WorldWideScience

Sample records for agglutination tests

  1. Interpretation of microscopic agglutination test for leptospirosis diagnosis and seroprevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Chirathaworn, Chintana; Inwattana, Rajada; Poovorawan, Yong; Suwancharoen, Duangjai

    2014-01-01

    Determination of antibody titer by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) has been used as a tool for leptospirosis diagnosis. Four fold or greater rise in antibody titers between acute and convalescent sera suggests recent Leptospira infection. In addition, results obtained by MAT have been used to predict infecting serovars. However, cross reactivity among various Leptospira serovars have been reported when patient sera were tested with a battery of Leptospira serovars. This study demonstrate...

  2. Disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis with negative latex agglutination test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-guang; BI Xin-ling; WU Jian-hua; XU Hong; LIAO Wan-qing

    2012-01-01

    We reported an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis in an immunocompetent host who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy,which were the only two symptoms and signs.Latex agglutination test of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative,while lymph node biopsy showed Cryptococcus neoformans.A diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis was made.Then the patient was treated with amphotericin B for 15 days as initial therapy and itraconazole for 6 months as maintenance therapy respectively.The patient received re-examination per 6 months and was followed up for 2 years.Swollen lymph nodes diminished gradually,and no fever or other symptoms were found.Latex agglutination test of serum and CSF were negative throughout the follow-up period,and anti-HIV,syphilis and tuberculosis antibody were all negative.

  3. Interpretation of microscopic agglutination test for leptospirosis diagnosis and seroprevalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Rajada Inwattana; Yong Poovorawan; Duangjai Suwancharoen

    2014-01-01

    Determination of antibody titer by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) has been used as a tool for leptospirosis diagnosis. Four fold or greater rise in antibody titers between acute and convalescent sera suggests recent Leptospira infection. In addition, results obtained by MAT have been used to predict infecting serovars. However, cross reactivity among various Leptospira serovars have been reported when patient sera were tested with a battery of Leptospira serovars. This study demonstrates cross- reactivity among several Leptospira serovars when MAT was performed on leptospirosis sera. The data support a role of MAT as a tool for diagnosis. However, for information on infecting serovars, Leptospira isolation and molecular identification should be performed.

  4. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The standard tube agglutination test. 1 147.1 Section 147.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.1 The standard tube agglutination test. 1 1 The procedure described is...

  5. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D. B.; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  6. Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen in Dog Saliva Using a Latex Agglutination Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kasempimolporn, S.; Saengseesom, W.; Lumlertdacha, B.; Sitprija, V.

    2000-01-01

    Dog bites are responsible for more than 90% of human rabies deaths in Asia. We developed a simple and inexpensive test based on latex agglutination (LA) for rabies virus antigen detection in dog saliva. Rabies virus antigen could be detected by agglutination on a glass slide using latex particles coated with gamma globulin. By evaluation of paired saliva-brain specimens from 238 dogs, the LA test using saliva was 99% specific and 95% sensitive compared to the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) o...

  7. A latex slide agglutination test for rapid detection of antimyeloperoxidase antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, K.H.; S. S. Lee; Lawton, J W

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To develop and test a new latex slide agglutination test (MPO-LSAT) to detect antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) antibody in serum. METHODS: Latex bead coating was adjusted to give maximum sensitivity by attending to latex size, MPO to latex ratio for coupling, ratio of diluted serum to MPO-latex, reaction time and temperature for coupling, and reaction time for agglutination. Inhibition studies were performed using MPO, proteinase 3, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein, and lactofe...

  8. Comparison of slide agglutination test and direct immunofluorescence assay for identification of Legionella isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, W L; Wilkinson, H W; Benson, R F

    1983-01-01

    It is technically impractical for many clinical laboratories to use the direct immunofluorescence assay for identifying and serogrouping clinical isolates of Legionella. We compared the results obtained with the direct immunofluorescence assay with the results of a simple and less-demanding slide agglutination test for identifying 15 serogroups representing seven Legionella species. The slide agglutination test was in complete agreement with the direct immunofluorescence assay, and the serogr...

  9. Microcapsule agglutination test for Treponema pallidum antibodies. A new serodiagnostic test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, S; Yamaya, S I; Sugahara, T.; Matuhasi, T.

    1983-01-01

    For the serodiagnosis of syphilis a quantitative passive agglutination (MCA-TP) test for antibodies to Treponema pallidum was performed with chemically stable microcapsules with no antigenic activity instead of with conventional sheep erythrocytes. The microcapsules were easily sensitised with the antigen of sonicated Treponema pallidum by treatment with glutaraldehyde. Compared with the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) the MCA-TP test was superior for detecting cases of prima...

  10. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, A.; Stephan, R.; Corti, S; Johler, S.

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate ...

  11. Comparative evaluation of recombinant LigB protein and heat-killed antigen-based latex agglutination test with microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Thirumalesh, Sushma Rahim Assadi; Kalleshamurthy, Triveni; Niharika, Nakkala; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Rajeswari; Sengupta, Pinaki Prasad; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein (LigB) (rLigB) antigen and compare its diagnostic efficacy with LAT using conventional heat-killed leptospiral antigen and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in diagnosing bovine leptospirosis. The PCR-amplified 1053-bp ligB gene sequences from Leptospira borgpetersenii Hardjo serovar were cloned in pET 32 (a) vector at EcoRI and NotI sites and expressed in BL21 E. coli cells as fusion protein with thioredoxin (-57 kDa) and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. Out of 390 serum samples [cattle (n = 214), buffaloes (n = 176)] subjected to MAT, 115 samples showed reciprocal titre≥100 up to 1600 against one or more serovars. For recombinant LigB protein/antigen-based LAT, agglutination was observed in the positive sample, while no agglutination was observed in the negative sample. Similarly, heat-killed leptospiral antigen was prepared from and used in LAT for comparison with MAT. A two-sided contingency table was used for analysis of LAT using both the antigens separately against MAT for 390 serum samples. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of recombinant LigB LAT were found to be 75.65, 91.27, 78.38 and 89.96 %, respectively, and that of heat-killed antigen-based LAT were 72.17, 89.82, 74.77 and 88.53 %, respectively, in comparison with MAT. This developed test will be an alternative/complementary to the existing battery of diagnostic assays/tests for specific detection of pathogenic Leptospira infection in bovine population. PMID:26065562

  12. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva; Gottschalk, M.

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS-PAGE and...

  13. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology. PMID:25952731

  14. A comparative experiments for tube agglutination test of pullorum antiserum with gamma ray Co60 irradiated salmonella pullorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agglutinability between naturally infected positive chicken serum of pullorum disease and hyperimmunized rabbit antiserum was compared. And the following results were obtained and summarized. On the agglutinability, Salmonella pullorum antigen which irradiated gamma-ray was better than another both formalized and heated antigen. Time of judgemented as positive titer in the tube agglutination test to the naturally infected positive chicken serum was it most suitable for 12 hours at 37°C. Agglutination titer of positive immune chicken serum against gamma-ray irradiate Salmonella pullorum were as 320 approximately 640x. (author).

  15. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial s...

  16. The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Karsen, Hasan; Sökmen, Nebi; Duygu, Fazilet; Binici, İrfan; Taşkıran, Hüseyin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to assess prozone phenomenon that is quite rare and causes false negativity in serological diagnosis of brucellosis with standard dilution titers. Materials and methods: In this study the tests of four cases that have false negative serological results were evaluated. Blood cultures were obtained from all cases while cerebrospinal fluid cultures were studied in the two cases. Standard agglutination test (SAT) and Coombs test were performed to all patients. Results...

  17. Field evaluation of latex agglutination test for detecting urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safi, S H; Abdel-Haleem, A; Hammad, A; El-Basha, I; Omer, A; Kareem, H G; Boelaert, M; Chance, M; Hommel, M

    2003-07-01

    A latex agglutination test to detect urinary antigens for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied. In 204 patients with suspected VL, KAtex had a sensitivity of 95.2% with good agreement with microscopy smears but poor agreement with 4 different serology tests. It was also positive in 2 confirmed VL cases co-infected with HIV. In all K4tex-positive confirmed cases actively followed up after treatment, the test became negative 1 month after completion of treatment. While IC4tex had a specificity of 100% in healthy endemic and non-endemic controls, the direct agglutination test (DAT) was positive in 14% of the KAtex-negative healthy endemic controls. KAtex is a simple addition to the diagnostics of VL particularly at field level and as a complementary test for the diagnosis of VL in smear-negative cases with positive DAT results. PMID:15748081

  18. The comparison of Brucella gel agglutination test with other Brucella tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mine Turhanoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the sensitivity of diagnostic tests in patients with a preliminary diagnosis of brucellosis. Methods: We have compared the serological methods, standard tube agglutination test (STA, Coombs Test (CT, Rose Bengal (RBT, and the gel centrifugation test. In patients with a preliminary diagnosis of brucellosis, subjects with a positive test result of RBT has been included in the research and other diagnostic tests STA, CT and Coombs Gel centrifugation tests were performed within the range of same titration. Results: Total 132 patient’s serums were studied. In RBT positive 92 patients’ serums, negative test results were found in 11 with STA, in 9 with CT and in 6 with gel test. While 35 patients were identified to be positive by using Brucella gel test at 1/5120 titer, no positive test results were seen with STA and CT at the same titer. Generally, CT results were one titration below the gel centrifugation test results. Conclusion: In conclusion, RBT and STA were not always adequate to determine the diagnosis of brucellosis. Low titer STA results should be supported by tests such as CT or gel centrifugation and the seroconversion must be monitored. Due to giving fast results, gel centrifugation test can be preferred in diagnosis of Brucellosis.

  19. Comparative evaluation of coagglutination and latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur M

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagglutination test was compared with commercially available latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus in faecal samples from clinically suspected cases of viral gastroenteritis. Out of 80 test samples 16 (20% and 20 (25.3% were positive for rota virus antigen by Rotalex kit and coagglutination test respectively. All the 40 controls were negative for viral antigen by Rotalex kit and only one gave positive result by coagglutination test. Coagglutination test was found to be economical, sensitive and specific for screening and rapid diagnosis of Rota virus diarrhoea.

  20. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Fasiha Mohammadi; Patil, Asha B; Shobha D Nadagir; Namrata Nandihal; S A Lakshminarayana

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods ( Latex agglutination test). Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cas...

  1. Rapid detection of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients by an agglutination inhibition test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclinical elevation of urinary albumin excretion (UAlbE) early in the course of diabetes mellitus has been suggested to predict later clinical proteinuria and mortality. UAlbE is currently measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) or radial immunodiffusion methods. However, these procedures are expensive and time-consuming and cannot be used as screening methods. Recently, an agglutination test (AT) has been suggested as a routinary method for the screening of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. In this paper the results obtained are compared with an AT procedure and RIA method in a screening program of microproteinuria in diabetic patients. An immunological test (a latex agglutination assay) for the analysis of albuminura is used, which human albumin was adsorbed to latex beads (about 0.3 μl of a urine sample. Urine samples containing an albumin concentration >40 μg/ml were found to inhibit the agglutination of latex beads with antiserum. The RIA and AT results showed good agreement when urine samples were assayed soon after collection or after a short period of storage (≤3 weeks at -20 grade centigrades). The AT procedure has been adjusted in order to give a positive response (no agglutination) over the range of supranormal concentrations of urinary albumin (>40 μg/ml), which are on the other hand undetectable by Albustix. In addition, it is possible to perform a semiquantitative test using various dilutions of urine samples with albumin concentration > 40 μg/ml, so to estimate approximately the UAlbE. The AT method is simple, fast and specific, and has proved to be useful for the identification of diabetic patients at risk for developing clinical nephropathy. Therefore, it may be used in screening programs for diabetic microproteinuria

  2. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Mohan; Hari Mohan Saxena; Puneet Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cat...

  3. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Cardoso, G F; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is considered the "golden standard" leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016) [5]). These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing. PMID:27077089

  4. Preliminary observations on the use of latex agglutination test for the detection of mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae in cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, R C; Barnum, D A

    1986-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of Group B streptococcal antigens was used to detect infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae in whey of bovine milk samples. Fifteen out of 17 known infections were detected, but it was necessary to incubate the wheys at 37 degrees C for 18 hours in nine of the samples. It was found that the latex agglutination test could detect Group streptococcal carbohydrate antigens in whey samples from artificially infected quarters from one to fo...

  5. Evaluation of latex agglutination test for diagnosis of leptospirosis using native strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 24 June, 2009 ; Accepted 16 September, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Leptospirosis is a common zoonosis throughout the world and common in the flat area of Guilan, Iran, with seasonal incidence, especially in rice farmers. Clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult, because its symptoms are similar to several acute infective diseases. Serological assays are important in diagnosis of the disease and microscopic agglutination test (MAT is a gold standard, however, it is not a routine test in diagnostic laboratories. Thus, a simple and reliable test is a necessity. In this study, we evaluated a latex agglutination test using native strains of leptospires.Materials and methods: A number of 98 positive cases and 54 negative cases which were screened by MAT, along with 30 sera of other diseases as control samples, were examined by latex agglutination test, using an antigenic suspension (whole antigen, which was extracted from 4 common native strains.Results: False positive and false negative rate were 15 and 12 consequently. Sensivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 89.0%, 84.5%, 86.7%, 87.2%, and 87.0% respectively.Conclusion: Regarding the considerable rate of sensivity and specificity of the test which is compatible to other performed studies, in addition to the simple performance test, does not need a complex laboratory facility, which may also be carried out in rural regions, therefore, this test is valuable for primary screening.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(71: 27-32 (Persian The study of 101 cases o

  6. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  7. Comparison of the 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol tests for determining Brucella immunoglobulin G agglutinating antibody in bovine serum.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    The dithiothreitol test was evaluated as a substitute for the 2-mercaptoethanol test for determining Brucella immunoglobulin G agglutinating antibody in bovine serum. The tests were compared on 207 card-positive sera that showed a standard tube-agglutination titer of incomplete 1:50 or higher. The tests agreed within one dilution with 182 of the 207 sera tested for an 87.9% rate of agreement. When titers were not the same, those obtained with the dithiothreitol test were more frequently lower...

  8. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Fasiha Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods ( Latex agglutination test. Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38 cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96 cases and LAT in 17(54.83 cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%.The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66% and 87.91% respectively. Conclusion : Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and early diagnosis and treatment is life saving and reduces chronic morbidity. LAT was more sensitive compared to conventional Gram stain and Culture technique in identifying the fastidious organisms like H.influenzae, S.pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus. However, the combination of Gram stain, Culture and LAT proved to be more productive than any of the single tests alone.

  9. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT and Milk Ring Test (MRT in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 % of cow milk and 6 samples (12 % of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 % positive, 3 (6 % suspicious and 43 (86 % negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 % positive, 2 (4 % suspicious and 45 (90 % negative samples were determined according to antibodies titre of serum agglutination test (Whey-AT. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 196-203

  10. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (pBrucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  11. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories

  12. Seroprevalence of bovine leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in Southeast of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Gholamreza Abdollahpour; Saeed Sattari Tabrizi; Elham Mohammadi Damaneh; Sajad Hossini-nasab

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate serological findings of bovine leptospirosis which is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution caused by Leptospira interrogans. Methods: One hundred and sixty seven sera were collected from 9 commercial dairy herds in jiroft suburbs, from July to October 2011. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used to evaluates serological findings of bovine leptospirosis in Jiroft suburb dairy farms, Kerman province, Iran. Results:Antibodies were found by MAT at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 29 samples (17.36%) among 167 sera at a dilution 1:100 or higher, and Leptospira pomona was the most prevalent serovar. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 6 sera of the positive samples. Conclusion:This study is the first report of leptospirosis in Southeast Iran and showed that Leptospira pomona was the most and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae the least prevalent serovars in Southeast Iran.

  13. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-01-01

    In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT) in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 %) of cow milk and 6 samples (12 %) of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 %) positive, 3 (6 %) suspicious and 43 (86 %) negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 %) positive, 2 (4 %) suspicious and 45 (90 %) negativ...

