. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a sample of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. A full model was created using a stepwise backward regression with the social and lifestyle data as independent variables and the AFDI as a dependent variable. The AFDI was created by unitarization applied to selected characteristics of fat distribution which were transformed into [0,1] interval (without measurement unit and then added and averaged to form a composite index. The highest autonomous influence on AFDI is ascribed to age (b = 0.2456 p = 0.000, level of motor fitness b=−0.2392 p=0.000, leisure time physical activity (b=−0.1353 p=0.000 and being born in a rural area (b=0.1300 p=0.000. The variables explain 17% (R2=0.1667 of the variation of the central fat distribution. Variation of the abdominal adiposity was explained with the use of AFDI at the level close to the commonly applied indexes.

  6. Aggregate stability and associated C and N in a silty loam soil as affected by organic material inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Pan; SUI Peng; GAO Wang-sheng; WANG Bin-bin; HUANG Jian-xiong; YAN Peng; ZOU Juan-xiu; YAN Ling-ling; CHEN Yuan-quan


    To make recycling utilization of organic materials produced in various agricultural systems, ifve kinds of organic materials were applied in a ifeld test, including crop straw (CS), biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), wine residue (WR), pig manure (PM), with a mineral fertilizer (CF) and a no-fertilizer (CK) treatment as a control. Our objectives were:i) to quantify the effects of organic materials on soil C and N accumulation;i ) to evaluate the effects of organic materials on soil aggregate stability, along with the total organic carbon (TOC), and N in different aggregate fractions;and i i) to assess the relationships among the organic material components, soil C and N, and C, N in aggregate fractions. The trial was conducted in Wuqiao County, Hebei Province, China. The organic materials were incorporated at an equal rate of C, and combined with a mineral fertilizer in amounts of 150 kg N ha-1, 26 kg P ha-1 and 124 kg K ha-1 respectively during each crop season of a wheat-maize rotation system. The inputted C quantity of each organic material treatment was equivalent to the total amount of C contained in the crop straw harvested in CS treatement in the previous season. TOC, N, water-stable aggregates, and aggregate-associated TOC and N were investigated. The results showed that organic material incorpora-tion increased soil aggregation and stabilization. On average, the soil macroaggregate proportion increased by 14%, the microaggregate proportion increased by 3%, and mean-weight diameter (MWD) increased by 20%. TOC content fol owed the order of PM>WR>MR>BR>CS>CK>CF;N content fol owed the order WR>PM>MR>BR>CS>CF>CK. No signiifcant correlation was found between TOC, N, and the quality of organic material. Soil silt and clay particles contained the largest part of TOC, whereas the smal macroaggregate fraction was the most sensitive to organic materials. Our results indicate that PM and WR exerted better effects on soil C and N accumulation, fol owed by MR

  7. A zwitterion-DNA coating stabilizes nanoparticles against Mg2+ driven aggregation enabling attachment to DNA nanoassemblies (United States)

    Mudalige, Thilak Kumara; Gang, Oleg; Sherman, William B.


    Plasmonics and photonics demand new methods for the controlled construction of nanoparticle (NP) arrays. Complex, low-symmetry configurations of DNA-functionalized NPs are obtained by connection to scaffolds of branched and folded DNA nanostructures. However, the stabilization of these branched structures by Mg2+ counterions also drives the uncontrolled aggregation of NPs. We demonstrate, using a two-dimensional DNA scaffold, that derivatizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with zwitterionic ligands overcomes this problem.Plasmonics and photonics demand new methods for the controlled construction of nanoparticle (NP) arrays. Complex, low-symmetry configurations of DNA-functionalized NPs are obtained by connection to scaffolds of branched and folded DNA nanostructures. However, the stabilization of these branched structures by Mg2+ counterions also drives the uncontrolled aggregation of NPs. We demonstrate, using a two-dimensional DNA scaffold, that derivatizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with zwitterionic ligands overcomes this problem. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Visual survey of ligand stabilization of AuNPs, experimental methods, and DNA details. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30479a

  8. Stabilization of individual tubular J-aggregates by poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Berlepsch, H; Kirstein, S; Hania, R; Didraga, C; Pugzlys, A; Bottcher, C


    The changes in the optical properties and morphology of J-aggregates fonned by the 3,3'-bis(3-carboxypropyl)5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1'-dioctylbenzimidacarbocyanine dye (C8O3) in aqueous solution that are induced by the addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were investigated by optical spectroscopy a

  9. Compressive Strength, Pore Size Distribution and Chloride-ion Penetration of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Class-F Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Shicong; C S Poon


    The effects of fly ash on the compressive strength, pore size distribution ard chloride-ion penetration of recycled aggregate concrete were investigated. Two series of concrete mixtures were prepared. The concrete mixtures in series I had a water-to-binder ratio and a cement content of 0.55 and 410 kg/m3 , respectively. The concrete mixtures in series Ⅱ had a water-to-binder ratio and a cement content of 0.45 and 400 kg/m3 respectively. Recycled aggregate was used as 20% , 50% , and 100% replacements of natural coarse aggregate in the concrete mixtures in both series. In addition, fly ash was used as 0% , 25% and 35% by weight replacements of cement. The results show that the compressive strengths of the concrete decreased as the recycled aggregate and the fly ash contents increased. The total porosity and average porosity diameter of the concrete increased as the recycled aggregate content increased. Furthermore, an increase in the recycled aggregate content decreased the resistance to chloride ion penetration. Nevertheless, the replacement of cement by 25% fly ash improved the resistance to chloride ion penetration and pore diameters and reduced the total porosity of the recycled aggregate concrete.

  10. Fourier and granulometry methods on 3D images of soil surfaces for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Green, O.; Munkholm, Lars Juhl;


    The goal of this research is to present and compare two methods for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution based on high resolution 3D images of the soil surface. The methods for analyzing the images are discrete Fourier transform and granulometry. The results of these methods correlate...... with a measured weight distribution of the soil aggregates. The results have shown that it is possible to distinguish between the cultivated and the uncultivated soil surface. A sensor system suitable for capturing in-situ high resolution 3D images of the soil surface is also described. This sensor system...... is based on a SICK LMS111 laser range scanner....

  11. The predictive performance and stability of six species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yan Duan

    Full Text Available Predicting species' potential geographical range by species distribution models (SDMs is central to understand their ecological requirements. However, the effects of using different modeling techniques need further investigation. In order to improve the prediction effect, we need to assess the predictive performance and stability of different SDMs.We collected the distribution data of five common tree species (Pinus massoniana, Betula platyphylla, Quercus wutaishanica, Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis and simulated their potential distribution area using 13 environmental variables and six widely used SDMs: BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM. Each model run was repeated 100 times (trials. We compared the predictive performance by testing the consistency between observations and simulated distributions and assessed the stability by the standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and the 99% confidence interval of Kappa and AUC values.The mean values of AUC and Kappa from MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM trials were similar and significantly higher than those from BIOCLIM and DOMAIN trials (p<0.05, while the associated standard deviations and coefficients of variation were larger for BIOCLIM and DOMAIN trials (p<0.05, and the 99% confidence intervals for AUC and Kappa values were narrower for MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM. Compared to BIOCLIM and DOMAIN, other SDMs (MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM had higher prediction accuracy, smaller confidence intervals, and were more stable and less affected by the random variable (randomly selected pseudo-absence points.According to the prediction performance and stability of SDMs, we can divide these six SDMs into two categories: a high performance and stability group including MAHAL, RF, MAXENT, and SVM, and a low performance and stability group consisting of BIOCLIM, and DOMAIN. We highlight that choosing appropriate SDMs to address a specific problem is an important part of the modeling process.

  12. Particle aggregation in anticyclonic eddies and implications for distribution of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samuelsen


    Full Text Available Acoustic measurements show that the biomass of zooplankton and mesopelagic fish is redistributed by mesoscale variability and that the signal extends over several hundred meters depth. The mechanisms governing this distribution are not well understood, but influences from both physical (i.e. physical redistribution and biological processes (i.e. nutrient transport, primary production, active swimming, etc. are likely. This study examines how hydrodynamic conditions and basic vertical swimming behavior act to distribute biomass in an anticyclonic eddy. Using an eddy-resolving 2.3 km-resolution physical ocean model as forcing for a particle-tracking module, particles representing passively floating organisms and organisms with vertical swimming behavior are released within an eddy and monitored for 20 to 30 days. The role of hydrodynamic conditions on the distribution of biomass is discussed in relation to the acoustic measurements. Particles released close to the surfaces tend, in agreement with the observations, to accumulate around the edge of the eddy, whereas particles released at depth tend to distribute along the isopycnals. After a month they are displaced several hundreds meters in the vertical with the deepest particles found close to the eddy center, but there is no evidence of aggregation of particles along the eddy rim. All in all, the particle redistribution appears to result from a complex mixture of strain and vertical velocity. The simplified view where the vertical velocity in eddies is regarded as uniform and symmetric around the eddy center is therefore not a reliable representation of the eddy dynamics.

  13. Exploration of indigenous soil bacteria producing-exopolysaccharides for stabilizing of aggregates land potential as biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arfarita


    Full Text Available Steady soil aggregationis important for agricultural land which is formed by the micro-aggregate to become a macro-aggregate. This formation is mediated by organic material and various kinds of macro-organisms such as fungi, worms, ants and insects. An organic agencyinvolved in soil aggregation stabilityis exopolysaccharide (EPS derived from bacterial, fungal mycelium, and products synthesized by plants. However, the use of EPS producing microorganisms as a biofertilizer has not been reported. This study was aimedto explore indigenous EPS-producing bacteria to solidify soil aggregationpotential for biofertilizer. Bacterial strains were isolated from soilsofthree regions at Malang East-Java; two areas of green bean plantation in Kendal Payak and Jambe Gede, as well as forest land. Soil samplewas derived from forest had hasa total bacteria population of 9.3 x 1011 CFU/mL.While soil samples from area Kendal Payak and Jambe Gede had total bacteria population of 1.5 x 109 CFU/mL and 2.4 x 109 CFU/mL, respectively. We selected three bacteria that could potentially produce abundant slime, namely as SPE-2, SPE-10 and SPE-20. The three selected bacteria are potential for biofertilizer because oftheir abundant slime, no antagonism and no symtoms as pathogen.

  14. The capture and stabilization of curcumin using hydrophobically modified polyacrylate aggregates and hydrogels. (United States)

    Harada, Takaaki; Pham, Duc-Truc; Lincoln, Stephen F; Kee, Tak W


    Hydrophobically modified polyacrylates are shown to suppress the degradation of the medicinal pigment curcumin under physiological conditions. In aqueous solution, the 3% octadecyl randomly substituted polyacrylate, PAAC18, forms micelle-like aggregates at a concentration of 1 wt %. Under both conditions, PAAC18 shows a remarkable ability to suppress the degradation of curcumin at pH 7.4 and 37 °C such that its degradation half-life is increased by 1600-2000-fold. The suppression of degradation is attributed to hydrophobic interactions between curcumin and the octadecyl substituents of PAAC18 within the micelle-like aggregates and the hydrogel, as indicated by 2D NOESY (1)H NMR spectroscopy. UV-visible absorption titration results are consistent with the interaction of curcumin with five octadecyl substituents on average, which appears to substantially exclude water and greatly decrease the curcumin degradation rate. Dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements show the average hydrodynamic diameters of the PAAC18 aggregates to be 0.86-1.15 μm with a negative surface charge. In contrast to the octadecyl substitution, the 3% dodecyl randomly substituted polyacrylate, PAAC12, shows a negligible effect on slowing the degradation of curcumin, consistent with the dodecyl substituents being insufficiently long to capture curcumin in a adequately hydrophobic environment. These observations indicate the potential for PAAC18 to act as a model drug delivery system.

  15. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald


    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dorel


    Next generation linear colliders require high stability, low noise distribution of RF phase and timing signals. We describe a fiber-optics system that transmits phase at 357MHz, at a 1500nm wavelength, over a distance of 15 kilometers. Phase length errors in the transmission fiber are measured using the phase of the signal reflected from the fiber end. Corrections are performed by controlling the temperature of a 6-kilometer fiber spool placed in series with the main transmission fiber. This system has demonstrated a phase stability better than 10 femtoseconds per degree C, per kilometer, an improvement of a factor of >2000 relative to un-stabilized fiber. This system uses standard low cost telecom fiber and components.

  17. Investigating Mutations to Reduce Huntingtin Aggregation by Increasing Htt-N-Terminal Stability and Weakening Interactions with PolyQ Domain (United States)

    Mazza-Anthony, Cody; Waldispühl, Jérôme


    Huntington's disease is a fatal autosomal genetic disorder characterized by an expanded glutamine-coding CAG repeat sequence in the huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 gene. The Htt protein associated with the disease misfolds into toxic oligomers and aggregate fibril structures. Competing models for the misfolding and aggregation phenomena have suggested the role of the Htt-N-terminal region and the CAG trinucleotide repeats (polyQ domain) in affecting aggregation propensities and misfolding. In particular, one model suggests a correlation between structural stability and the emergence of toxic oligomers, whereas a second model proposes that molecular interactions with the extended polyQ domain increase aggregation propensity. In this paper, we computationally explore the potential to reduce Htt aggregation by addressing the aggregation causes outlined in both models. We investigate the mutation landscape of the Htt-N-terminal region and explore amino acid residue mutations that affect its structural stability and hydrophobic interactions with the polyQ domain. Out of the millions of 3-point mutation combinations that we explored, the (L4K E12K K15E) was the most promising mutation combination that addressed aggregation causes in both models. The mutant structure exhibited extreme alpha-helical stability, low amyloidogenicity potential, a hydrophobic residue replacement, and removal of a solvent-inaccessible intermolecular side chain that assists oligomerization. PMID:28096892

  18. Stability of a Generalized Quadratic Functional Equation in Schwartz Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Young CHUNG


    We consider the Hyers-Ulam stability problem of the generalized quadratic functional equation u(o)A+v(o)B-2w(o)P1-2k(o)P2=0, which is a distributional version of the classical generalized quadratic functional equation f(x + y) + g(x - y) - 2h(x) - 2k(y) = 0.

  19. Influence of polydisperse distributions of both primary particle and aggregate size on soot temperature in low-fluence LII (United States)

    Liu, F.; Yang, M.; Hill, F. A.; Snelling, D. R.; Smallwood, G. J.


    An improved aggregate-based low-fluence laser-induced incandescence (LII) model has been developed. The shielding effect in heat conduction between aggregated soot particles and the surrounding gas was modeled using the concept of the equivalent heat transfer sphere. The diameter of such an equivalent sphere was determined from direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations in the free molecular regime as functions of the aggregate size and the thermal accommodation coefficient of soot. Both the primary soot particle diameter and the aggregate size distributions are assumed to be lognormal. The effective temperature of a soot particle ensemble containing different primary particle diameters and aggregate sizes in the laser probe volume was calculated based on the ratio of the total thermal radiation intensities of soot particles at 400 and 780 nm to simulate the experimentally measured soot particle temperature using two-color optical pyrometry. The effect of primary particle diameter polydispersity is in general important and should be considered. The effect of aggregate size polydispersity is relatively unimportant when the heat conduction between the primary particles and the surrounding gas takes place in the free-molecular regime; however, it starts to become important when the heat conduction process occurs in the near transition regime. The model developed in this study was also applied to the re-determination of the thermal accommodation coefficient of soot in an atmospheric pressure laminar ethylene diffusion flame.

  20. Methodology aggregated to technical losses evaluation in distribution systems; Metodologia agregada para avaliacao de perdas tecnicas em sistemas de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kleber; Gouvea, Marcos Roberto [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia (CSPE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maliuk, Igor Rafaelievich Perez; Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica


    This work proposes an aggregated methodology for the evaluation of the technical losses in distribution networks, based on statistical methods and complemented by deterministic simplified methods, taking into account the compromise between precision in the results and quantity of necessary data.

  1. Beneath aggregate stability - quantifying thermodynamic properties that drive soil structure dynamics (United States)

    Hallett, Paul; Ogden, Mike; Karim, Kamal; Schmidt, Sonja; Yoshida, Shuichiro


    Soil aggregates are a figment of your energy input and initial boundary conditions, so the basic thermodynamics that drive soil structure formation are needed to understand soil structure dynamics. Using approaches from engineering and materials science, it is possible quantify basic thermodynamic properties, but at present tests are generally limited to highly simplified, often remoulded, soil structures. Although this presents limitations, the understanding of underlying processes driving soil structure dynamics is poor, which could be argued is due to the enormity of the challenge of such an incredibly complex system. Other areas of soil science, particularly soil water physics, relied on simplified structures to develop theories that can now be applied to more complex pore structures. We argue that a similar approach needs to gain prominence in the study of soil aggregates. An overview will be provided of approaches adapted from other disciplines to quantify particle bonding, fracture resistance, rheology and capillary cohesion of soil that drive its aggregation and structure dynamics. All of the tests are limited as they require simplified soil structures, ranging from repacked soils to flat surfaces coated with mineral particles. A brief summary of the different approaches will demonstrate the benefits of collecting basic physical data relevant to soil structure dynamics, including examples where they are vital components of models. The soil treatments we have tested with these engineering and materials science approaches include field soils from a range of management practices with differing clay and organic matters contents, amendment and incubation of soils with a range of microorganisms and substrates in the laboratory, model clay-sand mixes and planar mineral surfaces with different topologies. In addition to advocating the wider adoption of these approaches, we will discuss limitations and hope to stimulate discussion on how approaches could be improved

  2. Effects of Long-Term Fertilization on Distribution of Organic Matters and Nitrogen in Cinnamon Soil Macro-Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Soil samples collected from a 25-year long-term fertilizer experiment carried out on the Earth-cumulic-Orthic Anthrosols in semi-humid farmland ecological system, were used to study the distribution of soil organic matters, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniate nitrogen in different grades of soil macro-aggregates in order to study the effects of long-term application of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizers. It is showed that the percentage of mass of the soil macro-aggregates with long-term application of fertilizers with sizes of 5-2 mm is increased compared with that of the samples with no fertilizer. It is easier to form lager size soil macro-aggregates by the long-term application of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizers. The contents of organic matters, total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen are all higher after treatments with different combinations of fertilizers, while there is a little effect on the contents of ammoniate nitrogen. The contents of organic matters, total nitrogen in the grades of soil macro-aggregates from the plough layers of the treated farmland exhibited significant difference. Moreover, the contents of organic matters and total nitrogen in the soil macro-aggregates with the size of 1-0.25 mm is the highest in all treated soil samples. The contents of nitrate nitrogen in soil macro-aggregates increased with the increasing of soil macro-aggregate size except those applied with chemical fertilizer and lower amount of corn stover. The results of correlation analysis revealed that there exists a significantly positive correlation between the percentage of mass of soil macro-aggregates with the size of 5-2 mm and the contents of organic matters, total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the soil samples. However, the correlation between the percentage of mass of soil macro-aggregates with the size of 1-0.25 mm and the contents of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen is significantly negative. The

  3. Mass distribution in n-polymer stochastic aggregation and large-mass behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛郁; 陈光旨


    The exact solutions of the rate equations of the n-polymer stochastic aggregation involving two types of clusters,active and passive for the kernel n∏κ=1 siκ (siκ=iκ) and n∑κ=1 siκ (siκ= iκ), are obtained. The large-mass behaviours of thefinal mass distribution of the active and passive clusters have scaling-like forms, although the models exhibit different2n+1 2n+1 ∏properties. Respectively, they have different decay exponents γ=(2n+1)/2(n-1)and γ = q +(2n+1)/2(n-1) forn∏κ=1 siκ (siκ=iκ)and γ =3/ 2(n - 1) and γ = q + 3/2(n - 1) for n∑κ=1 siκ (siκ= iκ), which include exponents of two-polymer stochasticaggregation. We also find that gelation is suppressed for kernel ∏ siκ (sik=iκ) which is different from the deterministicaggregation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif


    Full Text Available Acid soil is commonly grown with cassava, which in general, tolerate low soil  fertility and aluminum (Al toxicity. However, without any improvement efforts such soil will become worse. Intercropping cassava with Brachiaria decumbens (BD which adapts to acid soil and tolerates low fertility soils as well as application of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM and organic matters are among the important efforts to rehabilitate this soil. The experiment was conducted to  examine the impact of BD, AM, and potassium (K enriched rice straw compost on exchangeable Al, available K, and stability of soil aggregates. Experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was BD as cassava intercropping, the second factor was AM, and the third factor was 2 t ha-1 rice straw compost enriched with 0 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg, and 200 kg KCl ha-1. Brick pots (1 m length x 1 m width x 0.45 m depth filled with Kanhapludult soil was used for growing cassava in which row of BD was planted at 60 cm from cassava stem. K-enriched rice straw compost and AM (10 g per stem were applied around cassava stem at 2 and 12 days after planting, respectively. BD was cut every 30 days and the cutting was returned to the soil. Soil exchangeable Al was analyzed at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months after planting (MAP, while Al and K contents as well as aggregate stability were measured at 6 MAP. The results showed that planting BD decreased 33% exchangeable Al, which means that the root exudates of this grass was effective in detoxifying Al3+. Treatment of BD and/or in combination with AM was effective in preserving K added to the soil, increasing total polysaccharides, and improving soil aggregate stability. This indicated that planting BD and applying AM and Kenriched rice straw compost improved acid soil fertility, and therefore can be recommended in cassava cultivation.

  5. Erythrocyte aggregation may promote uneven spatial distribution of NO/O2 in the downstream vessel of arteriolar bifurcations. (United States)

    Ng, Yan Cheng; Namgung, Bumseok; Leo, Hwa Liang; Kim, Sangho


    This study examined the effect of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation on nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2) distributions in the downstream vessels of arteriolar bifurcations. Particular attention was paid to the inherent formation of asymmetric cell-free layer (CFL) widths in the downstream vessels and its consequential impact on the NO/O2 bioavailability after the bifurcations. A microscopic image-based two-dimensional transient model was used to predict the NO/O2 distribution by utilizing the in vivo CFL width data obtained under non-, normal- and hyper-aggregating conditions at the pseudoshear rate of 15.6±2.0s(-1). In vivo experimental result showed that the asymmetry of CFL widths was enhanced by the elevation in RBC aggregation level. The model demonstrated that NO bioavailability was regulated by the dynamic fluctuation of the local CFL widths, which is corollary to its modulation of wall shear stress. Accordingly, the uneven distribution of NO/O2 was prominent at opposite sides of the arterioles up to six vessel-diameter (6D) away from the bifurcating point, and this was further enhanced by increasing the levels of RBC aggregation. Our findings suggested that RBC aggregation potentially augments both the formation of asymmetric CFL widths and its influence on the uneven distribution of NO/O2 in the downstream flow of an arteriolar bifurcation. The extended heterogeneity of NO/O2 downstream (2D-6D) also implied its potential propagation throughout the entire arteriolar microvasculature.

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of novel psychoactive substances using polymer-stabilized Ag nanoparticle aggregates. (United States)

    Lee, W W Y; Silverson, V A D; Jones, L E; Ho, Y C; Fletcher, N C; McNaul, M; Peters, K L; Speers, S J; Bell, S E J


    A set of seized "legal high" samples and pure novel psychoactive substances have been examined by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using polymer-stabilized Ag nanoparticle (Poly-SERS) films. The films both quenched fluorescence in bulk samples and allowed identification of μg quantities of drugs collected with wet swabs from contaminated surfaces.

  7. An Imprinted Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregate (iCLEA of Sucrose Phosphorylase: Combining Improved Stability with Altered Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Desmet


    Full Text Available The industrial use of sucrose phosphorylase (SP, an interesting biocatalyst for the selective transfer of α-glucosyl residues to various acceptor molecules, has been hampered by a lack of long-term stability and low activity towards alternative substrates. We have recently shown that the stability of the SP from Bifidobacterium adolescentis can be significantly improved by the formation of a cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA. In this work, it is shown that the transglucosylation activity of such a CLEA can also be improved by molecular imprinting with a suitable substrate. To obtain proof of concept, SP was imprinted with α-glucosyl glycerol and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. As a consequence, the enzyme’s specific activity towards glycerol as acceptor substrate was increased two-fold while simultaneously providing an exceptional stability at 60 °C. This procedure can be performed in an aqueous environment and gives rise to a new enzyme formulation called iCLEA.

  8. Stability of distributed MPC in an intersection scenario (United States)

    Sprodowski, T.; Pannek, J.


    The research topic of autonomous cars and the communication among them has attained much attention in the last years and is developing quickly. Among others, this research area spans fields such as image recognition, mathematical control theory, communication networks, and sensor fusion. We consider an intersection scenario where we divide the shared road space in different cells. These cells form a grid. The cars are modelled as an autonomous multi-agent system based on the Distributed Model Predictive Control algorithm (DMPC). We prove that the overall system reaches stability using Optimal Control for each multi-agent and demonstrate that by numerical results.

  9. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn


    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  10. Distributed execution of aggregated multi domain workflows using an agent framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhao; A. Belloum; C. de Laat; P. Adriaans; B. Hertzberger


    In e-Science, meaningful experiment processes and workflow engines emerge as important scientific resources. A complex experiment often involves services and processes developed in different scientific domains. Aggregating different workflows into one meta workflow avoids unnecessary rewriting of ex

  11. Semigroup approximation and robust stabilization of distributed parameter systems (United States)

    Kurdila, A. J.; Fabiano, R.; Strganac, T.; Hsu, S.


    Theoretical results that enable rigorous statements of convergence and exponential stability of Galerkin approximations of LQR controls for infinite dimensional, or distributed parameter, systems have proliferated over the past ten years. In addition, extensive progress has been made over the same time period in the derivation of robust control design strategies for finite dimensional systems. However, the study of the convergence of robust finite dimensional controllers to robust controllers for infinite dimensional systems remains an active area of research. We consider a class of soft-constrained differential games evolving in a Hilbert space. Under certain conditions, a saddle point control can be given in feedback form in terms of a solution to a Riccati equation. By considering a related LQR problem, we can show a convergence result for finite dimensional approximations of this differential game. This yields a computational algorithm for the feedback gain that can be derived from similar strategies employed in infinite dimensional LQR control design problems. The approach described in this paper also inherits the additional properties of stability robustness common to game theoretic methods in finite dimensional analysis. These theoretical convergence and stability results are verified in several numerical experiments.

  12. Aggregation and stability of anisotropic charged clay colloids in aqueous medium in the presence of salt. (United States)

    Ali, Samim; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini


    Na-montmorillonite nanoclay is a colloid of layered mineral silicate. When dispersed in water, this mineral swells on absorption of water and exfoliates into platelets with electric double layers on their surfaces. Even at low particle concentration, the aqueous dispersion can exhibit a spontaneous ergodicity breaking phase transition from a free flowing liquid to nonequilibrium, kinetically arrested and disordered states such as gels and glasses. In an earlier publication [Applied Clay Science, 2015, 114, 8592], we showed that the stability of clay gels can be enhanced by adding a salt later to the clay dispersion prepared in deionized water, rather than by adding the clay mineral to a previously mixed salt solution. Here, we directly track the collapsing interface of sedimenting clay gels using an optical method and show that adding salt after dispersing the clay mineral does indeed result in more stable gels even in very dilute dispersions. These weak gels are seen to exhibit a transient collapse after a finite delay time, a phenomenon observed previously in depletion gels. The velocity of the collapse oscillates with the age of the sample. However, the average velocity of collapse increases with sample age up to a peak value before decreasing at higher ages. With increasing salt concentration, the delay time for transient collapse decreases, while the peak value of the collapsing velocity increases. Using ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy, rheometry and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we confirm that morphological changes of the gel network assembly, facilitated by thermal fluctuations, lead to the observed collapse phenomenon. Since clay minerals are used extensively in polymer nanocomposites, as rheological modifiers, stabilizers and gas absorbents, we believe that the results reported in this work are extremely useful for several practical applications and also for understanding geophysical phenomena such as the formation and stability of quicksand

  13. Controlled Aggregation and Increased Stability of β-Glucuronidase by Cellulose Binding Domain Fusion (United States)

    Kim, Moonjung; Kwon, Kil Koang; Fu, Yaoyao; Kim, Haseong; Lee, Hyewon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jung, Heungchae; Lee, Seung-Goo


    Cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) are protein domains with cellulose-binding activity, and some act as leaders in the localization of cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins to the hydrophobic surface of crystalline cellulose. In this study, we found that a CBD fusion enhanced and improved soluble β-glucuronidase (GusA) enzyme properties through the formation of an artificially oligomeric state. First, a soluble CBD fused to the C-terminus of GusA (GusA-CBD) was obtained and characterized. Interestingly, the soluble GusA-CBD showed maximum activity at higher temperatures (65°C) and more acidic pH values (pH 6.0) than free GusA did (60°C and pH 7.5). Moreover, the GusA-CBD enzyme showed higher thermal and pH stabilities than the free GusA enzyme did. Additionally, GusA-CBD showed higher enzymatic activity in the presence of methanol than free GusA did. Evaluation of the protease accessibility of both enzymes revealed that GusA-CBD retained 100% of its activity after 1 h incubation in 0.5 mg/ml protease K, while free GusA completely lost its activity. Simple fusion of CBD as a single domain may be useful for tunable enzyme states to improve enzyme stability in industrial applications. PMID:28099480

  14. Optimization of Casting Process Parameters for Homogeneous Aggregate Distribution in Self-Compacting Concrete: A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri;


    The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC) as a construction material has been getting more attention from the industry. Its application area varies from standard structural elements in bridges and skyscrapers to modern architecture having geometrical challenges. However, heterogeneities induced...... during the casting process may lead to variations of local mechanical properties and hence to a potential decrease in load carrying capacity of the structure. This paper presents a methodology for optimization of SCC casting aiming at having a homogeneous aggregate distribution; a beam has been used...... as geometric example. The aggregate distribution is predicted by a numerical flow model coupled with a user defined volume fraction subroutine. The process parameters in casting with SCC in general are horizontal and vertical positions, movement, as well as the size of the inlet, and the duration...

  15. Effects of hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside interaction on the conformation, stability, and aggregation of lysozyme: multispectroscopic and molecular dynamic simulation studies? (United States)

    Ratnaparkhi, Aditi; Muthu, Shivani A; Shiriskar, Sonali M; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Choudhary, Sinjan; Ahmad, Basir


    Hesperidin (HESP), a flavanone glycoside, shows high antioxidant properties and possess ability to go through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it could be a potential drug molecule against aggregation based diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and systemic amyloidoses. In this work, we investigated the potential of HESP to interact with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) monomer and prevent its aggregation. The HESP-HEWL binding studies were performed using a fluorescence quenching technique, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. We found a strong interaction of HESP with the lysozyme monomer (Ka, ~ 5 × 10(4) M(-1)) mainly through hydrogen bonding, water bridges, and hydrophobic interactions. We showed that HESP molecule spanned the highly aggregation prone region (amino acid residues 48-101) of HEWL and prevented its fibrillar aggregation. Further, we found that HESP binding completely inhibited amorphous aggregation of the protein induced by disulfide-reducing agent tries-(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine. Conformational and stability studies as followed by various tertiary and secondary structure probes revealed that HESP binding only marginally affected the lysozyme monomer conformation and increased both stability and reversibility of the protein against thermal denaturation. Future studies should investigate detail effects of HESP on solvent dynamics, structure, and toxicity of various aggregates. The answers to these questions will not only target the basic sciences, but also have application in biomedical and biotechnological sciences.

  16. UV-Visible intensity ratio (aggregates/single particles) as a measure to obtain stability of gold nanoparticles conjugated with protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico); Garcia-Perez, B. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Inmunologia, ENCB (Mexico); Jaramillo-Flores, M. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, ENCB (Mexico); Gayou, V. L.; Rojas-Lopez, M., E-mail: [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico)


    We have analyzed the titration process of gold nanoparticles with several amounts of protein A (0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 9 {mu}g/ml) in the presence of NaCl, which induces aggregation if the surface of particles is not fully covered with protein A. The colloidal solutions with different particle size (16, 18, 20, 33 nm) were synthesized by citrate reduction to be conjugated with protein A. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to measure the absorption of the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as a function of the concentration of protein A. Such dependence shows an aggregation region (0 < x<6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein A was insufficient to cover the surface of particles, obtaining aggregation caused by NaCl. The next part is the stability region (x {>=} 6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein used covers the surface of particles and protects it from the aggregation. In addition to that the ratio between the intensities of both: the aggregates and of the gold nanoparticle bands was plotted as a function of the concentration of protein A. It was determined that 6 {mu}g/ml is a sufficient value of protein A to stabilize the gold nanoparticle-protein A system. This method provides a simple way to stabilize gold nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction, with protein A.

  17. Aggregation and stability of Fe2O3:Influence of humic acid concentration, Fe2O3 concentration and pH (United States)

    Ahmad, Nur Suraya; Radiman, Shahidan; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan


    The scenario of released nanoparticles from consumer product into the environment especially natural waters are increased concern nowadays. Assessing their aggregation and stability under environmental conditions are important to determining their fate and behavior in natural waters. The aggregation behavior of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated at variable concentration of humic acid, Fe2O3 NPs concentration and pH variation in solution using dynamic light scattering to measure their z-average hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential value. The stability are then evaluated by assessing their aggregation and disaggregation. Increasing humic acid concentration induced the disaggregation of Fe2O3 NPs. At a lower concentrations of Fe2O3 (5) of solution induced disaggregation of suspensions and make it stable in the solution. TEM imaging have confirmed that Fe2O3 NPs aggregate and disaggregate in the presence of humic acid. Our study result shows that aggregation and stability of Fe2O3 NPs were depends on concentration of humic acid, concentration of NPs itself and the pH of the solutions.

  18. PEG-stabilized core-shell nanoparticles: impact of linear versus dendritic polymer shell architecture on colloidal properties and the reversibility of temperature-induced aggregation. (United States)

    Gillich, Torben; Acikgöz, Canet; Isa, Lucio; Schlüter, A Dieter; Spencer, Nicholas D; Textor, Marcus


    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been widely used experimentally and also clinically tested in diverse areas of biology and medicine. Applications include magnetic resonance imaging, cell sorting, drug delivery, and hyperthermia. Physicochemical surface properties are particularly relevant in the context of achieving high colloidal nanoparticle (NP) stability and preventing agglomeration (particularly challenging in biological fluids), increasing blood circulation time, and possibly targeting specific cells or tissues through the presentation of bioligands. Traditionally, NP surfaces are sterically stabilized with hydrophilic polymeric matrices, such as dextran or linear poly(ethylene glycol) brushes. While dendrimers have found applications as drug carriers, dispersants with dendritic ("dendrons") or hyperbranched structures have been comparatively neglected despite their unique properties, such as a precisely defined molecular structure and the ability to present biofunctionalities at high density at the NP periphery. This work covers the synthesis of SPIONs and their stabilization based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) chemistry and compares the physicochemical properties of NPs stabilized with linear and dendritic macromolecules of comparable molecular weight. The results highlight the impact of the polymeric interface architecture on solubility, colloidal stability, hydrodynamic radius, and thermoresponsive behavior. Dendron-stabilized NPs were found to provide excellent colloidal stability, despite a smaller hydrodynamic radius and lower degree of soft shell hydration compared to linear PEG analogues. Moreover, for the same grafting density and molecular weight of the stabilizers, OEG dendron-stabilized NPs show a reversible temperature-induced aggregation behavior, in contrast to the essentially irreversible aggregation and sedimentation observed for the linear PEG analogues. This new class of

  19. Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf


    Full Text Available Conceptual models suggest that stability and age of organic carbon (OC in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Various tools like density fractionation, mineralization experiments, and radiocarbon analyses have been used to study the importance of these mechanisms. We systematically apply them to a range of European soils to test whether general controls emerge even for soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled in 10 cm depth intervals to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions – fLF, occluded light fractions – oLF, heavy fractions – HF were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C, and Δ14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine mineralizable OC.

    Declining OC-normalized CO2 release and increasing age with soil depth confirm greater stability of OC in subsoils across sites. Depth profiles of LF-OC matched those of roots, which in turn reflect plant functional types in soil profiles not subject to ploughing. Modern Δ14C signatures and positive correlation between mineralizable C and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is an easily available energy and nutrient source for subsurface microbes. Fossil C derived from the geogenic parent material affected the age of OC especially in the LF at three study sites. The overall importance of OC stabilization by binding to minerals was demonstrated by declining OC-normalized CO2 release rates with increasing contributions of HF-OC to bulk soil OC and the low Δ14C values of HF-OC. The stability of HF-OC was greater in subsoils than in topsoils; nevertheless, a portion of HF-OC was active throughout the profile. The decrease in Δ14C (increase

  20. Change in Chirality of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Can Overcome Anionic Surfactant Stabilization: A Systematic Study of Aggregation Kinetics. (United States)

    Khan, Iftheker A; Flora, Joseph R V; Nabiul Afrooz, A R M; Aich, Nirupam; Schierz, P Ariette; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Saleh, Navid B


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes' (SWNT) effectiveness in applications is enhanced by debundling or stabilization. Anionic surfactants are known to effectively stabilize SWNTs. However, the role of specific chirality on surfactant-stabilized SWNT aggregation has not been studied to date. The aggregation behavior of chirally enriched (6,5) and (7,6) semiconducting SWNTs, functionalized with three anionic surfactants-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), and sodium deoxycholate (SDOCO)-was evaluated with time-resolved dynamic light scattering. A wide range of mono- (NaCl) and di-valent (CaCl2) electrolytes as well as a 2.5 mg TOC/L Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) were used as background chemistry. Overall, SDBS showed the most effectiveness in SWNT stability, followed by SDOCO and SDS. However, the relatively larger diameter (7,6) chiral tubes compromised the surfactant stability, compared to (6,5) chiral enrichment, due to enhanced van der Waals interaction. The presence of di-valent electrolytes overshadowed the chirality effects and resulted in similar aggregation behavior for both the SWNT samples. Molecular modeling results enumerated key differences in surfactant conformation on SWNT surfaces and identified interaction energy changes between the two chiralities to delineate aggregation mechanisms. The stability of SWNTs increased in the presence of SRHA under 10 mM monovalent and mixed electrolyte conditions. The results suggest that change in chirality can overcome surfactant stabilization of semiconducting SWNTs. SWNT stability can also be strongly influenced by the anionic surfactant structure.

  1. Exact constraint aggregation with applications to smart grids and resource distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    in this manner, it is advantageous if the aggregation maintains a certain degree of genericity, since the higher-level algorithms can then be designed with a higher degree of modularity. To achieve this goal, however, it is not only necessary to examine aggregation of models of the underlying units, but also...... the accompanying constraints. Constraint sets for rate- and storage volume-constrained units can often be represented as polytopes in high-dimensional Euclidean space; unfortunately, adding such polytopic sets in higher dimension than 2 has so far been considered a combinatorial problem. In this paper, we present...

  2. Chemical modelling of Alkali Silica reaction: Influence of the reactive aggregate size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyet, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME/LECBA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Sellier, A. [UPS, LMDC, INSA Toulouse, F-33077 Bordeaux 4, (France); Capra, B. [Oxand SA, F-77210 Avon (France); Foray, G. [Univ Lyon 1, L2MS, PETRA GC, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Torrenti, J.M. [IRSN, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Cognon, H. [EdF/DER Les Renardieres, F-77818 Moret Sur Loing (France); Bourdarot, E. [CIH Savoie Technolac, F-73373 Le Bourget du Lac (France)


    This article presents a new model which aims at predicting the expansion induced by Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) and describing the chemical evolution of affected concretes. It is based on the description of the transport and reaction of alkalis and calcium ions within a Relative Elementary Volume (REV). It takes into account the influence of the reactive aggregate size grading on ASR, i.e. the effect of the simultaneous presence of different sized reactive aggregates within concrete. The constitutive equations are detailed and fitted using experimental results. Results from numerical simulations are presented and compared with experiments. (authors)

  3. TiO2 Nanoparticles Aggregation and Disaggregation in Presence of Alginates and Humic Acids: pH and Concentration Effects on Suspension Stability (United States)

    Loosli, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Stoll, Serge


    The behavior of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles is studied here in a systematic way as a function of pH and in the presence of Suwannee river humic acids and alginate, at variable concentrations, which represent two major components found in aquatic systems. TiO2 nanoparticles aggregation, disaggregation and stabilization are investigated using dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic experiments allowing the measurement and evolution determination of z-average hydrodynamic diameters and zeta potential values. Stability of the TiO2 nanoparticles is carried out by considering three pH-dependent electrostatic scenarios (below the point of zero charge of the nanoparticles, at the point of zero charge and above it). In the first scenario, when pH is below the point of zero charge of the TiO2 nanoparticles, nanoparticles exhibit a positively charged surface whereas alginate and Suwannee river humic acids are negatively charged. Fast adsorption at the TiO2 nanoparticles occurs, promotes surface charge neutralization and aggregation and, by increasing further Alginate and Suwannee river humic acids, results in charge inversion and thus stabilization of TiO2 nanoparticles. In the second electrostatic scenario, at the pH of the TiO2 surface charge neutralization, TiO2 nanoparticles are rapidly forming aggregates and adsorption of alginate and Suwannee river humic acid on aggregates surface leads to the partial disaggregation of aggregates. In the third electrostatic scenario, when nanoparticles, alginates and Suwannee river humic acids are negatively charged a small amount of Suwannee river humic acids is adsorbed via hydrophobic interactions. It is found that the fate and behavior of individual and aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles in presence of environmental compounds are strongly dependent on the electrostatic, concentration ratio, and to a less extend to the amphiphilic compounds character and that environmental aquatic concentration ranges of humic acids and

  4. TiO2 nanoparticles aggregation and disaggregation in presence of alginate and Suwannee River humic acids. pH and concentration effects on nanoparticle stability. (United States)

    Loosli, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Stoll, Serge


    The behavior of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles is studied in a systematic way in presence of alginate and Suwannee River humic acids at variable concentrations. TiO2 nanoparticles aggregation, disaggregation and stabilization are investigated using dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic experiments allowing the measurement of z-average hydrodynamic diameters and zeta potential values. Stability of the TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed by considering three pH-dependent electrostatic scenarios. In the first scenario, when pH is below the TiO2 nanoparticle point of zero charge, nanoparticles exhibit a positively charged surface whereas alginate and Suwannee River humic acids are negatively charged. Fast adsorption at the TiO2 nanoparticles occurs, promotes surface charge neutralization and aggregation. By increasing further alginate and Suwannee River humic acids concentrations charge inversion and stabilization of TiO2 nanoparticles are obtained. In the second electrostatic scenario, at the surface charge neutralization pH, TiO2 nanoparticles are rapidly forming aggregates. Adsorption of alginate and Suwannee River humic acids on aggregates leads to their partial fragmentation. In the third electrostatic scenario, when nanoparticles, alginate and Suwannee River humic acids are negatively charged, only a small amount of Suwannee River humic acids is adsorbed on TiO2 nanoparticles surface. It is found that the fate and behavior of individual and aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles in presence of environmental compounds are mainly driven by the complex interplay between electrostatic attractive and repulsive interactions, steric and van der Waals interactions, as well as concentration ratio. Results also suggest that environmental aquatic concentration ranges of humic acids and biopolymers largely modify the stability of aggregated or dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles.

  5. Effect of sustainable land management practices on soil aggregation and stabilization of organic carbon in semiarid mediterranean ecosystems (United States)

    Garcia-Franco, Noelia; Albaladejo, Juan; Almagro, María; Wiesmeier, Martin; Martínez-Mena, María


    Arid and semiarid regions represent about 47% of the total land area of the world (UNEP, 1992). At present, there is a priority interest for carbon (C) sequestration in drylands. These areas are considered as very fragile ecosystems with low organic carbon (OC) saturation, and potentially, high capacity for soil OC sequestration. In addition, the restoration of these areas is one of the major challenges for scientists, who will be able to identify and recommended the best land uses and sustainable land management (SLM) practices for soil conservation and mitigation of climate change in these environments. In this regard, in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems there is an urgent need for the implementation of SLM practices regardless of land-use type (forest, agricultural and shrubland) to maintain acceptable levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and the physico-chemical protection of the OC. Long- and short-term effects of SLM practices on soil aggregation and SOC stabilization were studied in two land uses. The long-term experiment was conducted in a reforestation area with Pinus halepensis Mill., where two afforestation techniques were implemented 20 years ago: a) mechanical terracing with a single application of organic waste of urban soil refuse, and b) mechanical terracing without organic amendment. An adjacent shrubland was considered as the reference plot. The short-term experiment was conducted in a rain-fed almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., var. Ferragnes) orchard where two SLM practices were introduced 4 years ago: a) reduced tillage plus green manure, and b) no tillage. Reduced tillage was considered as the reference plot given that it is the habitual management practice. Four aggregate size classes were differentiated by sieving (large and small macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the silt plus clay fraction), and the microaggregates occluded within small macroaggregates (SMm) were isolated. In addition, different organic C fractions corresponding with active

  6. Impact of injection distribution on cryogenic rocket engine stability (United States)

    Deeken, J.; Suslov, D.; Schlechtriem, S.; Haidn, O.


    The present publication addresses the actions taken to stabilize the combustion chamber assembly using a porous injector head described in a former publication and the test campaign during which the success of these measures was demonstrated. The first part deals with the nature of the reported combustion instability. A phenomenological explanation for its occurrence is presented and supported by experimental data. As a measure to counter this instability, two approaches were taken. First, a hydrogen cooled baffe segment, and second, a modification of the injection distribution of the injector head with respect to the presumed cause of the instability. While the baffe segment did not prove to be successful, the test runs with the modified injection pattern demonstrated the stable operation of the 80-millimeter porous injector head over the whole range of operating conditions from 50 to 90 bar at hydrogen injection temperatures as low as 45 K.

  7. Investigating the Impact of Wind Turbines on Distribution System Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rishabh; Zhang, Yingchen; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    Modern wind turbines utilize power electronic converters to regulate their output and optimize their performance. Their impact on the distribution system is not as well understood as for transmission system. The novelty of this work is in studying the impact of wind turbines given its proximity to faults or severe voltage events, and the influence on system stability given its location relative to the substation (representing the conventional grid). This paper presents the frequency and voltage swing plots for various study scenarios. The responses are analyzed two fold - Steady state operation, and performance given a fault or voltage events occurs in the system. The findings are presented, with crucial differences from transmission systems highlighted.

  8. An Effective Distributed Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUTHU, B. M.


    Full Text Available The modern power systems consist of many interconnected synchronous generators having different inertia constants, connected with large transmission network and ever increasing demand for power exchange. The size of the power system grows exponentially due to increase in power demand. The data required for various power system applications have been stored in different formats in a heterogeneous environment. The power system applications themselves have been developed and deployed in different platforms and language paradigms. Interoperability between power system applications becomes a major issue because of the heterogeneous nature. The main aim of the paper is to develop a generalized distributed model for carrying out power system stability analysis. The more flexible and loosely coupled JAX-RPC model has been developed for representing transient stability analysis in large interconnected power systems. The proposed model includes Pre-Fault, During-Fault, Post-Fault and Swing Curve services which are accessible to the remote power system clients when the system is subjected to large disturbances. A generalized XML based model for data representation has also been proposed for exchanging data in order to enhance the interoperability between legacy power system applications. The performance measure, Round Trip Time (RTT is estimated for different power systems using the proposed JAX-RPC model and compared with the results obtained using traditional client-server and Java RMI models.

  9. Uniform distribution of graphene oxide sheets into a poly-vinylidene fluoride nanoparticle matrix through shear-driven aggregation. (United States)

    Sheng, Xinxin; Xie, Delong; Zhang, Xinya; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo


    A general methodology has been developed for preparing nanocomposites with uniform, random distribution of fillers in polymer matrices, purely based on intense shear-driven aggregation, while avoiding filler aggregation. This procedure is demonstrated for a binary colloid composed of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanoparticles (NPs), both negatively charged and stable at rest. On the other hand, the PVDF NPs are shear-active (i.e. aggregation occurs under intensive shear), while the GO sheets are shear-inactive. It is found that when the two suspensions are mixed and the resulting binary colloid is forced to pass through a microchannel (MC) device (at a very high shear rate, G = 1.2 × 10(6) s(-1)), the shear-inactive GO sheets are captured and well distributed inside the PVDF NP clusters or gels. In addition, it is shown that in order to have 100% capture efficiency for the GO sheets, a minimum solid content of the binary colloid is required, which can be identified experimentally as the minimum leading to gelation after passing through the MC only one time.

  10. Pattern of tick aggregation on mice: larger than expected distribution tail enhances the spread of tick-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ferreri


    Full Text Available The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy. The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB, Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN, and Power-Law (PL. The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation for morphology of nanoparticles and particle size distributions: comparison of the cluster–cluster aggregation model with the sectional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Kiminori, E-mail:; Matsukawa, Yoshiya; Saito, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Aoki, Hideyuki [Tohoku University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Era, Koki; Aoki, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Togo [ASAHI CARBON CO., LTD. (Japan)


    This study presents the validity and ability of an aggregate mean free path cluster–cluster aggregation (AMP-CCA) model, which is a direct Monte Carlo simulation, to predict the aggregate morphology with diameters form about 15–200 nm by comparing the particle size distributions (PSDs) with the results of the previous stochastic approach. The PSDs calculated by the AMP-CCA model with the calculated aggregate as a coalesced spherical particle are in reasonable agreement with the results of the previous stochastic model regardless of the initial number concentration of particles. The shape analysis using two methods, perimeter fractal dimension and the shape categories, has demonstrated that the aggregate structures become complex with increasing the initial number concentration of particles. The AMP-CCA model provides a useful tool to calculate the aggregate morphology and PSD with reasonable accuracy.

  12. Physical and Biological Controls of Copepod Aggregation and Baleen Whale Distribution (United States)


    springtime feeding area for right, sei, humpback , and fin whales in the southwestern Gulf of Maine • Examine the relationship between these mechanisms and...behavior of top predators, including those that feed directly on zooplankton (e.g., basking sharks, manta rays, right whales ). While all marine mammals...DVM, whereas right whale abundance was unaffected by DVM behavior. Sei whales appear to be restricted to feeding only on surface aggregations of

  13. The SAWO (Small And Well Organized) avatar teaches the importance of the aggregates on the soil system and how to determine their stability (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo


    Soil structure is the key factor that determine the soil quality as control the organic matter turnnover, soil biology and soil erodibility (Cerdà, 1996; 1998; Wick et al., 2014; Gelaw, 2015). There is a need to understand better the factors and the processes that act on the soil aggregation and the dynamics of the soil aggregation, which will make easier to understand the soil system functioning (Jordán et al., 2011; Jordán et al., 2012; Pulido Moncada et al., 2013). Fire, mines, grazing and agricultura (Cerdà, 2000; Mataix Solera et al., 2011; Cerdà et al., 2012; Hallett et al., 2014; Lozano et al., 2013) determines how the soil structure is highly affected by the humankind. And this determines the sustainability of the land managements (García Orenes et al., 2012; K¨ropfl et al., 2013; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Taguas et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Aggregates are Small And Well Organized (SAWO) structures that allow the water to flow, the air fill the porous and the life to be diverse and abundant in the soil. The SAWO avatar will teach the importance of the functions and the services of the aggregates to students and other scientists, but also to any audience. This means that the experiments and the vocabulary to be used by SAWO will be very wide and rich. The Avatar SAWO will use different strategies and skills to teach the soil aggregation properties and characteristics. And also, how to measure. Easy to carry out experiments will be shown by SAWO to measure the aggregate stability in the field and in the laboratory, and the soil sampling in the field. The SAWO avatar will play a special attention to the impact of forest fires on aggregate stability changes and how to measure. The SAWO avatar will teach how to take samples in the field, how to transport and manage in the laboratory, and finally which measurements and test can be done to determine the aggregate stability. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培勇; 陈刚; 朱承谟


    Objective To evaluate in vivo stability of ethylenedylbis cysteine diethylester ( ECD ) brain SPECT. Methods Each of13 normal volunteers (31.2±11.8 years) has12 dynamic SPECT scans acquired in 60min 1h after an injection of 99mTc-ECD using a triple headed gamma camera equipped with ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Average counts per pixel were measured from frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital regions, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter. Regional ECD clearance rates, regional gray-to-white matter (G/W) ratios and the change of the G /W ratio were calculated. Results The average ECD clearance rate was 4.2%/h, ranged from 3.03%/h to 5.41%/h corresponding to white matter and occipital. There was no significant difference between regional ECD clearance rates. Regional G/W ratio was between 1.27 to 1.75. The G /W ratio of temporal lobe was lower than the occipital (P<0.05). The change of regional G /W ratio with time is slow. Cbnclusion Regional ECD distribution is stable in normal brain. ECD clearance from brain is slow and no significant regional difference.

  15. An aggregate model of grid-connected, large-scale, offshore wind farm for power stability investigations-importance of windmill mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, H.


    An aggregate model of a large-scale offshore wind farm, comprising 72 wind turbines of 2 MW rating each, is set up. Representation of the shaft systems of the wind turbines shall be taken into account when a simplified aggregate model of the wind farm is used in voltage stability investigations. ...... and the entire network. All these phenomena are different compared to previous experiences with modelling of conventional power plants with synchronous generators and stiff shaft systems.......An aggregate model of a large-scale offshore wind farm, comprising 72 wind turbines of 2 MW rating each, is set up. Representation of the shaft systems of the wind turbines shall be taken into account when a simplified aggregate model of the wind farm is used in voltage stability investigations....... Because the shaft system gives a soft coupling between the rotating wind turbine and the induction generator, the large-scale wind farm cannot always be reduced to one-machine equivalent and use of multi-machine equivalents will be necessary for reaching accuracy of the investigation results...

  16. Measurement of particle size distribution of soil and selected aggregate sizes using the hydrometer method and laser diffractometry (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.


    Soil particle size distribution has been traditionally determined by the hydrometer or the sieve-pipette methods, both of them time consuming and requiring a relatively large soil sample. This might be a limitation in situations, such as for instance analysis of suspended sediment, when the sample is small. A possible alternative to these methods are the optical techniques such as laser diffractometry. However the literature indicates that the use of this technique as an alternative to traditional methods is still limited, because the difficulty in replicating the results obtained with the standard methods. In this study we present the percentages of soil grain size determined using laser diffractometry within ranges set between 0.04 - 2000 μm. A Beckman-Coulter ® LS-230 with a 750 nm laser beam and software version 3.2 in five soils, representative of southern Spain: Alameda, Benacazón, Conchuela, Lanjarón and Pedrera. In three of the studied soils (Alameda, Benacazón and Conchuela) the particle size distribution of each aggregate size class was also determined. Aggregate size classes were obtained by dry sieve analysis using a Retsch AS 200 basic ®. Two hundred grams of air dried soil were sieved during 150 s, at amplitude 2 mm, getting nine different sizes between 2000 μm and 10 μm. Analyses were performed by triplicate. The soil sample preparation was also adapted to our conditions. A small amount each soil sample (less than 1 g) was transferred to the fluid module full of running water and disaggregated by ultrasonication at energy level 4 and 80 ml of sodium hexametaphosphate solution during 580 seconds. Two replicates of each sample were performed. Each measurement was made for a 90 second reading at a pump speed of 62. After the laser diffractometry analysis, each soil and its aggregate classes were processed calibrating its own optical model fitting the optical parameters that mainly depends on the color and the shape of the analyzed particle. As a

  17. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters. (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Song; Shen, Guo-Chun; Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua


    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence.

  18. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Perez, Angel;


    The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used...... to the operating scenario. Additionally, it is possible to evaluate the impact of the distributed generation and the electric vehicles in the management of voltage stability in the future electric networks. One detailed case study considering a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy...

  19. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates I : Small-scale fluxes and heterogeneity of nutrients in the pelagic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Ploug, H.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro


    and oxygen-concentration fields in the vicinity of both artificial and natural oxygen-consuming aggregates that are suspended in a flow compare well with model predictions, thus suggesting that our set-up is suitable for making biological rate measurements. The sinking aggregate leaves a long slender plume......Marine snow aggregates are sites of elevated biological activity. This activity depends on the exchange of solutes (O- 2, CO2, mineral nutrients, dissolved organic material, etc.) between the aggregate and the environment and causes heterogeneity in the distribution of dissolved substances...... the importance of a correct flow environment when making biological rate-measurements on aggregates (e.g., oxygen consumption/production, growth rates of bacteria and phytoplankton) because both solute fluxes and internal solute concentrations depend strongly on the flow environment. Observations of flow...

  20. Stability Analysis of Swarms with Distributed Delays%带有分布时滞的群集系统聚集性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连冬艳; 仝旭珂; 慕小武


    群集智能是指由简单agent之间的局部交互作用表现出来的全局智能行为.群体稳定地聚集是有效完成任务的前提.本文主要利用Lyapunov稳定性理论,研究了带有分布时滞的群集智能聚集模型稳定性.%Swarm intelligence is the global intelligent behavior which is shown by simple agents' local interactions. The precondition of finishing tasks depends on whether the individual is aggregated stably.The stability of the swarm aggregation model with distribution delays is discussed using Lyapunov stability theory.

  1. Distributional Methods for a Class of Functional Equations and Their Stabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Young CHUNG


    We consider a class of n-dimensional Pompeiu equations and that of Pexider equations and their Hyers-Ulam stability problems in the spaces of Schwartz distributions. First, reducing the given distribution version of functional equations to differential equations we find their solutions. Secondly,using approximate identities we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the equations.

  2. Distribuição de agregados e carbono orgânico em um Argissolo Amarelo distrocoeso em diferentes manejos Distribution of aggregates and organic carbon in an Ultisol submitted to different managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronildo S. Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar a estabilidade e a distribuição de agregados em um Argissolo Amarelo distrocoeso comparando-se os valores de uma área de mata nativa (MA, com três áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar sendo uma sem irrigação (MSI, uma com irrigação (MCI e outra sob fertirrigação com vinhaça (MCV. O solo das três áreas cultivadas foi submetido ao mesmo tipo de preparo: gradagem pesada, gradagem leve e subsolagem. Amostras de solo com estrutura indeformada na área de mata e de cada área cultivada foram coletadas para determinação da estabilidade de agregados, expressa pelo diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP, índice de estabilidade de agregados (IEA, módulo de finura (MF, porcentagem de agregados estáveis em água com diâmetros maiores que 2,0 mm (AGRI e valores de carbono total. Os distintos tipos de manejo do solo com cana-de-açúcar promoveram perda da estabilidade de agregados com o aumento da profundidade. A estabilidade de agregados foi reduzida em relação à mata nativa na sequência: MA > MCV > MCI > MSI. Registraram-se, na área sem irrigação (MSI os menores índices de agregação, em que na submetida a fertirrigação com vinhaça (MCV os valores foram semelhantes aos da área de mata nativa apresentando maior índice de estabilidade de agregados em água. Correlações significativas e positivas foram obtidas entre carbono orgânico total e os índices de agregação do solo (DMP > AGRI > MF > IEA sob diferentes situações de manejo.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and aggregate distribution of an Ultisol submitted to different management systems under sugarcane cultivation. Evaluated areas consisted of native forest (MA and sugarcane managed areas with irrigation (MCI, vinasse irrigation (MCV and without irrigation (MSI. Management of the areas followed the same conventional preparation: heavy and light harrowing and subsoiling. Undeformed soil samples

  3. New results on the robust stability analysis of neural networks with discrete and distributed time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Weiwei; Chen Yiming


    Delay-dependent robust stability of cellular neural networks with time-varying discrete and distributed time-varying delays is considered. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMIs) technique, delay-dependent stability criteria are derived in terms of LMIs avoiding bounding certain cross terms, which often leads to conservatism. The effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria and the improvement over the existing results are illustrated in the numerical examples.

  4. A New Globally Exponential Stability Criterion for Neural Networks with Discrete and Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen


    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the globally exponential stability of neural networks with discrete and distributed delays. A novel criterion for the globally exponential stability of neural networks is derived by employing the Lyapunov stability theory, homomorphic mapping theory, and matrix theory. The proposed result improves the previously reported global stability results. Finally, two illustrative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of our results.

  5. On the determination of molecular weight distributions of asphaltenes and their aggregates in laser desorption ionization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortal, A.R.; Martinez-Haya, B.; Lobato, M.D.; Pedrosa, J.M.; Lago, S. [University of Pablo Olavide, Seville (Spain)


    Molecular weight distributions (MWD) of asphaltenes and their aggregates have been investigated in laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric experiments. A systematic investigation of the dependence of the measured MIND on the asphaltene sample density and on the laser pulse energy allows the assignment of most probable molecular weights within 300-500 amu and average molecular weights of 800-1000 amu for the monomeric asphaltenes, as well as for the estimation of the contribution from asphaltene clusters in typical LDI measurements. The results serve to reconcile the existing controversy between earlier mass spectrometric characterizations of asphaltenes based on laser desorption techniques by different groups. Furthermore, the MWD measurements performed on particularly dense samples yield an additional differentiated broad band peaking around 9000-10,000 amu and extending over 20,000 amu, not observed previously in LDI experiments, thereby revealing a strong propensity of the asphaltenes to form clusters with specific aggregation numbers, which is in qualitative agreement with previous theoretical predictions and with the interpretation of measurements performed with other techniques.

  6. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morais


    Full Text Available The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used to evaluate the resulting multiobjective optimization problem: the sum-weighted Pareto front and an adapted goal programming methodology. With this new methodology, the system operators can consider both the costs and voltage stability. Priority can be assigned to one objective function according to the operating scenario. Additionally, it is possible to evaluate the impact of the distributed generation and the electric vehicles in the management of voltage stability in the future electric networks. One detailed case study considering a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources is presented to analyse the proposed methodology. Additionally, the methodology is tested in a real distribution network.

  7. The problem of a self-consistent description of the equilibrium distribution of particles in three states of aggregation (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.


    The possibility of unified self-consistent calculations of equilibrium distributions of molecules in three states of aggregation within the framework of the lattice gas model is considered. The corresponding approach was generalized to arbitrary pressures with including the compressibility of lattice structures. Closed equations were obtained for calculating thermodynamic functions (including an equation for the chemical potential of mixture components) in the continuum quasi-chemical approximation. Their use ensures equally accurate calculations of interphase equilibria in gas-liquid-solid systems and the determination of the triple and critical points. Possibilities for simplifying the equations by passing to the effective pair interaction potential, which takes into account averaged vibrations and volume accessible to the translational motion of molecules of commensurate sizes, are considered.

  8. On the evolution of nanocluster size distribution in a nanocluster aggregation source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A.A.; Dutka, M.V.; Pei, Y.T.; Vainchtein, David; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    This paper presents a detailed model of cluster formation from a supersaturated atomic vapor in an inert buffer gas. The population balance equations for the cluster size distribution are based on the Smoluchowski coagulation equation and take into account (i) convective diffusion of clusters, (ii)

  9. Large Scale Solar Power Integration in Distribution Grids: PV Modelling, Voltage Support and Aggregation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samadi, A.


    Long term supporting schemes for photovoltaic (PV) system installation have led to accommodating large numbers of PV systems within load pockets in distribution grids. High penetrations of PV systems can cause new technical challenges, such as voltage rise due to reverse power flow during light load

  10. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K., E-mail: [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing (India)


    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  11. Optimal exploitation of spatially distributed trophic resources and population stability (United States)

    Basset, A.; Fedele, M.; DeAngelis, D.L.


    The relationships between optimal foraging of individuals and population stability are addressed by testing, with a spatially explicit model, the effect of patch departure behaviour on individual energetics and population stability. A factorial experimental design was used to analyse the relevance of the behavioural factor in relation to three factors that are known to affect individual energetics; i.e. resource growth rate (RGR), assimilation efficiency (AE), and body size of individuals. The factorial combination of these factors produced 432 cases, and 1000 replicate simulations were run for each case. Net energy intake rates of the modelled consumers increased with increasing RGR, consumer AE, and consumer body size, as expected. Moreover, through their patch departure behaviour, by selecting the resource level at which they departed from the patch, individuals managed to substantially increase their net energy intake rates. Population stability was also affected by the behavioural factors and by the other factors, but with highly non-linear responses. Whenever resources were limiting for the consumers because of low RGR, large individual body size or low AE, population density at the equilibrium was directly related to the patch departure behaviour; on the other hand, optimal patch departure behaviour, which maximised the net energy intake at the individual level, had a negative influence on population stability whenever resource availability was high for the consumers. The consumer growth rate (r) and numerical dynamics, as well as the spatial and temporal fluctuations of resource density, which were the proximate causes of population stability or instability, were affected by the behavioural factor as strongly or even more strongly than by the others factors considered here. Therefore, patch departure behaviour can act as a feedback control of individual energetics, allowing consumers to optimise a potential trade-off between short-term individual fitness

  12. Transient stability impacts from distribution connected wind farms


    Vittal, Eknath; Cuffe, Paul; Keane, Andrew


    Wind generation penetration levels are increasing in power systems across the world. Along with transmission connected wind farms, distribution connected wind farms are becoming more prevalent in power systems. How these distribution connected farms control reactive power is of concern to the transmission system operator. This paper examines a hybrid system, where the transmission system is modeled with a significant penetration level of radial distribution feeders connected to a collection o...

  13. Modelling of Active Distribution Grids for Stability Analysis



    In the last years the share of distributed generation connected into distribution grids has increased considerably. As their number increases, distribution and transmission network operators are becoming aware on the risks DG can represent on the stable operation of national power systems. To cope with this, the grid code requirements are becoming more and more demanding in order to ensure the secure and reliable supply of energy to the end users. Early grid code requirement...

  14. Generalized Extreme Value distribution parameters as dynamical indicators of Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Faranda, Davide; Turchetti, Giorgio; Vaienti, Sandro


    We introduce a new dynamical indicator of stability based on the Extreme Value statistics showing that it provides an insight on the local stability properties of dynamical systems. The indicator perform faster than other based on the iteration of the tangent map since it requires only the evolution of the original systems and, in the chaotic regions, gives further information about the information dimension of the attractor. A numerical validation of the method is presented through the analysis of the motions in a Standard map.

  15. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of Pencilluim notatum lipase enzyme with improved activity, stability and reusability characteristics. (United States)

    Rehman, Saima; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad


    Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) are considered as an effective tool for the immobilization of enzyme. In this study, Pencillium notatum lipase (PNL) was immobilized as carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates using glutaraldehyde (GLA) and Ethylene glycol-bis [succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide] (EG-NHS) as cross-linking agents. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of an efficient lipase CLEAs such as precipitant type, the nature and amount of cross-linking reagent, and cross-linking time were optimized. The recovered activities of CLEAs were considerably dependent on the concentration of GLA; however, the activity recovery was not severely affected by EG-NHS as a mild cross-linker. The EG-NHS aggregates displayed superior hydrolytic (52.08±2.52%) and esterification (64.42%) activities as compared to GLA aggregates which showed 23.8±1.86 and 34.54% of hydrolytic and esterification activity, respectively. Morphological analysis by fluorescence and scanning electron microscope revealed that EG-NHS aggregates were smaller in size with larger surface area compared to GLA aggregates. The pH optima of both types of CLEAs were displaced to slightly alkaline region and higher temperature as compared to native enzyme. Highest enzyme activity of CLEAs was achieved at the pH of 9.0 and 42°C temperature. Moreover, a significant improvement in the thermal resistance was also recorded after immobilization. After ten reusability cycles in aqueous medium, GLA and EG-NHS cross-linked lipase CLEAs preserved 63.62% and 70.9% of their original activities, respectively. The results suggest that this novel CLEA-lipase is potentially usable in many industrial applications.

  16. Biophysical characterization of Met-G-CSF: effects of different site-specific mono-pegylations on protein stability and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Natalello

    Full Text Available The limited stability of proteins in vitro and in vivo reduces their conversion into effective biopharmaceuticals. To overcome this problem several strategies can be exploited, as the conjugation of the protein of interest with polyethylene glycol, in most cases, improves its stability and pharmacokinetics. In this work, we report a biophysical characterization of the non-pegylated and of two different site-specific mono-pegylated forms of recombinant human methionyl-granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Met-G-CSF, a protein used in chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. In particular, we found that the two mono-pegylations of Met-G-CSF at the N-terminal methionine and at glutamine 135 increase the protein thermal stability, reduce the aggregation propensity, preventing also protein precipitation, as revealed by circular dichroism (CD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopies and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Interestingly, the two pegylation strategies were found to drastically reduce the polydispersity of Met-G-CSF, when incubated under conditions favouring protein aggregation, as indicated by DLS measurements. Our in vitro results are in agreement with preclinical studies, underlining that preliminary biophysical analyses, performed in the early stages of the development of new biopharmaceutical variants, might offer a useful tool for the identification of protein variants with improved therapeutic values.

  17. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.


    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the distribut

  18. Stability and Aggregation of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Seawater: Role of Salinity and Dissolved Organic Matter (United States)

    The behavior and fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment is largely unknown and has the potential to have important environmental and human health implications. The aggregation state and fate of NPs in the marine environment is greatly influenced by their interactio...

  19. Effects of salts from the Hofmeister series on the conformational stability, aggregation propensity, and local flexibility of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody. (United States)

    Majumdar, Ranajoy; Manikwar, Prakash; Hickey, John M; Samra, Hardeep S; Sathish, Hasige A; Bishop, Steven M; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B; Weis, David D


    This work examines the effect of three anions from the Hofmeister series (sulfate, chloride, and thiocyanate) on the conformational stability and aggregation rate of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and corresponding changes in the mAb's backbone flexibility (at pH 6 and 25 °C). Compared to a 0.1 M NaCl control, thiocyanate (0.5 M) decreased the melting temperatures (Tm) for three observed conformational transitions within the mAb by 6-9 °C, as measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Thiocyanate also accelerated the rate of monomer loss at 40 °C over 12 months, as monitored by size exclusion chromatography. Backbone flexibility, as measured via H/D exchange mass spectrometry, increased in two segments in the CH2 domain with more subtle changes across several additional regions. Chloride (0.5 M) caused slight increases in the Tm values, small changes in aggregation rate, and minimal yet consistent decreases in flexibility across various domains with larger effects noted within the VL, CH1, and CH3 domains. In contrast, 0.5 M sulfate increased Tm values, had small stabilizing influences on aggregate formation over time, yet substantially increased the flexibility of two specific regions in the CH1 and VL domains. While thiocyanate-induced conformational destabilization of the mAb correlated with increased local flexibility of specific regions in the CH2 domain (especially residues 241-251 in the heavy chain), the stabilizing anion sulfate did not affect these CH2 regions.