  14. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  15. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  16. Comparison of Wright Agglutination Test and ELISA in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansarinia, H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In our country, the Wright test routinely is used for diagnosing brucellosis. Because of its low sensitivity, the range of false-negative results is high. Therefore, we aimed at comparing Wright and ELISA in the people suspected brucellosis. Material and Methods: The results of Wright, 2ME, Coombs Wright tests were compared with Anti-Brucella IgG, Anti-Brucella IgM. Of 1183 subjects referred for Wright test, 148 of them were investigated for Coombs Wright and 228 for 2ME Wright. In addition to Wright test for 32 cases, Brucella IgG and IgM classes were also experimented. Results: Wright test was negative in 95.4% of cases. Of these negative results, 2.3% were positive for Coombs Wright. Eight-point-five percent of the cases were positive for Coombs Wright test and 4.7% for 2ME Wright test. Sixteen cases were negative for both Wright and ELISA. In 8 cases of Wright-negative, ELISA IgM class was positive and IgG class was negative, and in 4 cases of Wright-negative, ELISA IgM was negative and IgG was positive. About 4 cases of Wright-positive, IgM and IgG antibody classes were positive. Conclusion: Due to the mismatch between the results of Wright agglutination test and ELISA method and with regard to availability, high sensitivity and determining the type of antibody classes in ELISA, it is focused on ELISA method for brucellosis diagnosis. Keywords: Brucellosis; Wright; ELISA

  17. A systematic review on the microscopic agglutination test seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Priscila da Silva; Libonati, Hugo; Penna, Bruno; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis commonly relies on serology, which has three issues that are referred: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. We propose a systematic review of the bovine leptospirosis in Latin America, in order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the research and of the seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in that region. Internet databases were consulted over the year of 2014. Inclusion criteria for analysis included serosurvey using microscopic agglutination test (MAT), a relevant number of animals, the presence in the antigen panel of at least one representant of serogroup Sejroe, and a cutoff point of ≥100. A total of 242 articles that referred to cattle, leptospir*, and one region of Latin America was found. Only 105 articles regarding to serosurveys using MAT were found in several countries, and 61 (58.1 %) met all the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, this systematic review demonstrated a high prevalence of the infection (75.0 % at herd level and 44.2 % at animal level), with predominance of strains of serogroup Sejroe (80.3 %). It was evident that there is the necessity of more studies in several countries, as well as the need for greater standardization in studies, especially with regard to the adopted cutoff point at serological tests. PMID:26581437

  18. Detection of leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in north-east of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Gholam Reza Abdollah pour

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in north-east of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of human leptospiral infections by MAT, using six current reference strains of Leptospira interrogans in north-east of Iran. A total of 285 serum samples were collected from three north-east provinces of Iran, from December, 2009 to June, 2010. Results: Antibodies were detected at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 45 sera (15.79 %) among 285 samples at a dilution 1:100 or greater. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 24 sera of the positive samples. Therefore, there were 75 positive reactions against different serovar of Leptospira interrogans. Positive titers were recorded against serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (31 samples), hardjo (26 samples), grippotyphosa (7 samples), pomona (5 samples), canicola (4 samples) and ballum (2 sample).Conclusions:In present study the most prevalent (Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae) and the least prevalent (Leptospira ballum) serovar are different from previous studies. Maybe, species and prevalence of serovars change during the time in one area and between regions.

  19. Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Willem; Pelt, Cindy; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri; Goessens, Wil

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) antigen in 87 of 90 genetically diverse methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) stock culture strains, leading to a sensitivity of 97%. The three discrepant MRSA strains displayed positive results only after induction o...

  20. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  1. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  2. Leishmaniasis direct agglutination test: using pictorials as training materials to reduce inter-reader variability and improve accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, E.R.; Jacquet, D.; Schoone, G.; Gidwani, K.; Boelaert, M; Cunningham, J

    2012-01-01

    Background The Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) has a high diagnostic accuracy and remains, in some geographical areas, part of the diagnostic algorithm for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). However, subjective interpretation of results introduces potential for inter-reader variation. We report an assessment of inter-laboratory agreement and propose a pictorial-based approach to standardize reading of the DAT. Methodology In preparation for a comparative evaluation of immunochromatographic diagnost...

  3. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ROSE BENGAL PLATE TEST (I{BPT AND SERUM AGGLUTINATION TEST (SAT FOR DETECTING THE INCIDENE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALOES (Bubolus bubolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid, Ishtiaq Ahmad and Umer Hayat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT were applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 240 buffaloes maintained at organized livestock farms in Punjab, to measure their comparative efficacy. Based on RBPT and SAT, 11.25 (n=27 and 10.42 percent (n=25 buffaloes were found seropositive, 11.67 (n 28 and 4.58 percent (n= 11 animals showed doubtful results, while 77.08 (n= 185 and 85 percept (n= 204 animals were found seronegative, respectively. Rose Bengal Plate Test detected higher percentages of seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases than those detected by Serum Agglutination Test, which showed lower percentages or seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases. This study indicated that SAT is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for the detection of Brucella aborlus, antibodies in buffaloes.

  5. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J Waggoner

    Full Text Available Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens.478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay. The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic, and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6% were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3% in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9% by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02. Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818, the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5% to 133 (16.3%.This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  6. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  7. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis. PMID:27084465

  8. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  9. Comparison of the Serodia Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination, Captia Syphilis-G, and SpiroTek Reagin II Tests with Standard Test Techniques for Diagnosis of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Victoria; Fears, Martha B.; Morrill, William E.; Castro, Arnold; Kikkert, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    We compared the microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP), a treponemal test, with two other treponemal tests, the Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay and the Captia Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay, using 390 clinical serum samples. We also compared two nontreponemal tests, the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) card test and the SpiroTek Reagin II test. Agreements of the MHA-TP with the TP-PA test and the Syphilis-G test were 97.4 and 97.7%, respectively. T...

  10. Comparison of Brucella immunoglobulin M and G flow assays with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zeytinoglu; A. Turhan; I. Altuglu; A. Bilgic; T.H. Abdoel; H.L. Smits

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic value of Brucella IgM/IgG flow assays was evaluated in comparison with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests by testing a selection of serum samples submitted to the laboratory because of clinical suspicion of brucellosis. All 39 admission and 11 follow-up samples that agglu

  11. Prozone effects in microscopic agglutination tests for leptospirosis in the sera of mice infected with the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Hiroto Shimabukuro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with a pathogenic strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola produced false negative results (prozone effect in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT. This prozone effect occurred in several serum samples collected at different post-infection times, but it was more prominent in samples collected from seven-42 days post-infection and for 1:50 and 1:100 sample dilutions. This phenomenon was correlated with increased antibody titres in the early post-infection phase. While prozone effects are often observed in serological agglutination assays for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis and human syphilis, they are not widely reported in leptospirosis MATs.

  12. Local Production of a Liquid Direct Agglutination Test as a Sustainable Measure for Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Hussam Ali; Mahamoud, Abdelhafeiz; Abass, Elfadil Mustafa; Madi, Rubens Riscala; Semiao-Santos, Saul J; El Harith, Abdallah

    2016-05-01

    A prerequisite for the control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the accessibility to reference diagnostics. The high price of the freeze-dried direct agglutination test (FD-DAT) and the short shelf-life time of the rK39 strip test (rK39) have limited the application of these tests in Sudan. An original liquid DAT (LQ-DAT) with high reproducibility compared with the FD-DAT and rK39 has been routinely produced in our laboratory since 1999. In this study, a 3.4-year-old batch (of more than 90 test batches produced to date) was chosen to validate the diagnostic performance of this test against microscopy, FD-DAT, and rK39 in 96 VL and 42 non-VL serum samples. Relatively higher sensitivity (95/96, 99.0%) was recorded for the LQ-DAT than for the FD-DAT (92/96, 95.8%) and rK39 (76/96, 79.2%), probably because of the use of the endemic autochthonous Leishmania donovani isolate as the antigen. Experience with the LQ-DAT, its low cost of production, ease of providing this test, and diagnostic reliability compared with the FD-DAT suggest that widescale implementation of the LQ-DAT can contribute to sustainable VL control in Sudan. PMID:26976890

  13. Development and evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test using a monoclonal antibody to identify Candida dubliniensis colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cell component extraction suggested that the specific epitope probably resides on a protein moiety absent from C. albicans. However, we failed to identify the target protein by Western blotting, owing to its sensitivity to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate. MAb 12F7-F2 was further used to develop a commercial latex agglutination test to identify C. dubliniensis colonies (Bichro-dubli Fumouze test; Fumouze Diagnostics). The test was validated on yeast strains previously identified by PCR and on fresh clinical isolates; these included 46 C. dubliniensis isolates, 45 C. albicans isolates, and other yeast species. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose, CHROMagar Candida, and CandiSelect media and 97.8% sensitivity for C. dubliniensis grown on Candida ID medium. The test is rapid (5 min) and easy to use and may be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:16390961

  14. Detection of leishmanial antigen in the urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis by a latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Shrinkhla; Pai, Kalpana; Chance, Michael; Hommel, Marcel

    2005-08-01

    Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is usually done by demonstration of parasites in tissue smears. However, obtaining these smears may be risky, painful, and difficult. Antibody-based diagnostics are limited by their inability to predict active disease. In this study, a new latex agglutination test (KAtex), which detects parasite antigen in freshly voided and boiled urine, was evaluated in patients with VL before the start (n = 382) and at the end of treatment (n = 273); 185 healthy controls from leishmaniasis-endemic region were also studied. The KAtex result was positive in 87% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3-90.3). However, at the end of treatment only 3% (95% CI = 1.6-6.2) patients were positive. The specificity of the test was 99% and 2 of 185 healthy controls tested positive. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.994 and 0.788, respectively. KAtex is a promising test, and in a simplified and improved format it could be applied meaningfully in the diagnosis of VL. PMID:16103587

  15. Detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever antibodies by a latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechemy, K E; Anacker, R L; Philip, R N; Kleeman, K T; MacCormack, J. N.; Sasowski, S J; Michaelson, E E

    1980-01-01

    A latex test for immunodiagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, using erythrocyte-sensitizing substance from Rickettsia rickettsii adsorbed to latex particles, has been developed. The test was evaluated with a total of 123 single and 118 paired human sera submitted for Rocky Mount spotted fever testing. This test is simple, sensitive, and specific. Its efficiency, relative to the reference microimmunofluorescence test, was 95.1% for single sera and approached 100% for paired sera.

  16. The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Binici

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to assess prozone phenomenon that is quite rare and causes false negativity in serological diagnosisof brucellosis with standard dilution titers.Materials and methods: In this study the tests of four cases that have false negative serological results were evaluated.Blood cultures were obtained from all cases while cerebrospinal fluid cultures were studied in the two cases. Standardagglutination test (SAT and Coombs test were performed to all patients.Results: SAT and Coombs test was negative in titers up to 1/640 in all cases. The SAT and Coombs tests in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF of the two cases with neurobrucellosis diagnosis were negative, as well. Since the clinical and laboratoryfindings suggested the brucellosis, the serums were restudied by diluting up to 1/10240 titer and we saw that the first3 cases became positive at a titer of 1/1280. The fourth case remained negative and therefore, we applied high dilutionCoombs test. This time the test gave a positive result at 1/10240 titer beginning from 1/2560 titer. B.melitensis wasisolated from two cases.Conclusion: SAT and Coombs’ test must be diluted to titers 1/2560 or more in order to exclude false sero-negativity incases with clinical and laboratory findings suggesting brucellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 1(3:110-113

  17. Simple, Rapid Latex Agglutination Test for Serotyping of Pneumococci (Pneumotest-Latex)

    OpenAIRE

    Slotved, H.-C.; Kaltoft, M.; Skovsted, I. C.; Kerrn, M. B.; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    The “gold standard” for epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the capsular reaction test (Neufeld test) with antisera against the 90 pneumococcal polysaccharide capsules, i.e., serotyping. The method is labor intensive and requires a certain level of experience to be performed satisfactory, and thus it has been restricted for use in specialized reference or research laboratories. Surveillance of the serotype distribution of pneumococci that cause infections is i...

  18. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Brucellosis Diagnosis Using Agglutination Test Procedures in Cattle Owners and Cattle of Babol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Maliji

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The geographic conditions is such that animal husbandry is in separable part of villagers and farmers life and they are at risk of infection due to contact with cattle and on the other hand, the whole peopele urban or rural are using unpaseurized dairy products expose at the risk all of society. Brucellosis diagnosis can have special significance based on serologic tests. The tube Standard test has the most usage in brucellosis diagnosis. Antibodies such as IgM and IgG induce agglotination and in some cases become negative due to to existance of blocking and incomplete antibodies that if so, the above antibodies are detectable through coombs wright test. Methods: In this research, 150 cattle owners and 300 cattle were investigated random during year of 83-84. After blood sampling in view of Rosbangal, tube wright test, 2 ME and Coombs wright test were investigated. Results: Between 150 serum Sample of studing cattle owners, 80 and 70 people were men and women respectively. The relative average of these people was 38.86. The most percent of negative cases dedicated to Rosbangal test is 66.7%. The significant difference wasn’t observed with Rosbangal method according to Sex in cattle owners (P value= 0/863. According to the obtained results, the serum titre of tube wright test in the studied people was different from 1/20 to 1/2560 and in (3.3%, (2% and (0.7% was 1/640, 1/1280 and 1/2560 respectively. The serum titre 2 ME in (2.7%, (2.7% and (2% was 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 respectively. The serum titre of coombs wright in (8.7% and (5.3% was 1/320 and 1/640 respectively. With the above studied, in 300 cattle there was positive 9% with Rosbangal test and serum titre of tube wright (0.7% 1/160, (0.7% 1/320, (0.7% 1/640, (1.3% 1/1280 and 2 ME serum titre (0.7% 1/160, (0.3% 1/320, (1.7% The major findings of this investigation, the significant agreement statistically between Rosebangal results and the other methods including tube wright

  19. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappe, R; Schulze-Berge, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pastorex Aspergillus antigen test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis is used in many clinical laboratories. A serum sample contaminated with Penicillium chrysogenum gave a strongly positive reaction (1:128) which was heat stable, was not eliminated by pronase treatment, and was not detected by a normal rabbit globulin control. This observation was shown to be due to cross-reactions of the monoclonal antibody EB-A2 used by...

  20. Leishmaniasis direct agglutination test: using pictorials as training materials to reduce inter-reader variability and improve accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Direct Agglutination Test (DAT has a high diagnostic accuracy and remains, in some geographical areas, part of the diagnostic algorithm for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. However, subjective interpretation of results introduces potential for inter-reader variation. We report an assessment of inter-laboratory agreement and propose a pictorial-based approach to standardize reading of the DAT. METHODOLOGY: In preparation for a comparative evaluation of immunochromatographic diagnostics for VL, a proficiency panel of 15 well-characterized sera, DAT-antigen from a single batch and common protocol was sent to nine laboratories in Latin-America, East-Africa and Asia. Agreement (i.e., equal titre or within 1 titer with the reading by the reference laboratory was computed. Due to significant inter-laboratory disagreement on-site refresher training was provided to all technicians performing DAT. Photos of training plates were made, and end-titres agreed upon by experienced users of DAT within the Visceral-Leishmaniasis Laboratory-Network (VL-LN. RESULTS: Pre-training, concordance in DAT results with reference laboratories was only 50%, although agreement on negative sera was high (94%. After refresher training concordance increased to 84%; agreement on negative controls increased to 98%. Variance in readings significantly decreased after training from 3.3 titres to an average of 1.0 titre (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney test (z = -3,624 and p = 0.0003. CONCLUSION: The most probable explanation for disagreement was subjective endpoint reading. Using pictorials as training materials may be a useful tool to reduce disparity in results and promote more standardized reading of DAT, without compromising diagnostic sensitivity.

  1. Risk Factors Analysis Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT)

    OpenAIRE

    N Zia-Ali; H Kamyabi; M Fasihi Harandi; M Beigzadeh; M Bahrieni

    2008-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in many species of warm-blooded animals including human. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii from slaughtered sleep and goats by mod­ified agglutination test (MAT) in Kerman region, southeastern Iran. Methods: Altogether 1340 blood samples were collected from 562 sheep and 778 goats from April to September 2005 in Kerman slaughterhouse. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies by MA...

  2. Evaluation of new monoclonal antibody-based latex agglutination test for detection of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiska, D L; Orkiszewski, D R; Howell, D; Gilligan, P H

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of CRYPTO-LEX (Trinity Laboratories, Inc., Raleigh, N. C.), a new mouse immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody latex agglutination reagent which reacts with the capsular polysaccharide of the four serogroups of Cryptococcus neoformans. This test was compared with CALAS (Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio) for the ability to detect cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 580 clinical specimens (327 serum and 253 CSF samples), prima...

  3. THE PERSISTENCE OF LEPTOSPIRAL AGGLUTININS TITERS IN HUMAN SERA DIAGNOSED BY THE MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete C. ROMERO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of agglutinins detected by MAT has created some problems to the interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to examine the data of serology from 70 patients with serologically confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis by during 3-13 months after being affected with leptospires in order to elucidate the interpretation of the persistence of agglutinins detected by MAT. Sixty-one patients sera (87.14% had titers equal or greater than 800. Of these, two individuals maintained titers of 800 thirteen months after the onset. This study showed that only one sample of sera with high titers is not reliable to determine the time at which infection occurred.Persistência de títulos de aglutininas anti-leptospiras em soros humanos diagnosticados pelo teste de aglutinação microscópica A persistência de aglutininas detectadas por MAT tem criado problemas na interpretação dos resultados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar os resultados da sorologia de 70 pacientes com confirmação sorológica de leptospirose durante 3-13 meses após terem sido infectados para se poder elucidar a interpretação da persistência de aglutininas detectadas por MAT. Sessenta e um soros de pacientes (87,14% apresentaram títulos iguais, ou maiores, que 800. Destes, 2 indivíduos mantiveram títulos de 800 treze meses após terem sido infectados. Este estudo mostra que apenas uma amostra de soro, mesmo com alto título de aglutininas, não pode ser considerada para determinar a fase da doença.