  20. Biomass based micro-turbine plant and distribution network stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [Jaen Univ., Linares (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    Micro-turbine systems that enable the use of biomass are important for future technologies for electricity production. These distributed resources are dynamic devices, and when connected to the distribution system, they will affect its dynamic behavior. The micro-turbine is capable of providing effective load following service in the distribution system. However, the results also show that the micro-turbine system is not an uninterruptible power supply and does not protect the load from voltage instability while in a grid connect mode. (Author)

  1. Influence of hydrogen surface passivation on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution in GeSn/Ge(001) materials (United States)

    Johll, Harman; Samuel, Milla; Koo, Ruey Yi; Kang, Hway Chuan; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tok, Eng Soon


    Plane-wave density functional theory is used to investigate the impact of hydrogen passivation of the p(2×2) reconstructed Ge1-xSnx surface on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution. On a clean surface, Sn preferentially segregates to the surface layer, with surface coverages of 25%, 50%, and 100% for total Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. In contrast, a hydrogen passivated surface increases interlayer migration of Sn to subsurface layers, in particular, to the third layer from the surface, and results in surface coverages of 0%, 0%, and 50% corresponding to Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. Hydrogen transfer from a Ge-capped surface to the one enriched with increasing Sn surface coverage is also an unfavorable process. The presence of hydrogen therefore reduces the surface energy by passivating the reactive dangling bonds and enhancing Sn interlayer migration to the subsurface layers. For both clean and hydrogenated surfaces, aggregation of Sn at the surface layer is also not favored. We explain these results by considering bond enthalpies and the enthalpies of hydrogenation for various surface reactions. Our results thus point to reduced Sn segregation to the surface in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film if CVD growth, using hydride precursors in the hydrogen limited growth regime, is used. This would lead to a more abrupt interface and is consistent with recent experimental observation. Hydrogenation is therefore a promising method for controlling and manipulating elemental population of Sn in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film.

  2. Stability of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Recurrent Neural Networks with Unbounded Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang


    Full Text Available Stability of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks (RNNs with continuously distributed delays and stochastic influence are considered. Some new sufficient conditions to guarantee the almost sure exponential stability and mean square exponential stability of an equilibrium solution are obtained, respectively. Lyapunov's functional method, M-matrix properties, some inequality technique, and nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem are used in our approach. The obtained conclusions improve some published results.

  3. A simple and sensitive fluorimetric aptasensor for the ultrasensitive detection of arsenic(III) based on cysteamine stabilized CdTe/ZnS quantum dots aggregation. (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Kazemifard, N; Rezaei, B


    A new approach for developing a fluorimetric aptasensor has been described and applied for determination of a highly toxic cation, As(III). In this method an aptamer was used to aggregate cationic cysteamine-stabilized CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots, as a result fluorescence quenching was accrued. In the presence of As(III), the aptamer and As(III) make a complex, which prevents aggregation of the quantum dots. Thus, the fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots was enhanced upon the de-aggregation, which depends on the concentration of As(III). The fluorimetric assay has a very low detection limit of 1.3 pmolL(-1) As(III) with a dynamic range of 1.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-6) molL(-1). The interference effect of a wide variety of cations and anions was investigated, and the obtained results confirm high selectivity of the aptasensor for As(III) detection. The present assay was successfully applied for the determination of As(III) in several water samples.

  4. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation of a Predator-Prey Model with Distributed Delays and Competition Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv-Zhou Zheng


    Full Text Available A class of predator-prey system with distributed delays and competition term is considered. By considering the time delay as bifurcation parameter, we analyze the stability and the Hopf bifurcation of the predator-prey system. According to the theorem of Hopf bifurcation, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the local stability of the positive equilibrium point.

  5. Stability of Phase-modulated Quantum Key Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Z F; Gui, Y Z; Guo, G C; Han, Zheng-Fu; Mo, Xiao-Fan; Gui, You-Zhen; Guo, Guang-Can


    Phase drift and random fluctuation of interference visibility in double unbalanced M-Z QKD system are observed and distinguished. It has been found that the interference visibilities are influenced deeply by the disturbance of transmission fiber. Theory analysis shows that the fluctuation is derived from the envioronmental disturbance on polarization characteristic of fiber, especially including transmission fiber. Finally, stability conditions of one-way anti-disturbed M-Z QKD system are given out, which provides a theoretical guide in pragmatic anti-disturbed QKD.

  6. Global exponential stability of mixed discrete and distributively delayed cellular neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Hong-Xing; Zhou Jia-Yan


    This paper concernes analysis for the global exponential stability of a class of recurrent neural networks with mixed discrete and distributed delays. It first proves the existence and uniqueness of the balance point, then by employing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Young inequality, it gives the sufficient condition of global exponential stability of cellular neural network with mixed discrete and distributed delays, in addition, the example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the result.

  7. Estabilidad estructural y P en fracciones de agregados en la cuenca del Aº El Divisorio (Coronel Pringles, BA Structural stability and phosphorus in soil aggregate fractions in El Divisorio stream catchment area (Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Cacchiarelli


    Full Text Available En los últimos años la calidad del agua en el embalse Paso de las Piedras se ha visto afectada por la eutrofización, perjudicando la provisión para la población de Bahía Blanca y alrededores. Se ha señalado a la actividad agropecuaria como originaria del aumento de la concentración de fósforo (P en el arroyo El Divisorio, que desemboca en el embalse. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar las relaciones entre algunas propiedades relacionadas con el potencial de contaminación de estos suelos: la estabilidad estructural, la distribución de tamaños de agregados y las concentraciones de las formas de P en los diferentes agregados. Se seleccionaron 16 transectas en lotes de productores a lo largo del curso del arroyo. Se tomaron muestras de suelo (0-5 cm en las posiciones loma (L, media loma (M y bajo (B. Se determinaron los diámetros medios ponderado en seco (DMPs y en húmedo (DMPh, calculándose el cambio en el diámetro medio ponderado (CDMP. Se determinaron los contenidos de P orgánico (Po e inorgánico (Pi en cada una de las posiciones y tamaños de agregados. Si bien los suelos de la cuenca mostraron buenos valores de estabilidad estructural, las fuerzas físicas provenientes de la actividad agrícola favorecieron la destrucción de los agregados menos estables encontrándose gran cantidad de material fino (In the last years, water quality in the Paso de las Piedras reservoir has been affected by eutrophication, leading to problems in the provision of potable water to the population of Bahía Blanca city and surrounding areas. Agricultural activity has been pointed out as the possible non-point source of P contaminating the El Divisorio stream, which flows directly into the reservoir. The objective of this work was to assess some selected edaphic properties associated with the contamination potential of soils such as structural stability, aggregate distribution and concentration of organic (Po and inorganic (Pi P in the

  8. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, April Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)


    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  9. Changes in carbon stability and microbial activity in size fractions of micro-aggregates in a rice soil chronosequence under long term rice cultivation (United States)

    Pan, Genxing; Liu, Yalong; Wang, Ping; Li, Lianqinfg; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Bian, Rongjun; Ding, Yuanjun; Ma, Chong


    Recent studies have shown soil carbon sequestration through physical protection of relative labile carbon intra micro-aggregates with formation of large sized macro-aggregates under good management of soil and agricultural systems. While carbon stabilization had been increasingly concerned as ecosystem properties, the mechanisms underspin bioactivity of soil carbon with increased carbon stability has been still poorly understood. In this study, topsoil samples were collected from rice soils derived from salt marsh under different length of rice cultivation up to 700 years from eastern China. Particle size fractions (PSF) of soil aggregates were separated using a low energy dispersion protocol. Carbon fractions in the PSFs were analyzed either with FTIR spectroscopy. Soil microbial community of bacterial, fungal and archaeal were analyzed with molecular fingerprinting using specific gene primers. Soil respiration and carbon gain from amended maize as well as enzyme activities were measured using lab incubation protocols. While the PSFs were dominated by the fine sand (200-20μm) and silt fraction (20-2μm), the mass proportion both of sand (2000-200μm) and clay (content in the size fractions followed a similar trend to that of SOC. Bacterial and archaeal gene abundance was concentrated in both sand and clay fractions but that of fungi in sand fraction, and sharply decreased with the decreasing size of aggregate fraction. Gene abundance of archaeal followed a similar trend to that of bacterial but showing an increasing trend with prolonged rice cultivation in both sand and clay fractions. Change in community diversity with sizes of aggregate fractions was found of fungi and weakly of bacterial but not of archaeal. Soil respiration ratio (Respired CO2-C to SOC) was highest in silt fraction, followed by the fine sand fraction but lowest in sand and clay fractions in the rice soils cultivated over 100 years. Again, scaled by total gen concentration, respiration was

  10. Disruption of mycorrhizal extraradical mycelium and changes in leaf water status and soil aggregate stability in rootbox-grown trifoliate orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ning eZou


    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizas possess well developed extraradical mycelium (ERM network that enlarge the surrounding soil for better acquisition of water and nutrients, besides soil aggregation. Distinction in ERM functioning was studied under a rootbox system, which consisted of root+hyphae and root-free hyphae compartments separated by 37-μm nylon mesh with an air gap. Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata seedlings were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae in root+hyphae compartment, and the ERM network was established between the two compartments. The ERM network of air gap was disrupted before 8 h of the harvest (one time disruption or multiple disruptions during seedlings acclimation. Our results showed that mycorrhizal inoculation induced a significant increase in growth (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf, stem, and root biomass and physiological characters (leaf relative water content, leaf water potential, and transpiration rate, irrespective of ERM status. Easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP and total GRSP (T-GRSP concentration and mean weight diameter (MWD, an indicator of soil aggregate stability were significantly higher in mycorrhizosphere of root+hyphae and root-free hyphae compartments than non-mycorrhizosphere. One time disruption of ERM network did not influence plant growth and soil properties but only notably decreased leaf water. Periodical disruption of ERM network at weekly interval markedly inhibited the mycorrhizal roles on plant growth, leaf water, GRSP production, and MWD in root+hyphae and hyphae chambers. EE-GRSP was the most responsive GRSP fraction to changes in leaf water and MWD under root+hyphae and hyphae conditions. It suggests that effect of peridical disruption of ERM network was more impactful than one-time disruption of ERM network with regard to leaf water, plant growth, and aggregate stability responses, thereby, implying ERM network aided in developing the host plant metabolically

  11. Stability Boundaries for Offshore Wind Park Distributed Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Mikkel P.S.; Wu, Qiuwei; Kocewiak, Lukasz;


    In order to identify mechanisms causing slow reactive power oscillations observed in an existing offshore wind power plant, and be able to avoid similar events in the future, voltage control is studied in this paper for a plant with a static synchronous compensator, type-4 wind turbines and a park...... pilot control. Using data from the actual wind power plant, all stabilizing subsystem voltage proportional-integral controller parameters are first characterized based on their Hurwitz signature. Inner loop current control is then designed using Internal Mode Control principles, and guidelines for feed...... forward filter design are given to obtain required disturbance rejection properties. The paper contributes by providing analytical relations between power plant control, droop, sampling time, electrical parameters and voltage control characteristics, and by assessing frequencies and damping of reactive...

  12. Influence of Conservation Tillage on Soil Aggregates Features in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tillage greatly influences the aggregation and stability of soil aggregates. This study investigated the effects of conservation tillage on soil aggregate characteristics. During a four-year study period (2001-2005), soils were sampled from no-tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (moldboard tillage, CT) plots at the Luancheng Agriculture and Ecology Experimental Station in Hebei Province, China, and the amount, size distribution, and fractal dimension of the aggregates were examined by dry and wet sieving methods. The results indicated that NT significantly increased the topsoil (0-5 cm) bulk density (BD), while RT maintained a lower BD as CT. Dry sieving results showed that NT had higher macro-aggregate content (R0.25), and a larger mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) than other treatments in the 0-10 cm layer, while RT showed no difference from CT. In wet sieving, results showed that most of the aggregates were unstable, and the MWD and GMD of water-table aggregates showed the trend of NT > RT > CT. At 0-5 cm layer, the fractal dimension (D) of water-stable aggregates under NT was lower than it was under RT and CT. At 5-10 em, RT yielded the highest D, and showed stability. After four years, NT increased the aggregation and the stability of soil aggregates; while due to intense disturbance, the aggregation and stability of the upper layer (0-10 cm) under RT and CT decreased.

  13. Distributed Recursive Least-Squares: Stability and Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, Gonzalo


    The recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm has well-documented merits for reducing complexity and storage requirements, when it comes to online estimation of stationary signals as well as for tracking slowly-varying nonstationary processes. In this paper, a distributed recursive least-squares (D-RLS) algorithm is developed for cooperative estimation using ad hoc wireless sensor networks. Distributed iterations are obtained by minimizing a separable reformulation of the exponentially-weighted least-squares cost, using the alternating-minimization algorithm. Sensors carry out reduced-complexity tasks locally, and exchange messages with one-hop neighbors to consent on the network-wide estimates adaptively. A steady-state mean-square error (MSE) performance analysis of D-RLS is conducted, by studying a stochastically-driven `averaged' system that approximates the D-RLS dynamics asymptotically in time. For sensor observations that are linearly related to the time-invariant parameter vector sought, the simplifying...

  14. Stabilization of Nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli Beam with Locally Distributed Feedbacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-bing CAO; Qing-xu YAN


    In this article,we study the stabilization problem of a nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with locally distributed feedbacks.Firstly,using the semi-group theory,we establish the well-posedness of the associated closed loop system.Then by proving the uniqueness of the solution of a related ordinary differential equations,we derive the asymptotic stability of the closed loop system. Finally,by means of the piecewise frequency domain multiplier method,we prove that the corresponding closed loop system can be exponentially stabilized by only one of the two distributed feedback controls proposed in this paper.

  15. Unfolding and aggregation of monoclonal antibodies on cation exchange columns: effects of resin type, load buffer, and protein stability. (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Carta, Giorgio


    The chromatographic behavior of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that exhibits a pronounced two-peak elution behavior is studied for a range of strong cation exchange resins and with varying load buffer pH and composition. Six stationary phases are considered, including two tentacle-type resins (Fractogel EMD SO3-(M) and Eshmuno S), a resin with grafted polymeric surface extenders (Nuvia S), a resin with a bimodal pore size distribution (POROS HS 50), and two macroporous resins without polymer grafts (Source 30S and UNOsphere Rapid S). The two-peak elution behavior is very pronounced for the tentacle and polymer-grafted resins and for POROS HS 50, but is essentially absent for the two macroporous resins. The extent of this behavior decreases as the buffer pH and concentration increase and, consequently, mAb binding becomes weaker. Replacing sodium with arginine as the buffer counterion, which is expected to decrease the mAb binding strength, nearly completely eliminates the two-peak behavior, while replacing sodium with tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide, which is expected to increase the mAb binding strength, dramatically exacerbate the effect. As shown by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS), the two-peak elution behavior is related to conformational changes that occur when the mAb binds. These changes result in increased solvent exposure of specific peptides in the Fc-region for either the Fractogel or the Nuvia resin. No significant conformational changes were seen by HX-MS when the mAb was bound to the UNOsphere resin or on the Fractogel resin when arginine was used in lieu of sodium as the load buffer counterion. Experiments with two additional mAbs on the Fractogel resin show that the two-peak elution behavior is dependent on the particular antibody. Circular dichroism suggests that the propensity of different mAbs to either precipitate directly or to form stabilizing intermolecular structures upon exposure to thermal stress can be related to their

  16. Stability Analysis of Distributed Delay Neural Networks Based on Relaxed Lyapunov-Krasovskii Functionals. (United States)

    Zhang, Baoyong; Lam, James; Xu, Shengyuan


    This paper revisits the problem of asymptotic stability analysis for neural networks with distributed delays. The distributed delays are assumed to be constant and prescribed. Since a positive-definite quadratic functional does not necessarily require all the involved symmetric matrices to be positive definite, it is important for constructing relaxed Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, which generally lead to less conservative stability criteria. Based on this fact and using two kinds of integral inequalities, a new delay-dependent condition is obtained, which ensures that the distributed delay neural network under consideration is globally asymptotically stable. This stability criterion is then improved by applying the delay partitioning technique. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the advantage of the presented stability criteria.

  17. The long-term effects on aggregate stability (AS) from a forest fire of varying intensity in a Mediterranean environment (1994-2012). (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge


    Forest fires can affect many soil properties and this fact is deeply connected with fire severity, intensity, soil type and many others factors. Aggregate stability (AS) indicates the soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. AS is one of the factors that strongly affect on soil erodibility and infiltration. This property can be used as an indicator of the state of the soil structure and physical stability. The aim of this study is to analyze the soil AS of a determined area that suffered a wildfire in 1994 and compare them with a control area with the same characteristics. The study area is located in the Cadiretes Massif, in the northernmost zone of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, northeast Spain, at an altitude of around 190 - 250 m.a.m.s.l. The Cadiretes Massif is predominantly granite, although soils developed over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks such as schist and slates can also be found. In some areas metamorphic features underlie this relief. The massif is covered by dense Mediterranean vegetation, e.g. Quercus suber, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, and in some places Pinus pinaster plantations are found. This area receives about 700 - 800 mm of annual rainfall, with a fairly marked seasonal variability. The maximum is registered in autumn. Summer temperatures often surpass 25°C, while in winter temperatures are generally mild. The predominant soil type in Cadiretes is classified as a Lithic Xerept, with a 15 cm deep sandy-loam A horizon. In the control forest area, this horizon is protected by a 3 cm deep O horizon of moder humus. Three areas with different burnt intensity were identified in 1994 and they are the same plots that were chosen to sample in 2012. The 4 plots (Low intensity, Medium Intensity, High Intensity and Control) had the same orientation (S) and slope (5%). The TDI (Ten Drop Impact) test, that simulates rainfall impact on aggregates, was used to measure AS in the laboratory. Twenty samples were collected per plot. Ten

  18. On the Stability of Distributions of the Type Described by Trueswell. (United States)

    Kantor, Paul B.


    Library collection weeding criteria based upon unequal distribution of demand require that distribution remain stable over time. A mathematical expression is derived that tests that stability. Verification is not inordinately time consuming and is facilitated by the use of automated circulation systems. (Author/RAA)

  19. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois


    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  20. Effects of Combined Application of Biogas Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer on Soil Aggregation and C/N Distribution in an Ultisol (United States)

    Zheng, Xuebo; Fan, Jianbo; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing


    Unreasonable use of chemical fertilizer (CF) on agricultural soil leads to massive losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in tropical and subtropical areas, where soil conditions are unfavorable for aggregate formation. This study evaluated the effects of combined application of biogas slurry (BS) plus CF on soil aggregation and aggregate—associated C/N concentration and storage in an Ultisol. Six treatments included: no fertilizer (T1), CF only (T2), partial (15% (T3), 30% (T4) and 45% (T5)) substitution of TN with BS and BS only (T6). Soil mechanical—stable aggregates (MSAs) formation and stability as well as MSAs—associated C/N concentration and storage were observed in different aggregate sizes (>5, 5–2, 2–1, 1.0–0.5, 0.50–0.25 and 5 mm significantly increased with BS substitution (T5), while the proportions of MSAs 1.0–0.5 mm, MSAs 0.50–0.25 mm and MSAs 0.5 mm that constituted 72–82% of MSAs. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MSAs >5 mm, SOC in MSAs >5 mm and TN in MSAs >5 mm were the dominant variables affecting aggregate stability. Meanwhile SOC in MSAs <0.25 mm and TN in MSAs 2–1 mm were independent variables affecting SOC and TN concentrations in bulk soils. Therefore, certain rate of combined application of BS plus CF is an effective, eco—friendly way to improve soil quality in an Ultisol. PMID:28125647

  1. Changes in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability after conversion to conservation tillage for seven years in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Xin; ZHU An-ning; ZHANG Jia-bao; YANG Wen-liang; XIN Xiu-li; ZHANG Xian-feng


    Soil aggregate stability and organic carbon (OC) are regarded as effective indicators of soil structure and quality. A long-term ifeld experiment was established in 2006 to examine the inlfuence of til age systems on soil aggregation and OC in a sandy loam soil in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The study involved eight treatments:plowing every year with (TS) and without residue (T), plowing every 2 years with (2TS) and without residue (2T), plowing every 4 years with (4TS) and without residue (4T), and no plowing with (NTS) and without residue (NT). In 2013, soil samples were col ected at depths of 0–5, 5–10 and 10–20 cm, and separated into three aggregate-size classes:macroaggregates (>250μm), microaggregates (53–250μm) and the silt+clay fraction (microaggregates>silt+clay fraction. In the 0–5 cm soil layer, concentrations of macroaggregate-associated OC in 2TS, 4TS and NTS were 14, 56 and 83%higher than for T, whereas T had the greatest concentration of OC associated with the silt+clay fraction in the 10–20 cm layer. Soil OC concentrations under 4TS and NTS were signiifcantly higher (P<0.05) than that of T in the 0–10 cm layer. Residue retention promoted formation of macroaggregates, increased macroaggregate-associated OC concentrations and thus increased total soil OC stock. The macroaggregate-associated OC was positively correlated (R2=0.96) with soil OC concentration, while the silt+clay fraction-associated OC was negatively correlated (R2=0.82) with soil OC concentration. The concentration of soil OC was positively correlated with MWD (R2=0.94) and GMD (R2=0.92). We concluded that increasing til age intensity led to a loss of carbon (C)-rich macroaggregates and an increase of C-depleted silt+clay fraction. The conservation til age system, especial y NTS and 4TS, increased soil aggregate stability and promoted OC accumulation in macroaggregates, provided the potential to improve soil C sequestration and soil structure in the Huang

  2. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella


    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  3. Association of Soil Aggregation with the Distribution and Quality of Organic Carbon in Soil along an Elevation Gradient on Wuyi Mountain in China. (United States)

    Li, Liguang; Vogel, Jason; He, Zhenli; Zou, Xiaoming; Ruan, Honghua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jiashe; Bianchi, Thomas S


    Forest soils play a critical role in the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent attenuation of global warming. The nature and properties of organic matter in soils have an influence on the sequestration of carbon. In this study, soils were collected from representative forestlands, including a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), a coniferous forest (CF), a subalpine dwarf forest (DF), and alpine meadow (AM) along an elevation gradient on Wuyi Mountain, which is located in a subtropical area of southeastern China. These soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory to examine the distribution and speciation of organic carbon (OC) within different size fractions of water-stable soil aggregates, and subsequently to determine effects on carbon sequestration. Soil aggregation rate increased with increasing elevation. Soil aggregation rate, rather than soil temperature, moisture or clay content, showed the strongest correlation with OC in bulk soil, indicating soil structure was the critical factor in carbon sequestration of Wuyi Mountain. The content of coarse particulate organic matter fraction, rather than the silt and clay particles, represented OC stock in bulk soil and different soil aggregate fractions. With increasing soil aggregation rate, more carbon was accumulated within the macroaggregates, particularly within the coarse particulate organic matter fraction (250-2000 μm), rather than within the microaggregates (53-250μm) or silt and clay particles (soils at higher altitudes are more likely to lose SOC under warmer conditions.

  4. A net-jet flow system for mass transfer and microsensor studies of sinking aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Jørgensen, BB


    was shown to be laminar at flow velocities ranging from 40 to 200 m d(-1), which cover typical sinking velocities of aggregates in the ocean. A viscous boundary layer with steep gradients of flow velocity was measured around sinking aggregates by flow visualization techniques. Velocity gradients......A flow system was developed which enables studies of hydrodynamics and mass transfer in freely sinking aggregates. The aggregates stabilized their positions in the water phase at an upward flow Velocity which balanced and opposed the sinking velocity of the individual aggregate. The flow field...... in the viscous boundary layer along the sides of the aggregate parallel to the flow could by explained by creeping flow, while a non-turbulent wake was present at the rear (downstream) of the aggregate. The oxygen distribution inside a ca 3.5 mm large diatom aggregate and in the surrounding water was mapped in 2...

  5. Global stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with continuously distributed delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 马润年; 许进


    Global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with continuously distributed delays is studied. Under two mild assumptions on the acti-vation functions, two sufficient conditions ensuring global stability of such networks are derived by utiliz-ing Lyapunov functional and some inequality analysis technique. The results here extend some previous results. A numerical example is given showing the validity of our method.

  6. Principles of moment distribution applied to stability of structures composed of bars or plates (United States)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schuette, Evan H


    The principles of the cross method of moment distribution, which have previously been applied to the stability of structures composed of bars under axial load, are applied to the stability of structures composed of long plates under longitudinal load. A brief theoretical treatment of the subject, as applied to structures composed of either bars or plates, is included, together with an illustrative example for each of these two types of structure. An appendix presents the derivation of the formulas for the various stiffnesses and carry-over factors used in solving problems in the stability of structures composed of long plates.

  7. Visual and surface plasmon resonance sensor for zirconium based on zirconium-induced aggregation of adenosine triphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wenjing; Zhao, Jianming [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Xu, Min [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Anjum, Saima [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 (Pakistan); Majeed, Saadat [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Xu, Guobao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Visual and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for Zr(IV) has been developed for the first time based on Zr(IV)-induced change of SPR absorption spectra of ATP-stabilized AuNP solutions. -- Highlights: •Visual and SPR absorption Zr{sup 4+} sensors have been developed for the first time. •The high affinity between Zr{sup 4+} and ATP makes sensor highly sensitive and selective. •A fast response to Zr{sup 4+} within 4 min. -- Abstract: Owing to its high affinity with phosphate, Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-stabilized AuNPs, leading to the change of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectra and color of ATP-stabilized AuNP solutions. Based on these phenomena, visual and SPR sensors for Zr(IV) have been developed for the first time. The A{sub 660} {sub nm}/A{sub 518} {sub nm} values of ATP-stabilized AuNPs in SPR absorption spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of Zr(IV) from 0.5 μM to 100 μM (r = 0.9971) with a detection limit of 95 nM. A visual Zr(IV) detection is achieved with a detection limit of 30 μM. The sensor shows excellent selectivity against other metal ions, such as Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. The recoveries for the detection of 5 μM, 10 μM, 25 μM and 75 μM Zr(IV) in lake water samples are 96.0%, 97.0%, 95.6% and 102.4%, respectively. The recoveries of the proposed SPR method are comparable with those of ICP-OES method.

  8. Grid tie inverter energy stabilizing in smart distribution grid with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋野; 李大双; 褚恩辉; 张艺缤


    With the growing deployment of smart distribution grid, it has become urgent to investigate the smart distribution grid behavior during transient faults and improve the system stability. The feasibility of segmenting large power grids and multiple smart distribution grids interconnections using energy storage technology for improving the system dynamic stability was studied. The segmentation validity of the large power grids and smart distribution grid inverter output interconnections power system using energy storage technology was proved in terms of theoretical analysis. Then, the influences of the energy storage device location and capacity on the proposed method were discussed in detail. The conclusion is obtained that the ESD optimal locations are allocated at the tie line terminal buses in the interconnected grid, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by simulations in an actual power system.

  9. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Kawabata, Yuuki; Okuyama, Junichi


    White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre—and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m), high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m2) was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m). Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male–female ratio (male:female) at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015) whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013). Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective management of

  10. A strategic approach for direct recovery and stabilization of Fusarium sp. ICT SAC1 cutinase from solid state fermented broth by carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates. (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sandeep A; Singhal, Rekha S


    The major hurdles in commercial exploitation of cutinase (having both esterolytic and lipolytic activities) with potent industrial applications are its high production cost, operational instability and reusability. Although commercially available in immobilized form, its immobilization process (synthesis of support/carrier) makes it expensive. Herein we tried to address multiple issues of production cost, stability, and reusability, associated with cutinase. Waste watermelon rinds, an agroindustrial waste was considered as a cheap support for solid state fermentation (SSF) for cutinase production by newly isolated Fusarium sp. ICT SAC1. Subsequently, carrier free cross-linked enzyme aggregates of cutinase (cut-CLEA) directly from the SSF crude broth were developed. All the process variables affecting CLEA formation along with the different additives were evaluated. It was found that 50% (w/v) of ammonium sulphate, 125μmol of glutaraldehyde, cross-linking for 1h at 30°C and broth pH of 7.0, yielded 58.12% activity recovery. All other additives (hexane, butyric acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate, Trition-X 100, Tween-20, BSA) evaluated presented negative results to our hypothesis. Kinetics and morphology studies confirmed the diffusive nature of cut-CLEA and BSA cut-CLEA. Developed CLEA showed better thermal, solvent, detergent and storage stability, making it more elegant and efficient for industrial biocatalytic process.

  11. Stability analysis of transmission system with high penetration of distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reza, M.


    Nowadays, interest in generating electricity using decentralized generators of relatively small scale ('distributed generation', DG) is increasing. This work deals with the impact of implementing DG on the transmission system transient stability, with the emphasis on a potential transition from a 'v

  12. Stabilization of the distribution of the product output in adaptive receivers noise signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Mazor


    Full Text Available The algorithm of adaptive receiving noise signals on the background noise interference with monotonically varying spectra, allowing through the introduction of a reference path to stabilize the distribution of the output product. With the help of computer modeling an estimate of the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Elongation of the C-terminal domain of an anti-amyloid β single-chain variable fragment increases its thermodynamic stability and decreases its aggregation tendency. (United States)

    Rivera-Hernández, Geovanny; Marin-Argany, Marta; Blasco-Moreno, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Oliva, Baldo; Villegas, Sandra


    Amyloid β (Aβ) immunotherapy is considered a promising approach to Alzheimer disease treatment. In contrast to the use of complete antibodies, administration of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) has not been associated with either meningoencephalitis or cerebral hemorrhage. ScFv-h3D6 is known to preclude cytotoxicity of the Aβ 1-42 peptide by removing its oligomers from the amyloid pathway. As is the case for other scFv molecules, the recombinant production of scFv-h3D6 is limited by its folding and stability properties. Here, we show that its urea-induced unfolding pathway is characterized by the presence of an intermediate state composed of the unfolded VL domain and the folded VH domain, which suggests the VL domain as a target for thermodynamic stability redesign. The modeling of the 3D structure revealed that the VL domain, located at the C-terminal of the molecule, was ending before its latest β-strand was completed. Three elongation mutants, beyond VL-K107, showed increased thermodynamic stability and lower aggregation tendency, as determined from urea denaturation experiments and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Because the mutants maintained the capability of removing Aβ-oligomers from the amyloid pathway, we expect these traits to increase the half-life of scFv-h3D6 in vivo and, consequently, to decrease the effective doses. Our results led to the improvement of a potential Alzheimer disease treatment and may be extrapolated to other class-I scFv molecules of therapeutic interest.

  14. Dust-acoustic waves and stability in the permeating dust plasma: II. Power-law distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jingyu; Du, Jiulin


    The dust-acoustic waves and their stability driven by a flowing dust plasma when it cross through a static (target) dust plasma (the so-called permeating dust plasma) are investigated when the components of the dust plasma obey the power-law q-distributions in nonextensive statistics. The frequency, the growth rate and the stability condition of the dust-acoustic waves are derived under this physical situation, which express the effects of the nonextensivity as well as the flowing dust plasma velocity on the dust-acoustic waves in this dust plasma. The numerical results illustrate some new characteristics of the dust-acoustic waves, which are different from those in the permeating dust plasma when the plasma components are the Maxwellian distribution. In addition, we show that the flowing dust plasma velocity has a significant effect on the dust-acoustic waves in the permeating dust plasma with the power-law q-distribution.

  15. Delay-dependent robust stabilization for uncertain singular:systems with discrete and distributed delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengguang WU; Wuneng ZHOU


    This paper investigates the problem of delay-dependent robust stabilization for uncertain singular systems with discrete and distributed delays in terms of linear matrix inequality(LMI)approach.Based on a delay-dependent stability condition for the nominal system,a state feedback controller is designed,which guarantees the resultant closedloop system to be robustly stable.An explicit expression for the desired controller is also given by solving a set of matrix inequalities.Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  16. Mathematical Model and Stability Analysis of Inverter-Based Distributed Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khadem Abbasi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical (small-signal model of an electronically interfaced distributed generator (DG by considering the effect of voltage and frequency variations of the prime source. Dynamic equations are found by linearization about an operating point. In this study, the dynamic of DC part of the interface is included in the model. The stability analysis shows with proper selection of system parameters; the system is stable during steady-state and dynamic situations, and oscillatory modes are well damped. The proposed model is useful to study stability analysis of a standalone DG or a Microgrid.

  17. Exponential Stability of Almost Periodic Solutions for Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Distributed Leakage Delays. (United States)

    Xu, Changjin; Li, Peiluan; Pang, Yicheng


    In this letter, we deal with a class of memristor-based neural networks with distributed leakage delays. By applying a new Lyapunov function method, we obtain some sufficient conditions that ensure the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solutions of neural networks. We apply the results of this solution to prove the existence and stability of periodic solutions for this delayed neural network with periodic coefficients. We then provide an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Our results are completely new and complement the previous studies Chen, Zeng, and Jiang ( 2014 ) and Jiang, Zeng, and Chen ( 2015 ).

  18. Control over Particle Size Distribution by Autoclaving Poloxamer-Stabilized Trimyristin Nanodispersions. (United States)

    Göke, Katrin; Roese, Elin; Arnold, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, Heike


    Lipid nanoparticles are under investigation as delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs. The particle size in these dispersions strongly influences important pharmaceutical properties like biodistribution and drug loading capacity; it should be below 500 nm for direct injection into the bloodstream. Consequently, small particles with a narrow particle size distribution are desired. Hitherto, there are, however, only limited possibilities for the preparation of monodisperse, pharmaceutically relevant dispersions. In this work, the effect of autoclaving at 121 °C on the particle size distribution of lipid nanoemulsions and -suspensions consisting of the pharmaceutically relevant components trimyristin and poloxamer 188 was studied. Additionally, the amount of emulsifier needed to stabilize both untreated and autoclaved particles was assessed. In our study, four dispersions of mean particle sizes from 45 to 150 nm were prepared by high-pressure melt homogenization. The particle size distribution before and after autoclaving was characterized using static and dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation was used for particle size distribution analyses and for the determination of free poloxamer 188. Upon autoclaving, the mean particle size increased to up to 200 nm, but not proportionally to the initial size. At the same time, the particle size distribution width decreased remarkably. Heat treatment thus seems to be a promising approach to achieve the desired narrow particle size distribution of such dispersions. Related to the lipid content, suspension particles needed more emulsifier for stabilization than emulsion droplets, and smaller particles more than larger ones.

  19. [Impact of Land Utilization Pattern on Distributing Characters of Labile Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates in Jinyun Mountain]. (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju


    Four land utilization patterns were selected for this study in Jinyun mountain, including subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest), sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land. Soil samples were taken every 10 cm in the depth of 60 cm soil and proportions of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0. 25-2 mm), microaggregates (0. 053 - 0. 25 mm) and silt + clay (organic carbon and labile organic carbon in each aggregate fraction and analyze impacts of land uses on organic carbon and labile organic carbon of soil aggregates. LOC content of four soil aggregates were significantly reduced with the increase of soil depth; in layers of 0-60 cm soil depth, our results showed that LOC contents of forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland. Reserves of labile organic carbon were estimated by the same soil quality, it revealed that forest (3. 68 > abandoned land (1. 73 > orchard (1. 43 >sloping farmland (0.54 in large macroaggregates, abandoned land (7.77, 5. 01 > forest (4. 96, 2.71 > orchard (3. 33, 21. 10 > sloping farmland (1. 68, 1. 35 in small macroaggregates and microaggregates, and abandoned land(4. 32 > orchard(4. 00 > forest(3. 22 > sloping farmland (2.37 in silt + clay, forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland in other three soil aggregates except silt + clay. It was observed that the level of organic carbon and labile organic carbon were decreased when bringing forest under cultivation to orchard or farmland, and augments on organic carbon and labile organic carbon were found after exchanging farmland to abandoned land. The most reverses of forest and abandoned land emerged in small macroaggregates, orchard and sloping farmland were in microaggregates. That was, during the transformations of land utilization pattern, soil aggregates with bigger size were

  20. Impact of Distribution-Connected Large-Scale Wind Turbines on Transmission System Stability during Large Disturbances: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Allen, A.; Hodge, B. M.


    This work examines the dynamic impacts of distributed utility-scale wind power during contingency events on both the distribution system and the transmission system. It is the first step toward investigating high penetrations of distribution-connected wind power's impact on both distribution and transmission stability.