  4. Application of Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for the Diagnosis and Seroepide-miological Studies of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Charehdar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most important parasitic diseases which is endemic in different parts of Iran. Serological studies were conducted by direct agglutination test (DAT on 12144 human serum samples, collected from four geographical zones of Iran. Sero prevalence, geographical distribution, clinical signs and symptoms for human visceral leishmaniasis based on DAT for the period of 2002 through 2005 were determined. From 516 kala-azar cases detected: 50.6% were from Meshkin-shahr and Moghan districts in Ardabil Province, northwest of Iran and 49.4% were detected from other areas of Iran. In physical examination of seropositive cases, which were detected by DAT with anti-leishmanial antibodies at titers of 1: 3200 to 1: 102400, almost 50% of suspected individuals showed the classical kala-azar signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 233 hospitalized patients with anti-Leishmania antibodies at 1:3200 and higher, were fever (88.0% and splenomegaly (84.5%. Statistically significant difference was found between males (58% and females (42% (P< 0.01. Moreover, 93.6% of the VL patients were < 5 yr of age, and 6.4% were older than 5 yr that this difference was statistically significant (P< 0.01. From 1383 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in the villages that are known as endemic foci of human leishmaniasis, 152 (11.0% were positive by DAT (≥ 1:320. Parasitological and serological examinations that were performed in 30 wild canines showed that 10% of these animals were infected by L. infantum. L. infantum Lon49 is the principal agent of the disease in human as well as animal reservoir hosts in different parts of Iran. For the first time in Iran, L. tropica isolated from both skin lesions in the face and bone marrow aspiration in a HIV+ man who co-infected with VL as well as in an infected dog from Ardabil Province.

  5. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mar Mar Khin; Jie Song Hua; Hah Cong Ng; Bow Ho; Torkel Wadstrorr

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms.METHODS Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A ),fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas ( Lotus A ) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori-lectin agglutination. Interestingly, heating of H.pylori cells at 60℃ for 1 hour was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during theevents of morphological transformation,resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection.This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease.

  6. DNA & Protein detection based on microbead agglutination

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-06-06

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microparticles in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Agglutination-based tests are most often used to explore the antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for mode protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin two-component system, as well as a hybridization based two-component assay; however, as our work shows, two-component systems are prone to self-termination of the linking analyte and thus have a lower sensitivity. Three component systems have also been used with DNA hybridization, as in our work; however, their assay requires 48 hours for incubation, while our assay is performed in 5 minutes making it a real candidate for POC testing. We demonstrate three assays: a two-component biotin/streptavidin assay, a three-component hybridization assay using single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules and a stepped three-component hybridization assay. The comparison of these three assays shows our simple stepped three-component agglutination assay to be rapid at room temperature and more sensitive than the two-component version by an order of magnitude. An agglutination assay was also performed in a PDMS microfluidic chip where agglutinated beads were trapped by filter columns for easy observation. We developed a rapid (5 minute) room temperature assay, which is based on microbead agglutination. Our three-component assay solves the linker self-termination issue allowing an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over two–component assays. Our stepped version of the three-component assay solves the issue with probe site saturation thus enabling a wider range of detection. Detection of the agglutinated beads with the naked eye by trapping in microfluidic channels has been shown.

  7. COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN IN-HOUSE IGM DOT-ELISA AND THE MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST (MAT FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kumar A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was compared with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for the diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis. Blood samples from a total number of 319 HBsAg negative suspected leptospirosis case’s were received from Government Hospital and from a few private hospitals of Salem district, Tamilnadu, India. The serum samples were examined for the presence of anti leptospiral antibodies using a commercial qualitative method of an in-house Dot-ELISA assay and the results were compared with WHO standard Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. The following interesting results were noted, 132 (41.7 % serum samples were positive to Dot-ELISA, while 130 (40.7 % were positive to MAT. All samples positive to MAT were positive to Dot-ELISA, on of the samples were positive for MAT and negative to Dot-ELISA. The Dot-ELISA showed 100% sensitivity compared to MAT. The current diagnostic Dot-ELISA appears as a rapid, non hazardous and better alternative to MAT for the diagnosis of human Leptospirosis.

  8. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan. PMID:26691256

  9. Risk Factors Analysis Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zia-Ali

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in many species of warm-blooded animals including human. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii from slaughtered sleep and goats by mod­ified agglutination test (MAT in Kerman region, southeastern Iran. Methods: Altogether 1340 blood samples were collected from 562 sheep and 778 goats from April to September 2005 in Kerman slaughterhouse. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies by MAT using an antibody titer of 1:20 or higher considered positive. The statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test and logistic regressions to analyze the influ­ence of all examined factor (age, sex and type of animals on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis.Results: Antibodies were found in sera of 262 out of 1340 (19.6% samples. of 262 seropositive sera, 139 sheep (24.7% and 123 goats (15.8% were infected. Seropositive animals more than one year were 1.6 times more likely to be seropositive than the others were. Sheep were 1.5 times more likely to be infected than goats were (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.15-2.04, p=0.004.Conclusion: Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among sheep and goats slaughtered in Kerman region and suggest that consumption of raw and undercooked meat of these animals can be a probable source of human toxoplasmosis.

  10. Stability of Freeze-Dried Sera Stored at Different Temperatures for the Detection of Anti-Leishmania infantum Antibodies Using Direct Agglutination Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kakooei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate freeze-dried sera as an alternative to non-freeze dried for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies over the course of 11 months using the direct agglutination test (DAT.Altogether, 60 serum samples (30 from humans and 30 from dogs were collected from various geographical locations in Iran. All the collected sera were pooled and each pooled serum sample contained 10 different sera. In the beginning, the human and dog pooled sera were categorized as positive (weak and strong and negative based on anti-L. infantum antibodies using the DAT. All the freeze-dried and non-freeze-dried sera were stored at -70°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22-28°C and 56°C for 11 months. The positive and negative human and dog pooled sera were separately tested using the DAT each month and the results were compared to non-freeze-dried sera kept under the same conditions.We found strong agreement (100% between the results obtained from freeze-dried human and dog in strong DAT positive sera kept at -70°C, -20°C, 4°C and 22-28°C during this study. The human and dog pooled sera stored at 56°C were corrupted after 2 weeks. The DAT results were highly reproducible using freeze-dried human pooled sera in the beginning and month 11 of this study (CV = 0.036.Freeze-dried human and dog strong DAT positive sera are highly stable under different temperature conditions, are easy to transport and are safe for use as positive and negative serum controls in laboratories.

  11. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding DLA test were 100, 55.5, 63.6 and 100 %, respectively. In conclusion, a chromogenic agar, such as SBS, and a DLA test can be used for rapid detection of GBS in pregnant women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated. PMID:25082944

  12. Spelling Correction in Agglutinative Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to spelling correction in agglutinative languages that is based on two-level morphology and a dynamic programming based search algorithm. Spelling correction in agglutinative languages is significantly different than in languages like English. The concept of a word in such languages is much wider that the entries found in a dictionary, owing to {}~productive word formation by derivational and inflectional affixations. After an overview of certain issues and relevant mathematical preliminaries, we formally present the problem and our solution. We then present results from our experiments with spelling correction in Turkish, a Ural--Altaic agglutinative language. Our results indicate that we can find the intended correct word in 95\\% of the cases and offer it as the first candidate in 74\\% of the cases, when the edit distance is 1.

  13. Production of latex agglutination reagents for pneumococcal serotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortika Belinda D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current ‘gold standard’ for serotyping pneumococci is the Quellung test. This technique is laborious and requires a certain level of training to correctly perform. Commercial pneumococcal latex agglutination serotyping reagents are available, but these are expensive. In-house production of latex agglutination reagents can be a cost-effective alternative to using commercially available reagents. This paper describes a method for the production and quality control (QC of latex reagents, including problem solving recommendations, for pneumococcal serotyping. Results Here we describe a method for the production of latex agglutination reagents based on the passive adsorption of antibodies to latex particles. Sixty-five latex agglutination reagents were made using the PneuCarriage Project (PCP method, of which 35 passed QC. The other 30 reagents failed QC due to auto-agglutination (n=2, no reactivity with target serotypes (n=8 or cross-reactivity with non-target serotypes (n=20. Dilution of antisera resulted in a further 27 reagents passing QC. The remaining three reagents passed QC when prepared without centrifugation and wash steps. Protein estimates indicated that latex reagents that failed QC when prepared using the PCP method passed when made with antiserum containing ≤ 500 μg/ml of protein. Sixty-one nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped with our in-house latex agglutination reagents, with the results showing complete concordance with the Quellung reaction. Conclusions The method described here to produce latex agglutination reagents allows simple and efficient serotyping of pneumococci and may be applicable to latex agglutination reagents for typing or identification of other microorganisms. We recommend diluting antisera or removing centrifugation and wash steps for any latex reagents that fail QC. Our latex reagents are cost-effective, technically undemanding to prepare and remain stable for long periods of

  14. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on lectin-induced erythrocyte agglutination: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocsi, József; Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Reichert, Thomas; Laffers, Wiebke; Marecka, Monika; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Piltz, Joachim; Esche, Hans-Jürgen; Wolf, Günther; Dähnert, Ingo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute life-threatening disease with a high incidence worldwide. Aim of this study was to test lectin-carbohydrate binding-induced red blood cell (RBC) agglutination as an innovative tool for fast, precise and cost effective diagnosis of MI. Five lectins (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA), Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), Artocarpus agglutinin (ArA), Triticum agglutinin (TA)) were tested for ability to differentiate between agglutination characteristics in patients with MI (n = 101) or angina pectoris without MI (AP) (n = 34) and healthy volunteers (HV) as control (n =68) . RBC agglutination was analyzed by light absorbance of a stirred RBC suspension in the green to red light spectrum in an agglutimeter (amtec, Leipzig, Germany) for 15 min after lectin addition. Mean cell count in aggregates was estimated from light absorbance by a mathematical model. Each lectin induced RBC agglutination. RCA led to the strongest RBC agglutination (~500 RBCs/aggregate), while the others induced substantially slower agglutination and lead to smaller aggregate sizes (5-150 RBCs/aggregate). For all analyzed lectins the lectin-induced RBC agglutination of MI or AP patients was generally higher than for HV. However, only PHA induced agglutination that clearly distinguished MI from HV. Variance analysis showed that aggregate size after 15 min. agglutination induced by PHA was significantly higher in the MI group (143 RBCs/ aggregate) than in the HV (29 RBC-s/aggregate, p = 0.000). We hypothesize that pathological changes during MI induce modification of the carbohydrate composition on the RBC membrane and thus modify RBC agglutination. Occurrence of carbohydrate-lectin binding sites on RBC membranes provides evidence about MI. Due to significant difference in the rate of agglutination between MI > HV the differentiation between these groups is possible based on PHA-induced RBC-agglutination. This novel assay

  15. High Fidelity, High Volume Agglutinate Manufacturing Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Up to 65% of the lunar soils are comprised of agglutinates. Although the importance of agglutinate in simulants is often debated, the fact is that agglutinates...

  16. Microfluidic system to detect select DNA fragments using agglutination process

    OpenAIRE

    Chhina, Sumanpreet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the design, fabrication, and testing of an easy-to-use, disposable and portable microfluidic system for DNA amplification detection; this is suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications. The microfluidic system utilizes biotin-labelled DNA to agglutinate streptavidin-coated microspheres. The microfluidic system is designed to retain aggregates of cross-linked microspheres as opposed to single microspheres, indicating the detection of biotin-labelled DNA. The...

  17. Microfluidic system to detect DNA amplicons using agglutination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research investigates the design, fabrication and testing of an easy-to-use and disposable microfluidic system for DNA amplification detection. This is suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications. The microfluidic system utilizes biotin-labelled DNA to agglutinate streptavidin-coated microspheres. The microfluidic system is designed to retain aggregates of cross-linked microspheres as opposed to single microspheres, indicating the detection of biotin-labelled DNA. The microfluidic platform is composed of a filter design and inlet/outlet reservoirs, which was fabricated using microfabrication techniques. This research demonstrates that the microfluidic system is an improvement on the current DNA detection technique that uses particle agglutination. Such a system may, in turn, form the basis of future hand-held, compact, point-of-care biosensors for disease screening and identification. (paper)

  18. Chemistry of agglutinate fractions in lunar soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Rodgers, K. V.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. C.; Adams, J. B.; Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Charette, M. P.

    1975-01-01

    Agglutinates are aggregates of crystalline grains and lithic fragments bonded together by glass. It is thought that glassy agglutinates are formed at the upper surface of the lunar regolith by impact-related melting and welding of soil particles, in response to meteoroid and micrometeoroid bombardment. A description is presented of an investigation in which bulk soils were separated into 'agglutinate' and 'nonagglutinate' fractions. The obtained fractions were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The obtained chemical data for agglutinate and nonagglutinate fractions of lunar soils indicate that agglutinitic glass is enriched in mafic and most lithophile elements relative to the bulk soils. A model involving preferential melting and assimilation of mesostasis material and mafic soil components is proposed to account for the observed chemical data. It is suggested that glassy agglutinates may form more readily in mafic soils than in more feldspathic ones. Such selectivity should be most effective between mare and highland soils, but may possibly operate on a more local scale.

  19. 杂交瘤细胞凝集试验诊断血吸虫病的实验研究%Experimental study on Hybridoma Cells Agglutination Test for Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文琪; 李雍龙; Andreas Ruppel

    2003-01-01

    目的用杂交瘤细胞凝集试验(hybridoma cells agglutination test,HCAT)诊断实验日本血吸虫病,并探讨杂交瘤细胞在特异性血清中凝集的机制.方法分泌抗血吸虫31/32 kDa抗原单抗的杂交瘤细胞H226经特定处理后分别与感染日本血吸虫尾蚴10、30和50条的小鼠血清孵育,动态观察感染后不同时间的凝集反应.上述杂交瘤细胞涂片后与日本血吸虫感染兔血清进行间接免疫荧光试验(IFT),以探讨凝集机制.结果杂交瘤细胞在感染鼠血清中呈现凝集反应:感染后2 wk时,50条尾蚴感染组中70%HCAT阳性,至第5周,全部感染小鼠均出现阳性反应.抗原滴度在感染后逐步升高,感染后6 wk时达到最高.重度感染鼠的抗原滴度明显高于中、轻度感染鼠.IFT显示,在杂交瘤细胞膜表面呈现特异性的黄绿色荧光,而细胞内未见显色.结论HCAT是一种血吸虫病诊断新方法.

  20. Determination of brucella immunoglobulin G agglutinating antibody titer with dithiothreitol.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, G C; Behan, K A

    1981-01-01

    The routine brucella agglutination test measures both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG brucella antibody titers; however, only an elevated IgG titer is significant for differentiating active from inactive disease in patients with symptoms lasting 3 or more weeks. The IgG antibody titer can be determined by treating the serum wih 2-mercaptoethanol to inactivate the IgM brucella antibodies while leaving the IgG brucella antibodies intact. Dithiothreitol, which also inactivates IgM, was compared w...

  1. Rapid serum agglutination and agar gel immunodiffusion tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis Teste de soro aglutinação rápida e do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar associados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Nakada Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agar gel immunodiffusion and the rapid serum agglutination tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis. The serological profile during the 12 months of infection showed a large fluctuation of antibodies that favors the failure in the diagnostic. The evaluation of tests after the experimental infection allowed to suggest that none of the tests were able to detect the infection throughout the period of study. The study reinforces the importance of considering the clinical signs to support the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar e o teste sorológico de aglutinação rápida comparados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis para o diagnóstico confirmatório da brucelose ovina. O perfil sorológico durante os 12 meses pós-infecção mostrou flutuação da resposta por anticorpos, que favorece a falha no diagnóstico. A avaliação dos testes indicou que nenhum dos testes foi capaz de detectar a infecção durante todo o período de estudo. O estudo ressalta a importância de considerar os sinais clínicos para apoiar o diagnóstico confirmatório da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros.

  2. 81例微柱凝胶法交叉配血试验次侧凝集的临床因素分析%Analysis of clinical factors for hypo-side agglutination in 81 cases in cross match blood test with microcolumn gel assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒯迪文; 郭黠

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the etiological factor for hypo-side agglutination in cross match blood test(CMT)with microcolumn gel assay,and to provide a guide to the clinical blood transfusion.Methods The data were collected and analyzed about 81 cases with hypo-side agglutination in CMT with microcolumn gel assay and direct antiglobulin test(DAT)positive from Jan.2007 to Oct.2008.Results Among the 81 hype-side agglutinated cases,most were with kidney disease,liver and gall disease,hematologic disease and immunologic disease.Specially,the kidney disease was most,accounting for 16.2%.Conclusion The analysis contributes to disposal in CMT and the safety of clinical blood transfusion.%目的 分析使用微柱凝胶法进行交叉配血试验出现次侧凝集的各种病因,为临床输血提供指导作用.方法 收集本院2007年1月至2008年10月间所有使用微柱凝胶法进行交叉配血试验次侧出现凝集,且患者红细胞直接Coombs试验抗体为阳性的患者并进行统计分析.结果 81例次侧凝集的患者中大部分为肾脏疾病、肝胆疾病、血液疾病以及免疫性疾病,其中又以肾脏疾病最多,占16.2%.结论 本结论对不同疾病的交叉配血试验和安全输血有一定的指导作用.

  3. The chemistry of some individual lunar soil agglutinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, R. V.; Hoerz, F.; Schaal, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The inquiry is centered on the composition of agglutinate glasses examined via microprobe techniques. The glass chemistry of the agglutinates is brought into relation with compositions of constituent detritus and bulk compositions of the parent soils, with recent reported results taken into cognizance. Electron microprobe analysis data were examined for possible chemical fractionation resulting from meteoritic impacts and formation of agglutinates in the lunar regolith; individual agglutinates from lunar soils 78222, 71061, and 60009 were probed. Differences between impact glasses and corresponding bulk soils were scrutinized. Agglutinate glass analyses tend to cluster near the bulk soil compositions. A slight enrichment in mafic elements in grand averages of the agglutinate clusters relative to the bulk soils was found. Evidence of total impact melts and minor partial shock melts is examined.

  4. Towards a high throughput droplet-based agglutination assay

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-22

    This work demonstrates the detection method for a high throughput droplet based agglutination assay system. Using simple hydrodynamic forces to mix and aggregate functionalized microbeads we avoid the need to use magnetic assistance or mixing structures. The concentration of our target molecules was estimated by agglutination strength, obtained through optical image analysis. Agglutination in droplets was performed with flow rates of 150 µl/min and occurred in under a minute, with potential to perform high-throughput measurements. The lowest target concentration detected in droplet microfluidics was 0.17 nM, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than a conventional card based agglutination assay.

  5. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  6. A Comparison of Immuncapture Agglutination and ELISA Methods in Serological Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özdemir, Bahadır Feyzioğlu, Muhammed Güzel Kurtoğlu, Metin Doğan, Hatice Türk Dağı, Şerife Yüksekkaya, Recep Keşli, Bülent Baysal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different serological tests are used in serologic diagnosis of brucellosis. The most widely used of these are Standard Tube Agglutination and Coombs anti-brucella tests. Whereas ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests have been in use for a long time, immuncapture agglutination test has been recently introduced and used in serological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of ELISA Ig M and Ig G and immuncapture agglutination tests with Coombs anti-brucella test.Methods: Sera from 200 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis were included into the study. Coombs anti-brucella test, ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests and Immuncapture test were investigated in these sera. Then, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive and positive predictive values were calculated.Results: Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive and positive predictive values were found to be 90,6 %, 76,3 %, 94,2 %, and 65,9 % respectively for the Immuncapture test, whereas they were found to be 73,7 %, 58,9 %, 84,2 %, and 42,8 % for Ig G and 72,2 %, 67,8 %, 85,2 %, and 48,7 % for Ig M. The Immuncapture test was found to be compatible with ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests but it was statistically incompatible with Coombs anti-brucella test.Conclusions: Immuncapture agglutination test yields similar results to those of Coombs anti-brucella test. This test is a useful test by virtue of the fact that it determines blocking antibodies in the diagnosis and follow-up of brucellosis.

  7. Systems, devices, and methods for agglutination assays using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-26

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods for conducting agglutination assays using sedimentation. Aggregates may be exposed to sedimentation forces and travel through a density medium to a detection area. Microfluidic devices, such as microfluidic disks, are described for conducting the agglutination assays, as are systems for conducting the assays.

  8. Assessment of Surfactant Protein A (SP-A dependent agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomers of the collectin surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A are arranged in trimers and higher oligomers. The state of oligomerization differs between individuals and likely affects SP-A's functional properties. SP-A can form aggregates together with other SP-A molecules. Here we report and assess a test system for the aggregate forming properties of SP-A in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples. Methods Anti-SP-A antibodies fixed to latex beads bound SP-A at its N-terminal end and allowed the interaction with other SP-A molecules in a given sample by their C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD to agglutinate the beads to aggregates, which were quantified by light microscopy. Results SP-A aggregation was dependent on its concentration, the presence of calcium, and was dose-dependently inhibited by mannose. Unaffected by the presence of SP-D no aggregation was observed in absence of SP-A. The more complex the oligomeric structure of SP-A present in a particular sample, the better was its capability to induce aggregation at a given total concentration of SP-A. SP-A in serum agglutinated independently of the pulmonary disease; in contrast SP-A in lung lavage fluid was clearly inferior in patients with chronic bronchitis and particularly with cystic fibrosis compared to controls. Conclusions The functional status of SP-A with respect to its aggregating properties in serum and lavage samples can be easily assessed. SP-A in lung lavage fluid in patients with severe neutrophilic bronchitis was inferior.

  9. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  10. Fusarium Wilt Suppression and Agglutinability of Pseudomonas putida†

    OpenAIRE

    Tari, P. H.; Anderson, A J

    1988-01-01

    Mutants of Pseudomonas putida (Agg−) that lack the ability to agglutinate with components present in washes of bean and cucumber roots showed limited potential to protect cucumber plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. However, a higher level of protection was observed against Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants coinoculated with the parental bacterium (Agg+), which was agglutinable. The Agg− mutants did not colonize the roots of cucumber plants as extensively as the Agg+ parental...

  11. Comparative determination of the rheumatic factor by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rheumatic factor (RF) was determined by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence (IF) test and radioimmunoassay (RIPEGA) in random groups of 56 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 patients with seronegative RA and 39 patients with psoriasis arthropathica. All three methods are of equal value with regard to the number of positive results. Further classification of seronegative patients, i.e. patients with a negative agglutination reaction and the clinical symptoms of RA is possible with the IF method and, above all, by means of RIPEGA. But because of the comprehensive test devices the two methods are only an alternative. Titer differences are attributed to the different indication principles and the immunological heterogeneity of RF. An improvement of the diagnosis of activity was not possible. (author)

  12. Comparative determination of the rheumatic factor by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L.; Storz, H.; Hein, G.; Schlenvoigt, G. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin)

    1982-01-01

    The rheumatic factor (RF) was determined by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence (IF) test and radioimmunoassay (RIPEGA) in random groups of 56 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 patients with seronegative RA and 39 patients with psoriasis arthropathica. All three methods are of equal value with regard to the number of positive results. Further classification of seronegative patients, i.e. patients with a negative agglutination reaction and the clinical symptoms of RA is possible with the IF method and, above all, by means of RIPEGA. But because of the comprehensive test devices the two methods are only an alternative. Titer differences are attributed to the different indication principles and the immunological heterogeneity of RF. An improvement of the diagnosis of activity was not possible.

  13. Agglutination of human erythrocytes by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine-651 on the extracellular domain of band 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Kento; Ochiai, Hideharu; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of band 3, chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, has been reported in Zn(2+)-treated human erythrocytes. However, the agglutination of human erythrocytes is also induced by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine on band 3. Identification of histidine that interacts with Zn(2+)ion remains to be determined. The Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes was unaffected by chymotrypsin cleavage of the small loop region containing His-547 in the extracellular domain of band 3. On the other hand, papain digestion of the large loop region containing His-651 in band 3 inhibited such Zn(2+)-induced agglutination. Moreover, Zn(2+)-induced erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited by the peptide (ARGWVIHPLG) containing His-651, but not by the peptide such as ARGWVIRPLG, which His-651 was substituted by arginine. Among 10 kinds of animal erythrocytes tested, interestingly, no agglutination by Zn(2+)ions was observed in cow cells only that the forth amino acid in the upstream from His-669 on the large loop of cow band 3 is aspartate (Asp-665) instead of glycine. As expected, the agglutination of human erythrocytes by Zn(2+) ions was inhibited in the presence of aspartate. These data indicate that the interaction of Zn(2+) ion with His-651 residue of band 3 plays an important role in the Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes. PMID:26859120

  14. Bacterial antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid by the latex agglutination test Detecção de antígenos bacterianos no líquido cefalorraquidiano através do teste de aglutinação de latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Maria Landgraf

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighty purulent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with clinical evidence of meningitis were studied using the Directigen latex agglutination (LA kit to determine the presence of bacterial antigen in CSF. The results showed a better diagnostic performance of the LA test than bacterioscopy by Gram stain, culture and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE, as far as Neisseria meningitidis groups B and C, and Haemophilus influenzae type b are concerned, and a better performance than bacterioscopy and culture considering Streptococcus pneumoniae. Comparison of the results with those of culture showed that the LA test had the highest sensitivity for the Neisseria meningitidis group C. Comparing the results with those of CIE, the highest levels of sensitivity were detected for N. meningitidis groups B and C. Regarding specificity, fair values were obtained for all organisms tested. The degree of K agreement when the LA test was compared with CIE exhibited better K indices of agreement for N. meningitidis groups B and C.Oitenta amostras purulentas de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com evidência clínica de meningite foram estudadas empregando-se Kit Directigen de aglutinação de latex (AL para demonstrar antígeno bacteriano no LCR. Os resultados mostraram que o teste de AL apresentou melhor desempenho diagnóstico do que bacterioscopia através da coloração de Gram, cultura e imunoeletroforese cruzada (IEC em relação à Neisseria meningitidis grupos B e C, e ao Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, e melhor do que coloração de Gram e cultura quando Streptococcus pneumoniae foi avaliado. A comparação dos resultados com os de cultura mostrou o maior nível de sensibilidade considerando-se N. meningitidis grupo C. Quanto à especificidade, os valores foram satisfatórios para todos os microrganismos testados. O grau de concordância K em relação à IEC exibiu melhores índices K de concordância para N. meningitidis grupos B e C.

  15. Enhanced agglutination reaction of ABO subgroups by gold nanoparticle solution: implication for identification of ABO subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammaranond, P; Sriyarak, J; Saejong, S; Deesin, P; Seereemaspun, A; Rojanathanes, R

    2011-12-01

    Although the ABO blood group is the most significant in blood group system in human, other subgroups system is also important to be concerned in blood banking laboratory. ABO subgroups have weak antigen potency on red blood cell. In some cases, they could not been detected by cell grouping and serum grouping methods. This may lead to misinterpretation of ABO typing which will cause serious problems for transfusion and transplantation. Gold nanoparticle solution can increase the agglutination reaction of ABO typing. Thus far, the investigation of ABO blood group system has been performed using gold nanoparticle solution. Samples were tested comparing between with and without gold nanoparticle solution. After reading the agglutination reaction, supernatants were collected and measured at the optical density at 760 nm by spectrophotometer. The optical density of 2-5% cell suspension and monoclonal antibody was higher than in the tube of 2-5% cell suspension, monoclonal antibody and gold nanoparticle solution. By adding the gold nanoparticle solution, the agglutination reaction was increased ranging from 7.0-37.7% (median 15.0%) for ABO grouping system whereas 12.1-50.9% (median 23.4%) was observed in ABO subgroups. It could decrease the chance of misinterpretation by 33.3%. By using gold nanoparticle solution might be the alternative way for investigation of weak antigen potency on red blood cell. PMID:22416584

  16. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring membrane viscosity with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Heloise P.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-09-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycoproteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer that are responsible for cell agglutination. Manipulating RBCs rouleaux with a double optical tweezers, we observed that the cells slide easily one over the others but are strongly connected by their edges. An explanation for this behavior could be the fact that when the cells slide one over the others, proteins are dragged through the membrane. It confers to the movement a viscous characteristic that is dependent of the velocity between the RBCs and justifies why is so easy to slide them apart. Therefore, in a first step of this work, by measuring the force as a function of the relative velocity between two cells, we confirmed this assumption and used this viscous characteristic of the RBC rouleaux to determine the apparent membrane viscosity of the cell. As this behavior is related to the proteins interactions, we can use the apparent membrane viscosity to obtain a better understanding about cell agglutination. Methods related to cell agglutination induced by antigen-antibody interactions are the basis of most of tests used in transfusion centers. Then, in a second step of this work, we measured the apparent membrane viscosity using antibodies. We observed that this methodology is sensitive to different kinds of bindings between RBCs. Better comprehension of the forces and bindings between RBCs could improve the sensibility and specificity of the hemagglutination reactions and also guides the development of new potentiator substances.

  17. Synthesis for Lunar Simulants: Glass, Agglutinate, Plagioclase, Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Michael; Wilson, Stephen A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Stoeser, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The video describes a process for making glass for lunar regolith simulants that was developed from a patented glass-producing technology. Glass composition can be matched to simulant design and specification. Production of glass, pseudo agglutinates, plagioclase, and breccias is demonstrated. The system is capable of producing hundreds of kilograms of high quality glass and simulants per day.

  18. 精液黏度增高对混合抗球蛋白反应(MAR)检测结果的影响及对策%Phenomenon and Solutions of Non-specific Results of Mixed Agglutination Reaction (MAR) Test with High Viscosity Semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 吴文苑; 纪玲; 陈晓兰

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the non-specific influences and solutions of high viscosity semen on mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) test. Methods: While specific viscositise of semen samples were reduced gradually in high viscosity group(n=23) and normal viscosity group (n=22), the concomitant changes were traced of antisperm antibodies detected by MAR test. Various high viscosity seminal plasma was added into another 31 normal viscosity semen samples to make up high viscosity semen specimens.The latter was treated by setting up an assay blank control (method A), washing spermatozoa (method B) and pipetting fibrinolysin into specimen(method C), respectively.The MAR test results of post-treated high viscosity samples and normal viscosity samples where high viscosity seminal plasma was not added were compared. Results: The results of MAR test were associated with viscosity in high viscosity group (r=0.912, P0.05). In general, MAR results were significant higher in high viscosity group than in normal viscosity group (P0.05). Compared with the homogeneous sperm which high viscosity seminal plasma was not inserted, MAR results of post-treated high viscosity samples were not significant different by method A and method C (P>0.05). Conclusion: Semen specimen of high viscosity can result in false position consequence of MAR test. This influence can be removed by pipetting fibrinolysin into high viscosity semen or setting up an assay blank control.%目的:探讨精液黏度增高对混合抗球蛋白反应(mixed agglutination reaction,MAR)检测结果的非特异性影响及处理措施.方法:④连续监测高黏度组(n=23)及正常黏度组n=22)精液标本黏度逐渐降低时MAR检测结果的伴随变化;②分别在31例黏度正常的活动精子中添加高黏度精浆以制备高黏度精液标本,同时应用设立空白测定对照法(A法)、洗涤精子法(B法)和加入纤维蛋白溶酶法(C法)3种方法同步处理制备的高黏度精液标本,比较处理后

  19. Latex agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for cytomegalovirus serologic screening of transplant donors and recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, S W; Scott, K M

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of three serologic assays (two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs] and latex agglutination) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) serologic matching of donors and recipients was assessed over a 2-year period in a major organ transplant program. Sera with equivocal test results were investigated by repeat testing of serum samples and additional specimens from the individuals involved and monitoring of CMV infection in recipients. An in-house ELISA identified all CMV-infective don...

  20. Statistical Language Modeling for Automatic Speech Recognition of Agglutinative Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Ar&#;soy, Ebru; Kurimo, Mikko; Sara&#;lar, Murat; Hirsim&#;ki, Teemu; Pylkk&#;nen, Janne; Alum&#;e, Tanel; Sak, Ha&#;im

    2008-01-01

    This work presents statistical language models trained on different agglutinative languages utilizing a lexicon based on the recently proposed unsupervised statistical morphs. The significance of this work is that similarly generated sub-word unit lexica are developed and successfully evaluated in three different LVCSR systems in different languages. In each case the morph-based approach is at least as good or better than a very large vocabulary wordbased LVCSR language model. Even though usi...

  1. Use of commercial extenders and alternatives to prevent sperm agglutination for cryopreservation of brown bear semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Lopez-Urueña, E; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different bovine and canine commercial semen extenders for cryopreservation of brown bear ejaculates and the effect of semen collection directly into extender on sperm agglutination. Semen samples were obtained by electroejaculation from 13 adult males. In experiment 1, eleven ejaculates from eight bears were used to evaluate Bioxcell and Andromed as extenders, whereas in experiment 2, nine ejaculates from six bears were used to evaluate Triladyl canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 as extenders. An extender specifically developed for brown bears (Test-Tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol, TTF-ULE/bear) served as a control extender in both experiments. After thawing, total and progressive sperm motility and sperm viability were greater (P < 0.05) for TTF-ULE/bear and Andromed extenders than for Bioxcell in experiment 1 and greater (P < 0.05) for TTF-ULE/bear extender than for Triladyl Canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 in experiment 2. In experiment 3, addition of handling extender (TTF-H) to the semen collection tube for eight ejaculates from seven bears resulted in less (P < 0.05) sperm agglutination in fresh samples (score 0.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4 in diluted and control samples, respectively) with no effect on pre-freeze and post-thawing semen quality. In conclusion, TTF-ULE/bear is the most suitable extender for brown bear semen cryopreservation, but comparable results can be obtained with the commercial extender Andromed. In addition, collection of ejaculates directly in TTF-H extender decreases sperm agglutination in fresh samples. PMID:24950618

  2. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  3. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Fibrinogen of Patients with Coronary Heart Diseases through Piezoelectric Agglutination Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91. The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the coronary heart disease group was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group (P < 0.05. The results reveal that high fibrinogen concentration is closely correlated to the incurrence, development and prognosis of coronary heart diseases. Compared with other traditional methods, the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor has some merits such as operation convenience, small size, low cost, quick detecting, good precision and the common reacting agents with paramagnetic particle method.