  1. Stabilization of Networked Distributed Systems with Partial and Event-Based Couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Zhang


    Full Text Available The stabilization problem of networked distributed systems with partial and event-based couplings is investigated. The channels, which are used to transmit different levels of information of agents, are considered. The channel matrix is introduced to indicate the work state of the channels. An event condition is designed for each channel to govern the sampling instants of the channel. Since the event conditions are separately given for different channels, the sampling instants of channels are mutually independent. To stabilize the system, the state feedback controllers are implemented in the system. The control signals also suffer from the two communication constraints. The sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix equalities are proposed to ensure the stabilization of the controlled system. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the advantage of our results.

  2. Thermal stability and long-chain fatty acid positional distribution on glycerol of argan oil. (United States)

    Khallouki, Farid; Mannina, Luisa; Viel, Stéphane; Owen, Robert W


    The primary aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stability of argan oils by using peroxides and conjugated diene hydroperoxides measurements as analytical indicators. Both food and cosmetic argan oils were investigated. Their oxidative stability was also determined by monitoring the relative changes of their fatty acid profiles by (1)H NMR. In addition, valuable information regarding minor components as well as the acyl positional distribution, were obtained for both grades by high field (1)H and (13)C NMR, respectively. Given that the cosmetic and food grades have a similar profile and content of phenolic antioxidants, vitamers, and squalene, it appears that the ratio of fatty acid aliphatic to bisallylic CH2 groups, much higher in argan oils than in other vegetable oils, is responsible for their higher thermal stability.

  3. A Study of Strong Stability of Distributed Systems. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Cataltepe, Tayfun


    The strong stability of distributed systems is studied and the problem of characterizing strongly stable semigroups of operators associated with distributed systems is addressed. Main emphasis is on contractive systems. Three different approaches to characterization of strongly stable contractive semigroups are developed. The first one is an operator theoretical approach. Using the theory of dilations, it is shown that every strongly stable contractive semigroup is related to the left shift semigroup on an L(exp 2) space. Then, a decomposition for the state space which identifies strongly stable and unstable states is introduced. Based on this decomposition, conditions for a contractive semigroup to be strongly stable are obtained. Finally, extensions of Lyapunov's equation for distributed parameter systems are investigated. Sufficient conditions for weak and strong stabilities of uniformly bounded semigroups are obtained by relaxing the equivalent norm condition on the right hand side of the Lyanupov equation. These characterizations are then applied to the problem of feedback stabilization. First, it is shown via the state space decomposition that under certain conditions a contractive system (A,B) can be strongly stabilized by the feedback -B(*). Then, application of the extensions of the Lyapunov equation results in sufficient conditions for weak, strong, and exponential stabilizations of contractive systems by the feedback -B(*). Finally, it is shown that for a contractive system, the first derivative of x with respect to time = Ax + Bu (where B is any linear bounded operator), there is a related linear quadratic regulator problem and a corresponding steady state Riccati equation which always has a bounded nonnegative solution.

  4. Site selection of active damper for stabilizing power electronics based power distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Changwoo; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth


    Stability in the nowadays distribution power system is endangered by interaction problems that may arise from newly added power-electronics based power devices. Recently, a new concept to deal with this higher frequency instability, the active damper, has been proposed. The active damper is a power...... electronics based power device, which provides an adjustable damping capability to the power system where the voltage harmonic instability is measured. It can stabilize by adjusting the equivalent node impedance with its plug and play feature. This feature gives many degrees of freedom of its installation...... point when the system has many nodes. Therefore, this paper addresses the proper placement of an active damper in an unstable small-scale power distribution system. A time-domain model of the Cigre benchmark low-vltage network is used as a test field. The result shows the active damper location...

  5. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)


    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  6. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions (United States)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.


    We present a characterization of short-term stability of Kauffman's N K (random) Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given such a Boolean network where each transfer function is drawn from the same distribution, we present a formula that determines whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. Our main technical tool which enables the formal proof of this formula is the Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, which describes such functions as multilinear polynomials over the inputs. Numerical simulations on mixtures of threshold functions and nested canalyzing functions demonstrate the formula's correctness.

  7. Stability of a Logarithmic Functional Equation in Distributions on a Restricted Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Chung


    Full Text Available Let be the set of real numbers, , , and . As classical and versions of the Hyers-Ulam stability of the logarithmic type functional equation in a restricted domain, we consider the following inequalities: , and in the sectors . As consequences of the results, we obtain asymptotic behaviors of the previous inequalities. We also consider its distributional version , where , , , , , and the inequality means that for all test functions .

  8. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process? (United States)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  9. Representing soakaways in a physically distributed urban drainage model – Upscaling individual allotments to an aggregated scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldin, Maria Kerstin; Mark, Ole; Kuczera, George;


    The increased load on urban stormwater systems due to climate change and growing urbanization can be partly alleviated by using soakaways and similar infiltration techniques. However, while soakaways are usually small-scale structures, most urban drainage network models operate on a larger spatial...... of individual soakaways well. Six upscaling methods to aggregate individual soakaway units with varying saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) in the surrounding soil have been investigated. In the upscaled model, the weighted geometric mean hydraulic conductivity of individual allotments is found to provide...

  10. Soil aggregation and aggregate associated organic carbon and total nitrogen under long-term contrasting soil management regimes in loess soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jun-yu; XU Ming-gang; Qiangjiu Ciren; YANG Yang; ZHANG Shu-lan; SUN Ben-hua; YANG Xue-yun


    This study investigated the effects of three contrasting soil management regimes and different nutrient treatments on the distribution of water-stable aggregates (>2, 1–2, 0.5–1, 0.25–0.5, and 0.25 mm) and mean weight diameter (MWD) at 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil horizons compared with Cropping, whereas Falow yielded lower values of above two parameters. Abandonment increased SOC and TN contents in al aggregate sizes by 17–62%and 6–60%, respectively, at 0–10 cm soil layer compared with Cropping. Conversely, Falow decreased SOC and TN contents in al aggregates by 7–27% and 7–25%, respectively. Nevertheless, the three soil management regimes presented similar SOC contents in al aggregates at 10–20 cm soil horizon. Only Cropping showed higher TN content in >0.5 mm aggregates than the two other regimes. Consequently, Abandonment enhanced the partitioning proportions of SOC and TN in >1 mm macro-aggregates, and Falow promoted these proportions in micro-aggregates compared with Cropping. Under Cropping, long-term fertilization did not affect the distribution of aggregates and MWD values compared with those under CK, except for NPK treatment. Fertilizer treatments enhanced SOC and TN contents in aggregates at al tested soil depths. However, fertilization did not affect the partitioning proportions of SOC and TN contents in al aggregates compared with CK. Comprehensive results showed that different soil management regimes generated varied patterns of SOC and TN sequestration in loess soil. Abandonment enhanced soil aggregation and sequestered high amounts of SOC and TN in macro-aggregates. Long-term amendment of organic manure integrated with NPK maintained soil aggregate stability and improved SOC and TN sequestration in al aggregates in loess soil subjected to dryland farming.

  11. Reversible NaCl-induced aggregation of a monoclonal antibody at low pH: Characterization of aggregates and factors affecting aggregation. (United States)

    Bickel, Fabian; Herold, Eva Maria; Signes, Alba; Romeijn, Stefan; Jiskoot, Wim; Kiefer, Hans


    We investigated the influence of pH and sodium chloride concentration on aggregation kinetics of a monoclonal antibody. Aggregation was induced by sodium chloride addition at low pH. Protein conformation before and after salt addition was determined as well as the reversibility of aggregation. Aggregation was monitored at pH values between 2 and 7 with NaCl up to 1.5M by turbidity measurement and size-exclusion chromatography. Particle size distribution was assessed by using size-exclusion chromatography as well as nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow imaging microscopy. Structural changes were monitored by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Thermal stability was measured by differential scanning fluorimetry. Aggregation propensity was maximal at low pH and high ionic strength. While thermal stability decreased with pH, the secondary structure remained unchanged down to pH 3.5 and up to 1.5M NaCl. Precipitated protein could be largely reverted to monomers by dilution into salt-free buffer. The re-solubilized antibody was indistinguishable in structure, solubility and monodispersity from the unstressed protein. Also, binding to Protein A was steady. Aggregation could be reduced in the presence of trehalose. The results suggest a reversible aggregation mechanism characterized by a limited change in tertiary structure at low pH and a subsequent loss of colloidal stability resulting from electrostatic repulsion once salt is added to the sample. The experimental setup is robust and allows high-throughput quantification of the effect of additives on aggregation kinetics.

  12. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.


    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  13. Effects of Cultivation in Greenhouse on Composition and Stability of Soil Aggregate%设施蔬菜栽培对土壤团聚体组成及稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪娟; 梁成华; 杜立宇


    The number and status of soil aggregates are the important indexes to measure and eva-luate the soil fertility .The solar greenhouses in which the vegetable was cultivated for 1 ,5 ,10 ,15 and 25 years ,respectively ,were chosen ,and the effect of cultivation in solar greenhouse on compo-sition and stability of soil aggregate was discussed .The results showed that with the increase of cultivation years ,the content of >0 .25 mm aggregate with mechanical stability in the soil and the mechanical stability of soil aggregate reduced year by year ,and greenhouse soil dropped more than outdoor soil ;the content of >0 .25 mm aggregate with water stability and the water stability of soil aggregate raised year by year ,and the grow th of greenhouse soil was higher than the outdoor soil .The organic matter helped to improve the water stability of soil aggregate ;the free iron ox-ide ,the free alumina ,amorphous alumina and >2 mm aggregate content was positively related ;the free iron oxide and > 2 mm aggregate content was significantly positive correlation ;amor-phous iron oxides ,complexing iron oxide and <0 .25 mm micro aggregate content was positively related .%土壤团聚体的数量和稳定性是衡量和评价土壤肥力的重要指标。以栽培年限为1、5、10、15、20 a的日光温室土壤为研究对象,探讨了设施蔬菜栽培对土壤团聚体组成及稳定性的影响。结果表明,随着温室使用年限的增加,供试土壤中>0.25 m m机械稳定性团聚体含量和土壤团聚体机械稳定性先降低后趋于稳定,温室土壤降幅大于露地土壤;>0.25 m m水稳性团聚体含量和土壤团聚体水稳性先升高后趋于稳定,温室土壤的升幅高于露地土壤。有机质有利于提高土壤团聚体的水稳性;游离氧化铁、游离氧化铝、无定形氧化铝含量与>2 mm团聚体含量呈正相关关系,其中游离氧化铁与>2 mm团聚体含量呈显著的正相关关系,无定形

  14. Control over particle size distribution by autoclaving poloxamer-stabilized trimyristin nanodispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göke, Katrin; Roese, Elin; Arnold, Andreas


    into the bloodstream. Consequently, small particles with a narrow particle size distribution are desired. Hitherto, there are, however, only limited possibilities for the preparation of monodisperse, pharmaceutically relevant dispersions. In this work, the effect of autoclaving at 121 °C on the particle size...... distribution of lipid nanoemulsions and -suspensions consisting of the pharmaceutically relevant components trimyristin and poloxamer 188 was studied. Additionally, the amount of emulsifier needed to stabilize both untreated and autoclaved particles was assessed. In our study, four dispersions of mean particle...... sizes from 45 to 150 nm were prepared by high-pressure melt homogenization. The particle size distribution before and after autoclaving was characterized using static and dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Asymmetrical flow field...

  15. Stability analysis of transmission system with high penetration of distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza, M.


    Nowadays, interest in generating electricity using decentralized generators of relatively small scale ('distributed generation', DG) is increasing. This work deals with the impact of implementing DG on the transmission system transient stability, with the emphasis on a potential transition from a 'vertical power system' to a 'horizontal power system. A problem in power systems is maintaining synchronous operation of all (centralized) synchronous machines. This stability problem associated is called rotor angle stability. In this work, the impact of the DG implementation on this is investigated. The impact of DG levels on the system transient stability when the increasing DG level is followed by a reduction of centralized generators in service resulting in a 'vertical to horizontal' transformation of the power system is also investigated. Furthermore, a stochastic analysis is used to study the transient stability of the power systems. The results show that including the stochastic behavior of DG leads to a more complete and detailed view of the system performance. Finally, the situation when the power system is pushed towards a scenario, where DG penetration reaches a level that covers the total load of the original power system (100% DG level) is investigated. The research performed in this work indicates that from the transmission system stability point of view, if higher DG penetration levels are coming up, sufficient inertia and voltage support must be installed. Furthermore, one should be aware of the fact that the system behaves stochastically, especially with DG. To a certain extent regional balancing of power can be performed by local voltage control.

  16. Comparison of Harmony Search Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Distributed Generation Allocation to Improve Steady State Voltage Stability of Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Piarehzadeh


    Full Text Available In this study is tried to optimal distributed generation allocation for stability improvement in radial distribution systems. Voltage instability implies an uncontrolled decrease in voltage triggered by a disturbance, leading to voltage collapse and is primarily caused by dynamics connected with the load. The instability is divided into steady state and transient voltage instability Based on the time spectrum of the incident of the phenomena. The analysis is accomplished using a steady state voltage stability index which can be evaluated at each node of the distribution system. Several optimal capacities and locations are used to check these results. The location of DG has the main effect voltage stability on the system. Effects of location and capacity on incrementing steady state voltage stability in radial distribution systems are examined through Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA and finally the results are compared to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO on the terms of speed, convergence and accuracy.

  17. A Functional Reference Architecture for Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver;


    Aggregators are considered to be a key enabling technology for harvesting power system services from distributed energy resources (DER). As a precondition for more widespread use of aggregators in power systems, methods for comparing and validating aggregator designs must be established. This paper...... proposes a functional reference architecture for aggregators to address this requirement....

  18. A fuzzy genetic approach for network reconfiguration to enhance voltage stability in radial distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, N.C. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Prasad, K. [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)


    This paper presents a fuzzy genetic approach for reconfiguration of radial distribution systems (RDS) so as to maximize the voltage stability of the network for a specific set of loads. The network reconfiguration involves a mechanism for selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one from each loop, such that the reconfigured RDS possesses desired performance characteristics. This discrete solution space is better handled by the proposed scheme, which maximizes a suitable optimizing function (computed using two different approaches). In the first approach, this function is chosen as the average of a voltage stability index of all the buses in the RDS, while in the second approach, the complete RDS is reduced to a two bus equivalent system and the optimizing function is the voltage stability index of this reduced two bus system. The fuzzy genetic algorithm uses a suitable coding and decoding scheme for maintaining the radial nature of the network at every stage of genetic evolution, and it also uses a fuzzy rule based mutation controller for efficient search of the solution space. This method, tested on 69 bus and 33 bus RDSs, shows promising results for the both approaches. It is also observed that the network losses are reduced when the voltage stability is enhanced by the network reconfiguration. (author)

  19. Current distribution and stability of LTS/HTS hybrid superconducting conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Current distribution and stability of a hybrid LTS/HTS superconductor, consisting of multifilamentary NbTi/Cu and Bi2223/Ag tapes, were numerically analyzed according to power-law models. The results showed that most of current passed through the LTS and the current increased in the HTS with temperature rise when the transport current was below the critical current of the hybrid conductor. The quench propagation velocity of the hybrid conductor was smaller but its minimum quench energy was larger than those of LTS conductors, indicating that the stability of the hybrid superconducting conductor was effectively improved and a high engineering current density was simultaneously achieved. Finally, a hybrid sample, made by soldering Bi2223/Ag tape onto NbTi/Cu conductor, was prepared and tested successfully at helium temperature. The experimental results qualitatively agreed with the simulated ones.

  20. Stability and Bifurcation Analysis for a Predator-Prey Model with Discrete and Distributed Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Shi


    Full Text Available We propose a two-dimensional predatory-prey model with discrete and distributed delay. By the use of a new variable, the original two-dimensional system transforms into an equivalent three-dimensional system. Firstly, we study the existence and local stability of equilibria of the new system. And, by choosing the time delay τ as a bifurcation parameter, we show that Hopf bifurcation can occur as the time delay τ passes through some critical values. Secondly, by the use of normal form theory and central manifold argument, we establish the direction and stability of Hopf bifurcation. At last, an example with numerical simulations is provided to verify the theoretical results. In addition, some simple discussion is also presented.

  1. The effect of pulsewidth of pumping pulse on the stability of distributed feedback dye laser (United States)

    Pasandideh, K.; Rahbari, M.; Sadighi Bonabi, R.


    The generation of a single and stable picosecond pulse by distributed feedback dye laser is investigated in this work. The numerical result for the rate equation system that includes the thermal effects in the lasing medium is provided. By applying this model to Rhodamine 6G, it is found that considerable improvement in the stability of the laser can be achieved by pumping the system with narrower laser pulses. The simulation shows that if the dye solution is pumped by sub-200 ps pulse, the laser can be operated in single-pulse output mode with acceptable stability in pulsewidth over a long range of pumping intensity. This result is confirmed by a more complicated model composed of non-averaged Maxwell and rate equations. Even though the thermal effects do not play a significant role in equivalent cavity lifetime, they result in considerable wavelength shift toward the shorter wavelengths.

  2. Characteristics of stress distribution in floor strata and control of roadway stability under coal pillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongqiang Xiao; Bai Jianbiao; Xu Lei; Zhang Xuebin


    Given the difficulties encountered in roadway support under coal pillars, we studied the characteristics of stress distribution and their effect on roadway stability, using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that, under a coal pillar, vertical stress in a floor stratum increases while horizontal stress decreases. We conclude that the increased difference between vertical and horizontal stress is an important reason for deformation of the surrounding rock and failures of roadways under coal pillars. Based on this, we propose control technologies of the surrounding rock of a roadway under a coal pillar, such as high strength and high pre-stressed bolt support, cable reinforcement support,single hydraulic prop with beam support and reinforcement by grouting of the surrounding rock, which have been successfully applied in a stability control project of a roadway under a coal pillar.

  3. Evidences of Changes in Surface Electrostatic Charge Distribution during Stabilization of HPV16 Virus-Like Particles (United States)

    Vega, Juan F.; Vicente-Alique, Ernesto; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Wang, Yang; Martínez-Salazar, Javier


    The stabilization of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles has been examined by means of different techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility. All these techniques provide different and often complementary perspectives about the aggregation process and generation of stabilized virus-like particles after a period of time of 48 hours at a temperature of 298 K. Interestingly, static light scattering results point towards a clear colloidal instability in the initial systems, as suggested by a negative value of the second virial coefficient. This is likely related to small repulsive electrostatic interactions among the particles, and in agreement with relatively small absolute values of the electrophoretic mobility and, hence, of the net surface charges. At this initial stage the small repulsive interactions are not able to compensate binding interactions, which tend to aggregate the particles. As time proceeds, an increase of the size of the particles is accompanied by strong increases, in absolute values, of the electrophoretic mobility and net surface charge, suggesting enhanced repulsive electrostatic interactions and, consequently, a stabilized colloidal system. These results show that electrophoretic mobility is a useful methodology that can be applied to screen the stabilization factors for virus-like particles during vaccine development. PMID:26885635

  4. Stability Analysis of DC Distribution Systems with Droop-Based Charge Sharing on Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina I. Makrygiorgou


    Full Text Available Direct current (DC distribution systems and DC microgrids are becoming a reliable and efficient alternative energy system, compatible with the DC nature of most of the distributed energy resources (DERs, storage devices and loads. The challenging problem of redesigning an autonomous DC-grid system in view of using energy storage devices to balance the power produced and absorbed, by applying simple decentralized controllers on the electronic power interfaces, is investigated in this paper. To this end, a complete nonlinear DC-grid model has been deployed that includes different DC-DERs, two controlled parallel battery branches, and different varying DC loads. Since many loads in modern distribution systems are connected through power converters, both constant power loads and simple resistive loads are considered in parallel. Within this system, suitable cascaded controllers on the DC/DC power converter interfaces to the battery branches are proposed, in a manner that ensures stability and charge sharing between the two branches at the desired ratio. To achieve this task, inner-loop current controllers are combined with outer-loop voltage, droop-based controllers. The proportional-integral (PI inner-loop current controllers include damping terms and are fully independent from the system parameters. The controller scheme is incorporated into the system model and a globally valid nonlinear stability analysis is conducted; this differs from small-signal linear methods that are valid only for specific systems, usually via eigenvalue investigations. In the present study, under the virtual cost of applying advanced Lyapunov techniques on the entire nonlinear system, a rigorous analysis is formulated to prove stability and convergence to the desired operation, regardless of the particular system characteristics. The theoretical results are evaluated by detailed simulations, with the system performance being very satisfactory.

  5. Intrinsic-Stabilization Uni-Directional Quantum Key Distribution Between Beijing and Tianjin

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, X; Han, Z; Gui, Y; Guo, G; Mo, Xiao-fan; Zhu, Bing; Han, Zheng-fu; Gui, You-zhen; Guo, Guang-can


    Quantum key distribution provides unconditional security for communication. Unfortunately, current experiment schemes are not suitable for long-distance fiber transmission because of instability or backscattering. We present a uni-directional intrinsic-stabilization scheme that is based on Michelson-Faraday interferometers, in which reflectors are replaced with 90 degree Faraday mirrors. With the scheme, key exchange from Beijing to Tianjin over 125 kilometers with an average error rate is below 6% has been achieved and its limited distance exceeds 150 kilometers. Experimental result shows the system is insensitive to environment and can run over day and night without any break even in the noise workshop.

  6. The intensity distribution and thermal stability of InnoSlab laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Peng Shi; Yutian Lu


    Partially end-pumped slab laser is an innovative solid state laser, namely InnoSlab. Combining the hybrid resonator with partially end-pumping, the output power can be scaled with high beam quality. In this paper, the output intensity distributions are simulated by coordinate transformation fast Fourier transform(FFT) algorithm, comparing the thermal lens influence. As the simulated curves showed, the output mode is still good when the thermal lens effect is strong, indicatingthe good thermal stability of InnoSlab laser.Such a new kind of laser can be designed and optimized on the base of this simulation.

  7. Stability of networks with distributed generation and power converter interfaces: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasolonjanahary, J.L.; Banks, R.; Clare, J.; Asher, G.; Bozhko, S. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom)


    This report summarises the results of a project developing and applying software for establishing control regimes to ensure stability and power quality of a distributed utility grid taking into account the requirements of power converter controlled units and assessing the extra control freedom of power converter interfaces. Control methods for single generation systems are described and assessed covering dual rate control, multivariable based control via feedback linearization, and compensated generator control. Multiple generator converter systems are examined, and simulation software, system parameters, and converter control design are discussed in appendices.

  8. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Cerqueti, Roy


    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. ...

  9. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions (United States)

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy


    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

  10. Stability Analysis of Distributed Parameter Systems on Temperature Measurement of Large-scale Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenliang DING; Li ZHONG; Feng YUAN


    In this paper, the mechanical construction, thermal regulator design and temperature measurement system of a local area were set up for large-scale linear measurement. Numerical analysis based on temperature correlated characteristic is discussed to obtain optimal observation points for the measurements. The horizontal temperature distribution of the measured area is compared with the measurement of the variation of temperature at 15℃ and 20℃ over time, and characteristic of dynamic response is also discussed. In addition, the long-time stability of measured temperature is analyzed by means of using the standard deviation. It characterizes the temperature distribution performance of a large area and how it may impact the measurement of a large-scale object.

  11. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Aggregation and Stability of Heparin in Aqueous Solution%超声处理对溶液中肝素聚集态及稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凯军; 李冰洁; 王兆梅


    In this paper, dynamic light scattering is employed to investigate the aggregation of heparin in aqueous solution and to reveal the influence of ultrasonic treatment on the aggregation and stability of heparin. The results show that heparin exists in aqueous solution in the form of aggregated species via multiple-molecule cross-linking, with the particle size of the aggregates increasing with the heparin concentration, that the aggregates cannot be completely eliminated though the addition of sodium chloride leads to a reduction of aggregates diameter in a certain degree , and that ultrasonic treatment significantly restrains the heparin aggregation. When ultrasound with 30% of power percentage is applied for 3min, the aggregates with the diameter of 100 ~ 1000 nm change into heparin monomers with the diameter of 1 ~ 10nm, which means that ultrasonic treatment is effective in restraining the heparin aggregation. Moreover, disaggregated heparin powder with the diameter of 1 ~ l00nm can be obtained by the filtration with l00nm membrane and subsequent freeze drying. The disaggregated heparin remains stable after the storage for more than 64 h at room temperatures.%采用动态光散射法研究肝素在溶液中的聚集态以及超声处理对肝素在溶液中的聚集态和稳定性的影响,发现:肝素在水溶液中以多分子交联的聚集态形式存在,肝素浓度越高,聚集体粒径越大;加入NaCl可在一定程度上减小肝素聚集体的粒径,但不能从根本上消除聚集体;施加超声可显著减少肝素在溶液中的聚集,在低功率百分数短时超声(30%,3 min)作用下,100 ~ 1000nm粒径的肝素聚集体减少,转化为1~10nm粒径的肝素单体,表明超声处理是一种有效减弱肝素聚集的方法;采用100 nm孔径的膜进行分离和冷冻干燥可得到粒径为1 ~ 10nm的解聚肝素粉末;解聚肝素溶液常温下放置64h后不会重新聚集,具有较强的稳定性.

  12. Distribution of ephemeral plants and their significance in dune stabilization in Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXueqin; JIANGJin; LEIJiaqiang; ZHANGWeimin; QIANYibing


    Based on systematically monitoring plants on dune ridges in the southern part of the Gurbantunggut Desert in 2002, this paper, from the angle of dune stabilization by vegetation,describes the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of ephemeral plants on isolated sand dunes,analyses the natural invasion processes of ephemeral plants on human-disturbed sand surface and expounds the importance of ephemeral plants in stabilizing sand dune surface. A total of 45 plant species were identified in the study area, 29 of which are ephemeral plants. Ephemeral plants sprouted in early April and completed their life-circle within about two months. Just as aeolian sand activities came to the strongest stage from April to June in desert regions of northern Xinjiang, the total coverage of trees, shrubs and herbs of long vegetational period on most dune ridges was less than 10%, while the mean coverage of ephemeral plants reached 13.9% in April, 40.2% in May and 14.1% in June. Therefore ephemeral plants acted as the major contributor to dune surface stabilization in the Gurbantunggut Desert.Investigations of vegetation restoration on engineering-disturbed dune surface show that ephemeral plants first recolonized the disturbed dune surface.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Winter Planted Green Manure on Distribution and Storage of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Water-Stable Aggregates of Reddish Paddy Soil Under a Double-Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zeng-ping; ZHENG Sheng-xian; NIE Jun; LIAO Yu-lin; XIE Jian


    In agricultural systems, maintenance of soil organic matter has long been recognized as a strategy to reduce soil degradation. Manure amendments and green manures are management practices that can increase some nutrient contents and improve soil aggregation. We investigated the effects of 28 yr of winter planted green manure on soil aggregate-size distribution and aggregate-associated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The study was a randomized completed block design with three replicates. The treatments included rice-rice-fallow, rice-rice-rape, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch and rice-rice-ryegrass. The experiment was established in 1982 on a silty light clayey paddy soil derived from Quaternary red clay (classiifed as Fe-Accumuli-Stagnic Anthrosols) with continuous early and late rice. In 2009, soil samples were collected (0-15 cm depth) from the ifeld treatment plots and separated into water-stable aggregates of different sizes (i.e.,>5, 2-5, 1-2, 0.5-1, 0.25-0.5 and<0.25 mm) by wet sieving. The long-term winter planted green manure signiifcantly increased total C and N, and the formation of the 2-5-mm water-stable aggregate fraction. Compared with rice-rice-rape, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch and rice-rice-ryegrass, the rice-rice-fallow signiifcantly reduced 2-5-mm water-stable aggregates, with a signiifcant redistribution of aggregates into micro-aggregates. Long-term winter planted green manure obviously improved C/N ratio and macro-aggregate-associated C and N. The highest contribution to soil fertility was from macro-aggregates of 2-5 mm in most cases.

  14. Effects of Land Use Practices on the Organic Carbon Content, Cation Exchange Capacity and Aggregate Stability of Soils in the Catchment Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayeb Heshmati


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Land use practice leads to changes in the physico-chemical properties of soils, such as Soil Organic Carbon (SOC, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC and Soil Aggregate Stability (SAS that cause soil erosion. Approach: Merek catchment, Iran suffers from land degradation due to poor land use practice. A study was carried out with the objectives: (i to determine soil nutrient status in different agro-ecological zones in Merek catchment; and (ii to evaluate the influence of land use practices on SOC, CEC and SAS. Results: It was found that soil texture was silty and clay, while soil reaction was alkaline (pH was 7.75. The respective amount of carbonates was 32 and 36% in the top-soil and sub-soil respectively, indicating high level of alkalinity in the soils of the study area. The mean SAS of the surface soil layer for agriculture, rangeland and forest was 53, 61 and 64%, respectively with its mean in the topsoil of agriculture is significantly lower (P≤0.05 than the other zones. SOC level in the agriculture, rangeland and forest were 1.35, 1.56, 2.14 % in the topsoil and 1.03, 1.33 and 1.45%, in the subsoil of the respective areas. The results of t-test and ANOVA analyses showed that SOC means are significantly different from each other within soil depth and among agro-ecological zones. The CEC in the agriculture, rangeland and forest areas were 25.8, 24.6 and 35.1 cmolckg-1 for the top-soil and 31.1, 26.8 and 26.9 cmolckg-1 in the sub-soil, respectively. All the above changes are due to the negative effects of agricultural activities. Conclusion: Improper tillage practice (up-down the slope, conversion of the rangeland and forest to rain-fed areas, crop residue burning, over grazing and forest clearance contribute to reduction in SOC and SAS in the Merek catchment, Iran.

  15. Aggregate Development and Organic Matter Storage in Mediterranean Mountain Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Soil aggregation and organic matter of soils from the pre-Pyrenean range in Catalonia (NE Spain) were studied, in order to assess their quality as carbon sinks and also to select the best soil management practices to preserve their quality.Aggregate stability, organic carbon and micromorphology were investigated. The highest amount of organic carbon was found in alluvial, deep soils (228 Mg C ha-1), and the lowest was in a shallow, stony soil with a low plant cover (78 Mg C ha-1). Subsurface horizons of degraded soils under pastures were the ones with smaller and less-stable aggregates.Fresh residues of organic matter (OM) were found mostly in interaggregate spaces. Within the aggregates there were some organic remains that were beginning to decompose, and also impregnative nodules of amorphous OM. Although OM was evenly distributed among the aggregate fractions, the larger blocky peels had more specific surface, contained less decomposed OM and had a lower organic/mineral interphase than smaller crumb aggregates, which were also more stable.Soil carbon storage was affected primarily by the OM inputs in the surface horizons. In order to store organic carbon over the mid- and long-term periods, the mechanisms favouring structuration through biological activity and creating small aggregates with intrapedal stable microporosities seemed to be the most effective.

  16. Effects of across-and along-slope ploughs on soil aggregate stability%横坡和顺坡耕作对紫色土土壤团聚体稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 何丙辉; 王仁新; 郭志敏; 唐柄哲


    Soil aggregate is an key soil fertility identification index which determines the quality and erosion resistance of soils. Soil organic carbon content somehow influences soil stability and soil water-stable aggregate forms. It is a critical driving factor of soil fertility and soil cushioning property. Farming measures also influence changes in soil organic carbon pool and different farming measures have different effects on soil physical and chemical property. To find proper tillage measures on slope croplands in purple soils, the effects of across- and along-slope ploughs on soil aggregate stability in purple soils were studied. Through plot runoff experiments, the characteristics of water-stable aggregates and organic carbon contents in top soils (0~20 cm) were studied, On the slope-land of South China, peasants preferred doing along-slope plough than across-slope plough because ease of along-slope plough. However, rill erosion easily occurred in along-slope plough conditions, especially in big rainfall events. This worsened the degree of soil erosion in the region. On the other hand, research on soil nutrient loss in across-slope plough conditions has sown that due to high risks and inputs, across-slope plough farming was unacceptable to most peasants. Studies have shown that soil aggregate organic carbon content accounts for 90% of surface soil nutrients and agricultural production activities occurred mostly in surface soils. This research studied the effects of across- and along-slope ploughs on water-stable aggregates and organic carbon in surface purple soils. The study offered some theoretical bases for effective utilization of soil management measures in slope-land conditions. Results showed that compared with along-slope plough, across-slope plough increased aggregate water stability index by 38.99%. Aggregate dispersion index in along-slope plough was 1.64 times that in across-slope plough. This suggested that erosion resistance in across-slope plough

  17. Spatiotemporal Stability of Cu-ATSM and FLT Positron Emission Tomography Distributions During Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Tyler J.; Yip, Stephen; Jallow, Ngoneh [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Forrest, Lisa J. [Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Jeraj, Robert, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Human Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)


    Purpose: In dose painting, in which functional imaging is used to define biological targets for radiation therapy dose escalation, changes in spatial distributions of biological properties during treatment can compromise the quality of therapy. The goal of this study was to assess the spatiotemporal stability of 2 potential dose painting targets—hypoxia and proliferation—in canine tumors during radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with sinonasal tumors (14 carcinoma and 8 sarcoma) were imaged before hypofractionated radiation therapy with copper(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for hypoxia and 3′-deoxy-3′-{sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT for proliferation. The FLT scans were repeated after 2 fractions and the Cu-ATSM scans after 3 fractions. Midtreatment PET/CT images were deformably registered to pretreatment PET/CT images. Voxel-based Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the spatial stability of Cu-ATSM and FLT uptake distributions between pretreatment and midtreatment scans. Paired t tests determined significant differences between the patients' respective Cu-ATSM and FLT correlations coefficients. Standardized uptake value measures were also compared between pretreatment and midtreatment scans by use of paired t tests. Results: Spatial distributions of Cu-ATSM and FLT uptake were stable through midtreatment for both sarcomas and carcinomas: the population mean ± standard deviation in Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.88 ± 0.07 for Cu-ATSM and 0.79 ± 0.13 for FLT. The patients' Cu-ATSM correlation coefficients were significantly higher than their respective FLT correlation coefficients (P=.001). Changes in Cu-ATSM SUV measures from pretreatment to midtreatment were histology dependent: carcinomas experienced significant decreases in Cu-ATSM uptake (P<.05), whereas sarcomas did not (P>.20). Both histologies

  18. Changes on aggregation in mine waste amended with biochar and marble mud (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, María; Guzmán, Jose; Zornoza, Raúl; Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Faz, Ángel; Lal, Rattan


    Mining activities have produced large amounts of wastes over centuries accumulated in tailing ponds in Southeast Spain. Applications of biochar may have a high potential for reclamation of degraded soils. Distribution, size and stability of aggregates are important indices of soil physical quality. However, research data on aggregation processes at amended mining tailings with biochar are scanty. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of seven different treatments involving biochar and marble mud (MM) on the aggregation in mine waste (MW). Seven different treatments were tested after 90 days of incubation in the laboratory. These treatments were the mix of MW and: biochar from solid pig manure (PM), biochar from cotton crop residues (CR), biochar from municipal solid waste (MSW), marble mud (MM), PM+MM, CR+MM, MSW+MM and control without amendment. High sand percentages were identified in the MW. The biochars made from wastes (PM, CR, MSW) were obtained through pyrolysis of feedstocks. The water stability of soil aggregates was studied. The data on total aggregation were corrected for the primary particles considering the sandy texture of the MW. Moreover, partial aggregation was determined for each fraction and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates was computed. Soil bulk density and total porosity were also determined. No significant differences were observed in total aggregation and MWD among treatments including the control. For the size range of >4.75 mm, there were significant differences in aggregates > 4.75 mm between CR+MM in comparison with that for CT. There were also significant differences between MSW and PM+MM for the 1-0.425 mm fraction, and between CT and MM and CR for 0.425-0.162 mm aggregate size fractions. Therefore, CR-derived biochar applied with MM enhanced stability of macro-aggregates. Furthermore, soil bulk density was also the lowest bulk density and total porosity the highest for the CR-derived biochar

  19. Stability analysis of Markovian jumping stochastic Cohen—Grossberg neural networks with discrete and distributed time varying delays (United States)

    M. Syed, Ali


    In this paper, the global asymptotic stability problem of Markovian jumping stochastic Cohen—Grossberg neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays (MJSCGNNs) is considered. A novel LMI-based stability criterion is obtained by constructing a new Lyapunov functional to guarantee the asymptotic stability of MJSCGNNs. Our results can be easily verified and they are also less restrictive than previously known criteria and can be applied to Cohen—Grossberg neural networks, recurrent neural networks, and cellular neural networks. Finally, the proposed stability conditions are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  20. A Graphical Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of the Distribution Constant of Iodine and the Stability Constants of Trihalide Anions. (United States)

    Kahwa, I. A.


    Discusses a graphical procedure which allows the distribution constant of iodine to be determined simultaneously with the trihalide anion stability constant. In addition, the procedure extends the experimental chemistry from distribution equilibria to important thermodynamic and bonding features. Advantages of using the procedure are also…

  1. Roles of Mac-1 and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrins in leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation: stabilization by Mac-1 and inhibition by GpIIb/IIIa blockers. (United States)

    Patko, Zsofia; Csaszar, Albert; Acsady, Gyorgy; Peter, Karlheinz; Schwarz, Meike


    Circulating platelet-leukocyte hetero-aggregates play an important role in acute cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions. The association involves the receptor families of selectins and integrin. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1) in hetero-aggregate formation and search for a counter-receptor on platelets ready to interact with Mac-1. As a model of leukocytes, Mac-1 presenting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to evaluate the role of Mac-1 in hetero-aggregate formation. The amount of CHO cell-bound active and inactive platelets was measured by flow cytometry, while the counter-receptors on platelets were identified via using blocking antibodies. We observed significant platelet adhesion on Mac-1-bearing cells when platelet-rich plasma or activated platelets were present. Inactive platelets did not adhere to Mac-1-bearing cells. Addition of fibrinogen, a ligand of Mac-1 significantly increased platelet binding. CD40L was demonstrated to act similarly on Mac-1. Inhibition of platelet GpIIb/IIIa completely abolished CHO cell-platelet aggregation. In our study, we have shown for the first time that Mac-1 mediates the formation of hetero-aggregates without selectin tethering when Mac-1 ligands such as fibrinogen or CD40L are present and blockers of platelet GpIIb/IIIa are able to diminish this interaction.

  2. The Interannual Stability of Cumulative Frequency Distributions for Convective System Size and Intensity (United States)

    Mohr, Karen I.; Molinari, John; Thorncroft, Chris D,


    The characteristics of convective system populations in West Africa and the western Pacific tropical cyclone basin were analyzed to investigate whether interannual variability in convective activity in tropical continental and oceanic environments is driven by variations in the number of events during the wet season or by favoring large and/or intense convective systems. Convective systems were defined from TRMM data as a cluster of pixels with an 85 GHz polarization-corrected brightness temperature below 255 K and with an area at least 64 km 2. The study database consisted of convective systems in West Africa from May Sep for 1998-2007 and in the western Pacific from May Nov 1998-2007. Annual cumulative frequency distributions for system minimum brightness temperature and system area were constructed for both regions. For both regions, there were no statistically significant differences among the annual curves for system minimum brightness temperature. There were two groups of system area curves, split by the TRMM altitude boost in 2001. Within each set, there was no statistically significant interannual variability. Sub-setting the database revealed some sensitivity in distribution shape to the size of the sampling area, length of sample period, and climate zone. From a regional perspective, the stability of the cumulative frequency distributions implied that the probability that a convective system would attain a particular size or intensity does not change interannually. Variability in the number of convective events appeared to be more important in determining whether a year is wetter or drier than normal.

  3. Comprehensive radiolabeling, stability, and tissue distribution studies of technetium-99m single amino acid chelates (SAAC). (United States)

    Maresca, Kevin P; Hillier, Shawn M; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Levadala, Murali K; Banerjee, Sangeeta R; Hicks, Justin; Sundararajan, Chitra; Valliant, John; Zubieta, Jon; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W


    Technetium tricarbonyl chemistry has been a subject of interest in radiopharmaceutical development over the past decade. Despite the extensive work done on developing chelates for Tc(I), a rigorous investigation of the impact of changing donor groups and labeling conditions on radiochemical yields and/or distribution has been lacking. This information is crucially important if these platforms are going to be used to develop molecular imaging probes. Previous studies on the coordination chemistry of the {M(CO)(3)}(+) core have established alkylamine, aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, and carboxylate donors as effective chelating ligands. These observations led to the design of tridentate ligands derived from the amino acid lysine. Such amino acid analogues provide a tridentate donor set for chelation to the metal and an amino acid functionality for conjugation to biomolecules. We recently developed a family of single amino acid chelates (SAAC) that serve this function and can be readily incorporated into peptides via solid-phase synthesis techniques. As part of these continuing studies, we report here on the radiolabeling with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and stability of a series of SAAC analogues of lysine. The complexes studied include cationic, neutral, and anionic complexes. The results of tissue distribution studies with these novel complexes in normal rats demonstrate a range of distribution in kidney, liver, and intestines.

  4. Stability Margin Scaling Laws for Distributed Formation Control as a Function of Network Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, He; Mehta, Prashant G


    We consider the problem of distributed formation control of a large number of vehicles. An individual vehicle in the formation is assumed to be a fully actuated point mass. A distributed control law is examined: the control action on an individual vehicle depends on (i) its own velocity and (ii) the relative position measurements with a small subset of vehicles (neighbors) in the formation. The neighbors are defined according to an information graph. In this paper we describe a methodology for modeling, analysis, and distributed control design of such vehicular formations whose information graph is a D-dimensional lattice. The modeling relies on an approximation based on a partial differential equation (PDE) that describes the spatio-temporal evolution of position errors in the formation. The analysis and control design is based on the PDE model. We deduce asymptotic formulae for the closed-loop stability margin (absolute value of the real part of the least stable eigenvalue) of the controlled formation. The ...

  5. Mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks. (United States)

    Muralisankar, S; Manivannan, A; Balasubramaniam, P


    The aim of this manuscript is to investigate the mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks with time-delays. The time-delays are assumed to be interval time-varying and randomly occurring. Based on the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis approach, a novel sufficient condition is obtained in the form of linear matrix inequality such that the delayed stochastic neural networks are globally robustly asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties. Finally, the derived theoretical results are validated through numerical examples in which maximum allowable upper bounds are calculated for different lower bounds of time-delay.

  6. Stabilization of a Power System including Inverter Type Distributed Generators by the Virtual Synchronous Generator (United States)

    Sakimoto, Kenichi; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi

    The capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) connected to grid by inverters are growing year and year. The inverters are generally controlled by PLL (Phase Locked Loop) in order to synchronize with power system frequency. Power systems will become unstable, if the capacity of inverter type DGs become larger and larger, because inverter frequency is controlled just to follow the frequency decided by other synchronous generators. There is the idea that inverters are controlled to behave like a synchronous generator. This concept is called Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG). In this paper, a control scheme of VSG is presented, and the design method of required energy storage and the ability of grid stabilizing control by VSG is investigated by computer simulations.

  7. Guaranteed Stability of Sparse Recovery in Distributed Compressive Sensing MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao


    Full Text Available Low SNR condition has been a big challenge in the face of distributed compressive sensing MIMO radar (DCS-MIMO radar and noise in measurements would decrease performance of radar system. In this paper, we first devise the scheme of DCS-MIMO radar including the joint sparse basis and the joint measurement matrix. Joint orthogonal matching pursuit (JOMP algorithm is proposed to recover sparse targets scene. We then derive a recovery stability guarantee by employing the average coherence of the sensing matrix, further reducing the least amount of measurements which are necessary for stable recovery of the sparse scene in the presence of noise. Numerical results show that this scheme of DCS-MIMO radar could estimate targets’ parameters accurately and demonstrate that the proposed stability guarantee could further reduce the amount of data to be transferred and processed. We also show the phase transitions diagram of the DCS-MIMO radar system in simulations, pointing out the problem to be further solved in our future work.

  8. Total organic carbon in aggregates as a soil recovery indicator (United States)

    Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria; Amorim Faria, Glaucia; Dubbin, William


    The soil aggregation promotes physical protection of organic matter, preservation of which is crucial to improve soil structure, fertility and ensure the agro-ecosystems sustainability. The no-tillage cultivation system has been considered as one of the strategies to increase total soil organic carbono (TOC) contents and soil aggregation, both are closely related and influenced by soil management systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of soil aggregates and the total organic carbon inside aggregates, with regard to soil recovery, under 3 different soil management systems, i.e. 10 and 20 years of no-tillage cultivation as compared with soil under natural vegetation (Cerrado). Undisturbed soils (0-5; 5-10; and 10-20 cm depth) were collected from Brazil, Central Region. The soils, Oxisols from Cerrado, were collected from a field under Natural Vegetation-Cerrado (NV), and from fields that were under conventional tillage since 1970s, and 10 and 20 years ago were changed to no-tillage cultivation system (NT-10; NT-20 respectively). The undisturbed samples were sieved (4mm) and the aggregates retained were further fractionated by wet sieving through five sieves (2000, 1000, 500, 250, and 50 μm) with the aggregates distribution expressed as percentage retained by each sieve. The TOC was determined, for each aggregate size, by combustion (Thermo-Finnigan). A predominance of aggregates >2000 μm was observed under NV treatment (92, 91, 82 %), NT-10 (64, 73, 61 %), and NT-20 (71, 79, 63 %) for all three depths (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 cm). In addition greater quantities of aggregates in sizes 1000, 500, 250 and 50 μm under NT-10 and NT-20 treatments, explain the lower aggregate stability under these treatments compared to the soil under NV. The organic C concentration for NV in aggregates >2000 μm was 24,4; 14,2; 8,7 mg/g for each depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 cm, respectively), higher than in aggregates sized 250-50 μm (7,2; 5,5; 4,4 mg/g) for all depths

  9. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack


    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  10. Differential distribution improves gene selection stability and has competitive classification performance for patient survival. (United States)

    Strbenac, Dario; Mann, Graham J; Yang, Jean Y H; Ormerod, John T


    A consistent difference in average expression level, often referred to as differential expression (DE), has long been used to identify genes useful for classification. However, recent cancer studies have shown that when transcription factors or epigenetic signals become deregulated, a change in expression variability (DV) of target genes is frequently observed. This suggests that assessing the importance of genes by either differential expression or variability alone potentially misses sets of important biomarkers that could lead to improved predictions and treatments. Here, we describe a new approach for assessing the importance of genes based on differential distribution (DD), which combines information from differential expression and differential variability into a unified metric. We show that feature ranking and selection stability based on DD can perform two to three times better than DE or DV alone, and that DD yields equivalent error rates to DE and DV. Finally, assessing genes via differential distribution produces a complementary set of selected genes to DE and DV, potentially opening up new categories of biomarkers.

  11. Byzantine-fault tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)


    A rapid Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol that self-stabilizes from any state, tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a linear convergence time with respect to the self-stabilization period. Upon self-stabilization, all good clocks proceed synchronously. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  12. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Cokkinides, George [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fardanesh, Bruce [New York Power Authority, NY (United States); Hedrington, Clinton [U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands)


    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puget, P; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, M; Owens, Lloyd


    Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samples to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.

  14. Global exponential stability of impulsive complex-valued neural networks with both asynchronous time-varying and continuously distributed delays. (United States)

    Song, Qiankun; Yan, Huan; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yurong


    This paper investigates the stability problem for a class of impulsive complex-valued neural networks with both asynchronous time-varying and continuously distributed delays. By employing the idea of vector Lyapunov function, M-matrix theory and inequality technique, several sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponential stability of equilibrium point. When the impulsive effects are not considered, several sufficient conditions are also given to guarantee the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point. Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and lower level of conservatism of the proposed criteria in comparison with some existing results.

  15. Construction aggregates (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.


    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  16. High Performance Computing for probabilistic distributed slope stability analysis, an early example (United States)

    Rossi, Guglielmo; Catani, Filippo


    The term shallow landslides is widely used in literature to describe a slope movement of limited size that mainly develops in soils up to a maximum of a few meters thick. Shallow landslides are usually triggered by heavy rainfall because, as the water starts to infiltrate into the soil, the pore-water pressure increases so that the shear strength of the soil is reduced leading to slope failure. We have developed a distributed hydrological-geotechnical model for forecasting the temporal and spatial distribution of shallow landslides to be used as a real time warning system for civil protection purposes. The stability simulator is developed to use High Performance Computing (HPC) resources and in this way can manage large areas, with high spatial and temporal resolution, at useful computational time for a warning system . The output of the model is a probabilistic value of slope instability. In its current stage the model applied for predicting the expected location of shallow landslides involves several stand-alone components. The base solution suggested by Iverson for the Richards equation is adapted to be used in a real time simulator to estimate the probabilistic distribution of the transient groundwater pressure head according to radar detected rainfall intensity. The use of radar detected rainfall intensity as the input for the hydrological simulation of the infiltration allows a more accurate computation of the redistribution of the groundwater pressure associated with transient infiltration of rain. A soil depth prediction scheme and a limit-equilibrium infinite slope stability algorithm are used to calculate the distributed factor of safety (FS) at different depths and to record the probability distribution of slope instability in the final output file. The additional ancillary data required have been collected during fieldwork and with laboratory standard tests. The model deals with both saturated and unsaturated conditions taking into account the effect of

  17. Performance Analysis of Two Big Data Technologies on a Cloud Distributed Architecture. Results for Non-Aggregate Queries on Medium-Sized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Marin


    Full Text Available Big Data systems manage and process huge volumes of data constantly generated by various technologies in a myriad of formats. Big Data advocates (and preachers have claimed that, relative to classical, relational/SQL Data Base Management Systems, Big Data technologies such as NoSQL, Hadoop and in-memory data stores perform better. This paper compares data processing performance of two systems belonging to SQL (PostgreSQL/Postgres XL and Big Data (Hadoop/Hive camps on a distributed five-node cluster deployed in cloud. Unlike benchmarks in use (YCSB, TPC, a series of R modules were devised for generating random non-aggregate queries on different subschema (with increasing data size of TPC-H database. Overall performance of the two systems was compared. Subsequently a number of models were developed for relating performance on the system and also on various query parameters such as the number of attributes in SELECT and WHERE clause, number of joins, number of processing rows etc.

  18. Improving stability and activity of cross-linked enzyme aggregates based on polyethylenimine in hydrolysis of fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Gui, Xiaohua; Wang, Guilong; Yan, Yunjun


    Cross-linking of enzyme aggregates from recombinant Geotrichum sp. lipase based on polyethylenimine (PEI) was applied to hydrolyze fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids successfully. Through acetone precipitation and cross-linking of physical aggregates using glutaraldehyde in the presence of PEI, firmly cross-linked enzyme aggregates (PEI-CLEAs) were prepared. They could maintain more than 65% of relative hydrolysis degree after incubation in the range of 50-55 °C for 4 h and maintain more than 85% of relative hydrolysis degree after being treated by acetone, tert-butyl alcohol and octane for 4 h. PEI-CLEAs increased hydrolysis degree to 42% from 12% by free lipase. After five batch reactions, PEI-CLEAs still maintained 72% of relative hydrolysis degree. Hydrolysis of fish oil by PEI-CLEAs produced glycerides containing concentrated EPA and DHA in good yield. PEI-CLEAs had advantages over general CLEAs and free lipase in initial reaction rate, hydrolysis degree, thermostability, organic solvent tolerance and reusability.

  19. A distributed model for slope stability analysis using radar detected rainfall intensity (United States)

    Leoni, L.; Rossi, G.; Catani, F.


    The term shallow landslides is widely used in literature to describe a slope movement of limited size that mainly develops in soils up to a maximum of a few meters. Shallow landslides are usually triggered by heavy rainfall because, as the water starts to infiltrate in the soil, the pore-water pressure increases so that the shear strength of the soil is reduced leading to slope failure. We have developed a distributed hydrological-geotechnical model for the forecasting of the temporal and spatial distribution of shallow landslides to be used as a warning system for civil protection purpose. The model uses radar detected rainfall intensity as the input for the hydrological simulation of the infiltration. Using the rainfall pattern detected by the radar is in fact possible to dynamically control the redistribution of groundwater pressure associated with transient infiltration of rain so as to infer the slope stability of the studied area. The model deals with both saturated and unsaturated conditions taking into account the effect of soil suction when the soil is not completely saturated. Two pilot sites have been chosen to develop and test this model: the Armea basin (Liguria, Italy) and the Ischia Island (Campania, Italy). In recent years several severe rainstorms have occurred in both these areas. In at least two cases these have triggered numerous shallow landslides that have caused victims and damaged roads, buildings and agricultural activities. In its current stage, the basic basin-scale model applied for predicting the probable location of shallow landslides involves several stand-alone components. The solution suggested by Iverson for the Richards equation is used to estimate the transient groundwater pressure head distribution according to radar detected rainfall intensity. A soil depth prediction scheme and a limit-equilibrium infinite slope stability algorithm are used to calculate the distributed factor of safety (FS) at different depths and to record

  20. Estabilidade de agregados do solo após manejo com rotações de culturas e escarificação Soil aggregate stability after management with crop rotation and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego


    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, em solo compactado, a estabilidade dos agregados influenciada pelo cultivo de espécies de cobertura em esquema de rotações de culturas, em sistema de semeadura direta, mediante o efeito da escarificação mecânica. As rotações de culturas repetidas por três anos consecutivos envolveram o cultivo de triticale e girassol, no outono-inverno, associados ao cultivo de milheto, de sorgo forrageiro e de Crotalária júncea como plantas de cobertura, antecedendo o da soja (cultura de verão. No tratamento envolvendo a escarificação mecânica, a área permaneceu em pousio entre os cultivos de outono-inverno e de verão. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (Botucatu-SP, nos anos agrícolas de 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As amostras para a análise da estabilidade de agregados foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m após o manejo das plantas de cobertura em dezembro de 2003 e de 2005. Logo no primeiro ano de instalação do experimento, o cultivo de triticale resultou em maior porcentagem de agregados com mais de 2 mm, maior DMG e maior DMP na camada de 0 a 5 cm, além de maior DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. Já a escarificação do solo e a ausência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura proporcionaram menor porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm e menor DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. A estabilidade dos agregados foi influenciada pela rotação de culturas, sendo maior na camada de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m quando o triticale foi introduzido como espécie de outono-inverno.The objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. The following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no

  1. Complexation of arsenite with dissolved organic matter: conditional distribution coefficients and apparent stability constants. (United States)

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong


    The complexation of arsenic (As) with dissolved organic matter (DOM), although playing an important role in regulating As mobility and transformation, is poorly characterized, as evidenced by scarce reporting of fundamental parameters of As-DOM complexes. The complexation of arsenite (AsIII) with Aldrich humic acid (HA) at different pHs was characterized using a recently developed analytical technique to measure both free and DOM-bound As. Conditional distribution coefficient (KD), describing capacity of DOM in binding AsIII from the mass perspective, and apparent stability constant (Ks), describing stability of resulting AsIII-DOM complexes, were calculated to characterize AsIII-DOM complexation. LogKD of AsIII ranged from 3.7 to 2.2 (decreasing with increase of As/DOM ratio) at pH 5.2, from 3.6 to 2.6 at pH 7, and from 4.3 to 3.2 at pH=9.3, respectively. Two-site ligand binding models can capture the heterogeneity of binding sites and be used to calculate Ks by classifying the binding sites into strong (S1) and weak (S2) groups. LogKs for S1 sites are 7.0, 6.5, and 5.9 for pH 5.2, 7, and 9.3, respectively, which are approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than for weak S2 sites. The results suggest that AsIII complexation with DOM increases with pH, as evidenced by significant spikes in concentrations of DOM-bound AsIII and in KD values at pH 9.3. In contrary to KD, logKs decreased with pH, in particular for S1 sites, probably due to the presence of negatively charged H2AsO3- and the involvement of metal-bridged AsIII-DOM complexation at pH 9.3.

  2. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris Kriest; Geoffrey T Evans


    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the distribution of aggregate sizes and sinking speeds. The distribution of sizes is described by two parameters, the mass and number of aggregates, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the models. Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations is small, and it presents the difference in timing between settlement of aggregates and fecal pellets.

  3. Approximation of Aggregate Losses Using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The modeling of aggregate losses is one of the main objectives in actuarial theory and practice, especially in the process of making important business decisions regarding various aspects of insurance contracts. The aggregate losses over a fixed time period is often modeled by mixing the distributions of loss frequency and severity, whereby the distribution resulted from this approach is called a compound distribution. However, in many cases, realistic probability distributions for loss frequency and severity cannot be combined mathematically to derive the compound distribution of aggregate losses. Approach: This study aimed to approximate the aggregate loss distribution using simulation approach. In particular, the approximation of aggregate losses was based on a compound Poisson-Pareto distribution. The effects of deductible and policy limit on the individual loss as well as the aggregate losses were also investigated. Results: Based on the results, the approximation of compound Poisson-Pareto distribution via simulation approach agreed with the theoretical mean and variance of each of the loss frequency, loss severity and aggregate losses. Conclusion: This study approximated the compound distribution of aggregate losses using simulation approach. The investigation on retained losses and insurance claims allowed an insured or a company to select an insurance contract that fulfills its requirement. In particular, if a company wants to have an additional risk reduction, it can compare alternative policies by considering the worthiness of the additional expected total cost which can be estimated via simulation approach.

  4. Experimental Research on the Gravel Aggregate Water Stability Performance of Asphalt Concrete Core Wall%采用砾石骨料的心墙沥青混凝土水稳定性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建新; 朱西超; 杨海华; 王文政


    To further study the water stable performance of using gravel aggregate's core wall asphalt concrete ,gravel aggregate as raw material preparation of asphalt concrete specimen ,water stability test ,soaking and vacuum saturated marshal test and improved freeze-thaw splitting test were carried out .The results show that water stability specimen stability coefficient is 0 .99 ,and meets the regulatory requirements .immersion and vacuum water saturated specimens with immersion time increasing the residual stability de‐cline ,the immersion specimens and vacuum saturated specimens'residual stability biggest decline rates are 1 .4% and 3 .9% respec‐tively ,the decline is not obvious .The porosity was still able to meet the specification requirements of within 2% .It can be seen that the core wall asphalt concrete's water stability is still guaranteed under harsh conditions .This paper serves as a reference for impro‐ving the water stability of asphalt concrete core wall test methods and gravel aggregate applications .%为进一步研究采用砾石骨料的心墙沥青混凝土水稳定性能,以砾石骨料为原材料制备沥青混凝土试件,进行了水稳定试验、浸水及真空饱水马歇尔试验和改进的冻融劈裂试验,试验结果表明:水稳试件的水稳定系数为0.99,满足规范大于0.90的要求;浸水及真空饱水试件随着浸泡时间的增加其残留稳定度有所下降,浸水试件及真空饱水试件残留稳定度最大下降率分别为1.4%、3.9%,下降不明显。劈裂抗拉强度比随冻融循环次数的增加有所下降,劈裂抗拉强度比最大下降率为5%;冻融劈裂试件密度随着冻融循环次数的增加略有下降,下降值在0.2%~0.9%之间,但孔隙率仍能满足规范中不大于2%的要求,可以看出心墙沥青混凝土在恶劣试验条件下水稳定性仍然是有保证的。为完善心墙沥青混凝土水稳定性试验方法及砾

  5. Stability and bifurcation analysis for the Kaldor-Kalecki model with a discrete delay and a distributed delay (United States)

    Yu, Jinchen; Peng, Mingshu


    In this paper, a Kaldor-Kalecki model of business cycle with both discrete and distributed delays is considered. With the corresponding characteristic equation analyzed, the local stability of the positive equilibrium is investigated. It is found that there exist Hopf bifurcations when the discrete time delay passes a sequence of critical values. By applying the method of multiple scales, the explicit formulae which determine the direction of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are derived. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate our main results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renji Han; Wei Jiang


    The problem of delay-dependent robust stability for uncertain linear singular neu-tral systems with time-varying and distributed delays is investigated. The uncertain-ties under consideration are norm bounded, and possibly time varying. Some new stability criteria, which are simpler and less conservative than existing results, are derived based on a new class of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals combined with the descriptor model transformation and the decomposition technique of coefficient matrix and formulated in the form of a linear matrix inequalitys (LMIs). Also, the criteria can be easily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox.

  7. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE)-Parametric Pressure Distribution Boundary Layer Stability Study and Wing Glove Design Task (United States)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.


    The Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was initiated to establish a boundary-layer transition data base for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper-surface gloves will be fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The results of two initial tasks are documented: a parametric pressure distribution/boundary-layer stability study and the design of an upper-surface glove for Mach 0.8. The first task was conducted to provide a data base from which wing-glove pressure distributions could be selected for glove designs. Boundary-layer stability analyses were conducted on a set of pressure distributions for various wing sweep angles, Mach numbers, and Reynolds number in the range of those anticipated for the flight-test program. The design procedure for the Mach 0.8 glove is described, and boundary-layer stability calculations and pressure distributions are presented both at design and off-design conditions. Also included is the analysis of the clean-up glove (smoothed basic wing) that will be flight-tested initially and the analysis of a Mach 0.7 glove designed at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  8. The effects of urea, guanidinium chloride and sorbitol on porphyrin aggregation: Molecular dynamics simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maryam Ghadamgahi; Davood Ajloo


    This paper compares the inhibition effect of porphyrin aggregation in the presence of urea, guanidinium chloride (Gdn) and sorbitol by molecular dynamics simulation. It demonstrates that porphyrin aggregation increases in sorbitol, but decreases towards addition of urea and Gdn. It shows that urea, Gdn and sorbitol can have a large effect — positive or negative, depending on the concentration — on the aggregation of the porphyrin. The effect of urea, Gdn and sorbitol on porphyrin aggregation has been inferred from the effect of these solutes on the hydration layer of porphyrin. It appears that the Gdn is more suitable than urea for decreasing the hydration layer of porphyrin while several osmolites like sorbitol are known to increase hydration layer and thus might stabilize the porphyrin aggregation. Results of radial distribution function (RDF), distributed atoms or molecules around target species, indicated that the increase and exclusion of solvent around porphyrin by osmolytes and Gdn would affect significantly on porphyrin aggregation. There was a sizeable difference in potency between the Gdn and urea, with the urea being less potent to decrease hydration layer and porphyrin aggregation.

  9. Fosfato e micorriza na estabilidade de agregados em amostras de latossolos cultivados e não-cultivados Aggregate stability in two cropped and no-cropped Oxisols as affected by phosphate addition and mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega


    Full Text Available Nos trópicos, existe escassez de informação quanto à contribuição de espécies fúngicas do solo na formação e estabilização de agregados. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do histórico de uso, níveis de P, de inoculação micorrízica e cultivo com braquiária e soja em casa de vegetação, sobre o diâmetro médio geométrico dos agregados (DMG, o índice de floculação das partículas, a matéria seca das raízes, a colonização micorrízica e o comprimento total de hifas, em amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distrófico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Amostras dos dois solos, previamente cultivados por longos períodos, e de solos não-cultivados, foram trazidas para casa de vegetação, submetidas a inoculação, e a dois níveis de P, e então cultivadas com braquiária e soja, em dois cultivos sucessivos. Os resultados mostraram que o solo previamente cultivado apresentou menor comprimento total de hifas, menor estabilidade de agregados (menor diâmetro médio de agregados e menor índice de floculação. A inoculação propiciou maior estabilidade dos agregados, e este efeito é condicionado ao nível de P do solo e ao histórico de uso. A presença de P promoveu, indiretamente, maior agregação, por propiciar maior comprimento total das hifas e matéria seca de raízes.In the tropics there is little information on the contribution of soil microorganisms on aggregate stability in the soils. Soil management, crop and fertilization can affect the fungi specie in soil, and also affect aggregate stability. This study attempted to evaluate the effect of earlier cropping, phosphate, inoculation with AMF, and brachiaria and soybean on the geometric mean diameter (GMD, particle flocculation index, root dry matter, and total hyphal length, in dystrophic Red Latosol and dystroferric Red Latosol (both Oxisols. Samples of both soils under natural condition and previously cultivated were brought to the green house and

  10. Enzymatic biofilm digestion in soil aggregates facilitates the release of particulate organic matter by sonication (United States)

    Büks, Frederick; Kaupenjohann, Martin


    The stability of soil aggregates against shearing and compressive forces as well as water-caused dispersion is an integral marker of soil quality. High stability results in less compaction and erosion and has been linked to enhanced water retention, dynamic water transport and aeration regimes, increased rooting depth, and protection of soil organic matter (SOM) against microbial degradation. In turn, particulate organic matter is supposed to support soil aggregate stabilization. For decades the importance of biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) regarding particulate organic matter (POM) occlusion and aggregate stability has been canonical because of its distribution, geometric structure and ability to link primary particles. However, experimental proof is still missing. This lack is mainly due to methodological reasons. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop a method of enzymatic biofilm detachment for studying the effects of EPSs on POM occlusion. The method combines an enzymatic pre-treatment with different activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, DNAse and lipase with a subsequent sequential ultrasonic treatment for disaggregation and density fractionation of soils. POM releases of treated samples were compared to an enzyme-free control. To test the efficacy of biofilm detachment the ratio of bacterial DNA from suspended cells and the remaining biofilm after enzymatic treatment were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Although the enzyme treatment was not sufficient for total biofilm removal, our results indicate that EPSs may attach POM within soil aggregates. The tendency to additional POM release with increased application of enzymes was attributed to a slight loss in aggregate stability. This suggests that an effect of agricultural practices on soil microbial populations could influence POM occlusion/aggregate stability and thereby carbon cycle/soil quality.

  11. Fine Distributed Moderating Material with Improved Thermal Stability Applied to Enhance the Feedback Effects in SFR Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk


    Full Text Available The use of fine distributed moderating material to enhance the feedback effects and to reduce the sodium void effect in sodium-cooled fast reactor cores is described. The influence of the moderating material on the fuel assembly geometry, the neutron spectrum, the feedback effects, the power and burnup distribution, and the transmutation performance is given. An overview on possible materials is provided and the relationship between hydrogen content and thermal stability is described. A solution for the problem of the limited thermal stability of primarily proposed hydrogen-bearing moderating material ZrH1.6 is developed by the use of yttrium-mono-hydride. The similarity in the effects reached by ZrH and YH is demonstrated by comparison calculations. The topic is closed by an overview on material properties, manufacturing issues, experience in fast reactors, and a comparison of raw material costs.

  12. Stabilization of species coexistence in spatial models through the aggregation-segregation effect generated by local dispersal and nonspecific local interactions. (United States)

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C


    Spatial interactions are widely acknowledged to play a significant role in sustaining diversity in ecological communities. However, theoretical work on this topic has focused on how spatial processes affect coexistence of species that differ in their strategies, with less attention to how spatial processes matter when competitors are equivalent. Furthermore, though it is recognized that models with local dispersal and local competition may sustain higher diversities of equivalent competitors than models in which these are not both localized, there is debate as to whether this reflects merely equalizing effects or whether there is also a stabilizing component. In this study, we explore how dispersal limitation and nonspecific local competition influence the outcome of species coexistence in communities driven by stochastic drift. We demonstrate that space alone acts as a stabilizing factor in a continuous space model with local dispersal and competition, as individuals of rare species on average experience lower total neighborhood densities, causing per capita reproductive rates to decrease systematically with increasing abundance. These effects prolong time to extinction in a closed system and enhance species diversity in an open system with constant immigration. Fundamentally, these stabilizing effects are obtained when dispersal limitation interacts with local competition to generate fluctuations in population growth rates. Thus this effect can be considered a fluctuating mechanism similar to spatial or temporal storage effects, but generated purely endogenously without requiring any exogenous environmental variability or species dissimilarities.

  13. Trapped Field Characteristics of Stacked YBCO Thin Plates for Compact NMR Magnets: Spatial Field Distribution and Temporal Stability. (United States)

    Hahn, Seungyong; Kim, Seok Beom; Ahn, Min Cheol; Voccio, John; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu


    This paper presents experimental and analytical results of trapped field characteristics of a stack of square YBCO thin film plates for compact NMR magnets. Each YBCO plate, 40 mm × 40 mm × 0.08 mm, has a 25-mm diameter hole at its center. A total of 500 stacked plates were used to build a 40-mm long magnet. Its trapped field, in a bath of liquid nitrogen, was measured for spatial field distribution and temporal stability. Comparison of measured and analytical results is presented: the effects on trapped field characteristics of the unsaturated nickel substrate and the non-uniform current distribution in the YBCO plate are discussed.

  14. 茶园土壤团聚体中微生物量碳、氮的分布特征%Distribution Characteristics of Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen in Soil Aggregates Under Tea Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏英; 郑子成; 李廷轩


    [目的]弄清茶园土壤团聚体中微生物量碳、氮的分布特征,以期反映退耕还茶模式对土壤团聚体及其养分循环的影响,为协调区域土地利用及退耕还林(茶)工程的实施提供依据.[方法]采用野外调查和室内分析相结合的方法,以撂荒地和按树人工林为对照,就茶园土壤团聚体中微生物量碳、氮的分布特征进行了研究.[结果](1)茶园和对照撂荒地、按树人工林土壤团聚体中有机碳含量基本随团聚体直径的减小而增加,最大值均集中于<0.25 mm团聚体中;(2)茶园及对照地土壤微生物量碳、氮含量则基本随团聚体直径的减小而降低,其中茶园土壤团聚体中微生物量碳、氮含量最大值分布于5-2 mm团聚体中,茶园土壤除了<0.25 mm团聚体外,其微生物量碳、氮的含量均高于撂荒地和按树人工林同直径团聚体;(3)茶园及对照地土壤团聚体微生物熵基本随团聚体直径的减小而降低,其中茶园土壤团聚体微生物熵最大值分布于5-2 mm团聚体中,其分布规律与微生物量碳、氮基本一致.[结论]与撂荒地、按树人工林相比,茶园土壤团聚体中微生物量碳、氮较为丰富,大团聚体中的含量尤为突出,表明退耕还茶是研究区一种较为理想的退耕模式.%[Objective] The distribution of microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen in soil aggregates of tea planted area was studied on purpose to reflect the influence of tea plantation on soil aggregates and its nutrient cycling, which can provide evidence for coordinating regional land use and returning farmland to forest/tea project. [Method] On the basis of field investigation and laboratory analysis, abandoned land and eucalyptus plantation were selected as contrasts, distribution features of microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen in soil aggregates under tea plantation were studied. [Result] The content of soil aggregates organic carbon

  15. Kinetic analysis of the multistep aggregation mechanism of monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Arosio, Paolo; Sozo, Margaux; Yates, Andrew; Norrant, Edith; Morbidelli, Massimo


    We investigate by kinetic analysis the aggregation mechanism of two monoclonal antibodies belonging to the IgG1 and IgG2 subclass under thermal stress. For each IgG, we apply a combination of size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques to resolve the time evolution of the monomer, dimer, and trimer concentrations, as well as the average molecular weight and the average hydrodynamic radius of the aggregate distribution. By combining the detailed experimental characterization with a theoretical kinetic model based on population balance equations, we extract relevant information on the contribution of the individual elementary steps on the global aggregation process. The analysis shows that the two molecules follow different aggregation pathways under the same operating conditions. In particular, while the monomer depletion of the IgG1 is found to be rate-limited by monomeric conformational changes, bimolecular collision is identified as the rate-limiting step in the IgG2 aggregation process. The measurement of the microscopic rate constants by kinetic analysis allows the quantification of the protein-protein interaction potentials expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). It is found that the antibody solutions exhibit large W values, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the values computed in the frame of the DLVO theory. This indicates that, besides net electrostatic repulsion, additional effects delay the aggregation kinetics of the antibody solutions with respect to diffusion-limited conditions. These effects likely include the limited efficiency of the collision events due to the presence of a limited number of specific aggregation-prone patches on the heterogeneous protein surface, and the contribution of additional repulsive non-DLVO forces to the protein-protein interaction potential, such as hydration forces.