  5. Leptospirosis serosurvey in bovines from Brazilian Pantanal using IGG ELISA with recombinant protein LipL32 and microscopic agglutination test Sorodiagnóstico de leptospirose em bovinos do Pantanal brasileiro utilizando ELISA IgG com proteína recombinante LipL32 e soroaglutinação microscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Graça Pinto Tomich

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out in Brazilian Pantanal: region with important biodiversity. This region's climatic conditions, hydrology and geomorphology as well as the existence of great variety of wild species favor the maintenance of the Leptospira in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate IgG ELISA with recombinant protein LipL32 in comparison with microscopic agglutination test (MAT and additionally contribute to the knowledge of the distribution of the one of most important worldwide zoonotic infection, assessing the seropositivity of bovine leptospirosis in beef cattle herds of Brazilian Pantanal, an important ecological preserved area, where cattle constitute not only the most important economic resource but also the major activity compatible of the conservation of natural resource of the region. Out of 282 samples of cattle serum analyzed, 143 (50.71% were positive in MAT. The serovar Hardjo (genotypic Hardjoprajitno and Hardjobovis, Wolffi and Ballum showed the largest frequency of reactive samples. In the IgG ELISA rLipL32, 161 samples (57.09% were positive. This result was higher than obtained by MAT (pEste estudo foi realizado no Pantanal brasileiro: região que apresenta importante biodiversidade. As condições de clima, hidrologia e geomorfologia dessa região, bem como a existência de grande variedade de espécies animais silvestres, favorecem a manutenção da Leptospira no meio ambiente. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o ELISA IgG com proteína recombinante LipL32 em comparação com a soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM para o diagnóstico sorológico de Leptospira. Adicionalmente, contribuir para o conhecimento da distribuição da leptospirose bovina, uma das mais importantes zoonoses mundialmente distribuída. Foi avaliada a soropositividade para essa bactéria em rebanhos bovinos de corte da região do Pantanal, uma área onde o bovino constitui não apenas o recurso econômico mais importante

  6. 9 CFR 145.14 - Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... microagglutination test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (ELISA), or the rapid serum test for all poultry... standard tube agglutination test or the microagglutination test. (ii) Reactors to the standard tube agglutination test (in dilutions of 1:50 or greater) or the microagglutination test (in dilutions of 1:40......

  7. Imaging based agglutination measurement of magnetic micro-particles on a lab-on-a-disk platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wantiya, P.; Burger, Robert; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Donolato, Marco; Miniotis, M.F.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Wingren, A.G.; Boisen, Anja

    In this work we present a magnetic micro beads based agglutination assay on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. An imaging based method is used to quantify bead agglutination and measure the concentration of antibodies or C-reactive protein in solution.......In this work we present a magnetic micro beads based agglutination assay on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. An imaging based method is used to quantify bead agglutination and measure the concentration of antibodies or C-reactive protein in solution....

  8. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  9. Agglutinating activity of alcohol-soluble proteins from quinoa seed flour in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzi, M; Silano, M; Luchetti, R; Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Pogna, N E

    1999-01-01

    The edible seeds of the quinoa plant contain small quantities of alcohol-soluble protein which, after peptic-tryptic digestion, are unable to agglutinate K562(s) cells. When separated by affinity chromatography on sepharose-6B coupled with mannan, peptic-tryptic digest separated in two fractions. Fraction B peptides (about 1% of total protein) were shown to agglutinate K562(s) cells at a very low concentration, whereas peptides in fraction A and in the mixed fraction A+B were inactive, suggesting that fraction A contains protective peptides that interfere with the agglutinating activity of toxic peptides in fraction B. PMID:10646556

  10. Comparison of immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibody in African sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, M.; Denis, F.; Leonard, G; A. Sangare; Patillaud, S; Prince-David, M.; M Essex

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of four screening tests for detecting antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was determined by using 2,700 African serum specimens. The tests studied were indirect immunofluorescence, particle agglutination from Fujirebio, and two enzyme immunoassays, one from Abbott Laboratories that used virus lysate from HUT 102 cells and the other from Cambridge BioScience Corp. that used an env recombinant protein. Positive and doubtful sera were confirmed by Western im...

  11. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25542240

  12. Passive immunization with Leptospira LPS-specific agglutinating but not non-agglutinating monoclonal antibodies protect guinea pigs from fatal pulmonary hemorrhages induced by serovar Copenhageni challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sreerupa; Nally, Jarlath E; Jones, Carroll; Sheoran, Abhineet S

    2011-06-15

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni causes pulmonary hemorrhages with respiratory failure, a major cause of death in leptospirosis patients. Protective immunity to Leptospira is known to correlate with the production of leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS)-specific agglutinating antibodies. We generated L-LPS-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and investigated if these MAbs can protect guinea pigs against fatal pulmonary hemorrhages caused by serovar Copenhageni. The MAbs L8H4 and L9B11 against 22kDa L-LPS agglutinated leptospires and completely protected guinea pigs from the development of fatal pulmonary hemorrhages by serovar Copenhageni, whereas the MAb L4C1 against 8kDa L-LPS neither agglutinated the bacteria nor protected the animals against the fatal pulmonary hemorrhages. PMID:21549788

  13. The Cenozoic Diversity of Agglutinated Foraminifera - Evidence for a late Oligocene to early Miocene diversification event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Setoyama, Eiichi; Kender, Sev; Cetean, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The agglutinated foraminifera are among the most abundant micro-organisms in the deep marine environment and have a diversity record extending back to the late Precambrian. We present an updated diversity curve for agglutinated foraminiferal genera based on the stratigraphic ranges of all the agglutinated genera recognized as valid in the classification of Kaminski (2014). The data set for this analysis is based on the stratigraphic ranges of agglutinated genera published in Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification, which has been subsequently updated based on published studies and our new observations. The mean standing diversity of agglutinated foraminiferal genera was compiled by counting the number of boundary crossers rather than the number of genera in each stage. In this study, we report the stratigraphic and geographical occurrence of a benthic foraminiferal diversification event that has previously received little attention. In the latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene a number of trochospiral agglutinated genera with alveolar or canaliculate walls first appeared in the fossil record. Our studies of late Oligocene of the Congo fan, offshore Angola (Kender et al., 2008; Cetean and Kaminski, 2011) have revealed a diverse assemblage that includes new taxa of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. In a biostratigraphic study of the Miocene foraminiferal assemblages Kender et al. (2008) noted steadily increasing diversity and proportions of infaunal agglutinated foraminiferal morphotypes over the lower Miocene interval. The proportion of infaunal agglutinated foraminifera assigned to the order Textularida increased dramatically in the lower mid-Miocene, suggesting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone into deeper waters. In addition to the trochospiral alveolar genera, several species of Reticulophragmium and Cyclammina display rapid diversification into numerous separate lineages that are at present not reflected in our generic diversity record owing to

  14. Capsular Gene Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Compared to Serotyping by Latex Agglutination

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, K.; Poulsen, K.; Maione, D.; Rinaudo, C. D.; Baldassarri, L.; Telford, J L; Sorensen, U. B. S.; Kilian, M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated three different PCR-based capsular gene typing methods applied to 312 human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) isolates and compared the results to serotyping results obtained by latex agglutination. Among 281 human isolates 27% could not be typed by latex agglutination. All 312 isolates except 5 could be typed by the three PCR methods combined. Two of these methods were multiplex assays. Among the isolates that were typeable by both latex agglutina...

  15. The Efficacy of Multiplex PCR in Comparison with Agglutination and ELISA in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is an endemic disease in many countries including Iran. Exact diagnosis of brucellosis is not just based on clinical symptoms, because it will be considered in differential diagnosis of other diseases. Therefore, defining organism in culture or identification of organism by serological and molecular methods for confirming clinical diagnosis is necessary. Our aim was to develop a diagnostic PCR assay and define the optimal clinical specimen for this test. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was from February 2011 to November 2012. Results of standard agglutination test (SAT and specific immunoglobulin IgG and IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were compared with multiplex PCR in 116 patients with suspected brucellosis referred to the Ali Ebn-e-Abitaleb hospital, Rafsanjan, Iran. Their sera were collected and tested by SAT, ELISA and multiplex PCR. DNA was extracted from serum samples and examined by multiplex PCR involving specific primers for Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus based on IS711 in the brucella chromosome. Results: Brucellosis was confirmed in 116 patients (75% male and 25% female based on applied diagnostic methods and clinical features. Results of ELISA, the SAT, and PCR were positive in 116, respectively. B. abortus and B. melitensis were detected in 101 and 15 patients. Conclusion: The results of present study showed that multiplex PCR assay is a rapid and sensitive technique for diagnosis of brucellosis compared to SAT. However it is more accurate when coupled with conventional methods.

  16. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  17. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  18. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-28

    This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

  19. Outbreak of uncommon O4 non-agglutinating Salmonella typhimurium linked to minced pork, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, January to April 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Alt

    Full Text Available In January 2013, the National Reference Centre for Salmonella (NRC detected a salmonellosis cluster in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, caused by uncommon O4 non-agglutinating, monophasic Salmonella (S. Typhimurium DT193. Circulating predominant monophasic S. Typhimurium DT193 clones typically display resistance phenotype ASSuT. We investigated common exposures to control the outbreak, and conducted microbiological investigations to assess the strains' phenotype.We conducted a case-control study defining cases as persons living or working in Saxony-Anhalt diagnosed with the O4 non-agglutinating strain between January and March 2013. We selected two controls contemporarily reported with norovirus infection, frequency-matched on residence and age group, per case. We interviewed regarding food consumption, especially pork and its place of purchase. We calculated odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI using logistic regression. The NRC investigated human and food isolates by PCR, SDS-PAGE, MLST, PFGE, MLVA and susceptibility testing.Altogether, 68 O4 non-agglutinating human isolates were confirmed between January and April 2013. Of those, 61 were assigned to the outbreak (median age 57 years, 44% female; 83% cases ≥ 60 years were hospitalized. Eating raw minced pork from butcheries within 3 days was associated with disease (31 cases, 28 controls; OR adjusted for sex: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-13. Phage type DT193 and MLST ST34 were assigned, and isolates' lipopolysaccharide (LPS matched control strains. Isolates linked to Saxony-Anhalt exhibited PFGE type 5. ASSuT- and ACSSuT phenotype proportions were 34 and 39% respectively; 54% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Three pork isolates matched the outbreak strain.Raw minced pork was the most likely infection vehicle in this first reported outbreak caused by O4 non-agglutinating, mostly chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193. High hospitalization proportions demand awareness on the risk of

  20. A soro-aglutinação das Leishmanias Agglutination of Leishmanias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. da Cunha

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The first agglutination experiments (Tables 1 and 2 showed that the serum obtained with any one strain of Leishmania, agglutinates all the others even of another species. This finding reveals the existence of a common antigen. However as the titre of agglutination did not permit a sharp differentiation of species we tried the adsorption method. The first adsorption tests made demonstrated differences in antigenic constitution between a strain of. L. donovani on one hand and strains of L. tropica or L. brasiliensis on the other. Further experiments in which L. chagasi was tested against the other species revealed that the former was antigenically different from the others. These tests were performed by adsorbing an anti-chagasi serum with organisms belonging to the other species or, conversely, adsorbing with L. chagasi sera prepared against the other species (See Tables 9 to 24. On the other hand, the adsorption of a serum prepared against one strain of l. chagasi by another of the same species showed that they had identifical antigenie constitution. These findings suggested the possibility of separating different species of Leishmania by this method. However, tests to separate the other species from one to another gave inconclusive results. (See Tables 27 to 35. It was soon observed that all the strains of L. chagasi were of recent isolation while all the others had been maintained in artificial culture media for a long time. We were led to believe that this condition was responsible for the differences in behaviour encountered. Accordingly, recently isolated strains of L. brasiliensis and L. donovani were tested and shown to be antigenically similar to strains of L. chagasi also recently isolated. The conclusion may be drawn that all strains have the same antigenic constitution when freshly isolated. It has been noted that when a serum which has been prepared against a freshly isolated is adsorbed with an old strain, the amount of agglutinins

  1. Seasonal variation in agglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Theander, T G; Staalsø, T;

    1998-01-01

    Agglutination and rosette formation are in vitro characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which have been associated with host protective immune responses and also with parasite virulence. The present study was carried out in an area of seasonal and unstable malaria...

  2. Novel latex agglutination method with chicken anti-protein A for detection of Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, A; Sjöquist, J

    1989-01-01

    A latex agglutination assay for the detection of protein A-secreting Staphylococcus aureus strains or strains with protein A in the cell wall is described. The assay utilizes latex particles coated with chicken anti-protein A antibodies. Chicken antibodies do not react with protein G-producing streptococci or rheumatoid factor, thus avoiding false-positive reactions.

  3. Antibody-mediated red blood cell agglutination resulting in spontaneous echocardiographic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M R; Thompson, W R; Casella, J F; Spevak, P J

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast is well reported in states of low flow and low shear stress, and the primary blood component involved has been reported as red blood cells via rouleaux formation. This report describes the occurrence of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast from a unique mechanism of IgM-mediated red blood cell agglutination and describes the clinical sequelae. PMID:10368455

  4. The production of nominal and verbal inflection in an agglutinative language: evidence from Hungarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Turi, Zsolt; Lukacs, Agnes; Peckham, Don; Szanka, Szilvia; Gazso, Dorottya; Lovassy, Noemi; Ullman, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The contrast between regular and irregular inflectional morphology has been useful in investigating the functional and neural architecture of language. However, most studies have examined the regular/irregular distinction in non-agglutinative Indo-European languages (primarily English) with relatively simple morphology. Additionally, the majority of research has focused on verbal rather than nominal inflectional morphology. The present study attempts to address these gaps by introducing both plural and past tense production tasks in Hungarian, an agglutinative non-Indo-European language with complex morphology. Here we report results on these tasks from healthy Hungarian native-speaking adults, in whom we examine regular and irregular nominal and verbal inflection in a within-subjects design. Regular and irregular nouns and verbs were stem on frequency, word length, and phonological structure, and both accuracy and response times were acquired. The results revealed that the regular/irregular contrast yields similar patterns in Hungarian, for both nominal and verbal inflection, as in previous studies of non-agglutinative Indo-European languages: the production of irregular inflected forms was both less accurate and slower than of regular forms, both for plural and past-tense inflection. The results replicate and extend previous findings to an agglutinative language with complex morphology. Together with previous studies, the evidence suggests that the regular/irregular distinction yields a basic behavioral pattern that holds across language families and linguistic typologies. Finally, the study sets the stage for further research examining the neurocognitive substrates of regular and irregular morphology in an agglutinative non-Indo-European language. PMID:25769039

  5. Microscopic agglutination and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of oral anaerobic spirochetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tall, B D; Nauman, R K

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic agglutination (MA) analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to determine strain and species similarities and dissimilarities among three species of oral anaerobic spirochetes, Treponema denticola, Treponema pectinovorum, and Treponema vincentii. The MA analysis revealed a diversity of serologic reactivity or sharing of common antigens within each species. However, there was no cross-reactivity or sharing of common antigens among t...

  6. 9 CFR 147.6 - Procedure for determining the status of flocks reacting to tests for Mycoplasma gallisepticum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the microagglutination tests, as reported in the Proceedings, Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the American... agglutination or the serum plate test is negative, the flock qualifies. (2) If the tube agglutination or the serum plate test is positive, the hemaglutination inhibition (HI) test and/or the Serum Plate...

  7. The Life Cycle of Entzia, an Agglutinated Foraminifer from the Salt Marshes in Transylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Telespan, Andreea; Balc, Ramona; Filipescu, Sorin; Varga, Ildiko; Görög, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    The small salt marshes associated with Miocene salt domes in Transylvania are host to a variety of marine organisms, including communities of halophytic plants as well as an agglutinated foraminifer that is normally found in coastal salt marshes worldwide. Originally described as the species Entzia tetrastoma by Daday (1884), the foraminifer is more widely known by the name Jadammina macrescens (Brady, 1870). Because the genus name Entzia has priority over Jadammina, the valid name of this taxon is Entzia macrescens (Brady, 1870). In 2007, we discovered a living population of Entzia inhabiting a small salt marsh just outside the town of Turda in central Transylvania, only a kilometer from the famous Maria Theresa Salt Mine. This is the first discovery of a living population of Entzia in Transylvania since the species was originally described in 1884. To determine whether or not the specimens we found represent a breeding population, samples were collected from the marsh on a monthly basis over the span of a year. This species can be found among the roots of the halophytic plants, in the uppermost one or two centimeters of the mud. Sediment samples were preserved in Vodka with Rose Bengal to distinguish living and dead specimens, and examined quantitatively. To document the life cycle of the species the following metrics were carried out: test size, abundance, number of chambers, ratio between live and dead specimens, and the diameter of the proloculus. An increase in the mean diameter of specimens was found from October to December. However the mean diameter decreased again in January, which suggests that asexual reproduction had apparently taken place. Small specimens again appeared in March, when sexual reproduction is presumed to have taken place. The median proloculus diameter was smallest in April and May, but the monthly changes in mean proloculus size within the population over the span of a year are not significant. However, specimens with largest

  8. D-penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination by reducing the disulphide bonds of a copper-binding sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-05-01

    Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrode's capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN. Oxidative stress is also an unlikely mechanism of sperm association, as PEN was significantly more effective in ameliorating agglutination than the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and catalase. Only the reducing agents cysteine and dl-dithiothreitol displayed similar levels of non-agglutinated spermatozoa at 0 h compared with PEN but were less effective after 3 h of incubation (37 °C). The addition of 10 µM Cu(2+) to 250 µM PEN + TALP caused a rapid reversion of the motile sperm population from a non-agglutinated state to an agglutinated state. Other heavy metals (cobalt, iron, manganese and zinc) did not provoke such a strong response. Together, these results indicate that PEN prevents sperm association by the reduction of disulphide bonds on a sperm membrane protein that binds copper. ADAM proteins are possible candidates, as targeted inhibition of the metalloproteinase domain significantly increased the percentage of motile, non-agglutinated spermatozoa (52.0% ± 7.8) compared with TALP alone (10.6% ± 6.1).Reproduction (2016) 151 1-10. PMID:26860122

  9. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at Different Temperatures in Case of Cold Agglutination Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto-antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which arise or worsen upon exposure to low temperatures. We describe a case who presented with fever and symptoms of asthenia. His investigations yielded bizarre RBC parameters which le...