  16. Some well-posedness and general stability results in Timoshenko systems with infinite memory and distributed time delay (United States)

    Guesmia, Aissa


    In this paper, we consider a Timoshenko system in one-dimensional bounded domain with infinite memory and distributed time delay both acting on the equation of the rotation angle. Without any restriction on the speeds of wave propagation and under appropriate assumptions on the infinite memory and distributed time delay convolution kernels, we prove, first, the well-posedness and, second, the stability of the system, where we present some decay estimates depending on the equal-speed propagation case and the opposite one. The obtained decay rates depend on the growths of the memory and delay kernels at infinity. In the nonequal-speed case, the decay rate depends also on the regularity of initial data. Our stability results show that the only dissipation resulting from the infinite memory guarantees the asymptotic stability of the system regardless to the speeds of wave propagation and in spite of the presence of a distributed time delay. Applications of our approach to specific coupled Timoshenko-heat and Timoshenko-wave systems as well as the discrete time delay case are also presented.

  17. Detection of Distribution Dimension of the Earth-rock Aggregate Based on Digital Image Process%土石分形检测中的数字图像处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜召彬; 王建勋; 平根建


    土木工程人员经常用粗料颗粒分布分维、粗料轮廓分维这些结构指标作为土石混合体定量化研究的依据,用以解释土石混合体的力学特性,并以这些参数作为土石混合体工程分类的依据。目前技术人员以手工筛分实验来计算粒度分维数。展开对土石混合体微结构研究,劳动强度大,操作不便,极大地制约了对土石混合体微结构的研究。提出了利用数字图像处理技术来测量土石混合体分形维数的方法。实验验证结果表明,该方法减轻了工程技术人员手工检测的劳动强度,实用有效。%Some parameters including distribution fractal dimension of coarse grain and coarse grain boundary contour line are used as a new research method on microstructure of earth-rock aggregate by engineering technicians, which can explain the characteristics of mechanical behavior of earth-rock aggregate. The parameters of distribution fractal dimension can also be clas- sification basis for engineering of earth-rock aggregate. Now technicians can only calculate grain-size fractal dimension by sieve analysis in manual operation way to research on the microstructure of earth-rock aggregate, which restricts the technicians' fur- ther research for its great labor intensity and its inconvenient operation. In this paper the detection of distribution fractal dimension of earth-rock aggregate base on digital image process is put forward. This method is simple and practical. It can decrease labor intensity and enriched the research method of microstructure of earth-rock aggregate for technicians.

  18. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.


    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  19. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio


    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  20. Stability of Spatially Distributed, Intersecting Aircraft Flows Under Sequential Conflict Resolution Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Hand, Troy; Feron, Eric


    This paper discusses the effect of sequential conflict resolution maneuvers of an infinite aircraft flow through a finite control volume. Aircraft flow models are utilized to simulate traffic flows and determine stability. Pseudo-random flow geometry is considered to determine airspace stability in a more random airspace, where aircraft flows are spread over a given positive width. The use of this aircraft flow model generates a more realistic flow geometry. A set of upper bounds on the maximal aircraft deviation during conflict resolution is derived. Also with this flow geometry it is proven that these bounds are not symmetric, unlike the symmetric bounds derived in previous papers for simpler flow configurations. Stability is preserved under sequential conflict resolution algorithms for all flow geometries discussed in this paper.

  1. Effect of Doubly Fed Induction GeneratorTidal Current Turbines on Stability of a Distribution Grid under Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahai Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG tidal current turbines on a distribution grid under unbalanced voltage conditions of the grid. A dynamic model of an electrical power system under the unbalanced network is described in the paper, aiming to compare the system performance when connected with and without DFIG at the same location in a distribution grid. Extensive simulations of investigating the effect of DFIG tidal current turbine on stability of the distribution grid are performed, taking into account factors such as the power rating, the connection distance of the turbine and the grid voltage dip. The dynamic responses of the distribution system are examined, especially its ability to ride through fault events under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. The research has shown that DFIG tidal current turbines can provide a good damping performance and that modern DFIG tidal current power plants, equipped with power electronics and low-voltage ride-through capability, can stay connected to weak electrical grids even under the unbalanced voltage conditions, whilst not reducing system stability.

  2. Population balance modeling of antibodies aggregation kinetics. (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Rima, Simonetta; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The aggregates morphology and the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody under acidic conditions have been investigated. Growth occurs via irreversible cluster-cluster coagulation forming compact, fractal aggregates with fractal dimension of 2.6. We measured the time evolution of the average radius of gyration, , and the average hydrodynamic radius, , by in situ light scattering, and simulated the aggregation kinetics by a modified Smoluchowski's population balance equations. The analysis indicates that aggregation does not occur under diffusive control, and allows quantification of effective intermolecular interactions, expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). In particular, by introducing a dimensionless time weighed on W, the time evolutions of measured under various operating conditions (temperature, pH, type and concentration of salt) collapse on a single master curve. The analysis applies also to data reported in the literature when growth by cluster-cluster coagulation dominates, showing a certain level of generality in the antibodies aggregation behavior. The quantification of the stability ratio gives important physical insights into the process, including the Arrhenius dependence of the aggregation rate constant and the relationship between monomer-monomer and cluster-cluster interactions. Particularly, it is found that the reactivity of non-native monomers is larger than that of non-native aggregates, likely due to the reduction of the number of available hydrophobic patches during aggregation.

  3. Novel delay-distribution-dependent stability analysis for continuous-time recurrent neural networks with stochastic delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shen-Quan; Feng Jian; Zhao Qing


    In this paper,the problem of delay-distribution-dependent stability is investigated for continuous-time recurrent neural networks (CRNNs) with stochastic delay.Different from the common assumptions on time delays,it is assumed that the probability distribution of the delay taking values in some intervals is known a priori.By making full use of the information concerning the probability distribution of the delay and by using a tighter bounding technique (the reciprocally convex combination method),less conservative asymptotic mean-square stable sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs).Two numerical examples show that our results are better than the existing ones.

  4. Análisis de la estabilidad de agregados por el método de le bissonnais en tres órdenes de suelos Application of the le bissonnais method to assess aggregate stability in three soils orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Adrián Gabioud


    ­gregación, propios de cada suelo y sistemas productivos que, mediante la determinación de valores umbrales permitirá conocer tendencias del recurso y así generar alertas tempranas de procesos de degradación.Since aggregate stability is a dynamic characteristic, it is considered a sensitive indicator of a soil undergoing a process of recovery or degradation. In Argentina, different laboratory methods have been used to analyze the aggregate stability variation with respect to soil use. Le Bissonnais method, which is based on the classic Henin method, was developed by the INRA of France. This method provides the mean weighted diameter (DMP of stable aggregates with three pretreatments: fast wetting (DMPE, mechanical disintegration followed by re-wetting with ethanol (DMPD, and slow wetting (DMPC. The average value is then used to determine a value that summarizes the information (DMPm. At a global level, this method has been used on different soils under varying climatic conditions. However, since its performance on Argentinian soils is not yet known, the aims of this work were: i to evaluate the method of Le Bissonnais as an indicator of degradation in three types of soil (Mollisol, Vertisol and Alfisol with different degrees of intervention; ii to relate the DMP with organic carbon content; iii to correlate the methodologies of Le Bissonnais and Hénin and iv to quantify the time consumed by the aggregate stability procedure. Le Bissonnais method discriminated different use and management conditions in the three soils, reflecting trends towards either deterioration or recovery. We found a significant and positive relationship between carbon content and aggregate stability (R²=0.30, and a significant correlation between both methods (r=0.51. The latter varied according to the soil, existing a high degree of correlation in the Mollisols, an intermediate degree of correlation in the Alfisol and no correlation in the Vertisol. There were associations between the coefficients of

  5. Beyond initiation-limited translational bursting: the effects of burst size distributions on the stability of gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki


    A main source of gene expression noise in prokaryotes is translational bursting. It arises from efficient translation of mRNAs with low copy numbers, which makes the production of protein copies highly variable and pulsatile. To obtain analytical solutions, previous models to capture this noise source had to assume translation to be initiation-limited, representing the burst size by a specific type of a long-tail distribution. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting that the initiation is not the rate-limiting step in certain settings, for example, under stress conditions. Here, to overcome the limitations imposed by the initiation-limited assumption, we present a new analytical approach that can evaluate biological consequences of the protein burst size with a general distribution. Since our new model can capture the contribution of other factors to the translational noise, it can be used to analyze the effects of gene expression noise in more general settings. We used this new model to analytically analyze the connection between the burst size and the stability of gene expression processes in various settings. We found that the burst size with different distributions can lead to quantitatively and qualitatively different stability characteristics of protein abundance and can have non-intuitive effects. By allowing analysis of how the stability of gene expression processes changes based on various distributions of translational noise, our analytical approach is expected to enable deeper insights into the control of cell fate decision-making, the evolution of cryptic genetic variations, and fine-tuning of gene circuits.

  6. A microbiology-based multi-parametric approach towards assessing biological stability in drinking water distribution networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lautenschläger, Karin


    Biological stability of drinking water implies that the concentration of bacterial cells and composition of the microbial community should not change during distribution. In this study, we used a multi-parametric approach that encompasses different aspects of microbial water quality including microbial growth potential, microbial abundance, and microbial community composition, to monitor biological stability in drinking water of the non-chlorinated distribution system of Zürich. Drinking water was collected directly after treatment from the reservoir and in the network at several locations with varied average hydraulic retention times (6-52h) over a period of four months, with a single repetition two years later. Total cell concentrations (TCC) measured with flow cytometry remained remarkably stable at 9.5 (±0.6)×104cells/ml from water in the reservoir throughout most of the distribution network, and during the whole time period. Conventional microbial methods like heterotrophic plate counts, the concentration of adenosine tri-phosphate, total organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon remained also constant. Samples taken two years apart showed more than 80% similarity for the microbial communities analysed with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing. Only the two sampling locations with the longest water retention times were the exceptions and, sofar for unknown reasons, recorded a slight but significantly higher TCC (1.3(±0.1)×105cells/ml) compared to the other locations. This small change in microbial abundance detected by flow cytometry was also clearly observed in a shift in the microbial community profiles to a higher abundance of members from the Comamonadaceae (60% vs. 2% at other locations). Conventional microbial detection methods were not able to detect changes as observed with flow cytometric cell counts and microbial community analysis. Our findings demonstrate that the multi-parametric approach used provides a powerful

  7. On Stabilization of Nonlinear Distributed Parameter Port-Controlled Hamiltonian Systems via Energy-Shaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Schaft, Arjan J. van der; Ortega, Romeo


    Energy-shaping techniques have been successfully used for stabilization of nonlinear finite dimensional systems for 20 years now. In particular, for systems described by Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) models, the “control by interconnection” method provides a simple and elegant procedure for stab

  8. On stabilization of nonlinear distributed parameter port-controlled Hamiltonian systems via energy-shaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Schaft, van der Arjan J.; Ortega, Romeo


    Energy-shaping techniques have been successfully used for stabilization of nonlinear finite dimensional systems for 20 years now. In particular, for systems described by Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) models, the "control by interconnection" method provides a simple and elegant procedure for stab

  9. On the stability and spatiotemporal variance distribution of salinity in the upper ocean (United States)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Monselesan, Didier P.; Maes, Christophe


    Despite recent advances in ocean observing arrays and satellite sensors, there remains great uncertainty in the large-scale spatial variations of upper ocean salinity on the interannual to decadal timescales. Consonant with both broad-scale surface warming and the amplification of the global hydrological cycle, observed global multidecadal salinity changes typically have focussed on the linear response to anthropogenic forcing but not on salinity variations due to changes in the static stability and or variability due to the intrinsic ocean or internal climate processes. Here, we examine the static stability and spatiotemporal variability of upper ocean salinity across a hierarchy of models and reanalyses. In particular, we partition the variance into time bands via application of singular spectral analysis, considering sea surface salinity (SSS), the Brunt Väisälä frequency (N2), and the ocean salinity stratification in terms of the stabilizing effect due to the haline part of N2 over the upper 500m. We identify regions of significant coherent SSS variability, either intrinsic to the ocean or in response to the interannually varying atmosphere. Based on consistency across models (CMIP5 and forced experiments) and reanalyses, we identify the stabilizing role of salinity in the tropics—typically associated with heavy precipitation and barrier layer formation, and the role of salinity in destabilizing upper ocean stratification in the subtropical regions where large-scale density compensation typically occurs.

  10. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan


    Full Text Available Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size (P1- coarsest → P8 - finest. Halva prototypes (25g / piece, including also an industrial sample (H0, were obtained at laboratory scale by mixing the nougat with tahini. The texture was evaluated on Stable micro systems TA.HD Plus texture analyzer equipped either with a cylinder probe or with a blade set. All samples were stored for 60 days at 4°C, room temperature (~25°C or 40°C. During storage, the colloidal stability of all samples was assessed by a gravimetric technique. Tahini samples P6 → P8 were not suitable for halva production while due to the low viscosities, the product was impossible to be shaped. Among obtained sunflower halva prototypes (H1 → H5 it was shown that decreasing tahini particle size decreased sunflower halva hardness and stability. For each sample, the increase of storage temperature decreased sunflower halva stability. Sunflower halva H3 was the most efficient, while was more stable and showed smaller hardness values than H0.

  11. 非均质Euler-bernoulli梁的局部反馈定问题%Locally Distributed Feedback Stabilization of Nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆旭; 侯瑞鸿; 冯德兴; 齐剑冷


    In this article, we study the locally distributed feedback stabilization problem of a nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli beam. Firstly, using the semi-group theory, we establish the wellposedness of the associated closed loop system. Then by proving the uniqueness of the solution to a related ordinary differential equation, we derive the asymptotic stability of the closed loop system. Finally, by means of the piecewise multiplier method, we prove that, by either one distributed force feedback or a distributed moment feedback control, the closed loop system can be exponentially stabilized.

  12. 不同施肥条件下微生物对棕壤团聚体和碳分布的影响%Effect of Microbial on Carbon Distribution in Brown Soil Aggregates under Different Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 孙向阳; 刘克锋


    以北京市延庆县绿富隆有机肥蔬菜研究基地长期定位肥料试验地为试验平台,利用湿筛法获得不同粒级的团聚体,通过16SrDNA-PCR-DGGE技术进行测序分析,研究不同施肥条件下微生物群落对棕壤土团聚体和碳分布的影响.结果表明,有机肥(OF)处理的0.25 ~2 mm水稳性团聚体增加,增加幅度为109.0%;0.053~0.25 mm和小于0.053 mm粒级团聚体的含量均下降,与CK(不施肥)相比分别下降了31.9%和142.1%.OF处理对土壤各粒级团聚体中碳含量均有显著提高,与CK相比,提高15.2%~46.9%,其中大于2 mm团聚体中碳含量提高了46.9%.棕壤碳含量与大于2 mm粒级团聚体含量呈正相关;与0.25~2 mm粒级团聚体呈极显著正相关;与0.053 ~0.25mm粒级团聚体含量呈极显著负相关;与小于0.053 mm粒级团聚体呈显著负相关.%Various particle-size fractions of soil aggregates were obtained with the wet-screening method from the soil of a long-term stationary fertilization experimental field of Beijing Yanqing Lvfulong organic vegetables farms to analyze the effect of microbial communities on carbon distribution in brown soil aggregates under different fertilizations with sequence analysis by 16SrDNA-PCR-DGGE technology. Results showed that with different fertilization treatments, treatments OF ( organic fertilizer) increased 0. 25 ~2 mm water stable aggregates by 109. 0% ; compared to CK ( unfertilized) , 0. 053 ~0. 25 mm and 0-0.053 mm particle aggregates decreased by 31.9% and 142.1%, respectively. Treatments OF significantly increased carbon content in aggregates of all particle sizes by 15. 2%~46. 9% compared to CK, and in the >2 mm aggregates by 46. 9% . The content of brown soil carbon was positively related to the content of the > 2 mm aggregates; significantly positive related to the content of the 0. 25 ~ 2 mm aggregates, but significantly negative related to the content of the 0. 053 ~0. 25 mm aggregates

  13. Aggregation kinetics of a simulated telechelic polymer (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Rabinovitch, Avinoam; Baljon, Arlette R. C.


    We investigate the aggregation kinetics of a simulated telechelic polymer gel. In the hybrid molecular dynamics (MD)/Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm, aggregates of associating end groups form and break according to MC rules, while the position of the polymers in space is dictated by MD. As a result, the aggregate sizes change over time. In order to describe this aggregation process, we employ master equations. They define changes in the number of aggregates of a certain size in terms of reaction rates. These reaction rates indicate the likelihood that two aggregates combine to form a large one, or that a large aggregate splits into two smaller parts. The reaction rates are obtained from the simulations for a range of temperatures. Our results indicate that the rates are not only temperature dependent, but also a function of the sizes of the aggregates involved in the reaction. Using the measured rates, solutions to the master equations are shown to be stable and in agreement with the aggregate size distribution, as obtained directly from simulation data. Furthermore, we show how temperature-induced variations in these rates give rise to the observed changes in the aggregate distribution that characterizes the sol-gel transition.

  14. Trait enactments as density distributions: The role of actors, situations, and observers in explaining stability and variability. (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Law, Mary Kate


    The purposes of this article were to determine (a) whether the high consistency of individual differences in average aggregated behavior is because of actors' personalities or because of the consistency in the situations those actors encounter; and (b) whether the surprisingly high within-person variability in trait enactment is a real phenomenon corroborated by observers, or merely in individuals' heads. Although traits are supposed to describe what individuals are like in everyday life, little evidence exists about the enactment of trait content in everyday life. Past experience-sampling studies have found both highly variable and highly consistent trait enactment, but were restricted to self-report data and to naturally occurring situations. The current study used experience-sampling in controlled lab environments with 97 targets and 183 observers to address these shortcomings. Targets attended hour-long lab sessions 20× each and observers rated targets' behavior. Parameters of distributions were highly consistent (rs ∼ .80), revealing that actors were responsible for consistency, not situations. Nonetheless, observer ratings revealed that most variability in trait enactment was within-person, confirming that even when people put it on the line in ways that affected others, they still varied rapidly in the traits they enacted. In the face of 2 historically vexing objections to traits, this article supports the density distributions model of traits and argues that trait conceptualizations must accommodate large within-person variability.

  15. Empirical evidence and stability analysis of the linear car-following model with gamma-distributed memory effect (United States)

    Pei, Xin; Pan, Yan; Wang, Haixin; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo


    Car-following models, which describe the reactions of the driver of a following car to the changes of the leading car, are essential for the development of traffic flow theory. A car-following model with a stochastic memory effect is considered to be more realistic in modeling drivers' behavior. Because a gamma-distributed memory function has been shown to outperform other forms according to empirical data, in this study, we thus focus on a car-following model with a gamma-distributed memory effect; analytical and numerical studies are then conducted for stability analysis. Accordingly, the general expression of undamped and stability points is achieved by analytical study. The numerical results show great agreement with the analytical results: introducing the effect of the driver's memory causes the stable regions to weaken slightly, but the metastable region is obviously enlarged. In addition, a numerical study is performed to further analyze the variation of the stable and unstable regions with respect to the different profiles of gamma distribution.

  16. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang


    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  17. Stability Analysis of a Microgrid System based on Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUSIDO, J.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a phase-plane trajectory analysis and the appliance of Lyapunov's methodology to evaluate the stability limits of a small signal model of a Microgrid system. The work done is based on a non-linear tool and several computer simulations. The study indicates how to analyze a Microgrid system that is subjected to a severe transient disturbance by using its large signal model without the necessity of the small signal analysis as it is commonly applied.

  18. Colonization of diatom aggregates by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    Abundance and vertical distribution of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were studied during a diatom bloom in the Benguela current. Video observations showed the occurrence of abundant Chaetoceros spp. aggregates colonized by N. scintillans. The diatom aggregates were formed by regular...

  19. Jeans type instability for a chemotactic model of cellular aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri


    We consider an inertial model of chemotactic aggregation generalizing the Keller-Segel model and we study the linear dynamical stability of an infinite and homogeneous distribution of cells (bacteria, amoebae, endothelial cells,...) when inertial effects are accounted for. These inertial terms model cells directional persistance. We determine the condition of instability and the growth rate of the perturbation as a function of the cell density and the wavelength of the perturbation. We discuss the differences between overdamped (Keller-Segel) and inertial models. Finally, we show the analogy between the instability criterion for biological populations and the Jeans instability criterion in astrophysics.

  20. Mineralogia, química e estabilidade de agregados do tamanho de silte de solos da Região Sudeste do Brasil Mineralogy, chemistry and stability of silt-size aggregates of soils from the Southeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Tadeu Vitorino


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a relação da composição mineralógica e química do solo com a estabilidade de agregados do tamanho de silte, foram realizados estudos utilizando-se amostras de horizontes A e B de diversos solos da Região Sudeste do Brasil. Amostras de TFSA foram dispersas a 12.000 rpm por 20 minutos e a fração silte foi separada por esgotamento da fração argila, constituindo-se na fração denominada pseudo-silte, a qual foi sonificada, separando-se a fração argila desagregada (por sifonamento da fração silte propriamente dita. Estudos de correlação mostraram que as composições mineralógica e química dos solos têm efeito marcante na dispersão de argila, com reflexos na fração silte. Maiores teores de gibbsita refletem em maior estabilidade dos agregados do tamanho de silte ao passo que a caulinita proporciona efeito inverso. As formas de Al determinadas na fração pseudo-silte estão associadas à maior dificuldade de dispersão da fração argila dos solos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship of soil mineralogical and chemical composition with stability of silt-size aggregates. The studies were carried out using samples of A and B horizons of some soils from the Southeast Region of Brazil. Fine-earth samples were dispersed at 12,000 rpm during 20 minutes and the silt fraction was separated through clay fraction drain, constituting the fraction named pseudo-silt, which was sonificated, separating the desegregated clay fraction (by sonication from the properly named silt fraction. Correlation analyses showed that the soil mineralogical and chemical compositions have marked influence upon clay dispersion, with reflections on the silt fraction. Higher amounts of gibbsite reflect in higher stability of silt-size aggregates, while the kaolinite promotes inverse effect. The Al forms determined on the pseudo-silt fraction are associated with higher difficult of dispersion of clay fraction of

  1. Estabilidade de agregados de um latossolo amarelo distrocoeso de tabuleiro costeiro sob diferentes aportes de resíduos orgânicos da cana-de-açúcar Aggregate stability in a dystrophic cohesive yellow latosol of a costal plain under different sugarcane residue application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Falcão Bezerra de Vasconcelos


    apresentaram correlações significativas e positivas.The potential yield of sugarcane depends on factors related to climate, soil and the plant variety. Management systems that provide the addition of organic waste to the soil can cause changes in physical attributes of the soil, enhancing the growth of the root system and sugarcane yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different management systems at several levels of organic residue addition on the distribution and indices of aggregate stability of dystrophic cohesive Yellow Latosol of coastal plains, in the State of Alagoas. Plots were selected in the following sugarcane-growing areas: area under irrigation management system, area fertigated with vinasse, and an area under application of vinasse + filter cake. These management systems were compared to each other and to a control (native forest. To evaluate the distribution and stability indices of soil aggregates, soil samples were randomly collected in the different areas, at the depths 0-0.20; 0.20-0.40 and 0.40-0.60 m, at points between two neighboring sugarcane rows. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and the mean compared by the Tukey test at 5 % significance. Simple correlation analysis was performed between some measured variables. Results showed that the different management systems induced changes in the aggregate distribution and that the stabilization of soil aggregates in the surface layer dependeds on the organic matter content and the action of successive cycles of soil wetting and drying. The studies of simple correlations showed that total organic C and aggregate stability indices were significantly and positively correlated.

  2. Event-triggered and self-triggered stabilization of distributed networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Postoyan, Romain; Nesic, Dragan; Anta, Adolfo


    Event-triggered and self-triggered control have recently been proposed as implementation strategies that considerably reduce the resources required for control. Although most of the work so far has focused on closing a single control loop, some researchers have started to investigate how these new implementation strategies can be applied when closing multiple-feedback loops in the presence of physically distributed sensors and actuators. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers communicate via a shared wired channel. We use our recent prescriptive framework for the event-triggered control of nonlinear systems to develop novel policies suitable for the considered distributed scenario. Afterwards, we explain how self-triggering rules can be deduced from the developed event-triggered strategies.

  3. [Comparison of PAHs distribution in stabilized sludge by sludge drying bed and reed bed]. (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Bo; Sun, Hong-Jie; Ran, Chun-Qiu; Li, Jin-Feng; Xie, Yao


    The difference in the removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in planted and unplanted sludge drying bed was investigated. Pilot-scale sludge drying bed and reed bed had the same size of 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.3 m (L x W x H), and the bed height consisted of a 65 cm media layer and a 65 cm super height. Both beds had a ventilation pipe which was mounted on the drainage pipes. The experiment lasted for three years, and the first two years was the sludge loading period, and the third year was the natural stabilization period. In the first two years, a total thickness of 8.4 m of sludge was loaded and the average sludge loading rate was 41.3 kg x (m2 x a)(-1). After the three-year stabilization, the contents of the sixteen PAHs decreased with time in both the sludge drying bed and the reed bed. The total PAHs contents in the surface, middle and bottom sludge layers in the sludge drying bed were 4.161, 3.543 and 3.118 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 26.91%, 37.77% and 45.23% of removal; and the values in the reed bed were 2.722, 1.648 and 1.218 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 52.18%, 71.05% and 78.60% of removal. The average PAHs removal in the reed bed was 29.86% higher than that in the sludge drying bed. In the stabilized sludge, the removal of low-molecular-weight PAHs predominated. The results suggested that reed played a positive role in the removal of PAHs.

  4. Integro-differential inequality and stability of BAM FCNNs with time delays in the leakage terms and distributed delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinhua


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a class of impulsive bidirectional associative memory (BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs with time delays in the leakage terms and distributed delays is formulated and investigated. By establishing an integro-differential inequality with impulsive initial conditions and employing M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM FCNNs with time delays in the leakage terms and distributed delays are obtained. In particular, the estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on the delay kernel functions and system parameters. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM FCNNs. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  5. The stability analysis of a general viral infection model with distributed delays and multi-staged infected progression (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Liu, Shengqiang


    We investigate an in-host model with general incidence and removal rate, as well as distributed delays in virus infections and in productions. By employing Lyapunov functionals and LaSalle's invariance principle, we define and prove the basic reproductive number R0 as a threshold quantity for stability of equilibria. It is shown that if R0 > 1 , then the infected equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, while if R0 ⩽ 1 , then the infection free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable under some reasonable assumptions. Moreover, n + 1 distributed delays describe (i) the time between viral entry and the transcription of viral RNA, (ii) the n - 1 -stage time needed for activated infected cells between viral RNA transcription and viral release, and (iii) the time necessary for the newly produced viruses to be infectious (maturation), respectively. The model can describe the viral infection dynamics of many viruses such as HIV-1, HCV and HBV.

  6. Distribuição dos agregados e carbono orgânico influenciados por manejos agroecológicos = Aggregate and organic carbon distribution influenced by agroecological handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Loss


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do manejo agroecológico na distribuição dos agregados estáveis em água e no teor de carbono orgânico dos agregados em diferentes coberturas vegetais. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas, a saber: sistema agroflorestal; cultivo de figo (Ficus carica L.; consórcio maracujá (Passiflora edulis S.–Desmodium sp.; cultivo de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em manejo convencional, e cultivo de milho (Zeamays L., em plantio direto. Em cada área, foram coletadas amostras de terra indeformadas, nas profundidades de 0 - 5 e 5 - 10 cm, e avaliada a estabilidade dos agregados e o teor de carbono orgânico nos agregados (COAGR. A maior massa de agregados encontra-se naclasse de 2,00 mm, em ambas as profundidades, com exceção do cultivo de feijão. Nas duas profundidades, a classe de 2,00 mm apresentou os maiores valores de COAGR para a área do consórcio macaracujá - Desmodium sp.The objective of this study was to verify the influence ofagroecological handling in the distribution of stable aggregates in water and in the levels of aggregate organic carbon under different vegetable covers. Five areas were selected: agroflorestal system; fig cultivation (Ficus carica L.; passion fruit (Passiflora edulis S. and Desmodium sp. consortium; bean cultivation (Phaseolus vulgaris L, under conventional system; and corn (Zea mays, in no-tillage system. In each area, undisturbed samples were collected, in 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths, and water aggregate distribution and organic carbon ofaggregate (OCAGR were quantified. The highest aggregate mass was observed in the 2.00 mm aggregate class, in both depths, except for the bean cultivation area. In both depths, the class with greater diameter showed the highest OCAGR values for the area of passion fruit– Desmodium sp. consortium.

  7. Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution systems: a case study. (United States)

    Chien, C C; Kao, C M; Chen, C W; Dong, C D; Chien, H Y


    The appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), microbial regrowth, disinfection by-products (DBPs), and pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems are among those major safe drinking water issues in many countries. The water distribution system of Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) was selected in this study to evaluate the: (1) fate and transport of AOC, DBPs [e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs)], and other organic carbon indicators in the selected distribution system, (2) correlations between AOC (or DBPs) and major water quality parameters [e.g. dissolved oxygen (DO), free residual chlorine, and bacteria, and (3) causes and significance of corrosion problems of the water pipes in this system. In this study, seasonal water samples were collected from 13 representative locations in the distribution system for analyses of AOC, DBPs, and other water quality indicators. Results indicate that residual free chlorine concentrations in the distribution system met the drinking water standards (0.2 to 1 mg l(-1)) established by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA). Results show that AOC measurements correlated positively with total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-254 (an organic indicator) values in this system. Moreover, AOC concentrations at some locations were higher than the 50 microg acetate-C l(-1) standard established by Taiwan Water Company. This indicates that the microbial regrowth might be a potential water quality problem in this system. Higher DO measurements (>5.7 mg l(-1)) might cause the aerobic biodegradation of THMs and HAAs in the system, and thus, low THMs (water distribution system for maintaining a safe drinking water quality.

  8. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Langer, William H.


    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  9. Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann;


    We demonstrate a high power fiber (85μm core) amplifier delivering up to 292Watts of average output power using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm. Utilizing a single mode distributed mode filter bandgap rod fiber, we demonstrate 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode...

  10. Distributed Receding Horizon Control With Application to Multi-Vehicle Formation Stabilization (United States)


    Proceedings of the American Control Conference , 2001. [15] D. Jia and B...H. Krogh. Min-max feedback model predictive control for distributed control with communication. In Proceedings of the American Control Conference , 2002...graphs and optimization. In Proceedings of the American Control Conference , Denver, CO, 2003. [24] R. Olfati Saber and R. M. Murray.

  11. Small disturbances stability analysis applied in a radial distribution system with distributed generation units; Analise de estabilidade a pequenos disturbios aplicada em um sistema de distribuicao radial com unidades de geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca, Daniel Azevedo; Camacho, Jose Roberto [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Eletrica


    This work investigates the small-disturbance stability of a 30 bus radial distribution system with distributed generation units. This work is realized through the time domain simulations and through the eigenvalue analysis and participation factors. The eigenvalue analysis show that is possible to predict a possible system instability face to a disturbance. The development of this work was stimulated by the increasing of the distributed generation units in the distribution networks. (author)

  12. Effect of antimicrobial preservatives on partial protein unfolding and aggregation. (United States)

    Hutchings, Regina L; Singh, Surinder M; Cabello-Villegas, Javier; Mallela, Krishna M G


    One-third of protein formulations are multi-dose. These require antimicrobial preservatives (APs); however, some APs have been shown to cause protein aggregation. Our previous work on a model protein cytochrome c indicated that partial protein unfolding, rather than complete unfolding, triggers aggregation. Here, we examined the relative strength of five commonly used APs on such unfolding and aggregation, and explored whether stabilizing the aggregation 'hot-spot' reduces such aggregation. All APs induced protein aggregation in the order m-cresol > phenol > benzyl alcohol > phenoxyethanol > chlorobutanol. All these enhanced the partial protein unfolding that includes a local region which was predicted to be the aggregation 'hot-spot'. The extent of destabilization correlated with the extent of aggregation. Further, we show that stabilizing the 'hot-spot' reduces aggregation induced by all five APs. These results indicate that m-cresol causes the most protein aggregation, whereas chlorobutanol causes the least protein aggregation. The same protein region acts as the 'hot-spot' for aggregation induced by different APs, implying that developing strategies to prevent protein aggregation induced by one AP will also work for others.

  13. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb


    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  14. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui


    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  15. Design of Distributed Engine Control Systems for Stability Under Communication Packet Dropouts (United States)


    in networked control system due to the addition of a network. This delay can destabilize the system designed without considering the delay or can...Consider a networked control system as shown in Figure 2. The network is assumed to be modeled by   where, is the independent and identically... Control System (NCS) with distributed sensors and actuators. Here, the control loops are closed through a real-time communication network. There are

  16. Role of Organic Matter and Carbonates in Soil Aggregation Estimated Using Laser Diffractometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Aggregation in many soils in semi-arid land is affected by their high carbonate contents.The presence of lithogenic and/or primary carbonates can also influence the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in aggregation.The role of carbonates and SOM in aggregation was evaluated by comparing the grain-size distribution in two carbonate-rich soils (15% and 30% carbonates) under conventional tillage after different disaggregating treatments.We also compared the effect of no-tillage and conventional tillage on the role of these two aggregating agents in the soil with 30% of carbonates.Soil samples were treated as four different ways:shaking with water (control),adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) to remove carbonates,adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to remove organic matter,and consecutive removal of carbonates and organic matter (HCl +H2O2),and then analyzed by laser diffraction grain-sizing.The results showed that different contributions of carbonates and SOM to aggregate formation and stability depended not only on their natural proportion,but also on the soil type,as expressed by the major role of carbonates in aggregation in the 15% carbonate-rich soil,with a greater SOC-to-SIC (soil organic C to soil inorganic C) ratio than the 30% carbonate-rich soil.The increased organic matter stocks under no-tillage could moderate the role of carbonates in aggregation in a given soil,which meant that no-tillage could affect the organic and the inorganic C cycles in the soil.In conclusion,the relative role of carbonates and SOM in aggregation could alter the aggregates hierarchy in carbonate-rich soils.

  17. Aggregates morphometry in a Latosol (Oxisol under different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Eloize Carducci


    Full Text Available Changes in soil physical properties are inherent in land use, mainly in superficial layers. Structural alterations can directly influence distribution, stability and especially morphometry of soil aggregates, which hence will affect pore system and the dynamic process of water and air in soil. Among the methods used to measure these changes, morphometry is a complementary tool to the classic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural quality of a Latosol (Oxisol, under different management systems, using morphometric techniques. Treatments consisted of soil under no-tillage (NT; pasture (P, in which both had been cultivated for ten years, and an area under native vegetation (NV – Savannah like vegetation. Aggregates were sampled at depths of 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m, retained on sieves with 9.52 – 4.76 mm, 4.76 – 1.0mm, 1.0 – 0.5mm diameter ranges. Aggregate morphometry was assessed by 2D images from scanner via QUANTPORO software. The analyzed variables were: area, perimeter, aspect, roughness, Ferret diameter and compactness. Moreover, disturbed samples were collected at the same depths to determine particle size, aggregate stability in water, water-dispersible clay, clay flocculation index and organic matter content. It was observed that different soil management systems have modified soil aggregate morphology as well as physical attributes; and management effects’ magnitude increased from NT to P.

  18. On the stability of pick-up ion ring distributions in the outer heliosheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerlin, Errol J.; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moore, Thomas E.; Christian, Eric R.; Cooper, John F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Heliophysics Science Division, NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    The 'secondary energetic neutral atom (ENA)' hypothesis for the ribbon feature observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) posits that the neutral component of the solar wind continues beyond the heliopause and charge exchanges with interstellar ions in the Outer Heliosheath (OHS). This creates pick-up ions that gyrate about the draped interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) lines at pitch angles near 90° on the locus where the ISMF lies tangential to the heliopause and perpendicular to the heliocentric radial direction. This location closely coincides with the location of the ribbon feature according to the prevailing inferences of the ISMF orientation and draping. The locally gyrating ions undergo additional charge exchange and escape as free-flying neutral atoms, many of which travel back toward the inner solar system and are imaged by IBEX as a ribbon tracing out the locus described above. For this mechanism to succeed, the pick-up ions must diffuse in pitch angle slowly enough to permit secondary charge exchange before their pitch angle distribution substantially broadens away from 90°. Previous work using linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves has suggested that the ring distribution in the OHS is highly unstable, which, if true, would make the secondary ENA hypothesis incapable of rendering the observed ribbon. In this paper, we extend this earlier work to more realistic ring distribution functions. We find that, at the low densities necessary to produce the observed IBEX ribbon via the secondary ENA hypothesis, growth rates are highly sensitive to the temperature of the beam and that even very modest temperatures of the ring beam corresponding to beam widths of <1° are sufficient to damp the self-generated waves associated with the ring beam. Thus, at least from the perspective of linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves, there is no reason to expect that the ring distributions necessary to

  19. Foundations of Eigenvalue Distribution Theory for General & Nonnegative Matrices, Stability Criteria for Hyperbolic Initial-Boundary Value Problems, Exact Eigenvalue Computations on the ILLIAC IV. (United States)


    FOUNDATIONS OF EIGENVALUE DISTRIBUTION THEORY FOR GENERAL A NON--ETC(U) SEP 80 M MARCUS, M GOLDBERG, M NEWMAN AFOSR-79-0127 UNCLASSIFIED AFOSR-TR-80...September 1980 Title of Research: Foundations of Eigenvalue Distribution Theory for General & Nonnegative Matrices, Stability Criteria for Hyperbolic

  20. Atributos químicos e estabilidade de agregados sob diferentes culturas de cobertura em Latossolo do cerrado Chemical properties and aggregate stability under different cover crops in cerrado Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenio G. Santos


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes culturas de cobertura sobre os atributos químicos e a estabilidade de agregados de um Latossolo do cerrado, sob plantio direto. O estudo foi conduzido em área experimental na Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. As culturas de cobertura avaliadas foram: braquiária, milho em consórcio com braquiária (integração lavoura-pecuária, guandu anão, milheto, capim mombaça, sorgo granífero, estilosantes e crotalária. As amostras foram coletadas em abril de 2005 e 2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso com quatro repetições e os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 8 x 2, sendo oito culturas de cobertura e duas profundidades de amostragem do solo: 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m. As culturas de cobertura influenciam, de forma diferenciada, os valores de pH e os teores de cálcio, magnésio, alumínio, fósforo, potássio, cobre, zinco e ferro do solo. O tratamento estilosantes tem maior poder em acidificar o solo. A agregação do solo varia com as culturas de cobertura e com a profundidade.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cover crops on chemical properties and aggregate stability in a cerrado Oxisol under no-tillage. The study was carried out in Embrapa Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil. The cover crops evaluated were: Urochloa brizantha, Urochloa brizantha and corn in association (crop-livestock integrated, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Panicum maximum, Sorghum bicolor, Stylosanthes guianensis and Crotalaria juncea. The soil samples were collected in April and September 2005 and April 2006. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with four replications and treatments arranged in factorial scheme 8 x 2, eight cover crops and two soil sampling depths, 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. The different cover crops affect pH values and calcium, magnesium, aluminum

  1. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability. (United States)

    Park, C W; Drake, M A


    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  2. Aggregate Formed by a Cationic Fluorescence Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Juan; SANG, Da-Yong; JI, Guo-Zhen


    The aggregation behavior of a cationic fluorescence probe 10-(4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxa-1-azacyclooctadecyl-methyl)anthracen-9-ylmethyl dodecanoate (1) was observed and studied by a fluorescence methodology in acidic and neutral conditions. By using the Py scale, differences between simple aggregates and micelles have been discussed. The stability of simple aggregates was discussed in terms of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. The absence of excimer emission of the anthrancene moiety of probe 1 in neutral condition was attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism instead of photodimerization.

  3. Stability Analysis for a Planar Parallel Manipulator with the Capability of Self-Coordinating the Load Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Lingyu; WANG Hao; ZHANG Pu; ZHAO Yong; CHEN Genliang; ZHAO Longhai


    Redundantly actuated parallel manipulators have the advantage of enhancing load-carrying capability over their non-redundant ones, however they also cause the problem of uneven load distribution and need a high requirement for the control system. This paper presents a 2-RPR/RP planar redundantly actuated parallel manipulator which can self-coordinate the distribution of external loads. This capability is realized by an appropriate design of the moving platform to make the manipulator stable at equilibrium position. The stability is proved by the theorem of direct Lyapunov method in classical mechanics. The numerical simulations are conducted to validate the stable capability by means of the observation of potential energies and phase planes. This paper offers an alternative way to design a redundantly actuated manipulator with the capability of self-coordinating the load distribution to actuations, such that parts of the controlling work are assigned to the manipulator itself by its own structure and only a little work remains to the control system.

  4. Compost incorporation, soil aggregates and organic C sequestration in two different Tuscan soils. (United States)

    Pini, Roberto; Sparvoli, Enzo; Scatena, Manuele; Pucci, Amaranta; D'Acqui, Luigi P.


    Soil amendment with compost obtained from pre-selected urban food scraps together with green manure, reduced tillage, rotation of crops and other practices are generally considered as improving soil structure by increasing the levels of nutrient elements. The addition of well composted organic residues may increase the amount of organic C entangled within mineral particles and also stabilize soil aggregates and micro-aggregates. This consequently reduces carbon dioxide emissions and mitigates temperature increases. Our data refer to two soils, a clay soil and a sandy soil, subjected to a long term compost incorporation in order to ameliorate soil fertility. We measured the dynamic of pore size distribution and total porosity evolution together with water soil aggregates stability. We also developed our own procedure to assess the stabilization and protection of organic C in soil aggregates, by analyzing the dynamics of OM dry-oxidation by LTA (Low Temperature Ashing) cold oxygen plasma. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the compost on soil structure of both soils and that the potential sequestration of soil organic C is related to the granulometry and mineralogical features of the two soils. We propose an original methodological approach to assess the effective C sequestration in agricultural soil.

  5. To Determine Impact of Shape of Course Aggregate on DBM Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaniyapurackal Jilu Joseph


    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principal material in pavement construction. The shape of aggregate particle has significant influence on performance of the Bitumen pavement. The strength serviceability requirements of Bitumen mixes such as stability, flow, voids in mineral aggregate , voids filled with bitumen and air voids are highly depend on the physical properties of aggregate.

  6. Interplay between theory and experiment for fission-fragment angular distributions from nuclei near the limits of stability (United States)

    Freifelder, R.; Prakash, M.; Alexander, John M.


    We examine the application of transition-state theory for fission-fragment angular distributions to composite nuclei near the limits of stability. The possible roles of saddle-point and scission-point configurations are explored. For many heavy-ion reactions that involve large angular momenta, the observed anisotropies are between the predictions of the saddle-point and scisson-point models. Empirical correlations are shown between the effective moments of inertia and the spin and {Z 2}/{A} of the compound nucleus. These correlations provide evidence for a class of transition-state nuclei intermediate between saddle- and scission-point configurations. An important indication of these patterns is that the speed of collective deformation toward fission may well be slow enough to allow for statistical equilibrium in the tilting mode even for configurations well beyond the saddle point.

  7. The impact of agriculture terraces on soil organic matter, aggregate stability, water repellency and bulk density. A study in abandoned and active farms in the Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain. (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo


    Soil erosion, land degradation, lack of organic matter, erodible soils, rock outcrops… are a consequence of the human abuse and misuse of the soil resources. And this is a worldwide environmental issue (Novara et al., 2011; Vanlauwe et al., 2015; Musinguzi et al., 2015; Pereira et al., 2015; Mwagno et al., 2016). Agriculture terraces are a strategy to reduce the soil erosion, improve the soil fertility and allow the ploughing (Cerdà et al., 2010; Li et al., 2014). Although this idea is well accepted there are few scientific evidences that demonstrate that soils in the terraced areas are more stable, fertile and sustainable that the soil in non terraced areas. In fact, the ploughing in comparison to the abandoned or not ploughed land results in the soil degradation (Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014). This is mainly due to the lack of vegetation that increase the surface runoff (Cerdà et al., 1998; Keesstra et al., 2007). And why is necessary to develop also in terraced landscapes soil erosion control strategies (Mekonnen et al., 2015a; Mekonnen et al., 2015b; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Our objective was to assess the soil organic matter content (Walkley and Black, 1934), the soil bulk density (ring method), the aggregate stabilility (drop impact) and the water repellency (Water Drop Penetration Time test) in four study sites in the Sierra de Enguera. Two sites were terraced: one abandoned 40 years before the measurements and the other still active with olive crops. And two control sites non-terraced. We used the paired plot strategy to compare the impact of terracing and abandonment. At each site we collected randomly 50 soil samples at 0-2 cm, 4-6 and 8-10 cm depth. At each sampling point 100 WDPT measurements where carried out, and one sample for the bulk density, and one for the organic matter, and one for the soil aggregate stability were collected. The soil surface samples shown the largest differences. The

  8. [Self-aggregation property of bacterial alginates extracted from aerobic granules]. (United States)

    Lin, Yue-Mei; Wang, Lin


    To explore bacterial alginates role in aerobic granules' formation, the alginate was extracted from aerobic granules and identified. Its aggregation property in 50 mg x L(-1) CaCl2 solution was investigated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bacterial alginates amounted to 35.1% +/- 1.9% of granules' dry mass. With the concentration increased from 10 mg x L(-1) to 500 mg x L(-1) in 50 mg x L(-1) CaCl2, the extracted alginates tended to form ordered aggregations, with the shape changed from randomly distributed globules, to rod-like and flower-shaped aggregations, and finally to weblike networks due to their supramolecular self-assembly property. The three dimensional alginate-metal gel is the structural polymer of aerobic granules, and the alginates-Ca2+ gel formation plays an important role in granules' formation and structure stabilization.

  9. Variations in organic carbon, aggregation, and enzyme activities of gangue-fly ash-reconstructed soils with sludge and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during 6-year reclamation. (United States)

    Yin, Ningning; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Liping; Qian, Kuimei


    Mining activities can cause drastic disturbances in soil properties, which adversely affect the nutrient cycling and soil environment. As a result, many efforts have been made to explore suitable reclamation strategies that can be applied to accelerate ecology restoration. In this study, we reconstructed mine soils with fly ash, gangue, sludge, planted ryegrass, and inoculated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Pangzhuang mine of Xuzhou during 2009 to 2015. The soil aggregation process, enzyme activities (i.e., invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities), soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as other soil nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of the reconstructed mine soils were monitored during 6-year reclamation. The integrated application of sludge and AMF led to a promising reclamation performance of mining areas, in which soil aggregate stability, enzyme activities, SOC, and ryegrass biomass were effectively enhanced. The micro-aggregates ( 0.25 mm) during the reclamation, indicating that macro-aggregates were gradually formed from micro-aggregates during the pedogenesis of reconstructed mine soils. The correlation analysis shows that SOC contents in aggregate fraction of 0.25∼0.5 mm were correlated with aggregate distribution and enzyme activities. Enzyme activities, however, were not significantly correlated with aggregate distribution. The outcomes from the present study could enrich our understanding on soil property changes in pedogenesis process of reconstructed mine soils, and meanwhile, the employment of sludge combined with AMF is suggested to be an effective alternative for the mine soil reclamation.

  10. Preformed Seeds Modulate Native Insulin Aggregation Kinetics. (United States)

    Dutta, Colina; Yang, Mu; Long, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Tiwari, Ashutosh


    Insulin aggregates under storage conditions via disulfide interchange reaction. It is also known to form aggregates at the site of repeated injections in diabetes patients, leading to injection amyloidosis. This has fueled research in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry as well as in academia to understand factors that modulate insulin stability and aggregation. The main aim of this study is to understand the factors that modulate aggregation propensity of insulin under conditions close to physiological and measure effect of "seeds" on aggregation kinetics. We explored the aggregation kinetics of insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C in the presence of disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), using spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy) techniques. We prepared insulin "seeds" by incubating disulfide-reduced insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C for varying lengths of time (10 min to 12 h). These seeds were added to the native protein and nucleation-dependent aggregation kinetics was measured. Aggregation kinetics was fastest in the presence of 10 min seeds suggesting they were nascent. Interestingly, intermediate seeds (30 min to 4 h incubation) resulted in formation of transient fibrils in 4 h that converted to amorphous aggregates upon longer incubation of 24 h. Overall, the results show that insulin under disulfide reducing conditions at pH and temperature close to physiological favors amorphous aggregate formation and seed "maturity" plays an important role in nucleation dependent aggregation kinetics.

  11. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.


    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  12. Relações da rugosidade superficial do solo com o volume de chuva e com a estabilidade de agregados em água Relations of soil surface roughness with the rainfall volume and water aggregate stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol


    -se inversamente com o volume das chuvas naturais. O decaimento máximo da rugosidade ao acaso relacionou-se inversamente com o DMP e com o DMG dos agregados estruturais.Soil surface roughness is, among other factors, affected by soil tillage, cumulative rainfall and aggregate stability in relation to destructive water action. The soil surface roughness of a soil classified as a Haplumbrept was evaluated in an area where a water erosion experiment under natural rainfall has been carried out over the course of 15 years in the South of the Planalto Catarinense, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The soil microrelief was characterized by the indices: roughness (RR, tortuosity (T and limiting elevation difference (LD and was measured in 2003 in a corn crop, and in 2004 in an oat crop (cumulative rainfall during the experimental periods was 229 and 350 mm, respectively. Moreover, water aggregate stability was evaluated and expressed by the mean weight diameter (DMP and mean geometric diameter (DMG of aggregates between the two crops, in 2004. The studied soil tillage system treatments were: plowing plus disking (PC, chisel plow plus disking (CM, and no-tillage (SD, both under corn and oat crops. One additional treatment used as reference consisted of bare soil tillage with plowing plus disking (SC. The surface roughness was evaluated five times under corn and four times under oat. The first evaluation was carried out immediately after soil tilling and the others every other week. The initial values of the RR, T, and LD indices were high and decreased with increasing rainfall on SC, PC AND CM treatments, while in the SD treatment the afore-mentioned indices were only high for oat and varied very little as the rainfall increased. The reduction in the random RR index was the highest in the BS treatment, while the lowest reduction occurred in the SD treatment. The values of all indices under study were reduced in comparison to that of the original microrelief condition, where the slope effects

  13. Environmental stability affects phenotypic evolution in a globally distributed marine picoplankton (United States)

    Schaum, C-Elisa; Rost, Björn; Collins, Sinéad


    Marine phytoplankton can evolve rapidly when confronted with aspects of climate change because of their large population sizes and fast generation times. Despite this, the importance of environment fluctuations, a key feature of climate change, has received little attention—selection experiments with marine phytoplankton are usually carried out in stable environments and use single or few representatives of a species, genus or functional group. Here we investigate whether and by how much environmental fluctuations contribute to changes in ecologically important phytoplankton traits such as C:N ratios and cell size, and test the variability of changes in these traits within the globally distributed species Ostreococcus. We have evolved 16 physiologically distinct lineages of Ostreococcus at stable high CO2 (1031±87 μatm CO2, SH) and fluctuating high CO2 (1012±244 μatm CO2, FH) for 400 generations. We find that although both fluctuation and high CO2 drive evolution, FH-evolved lineages are smaller, have reduced C:N ratios and respond more strongly to further increases in CO2 than do SH-evolved lineages. This indicates that environmental fluctuations are an important factor to consider when predicting how the characteristics of future phytoplankton populations will have an impact on biogeochemical cycles and higher trophic levels in marine food webs. PMID:26125683

  14. Acetone:isomedzation and aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhan; JIN Ming-xing; XU Xue-song; CHENG Xi-hui; DING Da-jun


    The advanced experimental and theoretical techniques enable us to obtain information on the rearrangement of atoms or molecules in a reaction nowadays.As an example,we report on our research work on acetone isomerization and aggregation to give an insight into the reaction pathways,the products and their structures,and the growth regularity of aggregation.The evidences on the structural change of acetone and the stability of acetone clusters are found by a laser ionization mass spectrometer and the results are interpreted from theoretical analysis based on the DFT/B3LYP method.Various isomerization channels of acetone have been established and the optimal structures of the neutral clusters (CH3COCH3)n and the protonated acetone clusters (CH3COCHa)n H+ for n=1-7 have been determined.

  15. 基于分布式数据聚合的智能电网隐私保护协议研究%Research on Smart Grid Privacy Protocol Based on Distributed Data Aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石沙沙; 孙文红; 江明建; 曲海鹏


    Smart grid can make use of users’ real-time electricity consumption information monitor and forecast the operation conditions effectively, and has been one of the hotspots of grid technologies. However, the analysis and processing of their real-time electricity consumption information can result in users’ privacy leaking. In order to solve the problem of user data privacy protection, this paper proposes a new distributed data aggregation model based on previous studies. The distributed data aggregation model can achieve the purpose of data discretization and increase the dififculty of analyzing users’ behavior information without increasing other aggregators. Based on the idea of distributed data aggregation, this paper puts forwards a new privacy data aggregation protocol and employs the encryption technique, combining the homomorphic encryption and digital signature, to guarantee the confidentiality and integrality of users’ data. The authors have analyzed the security and effectiveness of the protocol in this paper. The result demonstrates that the scheme can achieve the goal of data privacy protection effectively and improve the integrity and conifdentiality of data transmission in the smart grid.%智能电网能够利用用户实时用电信息对电网运行状态进行有效监控和预测,成为近年来电网技术的研究热点之一。然而在对实时用电信息进行分析和处理的同时也会带来用户隐私泄露问题。为了解决用户数据隐私保护的问题,文章基于前人研究的基础提出了新的分布式数据聚合模型,该分布式数据聚合模型在不需要增加聚合器的前提下达到数据离散化存储的目的,增加分析用户行为信息的难度。文章基于分布式数据聚合模型,提出一种新的隐私数据聚合协议,并采用同态加密与数字签名相结合的加密技术来保护用户用电数据的机密性和完整性。文章最后对提出的方案进行了安

  16. 入网电动汽车集群的分层控制方法%A Hierarchical Control Algorithm for Aggregated Electric Vehicles in Distribution Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佳; 高爽; 王丹; 宋毅; 杨占勇


    电动汽车(electric vehicle,EV)规模化接入电网需要合理的控制框架和算法.为了优化电动汽车的充放电管理,首先介绍了电动汽车代理商(aggregator)的概念,并在此基础上提出了一种电动汽车集群的分层控制架构.基于电动汽车分层控制的结构,构建了电动汽车双层优化控制数学模型,从而实现了电网负荷削峰填谷的目的.为了避免随着电动汽车数目增加导致的集中式方法难以求解的问题,提出了一种改进的求解算法,将高维的优化问题分解成多个低维的子优化问题,得到了很好的收敛特性,显著提高了计算效率.最后,通过不同的算例场景,验证了所提出模型与改进算法的有效性和实用性.

  17. Stability Analysis for Stochastic Neutral-Type Memristive Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delay and S-Type Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the input-to-stability for a class of stochastic neutral-type memristive neural networks. Neutral terms and S-type distributed delays are taken into account in our system. Using the stochastic analysis theory and Itô formula, we obtain the conditions of mean-square exponential input-to-stability for system. A numerical example is given to illustrate the correctness of our conclusions.

  18. Aggregate stability as affected by short and long-term tillage systems and nutrient sources of a hapludox in southern Brazil Efeitos de curto e de longo prazo da aplicação de sistemas de manejo do solo e de fontes de nutrientes sobre a estabilidade de agregados, em um nitossolo vermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga


    Full Text Available The ability of a soil to keep its structure under the erosive action of water is usually high in natural conditions and decreases under frequent and intensive cultivation. The effect of five tillage systems (NT = no-till; CP = chisel plowing and one secondary disking; CT = primary and two secondary distings; CTb = CT with crop residue burning; and CTr = CT with removal of crop residues from the field, combined with five nutrient sources (C = control, no nutrient application; MF = mineral fertilizers according to technical recommendations for each crop; PL = 5 Mg ha-1 y-1 fresh matter of poultry litter; CM = 60 m³ ha-1 y-1 slurry cattle manure; and SM = 40 m³ ha-1 y-1 slurry swine manure on wet-aggregate stability was determined after nine years (four sampled soil layers and on five sampling dates in the 10th year (two sampled soil layers of the experiment. The size distribution of the air-dried aggregates was strongly affected by soil bulk density, and greater values of geometric mean diameter (GMD AD found in some soil tillage or layer may be partly due to the higher compaction degree. After nine years, the GMD AD on the surface was greater in NT and CP compared to conventional tillage systems (CT, CTb and CTr, due to the higher organic matter content, as well as less soil mobilization. Aggregate stability in water, on the other hand, was affected by the low variation in previous gravimetric moisture of aggregates, which contributed to a high coefficient of variation of this attribute. The geometric mean diameter of water-stable aggregates (GMD WS was highest in the 0.00-0.05 m layer in the NT system, in the layers 0.05-0.10 and 0.12-0.17 m in the CT, and values were intermediate in CP. The stability index (SI in the surface layers was greater in treatments where crop residues were kept in the field (NT, CP and CT, which is associated with soil organic matter content. No differences were found in the layer 0.27-0.32 m. The effect of nutrient

  19. Multicandidate Elections: Aggregate Uncertainty in the Laboratory* (United States)

    Bouton, Laurent; Castanheira, Micael; Llorente-Saguer, Aniol


    The rational-voter model is often criticized on the grounds that two of its central predictions (the paradox of voting and Duverger’s Law) are at odds with reality. Recent theoretical advances suggest that these empirically unsound predictions might be an artifact of an (arguably unrealistic) assumption: the absence of aggregate uncertainty about the distribution of preferences in the electorate. In this paper, we propose direct empirical evidence of the effect of aggregate uncertainty in multicandidate elections. Adopting a theory-based experimental approach, we explore whether aggregate uncertainty indeed favors the emergence of non-Duverger’s law equilibria in plurality elections. Our experimental results support the main theoretical predictions: sincere voting is a predominant strategy under aggregate uncertainty, whereas without aggregate uncertainty, voters massively coordinate their votes behind one candidate, who wins almost surely.

  20. Molecular Level Insights into Thermally Induced [alpha]-Chymotrypsinogen A Amyloid Aggregation Mechanism and Semiflexible Protofibril Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aming; Jordan, Jacob L.; Ivanova, Magdalena I.; Weiss, IV., William F.; Roberts, Christopher J.; Fernandez, Erik J. (UCLA); (Delaware); (UV)


    Understanding nonnative protein aggregation is critical not only to a number of amyloidosis disorders but also for the development of effective and safe biopharmaceuticals. In a series of previous studies [Weiss et al. (2007) Biophys. J. 93, 4392-4403; Andrews et al. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 7558-7571; Andrews et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 2397-2403], {alpha}-chymotrypsinogen A (aCgn) and bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (bG-CSF) have been shown to exhibit the kinetic and morphological features of other nonnative aggregating proteins at low pH and ionic strength. In this study, we investigated the structural mechanism of aCgn aggregation. The resultant aCgn aggregates were found to be soluble and exhibited semiflexible filamentous aggregate morphology under transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the filamentous aggregates were demonstrated to possess amyloid characteristics by both Congo red binding and X-ray diffraction. Peptide level hydrogen exchange (HX) analysis suggested that a buried native {beta}-sheet comprised of three peptide segments (39-46, 51-64, and 106-114) reorganizes into the cross-{beta} amyloid core of aCgn aggregates and that at least 50% of the sequence adopts a disordered structure in the aggregates. Furthermore, the equimolar, bimodal HX labeling distribution observed for three reported peptides (65-102, 160-180, and 229-245) suggested a heterogeneous assembly of two molecular conformations in aCgn aggregates. This demonstrates that extended {beta}-sheet interactions typical of the amyloid are sufficiently strong that a relatively small fraction of polypeptide sequence can drive formation of filamentous aggregates even under conditions favoring colloidal stability.

  1. Aggregate growth in a protoplanetary disk (United States)

    Xiang, Chuchu; Carballido, Augusto; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell


    We present a method to model the growth of neutral and charged dusts in a turbulent protoplanetary disk, and analyze their collision probabilities. Coagulation of dust aggregates plays an important role in the formation of planets and is of key importance to the evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our method, the temporal evolution of the dusts is followed by Monte Carlo algorithm, and the inter-particle interactions are calculated by Aggregate_Builder (AB), which is a code used to model the collision process of aggregates. First an aggregate library is built and all the aggregates are binned according to their sizes. In each iteration, the collision rate for aggregates from any two bins are computed, which determines the time it takes for the next collision to happen and which two aggregates are selected for collision. Then the AB codes are used to calculate the interaction of the two aggregates. The relative velocity between the two aggregates is the vector sum of Brownian velocity and the turbulent velocity. The latter is calculated by ATHENA, which is a grid-based code for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics. In each iteration, it’s determined whether the two aggregates hit or miss. In the case of hit, it either sticks or bounces as determined by the critical velocity. As a result, the neutral aggregates are more porous than the charged ones. For a certain size of incoming aggregates, the neutral ones have a higher collision probability than the charged ones. Also, similarly-sized aggregates have lower collision probabilities than aggregates with large size dispersions. This research enables us to determine which physical properties have a greater impact on the collision rate. By tracing the dust size distribution, we can identify the stage when they settle out to the mid-plane and how long it takes to develop to that stage. In the hit-stick regime, our results are consistent with the experiments which shows that when the velocity is smaller than the

  2. Aggregation-induced reversal of transport distances of soil organic matter: are our balances correct? (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Kuhn, Nikolaus


    The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink of green-house gases (GHGs), is the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) as it moves from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. This requires improved understanding the transport distances of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocities of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than the mineral grain size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by soil organic matter. This study aims at identifying the effect of aggregation on the transport distances of eroded SOC and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and deposition. A rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam soil. The eroded sediments were fractionated by a settling tube apparatus into six different size classes according to their settling velocities and likely transport distances. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates of the fractions of the six classes were measured. Our results show that: 1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-distributed across landscapes; 2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded organic carbon immediately after erosion, compared to undisturbed aggregates; 3) erosion might make a higher contribution to atmospheric CO2 than the estimation made without considering the effects of aggregation and extra SOC mineralization during transport.

  3. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.


    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  4. Aggregation kinetics of coalescing polymer colloids. (United States)

    Gauer, Cornelius; Jia, Zichen; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The aggregation behavior of a soft, rubbery colloidal system with a relatively low glass transition temperature, T(g) approximately -20 degrees C, has been investigated. It is found that the average gyration and hydrodynamic radii, R(g) and R(h), measured by light scattering techniques, evolve in time in parallel, without exhibiting the crossover typical of rigid particle aggregation. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) images reveal sphere-like clusters, indicating that complete coalescence between particles occurs during aggregation. Since coalescence leads to a reduction in the total colloidal surface area, the surfactant adsorption equilibrium, and thus the colloidal stability, change in the course of aggregation. It is found that to simulate the observed kinetic behavior based on the population balance equations, it is necessary to assume that all the clusters are spherical and to account for variations in the colloidal stability of each aggregating particle pair with time. This indicates that, for the given system, the coalescence is very fast, i.e., its time scale is much smaller than that of the aggregation.

  5. The aggregation behavior and interactions of yak milk protein under thermal treatment. (United States)

    Wang, T T; Guo, Z W; Liu, Z P; Feng, Q Y; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Ren, F Z; Mao, X Y


    The aggregation behavior and interactions of yak milk protein were investigated after heat treatments. Skim yak milk was heated at temperatures in the range of 65 to 95°C for 10 min. The results showed that the whey proteins in yak milk were denatured after heat treatment, especially at temperatures higher than 85°C. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated that heat treatment induced milk protein denaturation accompanied with aggregation to a certain extent. When the heating temperature was 75 and 85°C, the aggregation behavior of yak milk proteins was almost completely due to the formation of disulfide bonds, whereas denatured α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin interacted with κ-casein. When yak milk was heated at 85 and 95°C, other noncovalent interactions were found between proteins including hydrophobic interactions. The particle size distributions and microstructures demonstrated that the heat stability of yak milk proteins was significantly lowered by heat treatment. When yak milk was heated at 65 and 75°C, no obvious changes were found in the particle size distribution and microstructures in yak milk. When the temperature was 85 and 95°C, the particle size distribution shifted to larger size trend and aggregates were visible in the heated yak milk.

  6. The spatial distribution of exoenzyme activities across the soil micro-landscape, as measured in micro- and macro-aggregates, and ecosystem processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Haryun; Nunan, Naoise; Dechesne, Arnaud;


    distribution of alkaline phosphatase suggests that microorganisms invest more heavily in the acquisition of P. The EEA associated with the C and N cycles, but not the P cycle, were significantly affected by management practices in the loamy soil. A significant negative relationship between the extent......The spatial ecology of soil microbial communities and their functioning is an understudied aspect of soil microbial ecology. Much of our understanding of the spatial organisation of microbial communities has been obtained at scales that are inappropriate for identifying how microbial functioning...... and spatial patterns are related. In order to reveal the spatial strategies of soil microorganisms, we measured the microscale spatial distribution of 6 exoenzyme activities (EEA) and related them to the catalytic potential of three soils. The relationship between EEA profiles and microbial community...

  7. Marine particle aggregate breakup in turbulent flows (United States)

    Rau, Matthew; Ackleson, Steven; Smith, Geoffrey


    The dynamics of marine particle aggregate formation and breakup due to turbulence is studied experimentally. Aggregates of clay particles, initially in a quiescent aggregation tank, are subjected to fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers of up to 25,000. This flow arrangement simulates the exposure of marine aggregates in coastal waters to a sudden turbulent event. Particle size distributions are measured by in-situ sampling of the small-angle forward volume scattering function and the volume concentration of the suspended particulate matter is quantified through light attenuation measurements. Results are compared to measurements conducted under laminar and turbulent flow conditions. At low shear rates, larger sized particles indicate that aggregation initially governs the particle dynamics. Breakup is observed when large aggregates are exposed to the highest levels of shear in the experiment. Models describing the aggregation and breakup rates of marine particles due to turbulence are evaluated with the population balance equation and results from the simulation and experiment are compared. Additional model development will more accurately describe aggregation dynamics for remote sensing applications in turbulent marine environments.

  8. Stability and precipitation of diverse nanoparticles (United States)

    Desai, Chintal

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry that is exploiting the novel characteristics of materials manufactured at the nanoscale. Carbon based nanomaterials such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Detonation Nanodiamond (DND) possess unique properties and find a wide range of industrial applications. With the advent of mass production of such materials, there is a possibility of contamination of water resources. Depending on the surface properties and structures, they might aggregate and settle down, or be dispersed and transported by the water. Therefore, there is a need to develop an understanding of the fate of such materials in aqueous media. The understanding and effect of solution chemistry is a key to predicting their deposition, transport, reactivity, and bioavailability in aquatic environments. The colloidal behavior of organic dispersed CNTs and water dispersed DNDs is investigated. The aggregation behavior of these two colloidal systems is quite different from that of hydrophilic, water soluble functionalized CNTs (F-CNTs). The values of the Fuchs stability ratio or the critical coagulant concentration are determined experimentally using time-resolved dynamic light scattering and are used to predict the stability of such systems. It is found that the aggregation behavior of the organic dispersed, antisolvent precipitated system does not follow the conventional Derjaguin--Landau--Verwey-- Overbeek (DLVO) theory. But they stabilize in the long term, which is attributed to the supersaturation generated by different solubility of a solute in the solvent/antisolvent. Based on particle size distribution, zeta potential as well as the aggregation kinetics, the water dispersed DNDs are found to be relatively stable in aqueous solutions, but aggregate rapidly in presence of mono and divalent salts. Also, the formation of carboxylic groups on the DND surface does not alter colloidal behavior as dramatically as it does for other nanocarbons especially carbon

  9. Structure and kinetics of shear aggregation in turbulent flows. I. Early stage of aggregation. (United States)

    Bäbler, Matthäus U; Moussa, Amgad S; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo


    Aggregation of rigid colloidal particles leads to fractal-like structures that are characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) which is a key parameter for describing aggregation processes. This is particularly true in shear aggregation where d(f) strongly influences aggregation kinetics. Direct measurement of d(f) in the early stages of shear aggregation is however difficult, as the aggregates are small and few in number. An alternative method for determining d(f) is to use an aggregation model that when fitted to the time evolution of the cluster mass distribution allows for estimating d(f). Here, we explore three such models, two of which are based on an effective collision sphere and one which directly incorporates the permeable structure of the aggregates, and we apply them for interpreting the initial aggregate growth measured experimentally in a turbulent stirred tank reactor. For the latter, three polystyrene latexes were used that differed only in the size of the primary particles (d(p) = 420, 600, and 810 nm). It was found that all three models describe initial aggregation kinetics reasonably well using, however, substantially different values for d(f). To discriminate among the models, we therefore also studied the regrowth of preformed aggregates where d(f) was experimentally accessible. It was found that only the model that directly incorporates the permeable structure of the aggregates is able to predict correctly this second type of experiments. Applying this model to the initial aggregation kinetics, we conclude that the actual initial fractal dimension is d(f) = 2.07 +/- 0.04 as found from this model.

  10. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA


    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  11. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Stability of Wild-Type Rabbit Prion Protein: Surface Electrostatic Charge Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu


    Prion diseases cover a large range of neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals, which are invariably fatal and highly infectious. By now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all prion diseases. Fortunately, numerous experimental experiences have showed that rabbits are resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species, and recently the molecular structures of rabbit prion protein and its mutants were released into protein data bank. Prion diseases are "protein structural conformational" diseases. Thus, in order to reveal some secrets of prion diseases, it is amenable to study rabbits by techniques of the molecular structure and its dynamics. Wen et al. (PLoS One 5(10) e13273 (2010), Journal of Biological Chemistry 285(41) 31682-31693 (2010)) reported the surface of NMR RaPrPC(124-228) molecular snapshot has a large land of continuous positive charge distribution, which contributes to the structural stability of rabbit prion protein. Thi...

  12. Aggregate Characteristics During Natural revegetation on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shao-Shan; HUANG Yi-Mei; ZHENG Fen-Li; YANG Jian-Guo


    Field investigations and laboratory analysis were conducted to study the characteristics of soil water-stable aggregates during vegetation rehabilitation in typical grassland soils of the hilly-gullied loess area. The relationship between water-stable aggregates and other soil properties was analyzed using canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The results show that during the natural revegetation, the aggregates > 5 mm dominated and constituted between 50% and 80% of the total soil water-stable aggregates in most of the soil layers. The 2-5 mm aggregate class was the second main component. The mean value of water-stable aggregates > 5 mm within the 0-2 m soil profile under different plant communities decreased in the following order: Stipa grandis > Stipa bungeana Trin. > Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. > Thymus mongolicus Ronn. > Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. Clay, organic matter, and total N were the key factors that influenced the water stability of the aggregates. Total N and organic matter were the main factors that affected the water stability of the aggregates > 5 mm and 0.5-1 mm in size. The contents of Fe2O3, Al2O3, and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) were the main factors which affected the water stability of the 1-2 and 0.25-0.5 mm aggregates.