  10. Bilinexin, a snake C-type lectin from Agkistrodon bilineatus venom agglutinates platelets via GPIb and alpha2beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X Y; Navdaev, A; Clemetson, J M; Magnenat, E; Wells, T N; Clemetson, K J

    2001-11-01

    A new snake protein, named bilinexin, has been purified from Agkistrodon bilineatus venom by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Under non-reducing conditions it has a mass of 110 kDa protein on SDS-PAGE. On reduction, it can be separated into five subunits with masses in the range 13-25 kDa. The N-terminal sequences of these subunits are very similar to those of convulxin or the alboaggregins, identifying bilinexin as a new member of the snake C-type lectin family, unusual in having multiple subunits. Bilinexin agglutinates fixed platelets. washed platelets and platelet rich plasma (PRP) without obvious activation (shape change) as confirmed by light microscope examination. Both inhibitory and binding studies indicate that antibodies against alpha2beta1 inhibit not only platelet agglutination induced by bilinexin, but also bilinexin binding to platelets. VM16d, a monoclonal anti-GPIbalpha antibody, completely inhibits platelet agglutination induced by bilinexin, and polyclonal antibodies against GPIbalpha prevent its binding to platelets. However, neither convulxin, polyclonal anti-GPVI antibodies, nor GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors affect its binding to and agglutination of platelets. Bilinexin neither activates GPIIb/IIIa integrin on platelets nor induces tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, nor increases intracellular Ca2+ in platelets. Like alboaggregin B, bilinexin agglutinates platelets, which makes it a good tool to investigate the differences in mechanism between snake C-type lectins causing platelet agglutination and those that induce full activation. PMID:11816718

  11. Comparison of Commercial Latex Agglutination and Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassays with a Competitive Binding Inhibition Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Antigenemia and Antigenuria in a Rabbit Model of Invasive Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Steven F.; Reyes, Guadalupe H.; McLaughlin, David W.; Reiss, Errol; Morrison, Christine J.

    2000-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination assay (LA) and a sandwich enzyme immunoassay (SEIA) (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Marnes-la-Coquette, France) were compared with a competitive binding inhibition assay (enzyme immunoassay [EIA]) to determine the potential uses and limitations of these antigen detection tests for the sensitive, specific, and rapid diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Toward this end, well-characterized serum and urine specimens were obtained by using a rabbit model of IA. S...

  12. Characterization of Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay-Negative Sera following Screening by Treponemal Total Antibody Enzyme Immunoassays ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, P. A. C.; Ratcliffe, D.; Smit, E.

    2010-01-01

    Following a laboratory audit, a significant number of Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA)-negative sera were identified when TPPA was used as a confirmatory assay of syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening-reactive sera (SSRS). Sera giving such discrepant results were further characterized to assess their significance. A panel of 226 sera was tested by the Abbott Murex ICE Syphilis EIA and then by the Newmarket Syphilis EIA II. TPPA testing was performed on 223 sera. Further testing by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, the Mercia Syphilis IgM EIA, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA-ABS) assay, and INNO-LIA immunoblotting was undertaken in discrepant cases. One hundred eighty-seven of 223 (83.8%) SSRS were TPPA reactive, while 26 (11.6%) sera which were reactive in both the ICE and Newmarket EIAs were nonreactive by TPPA. The majority (68%) of the TPPA-discrepant sera were from HIV-positive patients and did not represent early acute cases, based on previous or follow-up samples, which were available for 22/26 samples. FTA-ABS testing was performed on 24 of these sera; 14 (58.3%) were FTA-ABS positive, and 10 (41.7%) were FTA-ABS negative. Twenty-one of these 26 sera were tested by INNO-LIA, and an additional 4 FTA-ABS-negative samples were positive. In this study, significant numbers (18/26) of SSRS- and TPPA-negative sera were shown by further FTA-ABS and LIA (line immunoblot assay) testing to be positive. The reason why certain sera are negative by TPPA but reactive by treponemal EIA and other syphilis confirmatory assays is not clear, and these initial findings should be further explored. PMID:20844087

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thulliez, P.; Weigel, R.M.;

    1995-01-01

    antibodies by use of the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and ELISA. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 170 hearts of 1,000 sows by bioassays in mice and cats. The percentage of samples diagnosed as positive for each of the serologic...

  14. Nanoscale Mineralogy and Composition of Experimental Regolith Agglutinates Produced under Asteroidal Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Cintala, M. J.; Keller, L. P.; See, T. H.; Horz, F.

    2013-01-01

    On the Moon, the energetics of smaller impactors and the physical/chemical characteristics of the granular regolith target combine to form a key product of lunar space weathering: chemically reduced shock melts containing optically-active nanophase Fe metal grains (npFe0) [1]. In addition to forming the optically dark glassy matrix phase in lunar agglutinitic soil particles [1], these shock melts are becoming increasingly recognized for their contribution to optically active patina coatings on a wide range of exposed rock and grain surfaces in the lunar regolith [2]. In applying the lessons of lunar space weathering to asteroids, the potential similarities and differences in regolith-hosted shock melts on the Moon compared to those on asteroids has become a topic of increasing interest [3,4]. In a series of impact experiments performed at velocities applicable to the asteroid belt [5], Horz et al. [6] and See and Horz [7] have previously shown that repeated impacts into a gabbroic regolith analog target can produce melt-welded grain aggregates morphologically very similar to lunar agglutinates [6,7]. Although these agglutinate-like particles were extensively analyzed by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as part of the original study [7], a microstructural and compositional comparison of these aggregates to lunar soil agglutinates at sub-micron scales has yet to be made. To close this gap, we characterized a representative set of these aggregates using a JEOL 7600 field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and JEOL 2500SE field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) both optimized for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging at respective analytical spatial resolutions of 0.5 to 1 micron, and 2 to 4 nm.

  15. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao

    2015-10-01

    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo~ 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  16. Partial inhibition of hemocyte agglutination by Lathyrus odoratus lectin in Crassotrea virginica infected with Perkinsus marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Cheng

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determinations of agglutination of hemocytes from oysters, Crassostrea virginica, by the Lathyrus odoratus lectin at five concentrations revealed that clumping of hemocytes from oysters infected with Perkinsus marinus is partially inhibited. Although the nature of the hemocyte surface saccharide, which is not D(+-glucose, D(+mannose, or alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, remains to be determined, it may be concluded that this molecule also occurs on the surface of P. marinus. It has been demonstrated that the panning technique (Ford et al. 1990 is qualitatively as effective for determining the presence of P. marinus in C. virginica as the hemolymph assay method (Gauthier & Fisher 1990.

  17. Exploring new biological functions of amyloids: bacteria cell agglutination mediated by host protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Torrent

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs are important effectors of the innate immune system that play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Recent advances have highlighted the similarity between AMPs and amyloid proteins. Using the Eosinophil Cationic Protein as a model, we have rationalized the structure-activity relationships between amyloid aggregation and antimicrobial activity. Our results show how protein aggregation can induce bacteria agglutination and cell death. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we have tracked the formation in situ of protein amyloid-like aggregates at the bacteria surface and on membrane models. In both cases, fibrillar aggregates able to bind to amyloid diagnostic dyes were detected. Additionally, a single point mutation (Ile13 to Ala can suppress the protein amyloid behavior, abolishing the agglutinating activity and impairing the antimicrobial action. The mutant is also defective in triggering both leakage and lipid vesicle aggregation. We conclude that ECP aggregation at the bacterial surface is essential for its cytotoxicity. Hence, we propose here a new prospective biological function for amyloid-like aggregates with potential biological relevance.

  18. Seroprevalence of bovine leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: This study is the first report of leptospirosis in Southeast Iran and showed that Leptospira pomona was the most and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae the least prevalent serovars in Southeast Iran.

  19. Comparison of Coombs' and immunocapture-agglutination tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurittin Ardic; Mustafa Ozyurt; Ogun Sezer; Ali Erdemoglu; Tuncer Haznedaroglu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella encountered in animals such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs as well as in humans. It is one of the most widely seen infections and nearly half a million cases are declared annually. Endemic infections occur especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Latin America and Asia.1 Seropositiveness ratios vary between 2% and 12% in Turkey.2 The average annual number of cases declared to the Turkish Ministry of Health between 1991 and 2000 was 9000.3

  20. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zulfekar Ali; Md. Mostafizer Rahman; Shirin Sultana

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is important avian pathogens responsible for chronic respiratory diseases of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the...

  1. Similarity Between Turkish & Akkadian Based on Rules of Inflective & Agglutinative Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elşad Allili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Akkadian, although a dead language, has left deep imprints on Semitic and some Indo-European languages, and has played an important role in the history of mankind. It is accepted as the ancestor of all the Semitic languages. Beginning from the era of Sargon I, it became the official language in a vast area from Anatolia to Egypt and to India. Akkadian was the “Lingua Franca” of the ancient world, and has passed on many words to other languages such as Persian, Sanskrit and Greek. Although, Assyriologists at present ignore it, the language spoken in the very early days of Akkad, in BCE XXVIII-XXIV, may have been an agglutinative language like today’s Turkish or Magyar, rather than an inflective language like today’s Arabic and all Syriac languages. Thus it may show parallelism with Turkish. 

  2. Phoneme-level speech and natural language intergration for agglutinative languages

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Kim, K; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Kyunghee

    1994-01-01

    A new tightly coupled speech and natural language integration model is presented for a TDNN-based large vocabulary continuous speech recognition system. Unlike the popular n-best techniques developed for integrating mainly HMM-based speech and natural language systems in word level, which is obviously inadequate for the morphologically complex agglutinative languages, our model constructs a spoken language system based on the phoneme-level integration. The TDNN-CYK spoken language architecture is designed and implemented using the TDNN-based diphone recognition module integrated with the table-driven phonological/morphological co-analysis. Our integration model provides a seamless integration of speech and natural language for connectionist speech recognition systems especially for morphologically complex languages such as Korean. Our experiment results show that the speaker-dependent continuous Eojeol (word) recognition can be integrated with the morphological analysis with over 80\\% morphological analysis s...

  3. A novel C-type lectin, Nattectin-like protein, with a wide range of bacterial agglutination activity in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Changhuan; Zhang, Dongling; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are generally recognized as a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins, which serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity of vertebrates. In this study, the molecular characterization and immune roles of a novel CTL from Larimichthys crocea (designated as LcNTC) were investigated. LcNTC is a novel protein that shared 33%-49% homology with other teleosts CTLs. The full-length cDNA of LcNTC was composed of 859 bp with a 465 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 154 residues. LcNTC contained a single CRD with four conserved disulfide-bonded cysteine residues (Cys(57)-Cys(148), Cys(126)-Cys(140)) and EPN/AND motifs instead of invariant EPN/WND motifs required for carbohydrate-binding specificity and constructing Ca(2+)-binding sites. LcNTC mRNA was detected in all examined tissues with the most abundant in the gill. After challenged with poly I:C and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the temporal expression of LcNTC was significantly up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head-kidney. LcNTC transcripts were also induced in the gill, skin, spleen and head-kidney post-infection with Cryptocaryon irritans. The recombinant LcNTC (rLcNTC) purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) exhibited strong agglutination activity against erythrocytes from human, rabbit and large yellow croaker in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and the agglutination could be inhibited by d-Mannose, d-Glucose, d-Fructose, α-Lactose, d-Maltose and LPS. Positive microbial agglutination activities of rLcNTC were observed against all tested bacteria in the presence of Ca(2+), including Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysoleikticus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila). These findings collectively indicated that LcNTC might be involved in the innate immunity of L. crocea as a PRR. PMID:26828263

  4. Physical, morphological and dosimetric characterization of the Teflon agglutinator to thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparing of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) it is common to use as agglutinator the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), called Teflon®. In this paper the physical, morphological and dosimetric characteristics of Teflon® were evaluated aiming its application in thermoluminescent dosimetry. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG) results showed that the Teflon glass transition and melting points are of about 48 °C and 340 °C, respectively. By means of the X-ray diffraction technique, the crystallinity index Kc was estimated as 94%. Micrographs of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed a cohesive surface in spodumene–Teflon pellets, as required for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), leading to the conclusion that Teflon acts as binder, providing greater mechanical resistance to the TL pellets. However, Teflon may influence high doses dosimetry when it is applied as an agglutinator. Preliminary results of Teflon pellets dosimetric properties, with their dose–response curve between 50 Gy and 60 kGy, TL response reproducibility and minimum detectable dose, indicate the possibility of use of pure Teflon TLD in high-dose dosimetry. -- Highlights: ► Pure Teflon® pellets can be exploited for high-dose dosimetry. ► Pure Teflon® pellets showed two TL peaks. ► Low dose limits of Teflon® pellets were 7.0 and 4.0 Gy for the first and second TL peaks respectively. ► The reproducibility of TL response of Teflon® pellets is 2.9%

  5. A galectin from Eriocheir sinensis functions as pattern recognition receptor enhancing microbe agglutination and haemocytes encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Huang, Mengmeng; Yi, Qilin; Guo, Ying; Gai, Yunchao; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Galectins are a family of β-galactoside binding lectins that function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The cDNA of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis galectin (designated as EsGal) was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The full-length cDNA of EsGal was 999 bp. Its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 218 amino acids containing a GLECT/Gal-bind_lectin domain and a proline/glycine rich low complexity region. The deduced amino acid sequence and domain organization of EsGal were highly similar to those of crustacean galectins. The mRNA transcripts of EsGal were found to be constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues and mainly in hepatopancreas, gill and haemocytes. The mRNA expression level of EsGal increased rapidly and significantly after crabs were stimulated by different microbes. The recombinant EsGal (rEsGal) could bind various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and glucan (GLU), and exhibited strong activity to agglutinate Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pichia pastoris, and such agglutinating activity could be inhibited by both d-galactose and α-lactose. The in vitro encapsulation assay revealed that rEsGal could enhance the encapsulation of haemocytes towards agarose beads. These results collectively suggested that EsGal played crucial roles in the immune recognition and elimination of pathogens and contributed to the innate immune response against various microbes in crabs. PMID:27095174

  6. Evaluation of three commercial latex agglutination kits and a commercial enzyme immunoassay for the detection of cryptococcal antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babady, Ngolela Esther; Bestrom, Jean E; Jespersen, Deborah J; Jones, Mary F; Beito, Elaine M; Binnicker, Matthew J; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2009-05-01

    We compared the performance of the Meridian CALAS, Wampole Crypto-LA, Murex Cryptococcus latex agglutination assay, and the Meridian Premier EIA for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and CSF. The assays demonstrated similar performance characteristics based on concordance values > or = 93% but important differences were noted in endpoint titers. PMID:19194818

  7. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  8. Diagnostic Efficacy of Modified Coagglutination Test in the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohite S.T,; Annapurna Sajjan; Mangalgi, Smita S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laboratory help is must for thediagnosis of human brucellosis due to proteanclinical manifestations. As culture is hazardous,time consuming and less sensitive, serologicaltests are preferred for the diagnosis. Aggluti-nation tests like Rose Bengal PlateTest (RBPT), Serum Agglutination tests (SAT),2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) that are com-monly employed for the diagnosis either lacksensitivity or specificity. Coombs test andBrucellacapt though are sensitive and specific,workout co...

  9. Effects of X irradiation on homocytotropic and agglutinating antibody production in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of X irradiation on homocytotropic and agglutinating antibody production was studied in mice exposed to 400 rad either before or after immunization with dinitrophenylated Ascaris plus aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. The adjuvant effect of irradiation was also determined in animals receiving antigen alone. Irradiation 1 day before immunization with adjuvant enhanced IgE and slightly enhanced IgM-antibody formation, although the onset was delayed, but partially suppressed IgG-antibody formation. When the same treatment followed antigen priming, there was a similar enhancement of IgE production which varied with the time between the two procedures. IgG and IgM production, however, were fairly resistant under the same conditions. Irradiation preceding immunization with soluble antigen had no significant adjuvant effect on IgE-, IgG- or IgM-antibody production. On the contrary, it suppressed production of the latter two classes. The results may indicate that production of IgE and of IgG and IgM antibodies in the mouse is regulated by separate mechanisms. (author)

  10. An acousto-optical method for registration of erythrocytes' agglutination reaction—sera color influence on the resolving power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Medvedeva, M. F.; Torbin, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption spectra of agglutinating sera were used to determine blood groups. It was shown experimentally that the sera color significantly affects the resolving power of the acousto-optical method of blood typing. In order to increase the resolving power of the method and produce an invariance of the method for sera color, we suggested introducing a probing light beam individually for different sera. The proposed technique not only improves the resolving power of the method, but also reduces the risk of false interpretation of the experimental results and, hence, error in determining the blood group of the sample. The latter is especially important for the typing of blood samples with weak agglutination of erythrocytes. This study can be used in the development of an instrument for instrumental human blood group typing based on the acousto-optical method.

  11. Comparison of optomagnetic and AC susceptibility readouts in a magnetic nanoparticle agglutination assay for detection of C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Parmvi, Mattias; Strömberg, Mattias;

    2016-01-01

    can be used to accelerate assay kinetics. We present the first study and comparison of the performance of magnetic susceptibility measurements and a newly proposed optomagnetic method. For the comparison we use the C-reactive protein (CRP) induced agglutination of identical samples of 100 nm MNPs...... laser light transmitted through the sample. The two techniques provided highly correlated results upon agglutination when they measure the decrease of the signal from the individual MNPs (turn-off detection strategy), whereas the techniques provided different results, strongly depending on the read......-out frequency, when detecting the signal due to MNP agglomerates (turn-on detection strategy). These observations are considered to be caused by differences in the volumedependence of the magnetic and optical signals from agglomerates. The highest signal from agglomerates was found in the optomagnetic signal at...