  13. Impact of Particle Aggregation on Nanoparticle Reactivity (United States)

    Jassby, David


    nanoparticle that photoluminesces after exposure to UV; TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles---photocatalytic nanoparticles that generate reactive oxygen species upon UV irradition; and, fullerene nanoparticles used in the filtration experiments, selected for their potential use, small size, and surface chemistry. Our primary methods used to characterize particle and aggregate characteristics include dynamic light scattering used to describe particle size, static light scattering used to characterize aggregate structure (fractal dimension), transmission electron microscopy used to verify primary particle sizes, and electrophoretic mobility measurements to evaluate suspension stability. The reactive property of ZnS that was measured as a function of aggregation was photoluminescence, which was measured using a spectrofluorometer. The reactive property of TiO2 and ZnO that was studied was their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals; these were measured by employing a fluorescent probe that becomes luminescent upon interaction with the hydroxyl radical. To detect the presence of fullerene nanoparticles and calculate removal efficiencies, we used total organic carbon measurements. Additionally, we used UV-vis spectroscopy to approximate the impact of particle shadowing in TiO2 and ZnO aggregates, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy to determine how different electrolytes interact with fullerene surface groups. Our findings indicate that the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactivity is material specific. ZnS nanoparticles exhibit a 2-fold increase in band-edge photoluminescence alongside a significant decrease in defect-site photoluminescence. This is attributed to aggregate size-dependent surface tension. Additionally, we used photoluminescence measurements to develop a new method for calculating the critical coagulation concentration of a nanoparticle suspension. The ability of both TiO2 and ZnO to generate hydroxyl radicals was significantly hampered by aggregation. The

  14. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation. (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel


    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so?

  15. Light Fraction Carbon and Water-Stable Aggregates in Black Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; CHEN Xin; SHEN Shan-Min


    The distribution of light fraction carbon (LF-C) in the various size classes of aggregates and its relationship to waterstable aggregates as well as the influence of cultivation on the organic components in virgin and cultivated black soils were studied by wet sieving and density separation methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) and LF-C were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the virgin soils than in the cultivated soils. The LF-C in aggregates of different size classes varied from 0.9 to 2.5 g kg-1 in the cultivated soils and from 2.5 to 7.1 g kg-1 in the virgin soils, whereas the ratio of LF-C to TOC varied from 1.9% to 7.3% and from 5.0% to 12.2%, respectively. After being incubated under constant temperature and controlled humidity for three months, the contribution of LF-C to TOC sharply decreased to an amount (1.7%-8.5%)close to the level in soils that had been cultivated for 20 to 25 years (1.3%-8.8%). As a result, the larger water-stable macro-aggregates (especially > 1 mm) decreased sharply, indicating that the LF-C pool in virgin soils declined quickly after cultivation, which reduced the water stability of soil aggregates.

  16. Distribution Characteristics of Rice Photosynthesized Carbon in Soil Aggregates of Different Size and Density%水稻光合同化碳在土壤不同粒径、密度分组中的分配特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗苗; 聂三安; 陈晓娟; 罗璐; 朱捍华; 石辉; 葛体达; 童成立; 吴金水


    水稻生长影响土壤有机质在土壤及其各组分中的分布,是关系土壤有机质储量的重要因子.为量化水稻光合同化碳在土壤不同粒径和密度组分中的分布,进而为水稻土有机质积累持续机制与固碳潜力研究提供数据支撑,应用14C连续标记示踪技术,以当地主栽水稻品种“中优169”为供试作物,分别选取亚热带区4种典型稻田土壤,通过土壤有机质物理分组方法探讨了水稻根际输入的光合碳在土壤物理组分(粒径、密度)中的含量和分配特征.结果表明,水稻标记种植80 d后,250~2 000 μm粒径的SOC14含量范围为118.23 ~309.94 mg·kg-1,SOC14/SOC的比例范围为0.52% ~ 1.55%,均大于20 ~ 250 μm、< 20 μm这2个粒径的SOC14含量和SOC14/SOC的比例,250~2000 μm、20~ 250 μm这2个粒径的轻组组分的SOC14含量均显著大于相应的重组组分的SOC14含量,说明稻田生态系统通过水稻的根际沉积作用将有机碳(水稻光合同化碳)主要固定在大粒径的轻组组分中,从而提高了土壤有机碳含量.相关分析表明,250~2000 μm粒径与其轻、重组组分、<20 μm粒径、20~ 250 μm粒径的SOC14含量之间均呈显著性正相关,而<20 μm、20 ~ 250 μm粒径的轻组组分的SOC14含量之间呈极显著性负相关.%Rice growth affects the distribution of organic matter in soils and soil fractions, and is thus an important factor to control the storage of soil organic matter. The aims of our study were to quantify the photosynthesized C in soil fraction pools of different size and density during the rice growth, and also to offer data evidence not only in the mechanisms of SOC accumulation, but also in C sequestration potential in paddy soils. Therefore, the microcosm experiment was carried out to quantify the input and distribution of photo-assimilated carbon ( C) in soils size and density aggregates pools by using continuous 14C labeling technique

  17. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten


    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  18. Aggregations in Flatworms. (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.


    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  19. Character, mass, distribution, and origin of tephra-fall deposits from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: highlighting the significance of particle aggregation (United States)

    Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L; Schaefer, Janet R.


    The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano included 20 tephra-producing explosions between March 15, 2009 and April 4, 2009 (UTC). Next-Generation radar (NEXRAD) data show that plumes reached heights between 4.6 km and 19 km asl and were distributed downwind along nearly all azimuths of the volcano. Explosions lasted between 0.8 mm thick), including communities along the Kenai Peninsula (80–100 km) and the city of Anchorage (170 km). Trace ash (< 0.8 mm) was reported as far as Fairbanks, 550 km NNE of the volcano. We estimate the total mass of tephra-fall deposits at 54.6 × 109 kg with a total DRE volume of 20.6 × 106 m3.

  20. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations. (United States)

    Gormley-Gallagher, Aine Marie; Douglas, Richard William; Rippey, Brian


    Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic) lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05) for Mn (r2 = 0.0063), Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021), Ni (r2 = 0.0023), Cd (r2 = 0.00001), Co (r2 = 0.096), Hg (r2 = 0.116) or Pb (r2 = 0.164). The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing) fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  1. Research on enormous storage for small files based on distributed indexing and directory aggregation%基于分布式索引和目录聚合的海量小文件存储研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马灿; 孟丹; 熊劲


    To solve the problem of access to a vast amount of small files created in Web service, a method for managing billions of small files using the hyper virtual file system ( HVFS) , a distributed file system based on distributed indexing and directory aggregation, is proposed to provide both high throughput and low latency file access.The measures of using distributed extendible hash indexing to improve system scalability, using log structure format and columnar storage to exploit temporal and spatial locality in directory aggregation, are also presented.The evaluation indicates that the HVFS can scale linearly and obtain 1 million file creations per second with 82 nodes.Compared to GIGA + , it can improve more than 200% .Compared to the small file I/O performance of OrangeFS, it can improve more than 6000%.%针对海量小文件访问问题的挑战,提出了用基于分布式索引和目录聚合的分布式文件系统——超虚拟文件系统(HVFS)来管理数十亿个小文件的方法,以支持高并发、高吞吐、低延迟的访问.重点讨论了目录索引、目录存储问题,提出了利用可扩展哈希索引来降低延迟、提高扩展性,利用日志结构和列存储的目录聚合来提高吞吐率的方法.测试结果表明,HVFS的存储性能能够线性扩展,82节点上峰值创建速度接近百万每秒,与GIGA+相比有200%以上的提升,小文件I/O性能与OrangeFS相比有60倍以上的提升,充分验证了分布式索引和目录聚合方法的有效性.

  2. Pyridine Aggregation in Helium Nanodroplets (United States)

    Nieto, Pablo; Poerschke, Torsten; Habig, Daniel; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina


    Pyridine crystals show the unusual property of isotopic polymorphism. Experimentally it has been observed that deuterated pyridine crystals exist in two phases while non-deuterated pyridine does not show a phase transition. Therefore, although isotopic substitution is the smallest possible modification of a molecule it greatly affects the stability of pyridine crystals. A possible experimental approach in order to understand this striking effect might be the study of pyridine aggregation for small clusters. By embedding the clusters in helium nanodroplets the aggregates can be stabilized and studied by means of Infrared Depletion Spectroscopy. Pyridine oligomers were investigated in the C-H asymmetric vibration region (2980-3100 cm-1) using this experimental technique. The number of molecules for the clusters responsibles for each band were determined by means of pick-up curves as well as mass sensitive depletion spectra. Furthermore, the intensity dependence of the different bands on applying a dc electric field was studied. The assignment of the different structures for pyridine clusters on the basis of these measurements were also carried out. S. Crawford et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 48, 755 (2009).

  3. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  4. The distribution of secondary mineral phases along an eroding hillslope and its effect on carbon stabilization mechanisms and the fate of soil carbon fractions (United States)

    Doetterl, Sebastian; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Opfergelt, Sophie; Boeckx, Pascal; Bodé, Samuel; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof


    Soil redistribution processes can change soil carbon (C) dynamics drastically by moving carbon from high decomposition and re-sequestration environments at the eroding hillslope to low decomposition and burial at the depositional footslope and valley basin. This leads to not only spatially diverse soil carbon storage throughout the landscape, but also to qualitative changes of the transported carbon and the mineral phase. The interaction between those parameters and the effect on stabilization mechanisms for soil C are still a matter of debate. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths along an eroding cropped slope and how this affects the abundance of microbial derived carbon. We use the results of an incubation experiment combined with the abundance of amino sugars in different isolated soil C fractions as a tracer for the stability of the respective fraction. We applied further (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, and (ii) a qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, to analyze the changes in the mineral phase for the different isolated fractions along the slope transect. Our results emphasize the importance of physical protection within microaggregates to stabilize buried, chemically labile C. Our data further indicates that the stability of these aggregates is related to the presence of organo-mineral associations and poorly crystalline minerals. However, decreasing contents of these minerals with depth indicate a temporal limitation of this stabilization mechanism. Non-expandable clay minerals experience a relative enrichment at the depositional site while expandable clay minerals experience the same at the eroding site. These changes in clay mineralogy along the slope are partly responsible for the abundance of silt and clay associated C and the effectiveness of the clay

  5. Monitoring the Aggregation of Dansyl Chloride in Acetone through Fluorescence Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG,Yu(房喻); YIN,Yi-Qing(尹艺青); HU,Dao-Dao(胡道道); GAO,Gai-Ling(高改玲)


    The aggregation of dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl) in acetone has been studied in detail by steady-state fluorescence techniques. It has been demonstrated that DNS-Cl is stable in acetone during purification and aggregation study processes. The aggregates are not solvolyzed in acetone, and do not take part in any chemical reactions either. It has been found that DNS-Cl tends to aggregate even when its concentration is much lower than its solubility in acetone. The aggregation is reversible, and both the aggregation and the deaggregation are very slow processes.Introduction of SDS has a positive effect upon the formation and stabilization of the aggregates.

  6. Procedure for Validation of Aggregators Providing Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Gehrke, Oliver; Thavlov, Anders;


    As aggregators become viable sources of ancillary services, they will be required to undergo a validation process similar to the prequalification process of traditional generators. Aggregators are fundamentally different from traditional generators in that they are formed of a large quantity...... of small heterogeneous resources that are geographically distributed. Therefore, a new test procedure must be designed for the aggregator validation. This work proposes such a procedure and exemplifies is with a study case. The validation of aggregators is essential if aggregators are to be integrated...

  7. Aggregate breakup in a contracting nozzle. (United States)

    Soos, Miroslav; Ehrl, Lyonel; Bäbler, Matthäus U; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The breakup of dense aggregates in an extensional flow was investigated experimentally. The flow was realized by pumping the suspension containing the aggregates through a contracting nozzle. Variation of the cluster mass distribution during the breakage process was measured by small-angle light scattering. Because of the large size of primary particles and the dense aggregate structure image analysis was used to determine the shape and structure of the produced fragments. It was found, that neither aggregate structure, characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) = 2.7, nor shape, characterized by an average aspect ratio equal to 1.5, was affected by breakage. Several passes through the nozzle were required to reach the steady state. This is explained by the radial variation of the hydrodynamic stresses at the nozzle entrance, characterized through computational fluid dynamics, which implies that only the fraction of aggregates whose strength is smaller than the local hydrodynamic stress is broken during one pass through the nozzle. Scaling of the steady-state aggregate size as a function of the hydrodynamic stress was used to determine the aggregate strength.

  8. Protein aggregate myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M


    Full Text Available Protein aggregate myopathies (PAM are an emerging group of muscle diseases characterized by structural abnormalities. Protein aggregate myopathies are marked by the aggregation of intrinsic proteins within muscle fibers and fall into four major groups or conditions: (1 desmin-related myopathies (DRM that include desminopathies, a-B crystallinopathies, selenoproteinopathies caused by mutations in the, a-B crystallin and selenoprotein N1 genes, (2 hereditary inclusion body myopathies, several of which have been linked to different chromosomal gene loci, but with as yet unidentified protein product, (3 actinopathies marked by mutations in the sarcomeric ACTA1 gene, and (4 myosinopathy marked by a mutation in the MYH-7 gene. While PAM forms 1 and 2 are probably based on impaired extralysosomal protein degradation, resulting in the accumulation of numerous and diverse proteins (in familial types in addition to respective mutant proteins, PAM forms 3 and 4 may represent anabolic or developmental defects because of preservation of sarcomeres outside of the actin and myosin aggregates and dearth or absence of other proteins in these actin or myosin aggregates, respectively. The pathogenetic principles governing protein aggregation within muscle fibers and subsequent structural sarcomeres are still largely unknown in both the putative catabolic and anabolic forms of PAM. Presence of inclusions and their protein composition in other congenital myopathies such as reducing bodies, cylindrical spirals, tubular aggregates and others await clarification. The hitherto described PAMs were first identified by immunohistochemistry of proteins and subsequently by molecular analysis of their genes.

  9. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell


    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  10. Structure and Stability of Pt-Y Alloy Particles for Oxygen Reduction Studied by Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    Platinum-yttrium alloy nanoparticles show both a high activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The catalysts were prepared by magnetron sputter aggregation and mass filtration providing a model catalyst system with a narrow size distribution. The structure and stability...... of nanostructured Pt-Y alloy catalysts were studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques. Using elemental X-ray mapping and high-resolution electron microscopy, the specific compositional structure and distribution of the individual nanoparticles was unraveled and the stability assessed. Studying...... the catalyst after reaction and after aging tests shows the development of a core-shell type structure after being exposed to reaction conditions....

  11. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  12. Impulsive control for existence, uniqueness, and global stability of periodic solutions of recurrent neural networks with discrete and continuously distributed delays. (United States)

    Li, Xiaodi; Song, Shiji


    In this paper, a class of recurrent neural networks with discrete and continuously distributed delays is considered. Sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of a periodic solution are obtained by using contraction mapping theorem and stability theory on impulsive functional differential equations. The proposed method, which differs from the existing results in the literature, shows that network models may admit a periodic solution which is globally exponentially stable via proper impulsive control strategies even if it is originally unstable or divergent. Two numerical examples and their computer simulations are offered to show the effectiveness of our new results.

  13. Dynamics of proteins aggregation. I. Universal scaling in unbounded media (United States)

    Zheng, Size; Javidpour, Leili; Shing, Katherine S.; Sahimi, Muhammad


    It is well understood that in some cases proteins do not fold correctly and, depending on their environment, even properly-folded proteins change their conformation spontaneously, taking on a misfolded state that leads to protein aggregation and formation of large aggregates. An important factor that contributes to the aggregation is the interactions between the misfolded proteins. Depending on the aggregation environment, the aggregates may take on various shapes forming larger structures, such as protein plaques that are often toxic. Their deposition in tissues is a major contributing factor to many neuro-degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion. This paper represents the first part in a series devoted to molecular simulation of protein aggregation. We use the PRIME, a meso-scale model of proteins, together with extensive discontinuous molecular dynamics simulation to study the aggregation process in an unbounded fluid system, as the first step toward MD simulation of the same phenomenon in crowded cellular environments. Various properties of the aggregates have been computed, including dynamic evolution of aggregate-size distribution, mean aggregate size, number of peptides that contribute to the formation of β sheets, number of various types of hydrogen bonds formed in the system, radius of gyration of the aggregates, and the aggregates' diffusivity. We show that many of such quantities follow dynamic scaling, similar to those for aggregation of colloidal clusters. In particular, at long times the mean aggregate size S(t) grows with time as, S(t) ˜ tz, where z is the dynamic exponent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the qualitative similarity between aggregation of proteins and colloidal aggregates has been pointed out.

  14. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.


    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  15. Aggregation and Averaging. (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  16. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)


    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  17. Cell aggregation and sedimentation. (United States)

    Davis, R H


    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  18. Soil Properties and Characteristics of Soil Aggregate in Marginal Farmlands of Oasis in the Middle of Hexi Corridor Region, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yong-zhong; WANG Fang; ZHANG Zhi-hui; DU Ming-wu


    The composition and stability of soil aggregate are closely related to soil quality, soil erosion, and agricultural sustainability. In this study, 49 soil samples at the 0-10 cm surface layer were collected from four soil types (i.e., Ari-Sandic Primosols, Calci-Orthic Aridosols, Siltigi-Otrthic Anthrosols, and Ustic Cambosols) in the marginal farmland in the oasis of the middle Hexi Corridor region and was used to determine the characteristics of soil aggregates. The composition of dry- and wet- sieved aggregates and the physical and chemical properties (including soil particle distribution, soil organic carbon (SOC), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and oxides of Fe3+ and Al3t) of the selected soils were analyzed. The results show that soil particle size distribution is dominated by fine sand fraction in most of soils except Ustic Cambosols. Soil organic carbon concentration is 5.88±2.52 g kg-1 on average, ranging from 4.75 g kg-1 in Ari-Sandic Primosols to 10.51 g kg-1 in Ustic Cambosols. The soils have high calcium carbonate (CaCO3) concentration, ranging from 84.7 to 164.8 g kg-1, which is increased with soil fine particle and organic carbon content. The percentage of >0.25 mm dry aggregates ranges from 65.2% in Ari-Sandic Primosols to 94.6% in Ustic Cambosols, and large dry blocky aggregates (>5 mm) is dominant in all soils. The mean weight diameter of dry aggregates (DMWD) ranges from 3.2 mm to 5.5 mm. The percentage of >0.25 mm water-stable aggregate is from 23.8% to 45.4%. The percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) is from 52.4% to 66.8%, which shows a weak aggregate stability. Ari-Sandic Primosols has the highest PAD. The distribution and characteristics of soil aggregates are in favor of controlling soil wind erosion. However, the stability of aggregate of all soils is weak and soils are prone to disperse and harden after irrigation. The mass of macro-aggregates and DMWD are positively significantly correlated with the contents of soil clay and

  19. Relação de atributos do solo com a agregação de um Latossolo Vermelho sob sistemas de preparo e plantas de verão para cobertura do solo Relationship of soil attributes with aggregate stability of a hapludox under distinct tillage systems and summer cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Adriano Albuquerque


    Full Text Available O preparo de solo e as espécies vegetais que compõem o sistema de rotação de culturas têm expressivo efeito na qualidade física do solo, principalmente na estabilidade de agregados. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a estabilidade dos agregados de um solo cultivado com preparo reduzido (PR e preparo convencional (PC com utilização de plantas de cobertura. Dois experimentos foram efetuados em Chapecó (SC, num Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico em PR (1993-1998 e PC (1994-1998, nos quais foram avaliados cinco sistemas de cultura: milho + guandu anão; milho + mucuna cinza; milho + feijão-de-porco; milho + soja preta e milho isolado. O uso do solo degradou suas propriedades físicas, comparativamente ao sistema com mata nativa, reduziu o teor de C orgânico (CO e a estabilidade dos agregados. As plantas de cobertura de verão aumentaram o teor de CO; entretanto, não modificaram o grau de floculação de argila e a estabilidade de agregados, quando comparadas às do sistema milho isolado. A recuperação de solos degradados por meio do uso de plantas de cobertura foi mais efetiva quando estas foram associadas ao preparo reduzido, evidenciando a importância de sistemas de manejo com baixo revolvimento e alto aporte de resíduos vegetais para aumentar o CO do solo.Tillage and plant species that compose the soil management and crop rotation systems have a pronounced effect on soil physical quality, especially on aggregate stability. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of aggregate stability of a soil cultivated under reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT using distinct summer cover crops. Two experiments were carried out in Chapecó, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil on a Hapludox under RT (1993-1998 and CT (1994-1998. Five crop systems were evaluated in each tillage system: maize + Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea, maize + Stilozobiun niveum (mucuna, maize + Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean, maize + Glycine sp (black soybean, and

  20. Improved Delay-Dependent Robust Stability Criteria for a Class of Uncertain Neutral Type Lur’e Systems with Discrete and Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaibo Shi


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent robust stability analysis for a class of uncertain neutral type Lur’e systems with mixed time-varying delays. The system has not only time-varying uncertainties and sector-bounded nonlinearity, but also discrete and distributed delays, which has never been discussed in the previous literature. Firstly, by employing one effective mathematical technique, some less conservative delay-dependent stability results are established without employing the bounding technique and the mode transformation approach. Secondly, by constructing an appropriate new type of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with triple terms, improved delay-dependent stability criteria in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs derived in this paper are much brief and valid. Furthermore, both nonlinearities located in finite sector and infinite one have been also fully taken into account. Finally, three numerical examples are presented to illustrate lesser conservatism and the advantage of the proposed main results.

  1. Approach to Stochastic Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making Based on Normal Distribution Prioritized Aggregation Operator%基于正态分布优先集结算子的随机多准则群决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腊娥; 汪新凡


    对准则值为正态随机变量,而准则之间具有优先级别的随机多准则群决策问题进行了研究。首先,定义了一种集结正态分布数的优先加权平均(NDNPWA)算子,并给出了该算子的相关性质;进一步,基于NDNPWA算子和正态分布数加权算术平均(NDNWAA)算子,提出了一种准则值为正态随机变量,准则之间具有优先级别,而决策者之间不具有优先级别的随机多准则群决策方法。最后,通过实例分析表明,该方法具有可行性和有效性。%Investigates stochastic multi-criteria group decision making problems in which the criterion values are normal random variables and the criteria are in different priority levels. First, defines a new aggregation operator named normal distribution number prioritized weighted averaging (NDNPWA) operator and provides the relative properties of the operator. Furthermore, based on the NDNPWA operator and the normal distribution number weighted arithmetic averaging (NDNWAA) operator, proposes an approach for solving the stochastic multi-criteria group decision making problems in which the criterion values are normal random variables, the criteria are in different priority levels and the decision makers are not in different priority levels. Finally, presents an illustrative example to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed method.

  2. 骨料颗粒级配对膨胀珍珠岩保温板性能的影响%Influence of aggregate grain size distribution on properties of expansion perlite base insulation board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小山; 高锦秀; 王子生; 蔡琪超; 李辉; 王智宇


    Study is made on influence of expanded perlite grain size distribution upon mechanical property and thermal insulation properties of expansion perlite base insulation board. The results show that perlite single particle size composition.double size combination and three kinds of particle size combination greatly improve the thermal insulation properties of expansion perlite base insulation board on the basis of meeting mechanical properties. The best gradation is particle size 1.18~2.36 mm and fine powder among the double size combination with quality than 7:1. Reasonable aggregate grain size distribution can effectively increase the strength of the expansion perlite base insulation board and improve its thermal insulation properties.%膨胀珍珠岩颗粒级配对膨胀珍珠岩保温板力学性能和保温性能的影响研究结果表明,膨胀珍珠岩颗粒单粒径成分,双粒径组合及3种粒径组合均在满足力学性能的基础上较大地改善了保温板的保温性能.最佳级配是双粒径组合中粒径1.18~2.36mm与细粉以质量比7∶1组合.合理的骨科颗粒级配能有效提高保温板的抗压强度,并改善保温性能.

  3. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten


    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  4. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;


    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  5. Colloidal stability of iron oxide nanocrystals coated with a PEG-based tetra-catechol surfactant (United States)

    Mondini, Sara; Drago, Carmelo; Ferretti, Anna M.; Puglisi, Alessandra; Ponti, Alessandro


    Long-term colloidal stability of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is an important goal that has not yet been fully achieved. To make an advance in our understanding of the colloidal stability of iron oxide NPs in aqueous media, we prepared NPs comprising a monodisperse (13 nm) iron oxide core coated with a PEG-based (PEG: polyethyleneglycol) surfactant. This consists of a methoxy-terminated PEG chain (MW = 5000 Da) bearing four catechol groups via a diethylenetriamine linker. The surfactant was grafted onto the nanocrystals by ligand exchange monitored by infrared spectroscopy. The colloidal stability of these nanoparticles was probed by monitoring the time evolution of the Z-average intensity-weighted radius Rh and volume-weighted size distribution Pv obtained from analysis of dynamic light scattering data. The nanoparticles showed no sign of aggregation for four months in deionized water at room temperature and also when subjected to thermal cycling between 25 and 75 °C. In 0.01 M PBS (phosphate buffered saline), aggregation (if any) is slow and partial; after 66 h, about 50% of NPs have not aggregated. Aggregation is more effective in 0.15 M NH4AcO buffer, where isolated particles are not observed after 66 h, and especially in acidic NH4AcO/AcOH buffer, where aggregation is complete within 1 h and precipitation is observed. The differing stability of the NPs in the above aqueous media is closely related to their ζ potential.

  6. Optical dynamics of molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Steven


    The subject of this thesis is the spectroscopy and dynamics of molecular aggregates in amorphous matrices. Aggregates of three different molecules were studied. The molecules are depicted in Fig. (1.1). Supersaturated solutions of these molecules show aggregate formation. Aggregation is a process si

  7. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of soil bacterial communities within soil aggregates: Linking structure to C storage (United States)

    Alterations in soil structural properties created by agricultural management practices have a significant influence on soil aggregation, which manages the chemical and physical heterogeneity of soil properties, and, consequently, the distribution of microorganisms and their activity among aggregates...

  8. Measurement of soil aggregate stability using low intensity ultrasonic vibration Medición de la estabilidad de agregados de suelo utilizando vibración ultrasónica de baja intensidad Medição da estabilidade dos agregados do solo por vibração ultrasónica de baixa intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Mayer


    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of tillage on soil aggregate stability using the ultrasonic dispersion method with different levels of energy. Experiments are performed with self-developed equipment at low vibration amplitudes of 0.5 ?m, 2 ?m and 5 ?m. Ultrasonic power is 0.7 W, 8.9 W and 22.3 W for the three amplitudes. Samples of aggregates 2 000 - 250 ?m of a degraded loamy silt Chernozem, a loamy clay Cambisol and a loamy sand Cambisol from eastern Austria were collected under different tillage regimes: conventional tillage (CT with mechanical weed control and no tillage (NT with inter cropping in winter. Measuring Soil Aggregate Stability (SAS according to DIN norm showed that the stability decreased in the sequence loamy clay Cambisol > loamy sand Cambisol > loamy silt Chernozem. Influences of tillage could be observed with SAS for the last two samples mentioned. Ultrasonic dispersion tests at vibration amplitude 0.5 ?m and 2 ?m show higher stability of the Cambisol soils. Significant influences of soil tillage on aggregate stability for the loamy clay Cambisol and the degraded Chernozem were observed after short ultrasonic dispersion times and absorbed energies of 1 - 1.7 J ml-1. The measured aggregate stability decreased in the following order: Cambisol NT > Cambisol CT > Chernozem NT > Chernozem CT. Differences in loamy sand Cambisol could not be detected with the ultrasonic method due to a low aggregation level of the macro aggregates. This study highlights the importance of quantifying the energy output of the ultrasonic equipment when analysing changes in soil aggregate stability, for the evaluation of tillage treatments. A more comprehensive analysis of aggregate stability can be obtained when using both, the wet-sieving SAS method and ultrasonic dispersion at low energy levels.

    El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la influencia

  9. 基于Le Bissonnais法对黄土高原森林植被带土壤团聚体及土壤可蚀性特征研究%Soil aggregate stability and erodibility under forest vegetation in the Loess Plateau using the Le Bissonnais method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾全超; 董扬红; 李鑫; 李娅芸; 刘雷; 安韶山


    The composition and stability of soil aggregates are the main indicators of soil structure and quality. For sustainable ecological restoration, soil aggregates stability under different vegetation types in the forest zones of the Loess Plateau was studied using the Le Bissonnais (LB) method. Three sieving methods of LB (SW: slow-wetting sieving method; FW: fast-wetting sieving method;WS:wet-stirring sieving method) were used to simulate light rain, heavy rain and disturbance. Soil samples were collected from 10 types of vegetation in Yanhe Catchment of Yan’an City. The mean weight diameter (DMW), geometric mean diameter (DGM), mass fractal dimension (D) of soil aggregates and soil erodibility (K) were calculated. The results showed that FW treatment was the most destructive to soil aggregate stability, under which soil water-stable aggregate particle size was mainly concentrated in the2 mm size group. It then explained that light rains had no strong damaging effects on soil aggregates. The orders of DMW, DGM, D and K were SW>WS>FW, SW>FW>WS, WS>FW>SW, and FW>WS>SW, respectively, in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. Under SW, Artemisia gmelinii community and Rosa xanthina community had greater DMW and DGM, and smaller K, indicating the two vegetation types had advantages in soil protection under light rain. Under WS and FW, Platycladus orientalis community and Acer buergerianum communities had DMW and DGM, and smaller K. They were appreciate vegetation types for soil protection under heavy rain and strong disturbance. The results suggested that LB method was appropriately applicable in measuring soil aggregate structure in the Loess Plateau. The LB method not only simulated traditional wet sieving re-sults, but also explained the mechanisms involved in the disintegration of soil aggregates under different conditions in terms of soil structure stability. The results also suggested that the vegetation types significantly influenced soil water-stable aggregates

  10. National and International Income Dispersion and Aggregate Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fillat; J.F. François (Joseph)


    textabstractWe examine linkages between aggregate household income, distribution of that income, and aggregate cross-country expenditure patterns. We are able to decompose income effects into international income dispersion effects (from variations in average income) and national income dispersion (

  11. Fractals of Silica Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhinhongLi; DongWu; Yuhansun; JunWang; YiLiu; BaozhongDong; Zhinhong


    Silica aggregates were prepared by base-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol.Polyethylene glycol(PEG) was used as organic modifier.The sols were characterized using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation as X-ray source.The structure evolution during the sol-gel process was determined and described in terms of the fractal geometry.As-produced silica aggregates were found to be mass fractals.The fractl dimensions spanned the regime 2.1-2.6 corresponding to more branched and compact structures.Both RLCA and Eden models dominated the kinetic growth under base-catalyzed condition.

  12. Stability of the age distribution of measles cases over time during outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2004-2006. (United States)

    Wiesen, Eric; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Goodson, James L; Anand, Abhijeet; Mach, Ondrej; Thapa, Arun; O'Connor, Patrick; Linayage, Jayantha; Diorditsa, Serguei; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Uzzaman, Sharif; Jalil Mondal, M D Abdul


    Despite recommendations from WHO to conduct measles outbreak response vaccination campaigns based on the age distribution of cases at the beginning of an outbreak, few data exist to specifically examine whether the age distribution of cases remains constant over time in a measles outbreak. This analysis explores this question with use of measles outbreak surveillance data from Bangladesh from the period 2004-2006. Pearson χ(2) tests were conducted of age distributions over 2 periods during 41 large laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks. Statistically significant changes in age distribution over time were observed in 24% of the outbreaks. No single pattern was detected in the shifts in age distribution; however, an increase in the proportion of cases occurring among infants outbreaks. These findings suggest a need to consider the possibility of a shift in the age distribution over time when planning an outbreak response vaccination campaign.

  13. Aggregation Operators Review - Mathematical Properties and Behavioral Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. La Red Martínez


    Full Text Available A problem that humans must face very often is that of having to add, melt or synthesize information, that is, combine together a series of data from various sources to reach a certain conclusion or make a certain decision. This involves the use of one or more aggregation operators capable to provide a collective preference relation. These operators must be chosen according to specific criteria taking into account the characteristic properties of each operator. Some conditions to be taken into account to identify them are the following: axiomatic strength, empirical setting, adaptability, numerical efficiency, compensation and compensation range, added behavior and scale level required of the membership functions. It is possible to establish a general list of possible mathematical properties whose verification might be desirable in certain cases: boundary conditions, continuity, not decreasing monotony, symmetry, idempotence, associativity, bisymmetry, self-distributivity, compensation, homogeneity, translativity, stability, ϕ-comparability, sensitivity and locally internal functions. For analyze the attitudinal character of the aggregation operator the following measures are studied: disjunction degree (orness, dispersion, balance and divergence. In this paper, a review of these issues is presented.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of 13C labelled plant residues in soil aggregates and Lumbricus terrestris surface casts: A combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Remusat, Laurent; Watteau, Françoise; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell


    Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition, soil structuration and carbon cycling. They ingest both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed with mucus and dejected in form of casts at the soil surface and along burrows. Bulk isotopic or biochemical technics have often been used to study the incorporation of litter in soil and casts, but they could not reflect the complex interaction between soil, plant and microorganisms at the microscale. However, the heterogeneous distribution of organic carbon in soil structures induces contrasted microbial activity areas. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), which is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials, has recently been applied in soil science (Herrmann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014). The combination of Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proven its potential to investigate labelled residues incorporation in earthworm casts (Vidal et al., 2016). In line of this work, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of plant residues in soil aggregates and earthworm surface casts. This study aimed to (1) identify the decomposition states of labelled plant residues incorporated at different time steps, in casts and soil, (2) identify the microorganisms implied in this decomposition (3) relate the organic matter states of decomposition with their 13C signature. A one year mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) litter in a soil in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil and surface cast samples were collected after 8 and 54 weeks, embedded in epoxy resin and cut into ultra-thin sections. Soil was fractionated and all and analyzed with TEM and NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 16O, 12C14N, 13C14N and 28Si. The δ13C maps were obtained using the 13C14

  15. Fault tolerant aggregation for power system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver; Kullmann, Daniel


    Exploiting the flexibility in distributed energy resources (DER) is seen as an important contribution to allow high penetrations of renewable generation in electrical power systems. However, the present control infrastructure in power systems is not well suited for the integration of a very large...... number of small units. A common approach is to aggregate a portfolio of such units together and expose them to the power system as a single large virtual unit. In order to realize the vision of a Smart Grid, concepts for flexible, resilient and reliable aggregation infrastructures are required...

  16. Spatial distribution of stabilizer-derived nitroxide radicals during thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) copolymers: a unified picture from pulsed ELDOR and ESR imaging. (United States)

    Jeschke, Gunnar; Schlick, Shulamith


    Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) provides information on the spatial distribution of radicals on the length scale of a few nanometres, while Electron Spin Resonance Imaging (ESRI) provides information on a length scale of millimetres with a resolution of about 100 micrometres. Despite the gap between these length scales, results from the two techniques are found to complement and support each other in the characterization of the identity and distribution of nitroxide radicals derived from the Hindered Amine Stabilizer (HAS) Tinuvin 770 in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) copolymers. DEER measurements demonstrate that there is no significant formation of biradicals from the bifunctional HAS, and provide the distributions of local radical concentrations. These distributions are poorly resolved for