  12. Spectral dependence of resolving power of optical method of detection of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of human blood erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Dvoretski, K. N.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    The spectral dependence of the resolving power of an acoustooptic method of monitoring agglutination of human blood erythrocytes is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, in principle, the resolving power of this method can be increased by several dozen times. The results of the work can be used to create instruments for determining the human blood type in the AB0 system and in the Rhesus system.

  13. Ammolagena clavata (Jones and Parker, 1860), an agglutinated benthic foraminiferal species - first report from the Recent sediments, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Saraswat, R.

    The rare presence of the agglutinated foraminiferal species Ammolagena clavata is presented for the first time from the Recent sediments of the Indian Ocean region. This species has previously been reported in Recent sediments from all other oceans...

  14. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  15. The lipopolysaccharide (R type) as a common antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. II. Use of hen antiserum to gonococcal lipopolysaccharide in a rapid slide test for the identification of N. gonorrhoeae from primary isolates and secondary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R; Ashton, F E; Ryan, A; Diena, B B

    1978-02-01

    An antiserum has been prepared in hens to R-type gonococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and used in a simple slide-agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anti-LPS serum agglutinated gonococcal cells representative of the four colony types of N. gonorrhoeae. Absorption of the antiserum with LPS removed the agglutinating activity. Secondary cultures (1120) were tested without observation of the colony type and all were agglutinated. No agglutination occurred with strains of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica, non-pathogenic Neisseria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Branhamella catarrhalis, or with species of lactobacilli and Acinetobacter. Cross-reactivity of the antiserum occurred with some streptococci. The anti-LPS serum was used to identify N. gonorrhoeae in primary isolates from the cervix, urethra, and pharynx. Of 251 gonococcal isolates tested, 249 were agglutinated by the antiserum, while all of the corresponding second cultures were agglutinated. The antiserum did not agglutinate N. meningitidis found in primary isolates from pharyngeal specimens. Anti-LPS hen serum should be useful for the rapid identification of N. gonorrhoeae in primary isolates or secondary cultures. PMID:417781

  16. A Constitutively Mannose-Sensitive Agglutinating Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain, Carrying a Transposon in the Fimbrial Usher Gene stbC, Exhibits Multidrug Resistance and Flagellated Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsun Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Static broth culture favors Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce type 1 fimbriae, while solid agar inhibits its expression. A transposon inserted in stbC, which would encode an usher for Stb fimbriae of a non-flagellar Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LB5010 strain, conferred it to agglutinate yeast cells on both cultures. RT-PCR revealed that the expression of the fimbrial subunit gene fimA, and fimZ, a regulatory gene of fimA, were both increased in the stbC mutant when grown on LB agar; fimW, a repressor gene of fimA, exhibited lower expression. Flagella were observed in the stbC mutant and this phenotype was correlated with the motile phenotype. Microarray data and RT-PCR indicated that the expression of three genes, motA, motB, and cheM, was enhanced in the stbC mutant. The stbC mutant was resistant to several antibiotics, consistent with the finding that expression of yhcQ and ramA was enhanced. A complementation test revealed that transforming a recombinant plasmid possessing the stbC restored the mannose-sensitive agglutination phenotype to the stbC mutant much as that in the parental Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LB5010 strain, indicating the possibility of an interplay of different fimbrial systems in coordinating their expression.

  17. Insights into the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Human RNase6: Structural Determinants for Bacterial Cell Agglutination and Membrane Permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, David; Arranz-Trullén, Javier; Prats-Ejarque, Guillem; Velázquez, Diego; Torrent, Marc; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Boix, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Human Ribonuclease 6 is a secreted protein belonging to the ribonuclease A (RNaseA) superfamily, a vertebrate specific family suggested to arise with an ancestral host defense role. Tissue distribution analysis revealed its expression in innate cell types, showing abundance in monocytes and neutrophils. Recent evidence of induction of the protein expression by bacterial infection suggested an antipathogen function in vivo. In our laboratory, the antimicrobial properties of the protein have been evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive species and its mechanism of action was characterized using a membrane model. Interestingly, our results indicate that RNase6, as previously reported for RNase3, is able to specifically agglutinate Gram-negative bacteria as a main trait of its antimicrobial activity. Moreover, a side by side comparative analysis with the RN6(1-45) derived peptide highlights that the antimicrobial activity is mostly retained at the protein N-terminus. Further work by site directed mutagenesis and structural analysis has identified two residues involved in the protein antimicrobial action (Trp1 and Ile13) that are essential for the cell agglutination properties. This is the first structure-functional characterization of RNase6 antimicrobial properties, supporting its contribution to the infection focus clearance. PMID:27089320

  18. Study of polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorins using microscopic image digital analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, B.; Dumas, D.; Relancio, F.; Fontana, A.; Alessi, A.; Foresto, P.; Grandfils, C.; Stoltz, J.; Valverde, J.

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study synthetic polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin using image digital analysis. Polycations are oligomers or polymers of natural or synthetic origin, which bear a great number of positive charges at pH 7.4. Several of these polycations are nowadays used in clinic for human and veterinary purposes. New applications of polycations to the development of new drug delivery systems are investigated, in order to promote the drug absorption through the gastro-intestinal and blood brain barriers. However, up to now, there are no clear relationships between macromolecular features of polycations (molecular weight, mean charge density, charge repartition, etc.) and their interactions with blood elements (which bear superficial negative charges). The interaction on the red blood cell membrane with synthetic polycations having well-controlled macromolecular features and functionalized with pendent polyethylene glycol segments was investigated. The alterations over stationary and dynamic viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes were analyzed through laser diffractometry. Image digital analysis was used to study erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin. Results show different reactivities of the polycations on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings could provide more information about the mechanisms of polycation interaction on erythrocyte membranes. We consider that this work could provide useful tools to understand and improve the haemocompatibility of polycations and enlarge their potential in clinic.

  19. siRNA delivery targeting to the lung via agglutination-induced accumulation and clearance of cationic tetraamino fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kosuke; Okamoto, Koji; Doi, Kent; Harano, Koji; Noiri, Eisei; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2014-05-01

    The efficient treatment of lung diseases requires lung-selective delivery of agents to the lung. However, lung-selective delivery is difficult because the accumulation of micrometer-sized carriers in the lung often induces inflammation and embolization-related toxicity. Here we demonstrate a lung-selective delivery system of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by controlling the size of carrier vehicle in blood vessels. The carrier is made of tetra(piperazino)fullerene epoxide (TPFE), a water-soluble cationic tetraamino fullerene. TPFE and siRNA form sub-micrometer-sized complexes in buffered solution and these complexes agglutinate further with plasma proteins in the bloodstream to form micrometer-sized particles. The agglutinate rapidly clogs the lung capillaries, releases the siRNA into lung cells to silence expression of target genes, and is then cleared rapidly from the lung after siRNA delivery. We applied our delivery system to an animal model of sepsis, indicating the potential of TPFE-based siRNA delivery for clinical applications.

  20. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    We present a biosensing platform for the detection of proteins based on agglutination of aptamer coated magnetic nano- or microbeads. The assay, from sample to answer, is integrated on an automated, low-cost microfluidic disc platform. This ensures fast and reliable results due to a minimum...... of manual steps involved. The detection of the target protein was achieved in two ways: (1) optomagnetic readout using magnetic nanobeads (MNBs); (2) optical imaging using magnetic microbeads (MMBs). The optomagnetic readout of agglutination is based on optical measurement of the dynamics of MNB aggregates...... whereas the imaging method is based on direct visualization and quantification of the average size of MMB aggregates. By enhancing magnetic particle agglutination via application of strong magnetic field pulses, we obtained identical limits of detection of 25 pM with the same sample-to-answer time (15 min...

  1. Brucellosis Seroprevalance in İnönü University Medical Faculty Hospital: The Results of Rose Bengal, Wright, Coombs Aglutination Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Yücel; Tekerekoğlu, Mehmet Sait; Batı, Nihal Seçil; OTLU, Barış

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in our region. Serological markers (Wright, Coombs agglutination test and Rose-Bengal test) of brucellosis, were evaluated retrospectively according to laboratory data for 2942 sera from brucellosis suspected patients admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Hospital in the year 2012. Rose Bengal agglutination test was positive in 251(8.5%) sera. Rose-Bengal positive 118 (4%) sera was determined under the 1/160 titer in Wrigh...

  2. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Mosul city by indirect ELISA and conventional serological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. KH. AL-Hankawe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 126 cattle (94 females and 32 males of different ages (1->5 years randomly selected from July 2007 to August 2008 in Mosul. Indirect ELISA test and other traditional tests (rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and 2- mercapto-ethanol test were used to determine the incidence of bovine brucellosis. The highest incidence of disease was recorded by Indirect ELISA, 23.01%, whereas it was 18.25%, 11.90% and 4.76% by rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2- Mercapto-ethanol tests, respectively. The highest incidence was in females in all serological tests and the highest incidence was in females at the age between 1-3 years whereas in males more than 3 years of age it was 23.07%. The results of tube agglutination test revealed the titer 1/40 occurred mostly compared with other titers. Six chronic cases were determined by 2-mercapto-ethanol test. The degree of agreement of negative samples with rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA, tube agglutination, and 2- mercapto-ethanol tests was 94.17%, 100% and 100%, respectively, and by indirect ELISA with rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2-mercapto-ethanol tests was 79.31%, 51.72% and 20.68%, respectively.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test Using a Monoclonal Antibody To Identify Candida dubliniensis Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cel...

  4. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  5. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  6. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, S; Stenderup, J; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due to...

  7. Properties of Streptococcus mutans Grown in a Synthetic Medium: Binding of Glucosyltransferase and In Vitro Adherence, and Binding of Dextran/Glucan and Glycoprotein and Agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Yuan, Christine D.; Tai, Stella; Slade, Hutton D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of culture media on various properties of Streptococcus mutans was investigated. Strains of S. mutans (serotypes c, d, f, and g) were grown in a complex medium (Todd-Hewitt broth [THB]) or a synthetic medium (SYN). The SYN cells, in contrast to THB cells, did not bind extracellular glucosyltransferase and did not produce in vitro adherence. Both types of cells possessed constitutive levels of glucosyltransferase. B13 cells grown in SYN plus invertase-treated glucose possessed the same level of constitutive enzyme as THB cells. In contrast to THB cells, the SYN cells of seven serotype strains did not agglutinate upon the addition of high-molecular-weight dextran/glucan. Significant quantities of lower-molecular-weight (2 × 104 or 7 × 104) dextran and B13 glucan were bound by SYN cells. SYN cells agglutinated weakly in anti-glucan serum (titers, 0 to 16), whereas THB cells possessed titers of 32 to 256. Evidence for the existence of a second binding site in agglutination which does not possess a glucan-like polymer has been obtained. B13 cells grown in invertase-treated THB agglutinated to the same degree as normal THB cells. The nature of this site is unknown. SYN cells possess the type-specific polysaccharide antigen. B13 cells did not bind from THB a glycoprotein which reacts with antisera to the A, B, or T blood group antigens or which allows agglutination upon the addition of dextran. The results demonstrate that S. mutans grown in a chemically defined medium possesse markedly different biochemical and biological activities than cells grown in a complex organic medium. PMID:457252

  8. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco; Fock, Jeppe; Creagh, Michael; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Boisen, Anja

    2016-11-15

    We present a biosensing platform for the detection of proteins based on agglutination of aptamer coated magnetic nano- or microbeads. The assay, from sample to answer, is integrated on an automated, low-cost microfluidic disc platform. This ensures fast and reliable results due to a minimum of manual steps involved. The detection of the target protein was achieved in two ways: (1) optomagnetic readout using magnetic nanobeads (MNBs); (2) optical imaging using magnetic microbeads (MMBs). The optomagnetic readout of agglutination is based on optical measurement of the dynamics of MNB aggregates whereas the imaging method is based on direct visualization and quantification of the average size of MMB aggregates. By enhancing magnetic particle agglutination via application of strong magnetic field pulses, we obtained identical limits of detection of 25pM with the same sample-to-answer time (15min 30s) using the two differently sized beads for the two detection methods. In both cases a sample volume of only 10µl is required. The demonstrated automation, low sample-to-answer time and portability of both detection instruments as well as integration of the assay on a low-cost disc are important steps for the implementation of these as portable tools in an out-of-lab setting. PMID:27183287

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thulliez, P.; Weigel, R.M.; Andrews, C.D.; Lind, Peter; Powell, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were compared in 1,000 naturally exposed sows, using isolation of viable T gondii as the definitive test. Serum samples obtained from heart blood of 1,000 sows from Iowa were examined for T gondii...... antibodies by use of the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and ELISA. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 170 hearts of 1,000 sows by bioassays in mice and cats. The percentage of samples diagnosed as positive for each of the serologic...

  10. Comparison of an automated rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the conventional RPR card test in syphilis testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Han; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Min-Geol; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Objective We compared the automated non-treponemal reagin (rapid plasma reagin (RPR)) test with the conventional RPR card test for usefulness in clinical applications. Setting A comparative study of laboratory methods using clinical specimens in a single institute. Participants A total of 112 serum samples including 59 Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-positive and 53 TPPA-negative specimens were evaluated. Outcome measures HiSens Auto RPR LTIA (HBI, Anyang, Korea) was compared...

  11. Comparison of counter-current immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and radioimmunoassay in detection of soluble capsular polysaccharide antigens of Haemohpilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis of groups A or C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three serological methods, radioimmunoassay (RIA), latex agglutination (LX), and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), for sensitivity in the detection of the capsular polysaccharide antigen of Haemophilus influenzae type b or Neisseria meningitidis groups A and C were compared. RIA was consistently the most sensitive, LX the next, and CIEP the least sensitive. When RIA and LX were used to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with meningitis, they gave very similar results. In only two out of 47 samples, in which RIA detected one of the three antigens, was the amount of the specific polysaccharide too low to be detected by LX. By the serological methods evidence of specific pathogen could be detected in 49 samples, including nine from patients who had received intensive antimicrobial treatment for up to three days and from whom specimens yielded no bacteria on culture. The reactions were specific in all cases except two out of 47 tests positive to LX. From these two CSF samples N. meningitidis group B could be cultivated, whereas the LX was recorded positive for N. meningitidis of group A in one case, and of group C in the other. The nonspecific reactions could be due to antibodies to bacterial components other than the capsular polysaccharide. (author)

  12. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-11-28

    A method for detecting the presence of an analyte in a sample can include adding a plurality of microparticles of a first-type to the sample, where each microparticle of the first-type includes a first binding partner configured to interact with at least a first portion of the analyte, adding a plurality of microparticles of a second-type to the sample, where each microparticle of the second-type includes a second binding partner configured to interact with at least a second portion of the analyte, the first portion of the analyte being different from the second portion of the analyte, and identifying an aggregate including at least one microparticle of the first-type, at least one microparticle of the second-type and the analyte, where the aggregate indicates the presence of the analyte.

  13. Genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the mixed-field agglutination in B3 blood type with IVS3+5G>A ABO gene mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Ping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ABO blood type B(3 is the most common B subtype in the Chinese population with a frequency of 1/900. Although IVS3+5G>A (rs55852701 mutation of B gene has been shown to associate with the development of B(3 blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the unique mixed-field agglutination phenotype has not yet been completely addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 16 cases of confirmed B(3 individuals and found that IVS3+5G>A attributes to all cases of B(3. RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 7 types of aberrant B(3 splicing transcripts with most of the transcripts causing early termination and producing non-functional protein during translation. The splicing transcript without exon 3 that was predicted to generate functional B(3 glycosyltransferase lacking 19 amino acids at the N-terminal segment constituted only 0.9% of the splicing transcripts. Expression of the B(3 cDNA with exon 3 deletion in the K562 erythroleukemia cells revealed that the B(3 glycosyltransferase had only 40% of B(1 activity in converting H antigen to B antigen. Notably, the typical mixed-field agglutination of B(3-RBCs can be mimicked by adding anti-B antibody to the K562-B(3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study thereby demonstrates that both aberrant splicing of B transcripts and the reduced B(3 glycosyltransferase activity contribute to weak B expression and the mixed-field agglutination of B(3, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression.

  14. Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina Agglutinating antibody titers induced by commercial vaccines against bovine leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Godoy Cravo Arduino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, 100 fêmeas bovinas foram divididas em cinco grupos de 20 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam quatro diferentes vacinas comerciais (B, C, D e E, e um grupo permaneceu como controle. Amostras foram colhidas no dia da aplicação da primeira dose e nos dias 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 e 180 pós-vacinação (PV. A triagem dos animais foi feita pela análise sorológica com 6 antígenos de leptospiras, escolhendo-se os animais não reagentes. Os títulos de anticorpos foram monitorados pela soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM com os sorovares Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona e Wolffi. Todas as vacinas induziram, aos 3 dias PV, títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes para os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi, que persistiram até o 150º dia PV. Os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi induziram os maiores títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes. A vacina D, apesar de não possuir o sorovar Wolffi em sua composição foi capaz de induzir anticorpos aglutinantes contra este sorovar. Somente foram detectados anticorpos contra o sorovar Canicola nos animais vacinados com a bacterina D. A vacina que induziu os maiores títulos médios de anticorpos, considerando todos os sorovares testados foi a D.In the investigation 100 heifers were used, divided into 5 groups of 20 animals each. The four experimental groups were vaccinated using distinct commercial polyvalent bacterines: B, C, D and E, and A group was the control. Samples were collected at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 and 180 from the first injection of the vaccine. The selection of the animals for the experimental groups was done based on a serological screening with 6 antigens of Leptospira sp. constituted by non-reagent animals. The vaccine titers were monitored using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Wolffi

  15. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR test for simultaneous identification and serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5, and 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessing, Stine Graakjær; Angen, Øystein; Inzana, Tomas J.

    2003-01-01

    6 were combined with the already existing species-specific primers used in a PCR test based on the omlA gene. The PCR test was evaluated with serotype reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae as well as 182 Danish field isolates previously serotyped by latex agglutination or immunodiffusion. For all...... cross-reacted by the latex agglutination test were of serotype 2, 5, or 6. Determination of the serotype by PCR represents a convenient and specific method for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories....

  16. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  17. Mechanistic Evaluation for Mixed-field Agglutination in the K562 Cell Study Model with Exon 3 Deletion of A1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-Ping; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Chi-Jui; Wang, Wei-Ting; Sun, Chien-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In the case of blood type B3 with typical mixed-field agglutination of RBCs in the presence of anti-B or anti-AB antibody, a number of genetic alternations have been reported. It is well known that the IVS3+5G→A mutation in the B gene destroys the consensus of the splice donor site leading to exon 3 skipping during mRNA splicing. The lack of exon 3 likely causes a short stem region, producing an unstable B3 protein, and is concomitant with a decrease in B3 protein expression. Whether the phenomenon also appears in the type A blood group is of question. In this study, we evaluate whether exon 3 deletion in the blood type A gene also results in mixed-field phenotype. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate cDNA encoding A1 gene with exon 3 deletion. The cDNA was stably expressed in K562 cells. The expression of A antigen was compared with expression in parental K562 cells that did not express A antigen and in the stable K562 cell line expressing A(1) cDNA by flow cytometry analyses. The expression of A antigen in A1 stable cells and parental K562 cells was set as 100% and 0%, respectively. The mean relative percentage of A antigen expression for the cells of A1 with exon 3 deletion was 59.9% of A1 stable cells. Consistent with the observations of B3, which is B gene with exon 3 deletion, mixed field agglutination was observed for the cells expressing A1 with exon 3 deletion. Exon 3 deletion results in mixed field phenotype in both type A and B RBCs. However, the degree of antigen expression change for exon 3 deletion in A gene was less severe when compared with the deletion occurred in B gene. PMID:26663798

  18. Antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J. P.; Andrews, C.D.; Lind, Peter;

    1996-01-01

    ) infective oocysts, and 6 pigs served as uninoculated controls. Blood (serum) samples were obtained at 1- to 3-week intervals until euthanasia. At necropsy, the brain, heart, and tongue of pigs were bioassayed in mice and cats for isolation of T gondii. Modified agglutination test (MAT), using whole, fixed...

  19. Aglutinación de partículas de látex vs. contrainmunoelectroforesis en meningitis bacteriana aguda Latex agglutination vs. counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Tulia Zapata Muñoz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 57 pacientes con meningitis aguda, de etiología bacteriana comprobada; 47.4% (27 casos fueron causados por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b; 21.0% (12 casos por Streptococcus pneumoniae; 17.5% (10 casos por Neisseria meningitidis; 5.3% (3 casos por Staphylococcus aureus,. 5.3% (3 casos por enterobacterias y 3.5% (2 casos por gérmenes no Identificados por cultivos. Se comparó la aglutinación de partículas de látex (APL con la contralnmunoelectroforesis (CIE en los pacientes con cultivo positivo. La exactitud de ambas fue similar para el H. influenzae tipo b y el S. pneumoniae. Tres de los 10 casos con cultivo positivo para N. meningítidis fueron positivos en la APL pero ninguno lo fue en la CIE. Se presentó un falso positivo para H. ínfluenzae con la APL que correspondió a meningitis por Salmonella typhí, Las pruebas inmunológicas estuvieron plenamente justificadas en 12 de los 57 pacientes (21.0%, previamente tratados, en quienes la bacteriología tradicional fue negativa o se quería identificar el germen porque lo único positivo era el gram y se justificaba utilizar el antibiótico más especifico. Se sugiere el uso de la APL en el Hospital Infantil de Medellín, por ser una prueba confiable y más simple y rápida que la CIE.

    A comparison was made between latex particles agglutination (LPA and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE in the diagnosis of 57 children with acute bacterial meningitis; reagents were utllized to detect infection by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neísseria meningitídís. Results of both tests were similar for diagnosis of H. ínfluenzae and S. pneumoniae; in contrast only 30.0% of cases due to N. meningitidis gave a positive result with LP A and none was detected with CIE.in 12 patients (21.0% LPA and CIE were the only tests that allowed a precise determination ot the etiology of the disease. The authors

  20. Production of the 57 kDa major surface antigen by a non-agglutinating strain of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senson, P R; Stevenson, R M

    1999-10-11

    The major surface antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum, p57, is associated with cell autoagglutination and implicated as a virulence factor in fish infections. An autoagglutinating strain, JD24, caused 92% mortality when 2 x 10(7) cells were injected intraperitoneally into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, while a non-agglutinating strain, MT 239, produced only 7% mortality after 100 d. The p57 antigen was present in the supernates of broth cultures of both strains when examined by western immunoblotting, and the gene for p57 was detected in both strains by PCR. Electron microscopy of cryopreserved thin sections showed an amorphous layer associated with the cell surface of JD24 which was not seen with MT 239. While p57 from JD24 could reassociate with cells of both strains, p57 from MT 239 failed to restore haemagglutination activity to either strain. Biotinylation of bacterial surfaces demonstrated the presence of a carbohydrate component of p57 from JD24 which was absent from the p57 produced by MT 239. The higher virulence of JD24 may depend not only on the production of p57, but also its direct association with the bacterial cell surface. PMID:10590925

  1. Suitability of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for Detection of Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ghana, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aidoo, S.; Ampofo, W. K.; Brandful, J. A. M.; Nuvor, S. V.; Ansah, J. K.; Nii-Trebi, N.; Barnor, J. S.; Apeagyei, F; Sata, T.; Ofori-Adjei, D.; Ishikawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    In West African countries such as Ghana, efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is a priority in the fight against AIDS. A new immunochromatographic rapid test, Determine HIV-1/2 (Abbott Diagnostics, North Chicago, Ill.), that detects antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and/or HIV-2 was evaluated using Ghanaian blood samples. Two hundred four serum and/or plasma specimens were tested. HIV screening was done by a particle agglutination test and confirmed by a Western blot (WB) ...

  2. To Evaluate the Different Rapid Screening Tests for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdev, Sangeeta; Mulla, Summaiya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute febrile disease, in tropical and sub-tropical regions of world. It has been under-reported in India, due to presence of non-specific symptoms and unavailability of appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities in most part of the country. The diagnosis of leptospirosis is usually based on demonstration of antibodies by different serological tests. Aim: The present study aims to evaluate and compare commercially available rapid test. Design and Settings: Case control study. Materials and Methods: Three screening tests (Leptocheck WB, Latex agglutination test and SD leptospira) were compared by using 100 serum samples randomly obtained from clinical cases of Leptospirosis admitted in new civil hospital, Surat, Gujarat. All the patients with acute Leptospirosis were included in this 4-months pilot study from July 2011 to October 2011. All the results were compared with IgM ELISA and MAT for confirmation of diagnosis. Results: Leptocheck WB, Latex agglutination test and SD leptospira had sensitivities of 84.8%, 84.8% and 72.7% & specificities of 37.3%, 71.2% and 71.2% respectively as compared to MAT. Leptocheck WB, Latex agglutination test and SD leptospira had sensitivities of 90.7%, 89.7% and 53.7% & specificities of 93.4%, 90.9% and 60% respectively as compared to IgM ELISA. Conclusion: Latex agglutination test kit and Leptocheck WB were found to be highly sensitive and specific. Neither of these tests require specialized equipment, and could be performed in peripheral laboratories with relatively little expertise. PMID:25859456

  3. Evaluation of different confirmatory algorithms using seven treponemal tests on Architect Syphilis TP-positive/RPR-negative sera

    OpenAIRE

    S Jonckheere; Berth, M.; Esbroeck, M.; Blomme, S.; Lagrou, K.; Padalko, Elizaveta

    2015-01-01

    The Architect Syphilis TP is considered to be a suitable screening test due to its high sensitivity and full automation. According to the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) 2014 guidelines, however, positive screening tests need confirmation with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP.PA). Among Architect-positive results, samples with a negative non-treponemal test present the major diagnostic challenge. In this multicenter study, we investigated if ot...

  4. The role of the ELISA test in the control of bovine brucellosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An FAO/IAEA enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis was compared in Argentina with two screening tests, the rose bengal (RB) and buffered plate antigen (BPA) agglutination tests, and two confirmatory tests, the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination tests and the complement fixation (CF) test. In the testing of Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) vaccinated cattle from Brucella free dairy herds, the diagnostic specificity estimate of the EIA test was shown to be comparable to those of the RB, 2-ME and CF tests and greater than that of the BPA test. In the testing of S19 vaccinated cattle from infected herds, the sensitivity estimates of the BPA test relative to CF, 2-ME and EIA test positive reactors were comparable and high. The relative sensitivity estimates of the RB test in the same comparison were disparate and lower. The EIA test demonstrated the highest relative sensitivity estimates in a three way comparison between EIA, CF and 2-ME test reactors from these herds. Relative to BPA test reactors from the same infected herds, the sensitivity estimate of the EIA test was comparable to that of the 2-ME test and higher than that of the CF test. These results would suggest that the overall diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the EIA test are comparable, if not superior, to those of the tests used to confirm BPA test reactor status. (author). 6 refs, 3 tabs

  5. Comparison of an agar-gel immunodiffusion test with other serological methods for differentiating Brucella infected from vaccinated cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    An agar-gel immunodiffusion test was compared with other serological tests for detection of antibodies in the sera of 48 cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19. Two hundred forty-two sera were tested over a 12 month period, and addition of positive reactions for each test resulted in totals of 170 for the card test, 74 for the standard tube-agglutination test, 71 for the 2-mercaptoethanol test, 64 for the dithiothreitol test and 22 for the agar-gel immunodiffusion test.

  6. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    The food of four species of Cephalaspidea (Philine aperta, Philine denticulata, Philine scabra and Cylichna cylindracea) was studied in animals collected on silty clay bottoms at 20-35 m depth on the west coast of Sweden. The specimens were dissected. Only calcareous foraminiferans were found in...... agglutinating foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a...... preadaptation for other purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough...

  7. A Comparison of Bovine Brucellosis ELISA Kit from Standard Tube Agglutination Test(SAT) in the Serological Investigation of Brucellosis in Xinjiang Region of China%牛布鲁氏菌抗体ELISA试剂盒与国标血清学SAT试验在布病检测中的比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多里坤·努尔沙发; 阿曼古力·马木提; 阿布都热衣木·塞提; 米吉提; 地力夏提; 阿达来提; 巴哈尔

    2011-01-01

    采集的牛血清100份、羊血清250份,分别进行国标布病虎红平板凝集试验(RBn,在牛血清中检出13份布病阳性血清,羊均为阴性。对牛的13份阳性血清分别进行动物布病试管凝集试验(SAT)和牛布鲁氏菌抗体ELISA试验。经SAT试验结果为10份阳性,ELISA试验结果为13份阳性。结果表明牛布鲁氏菌抗体ELISA试剂盒快速,操作简便,敏感性好,特异性优待研究,如果能够证明特异性高,在布病血清学检测的有效的方法。%100 serum samples from cattle and 250 serum samples from sheep were detected by GB Bengal test (RBT),the result showed that 13 positive in cattle,sheep almost obtain negative results. 13 positive serum samples from cattle differently detected by Standard tube agglutination test (SAT) and bovine brucellosis ELISA kit ,The tests showed that SAT detected 10 positive ,and ELISA kit detected 13 positive ,the date suggested that the bovine brucellosis ELISA kit was of high sensitivity and convenient fast operation ,the specificty needs futher tests,if it confirmed, provides an effective means for the serological test methods of brucellosis.

  8. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  9. BrucellaCapt versus Classical Tests in the Serological Diagnosis and Management of Human Brucellosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Aurora; Ariza, Javier; Rubio, Manuel; Masuet, Cristina; Díaz, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The BrucellaCapt test is an immunocapture agglutination test suggested as a possible substitute for the Coombs test in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Here it is compared with classical tests using 321 samples from 48 patients with brucellosis (6.9 ± 1.7 samples per patient), including 20 patients with focal disease and 8 patients with a total of 9 relapse episodes (mean follow-up, 18 months). The BrucellaCapt test was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, and we also used a ...

  10. 血清凝集、基因测序联合检测群霍乱弧菌的应用%Application of DetectingVibrio Cholerae Combined with Serum Agglutination and Gene Sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万静; 王多春; 唐倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:避免霍乱弧菌检测假阳性,提高检测正确率。方法随机选取2013年1~7月,全国各省市 CDC 送往中国CDC 霍乱初筛阳性菌株14株;用 LB 营养琼脂培养12 h,挑取单菌落进行霍乱弧菌血清凝集,同时水煮模板法提取菌株的DNA。针对弧菌属16SrDNA 序列设计引物,进行弧菌16SrDNA PCR 检测,电泳观察16SrDNA 产物,将16SrDNA 阳性产物送测序公司测序,测序结果在 NCBI 网站上进行 Blast 比对,分析比较血清凝集和 Blast 比对结果。结果共选取14株菌进行实验,血清凝集阳性12株,2株未凝。经弧菌16SrDNA 扩增,电泳观察14株菌均扩增出相应的片段,说明所选菌株均为弧菌属。将14株菌的16SrDNA 阳性产物测序,并将测序结果进行 Blast 比对:2株血清未凝集菌均是哈维氏弧菌;12株血清凝集阳性的菌中,1株是需钠弧菌,其余11株是霍乱弧菌。结论血清凝集和基因测序联合检测群霍乱弧菌,可避免霍乱弧菌检测假阳性,提高检测正确率。%Objective To avoid false positive detection ofVibrio cholerae and improve the detection correct rate.Methods 1~7 months of 2013 were randomly selected,the national various provinces and cities CDC to China cholera CDC positive screening 14 strains.LB nutrient agar 12 hours,take single colony to Vibrio cholera serum agglutination,extraction of strain DNA at the same time boiled template method.For Vibrio 16SrDNA sequence and design primers for PCR detection of Vib-rio,16SrDNA,electrophoresis were used to observe the 16SrDNA products,16SrDNA positive products sent to sequencing company sequencing,sequencing results were Blast comparison on the NCBI website for the analysis and comparison of ser-um agglutination and Blast alignment.Results 12 strains was positive for agglutination and 2 strains of non agglutination in 14 strains.The Vibrio 16SrDNA amplification,electrophoresis were used to observe the 14

  11. Evaluación de un método de aglutinación con látex para la detección de proteína C reactiva Agglutination evaluation method related to use of latex to detection of reactive C protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Guerreiro Hernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó un método de aglutinación con látex para la detección de proteína C reactiva (PCR (PCR-Látex, CENTIS empleándose como referencia un test turbidimétrico (PCR-Turbilátex, Spinreact. Se procesaron en paralelo 97 sueros de pacientes con clínica sugestiva de inflamación y sepsis. El análisis estadístico incluyó la determinación de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP, valor predictivo negativo (VPN y límites de detección. Los resultados obtenidos de sensibilidad: 97,8 %; especificidad: 98,0 %; VPP: 97,8 %; VPN: 98,0 %, con un límite de detección de 6 mg/L, pueden considerarse de satisfactorios, lo que permite contar con un procedimiento sencillo, rápido y eficiente que no requiere de un equipamiento especial.Agglutination evaluation method related to use of latex for detection of reactive C protein (RCP (RCP-Latex, CENTIS was evaluated, using as reference a turbidimetry test (RCP-Turbilatex, Spinreact. In parallel, 97 sera from patients with possibilities of inflammation and sepsis were processed. Statistical analysis included determination of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, and detection limits. Results achieved for sensitivity: 97,8 %; specificity: 98,0 %; NVP: 97,8 %; NPV: 98 % with a detection limit of 6 mg/L, may be considered of satisfactory, allowing to have a simple, fast, and efficient procedure without a especial equipment.

  12. Comparison of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and slide agglutination test (SAT) for screening of Pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffalo of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute infectious epidemic disease of cattle and buffalo caused by Pasteurella multocida. The disease is prevalent sporadically throughout the year but may occur in epizootic form during the rainy season. The organism associated with this disease is heterogeneous in its characteristics. Many attempts have been made to subdivide these organisms into types which bear some relation to host species. Some isolates obtained from the clinical cases have been identified as Carter's type B. However, no systematic studies of the organism as it occurred during the subsequent years has been made hitherto. The knowledge of occurrence of various serotypes of P. multocida is important for the determination of reservoirs of infection and the geographical spread of this organism. This is also important for the production of autogenous vaccine and the recognition of the prevalence of new serotypes. Keeping in view the above considerations, the present work was planned to categorize the strains of P. multocida isolated from cattle and buffalo in order to learn about the prevalence of serotypes. In this investigation, an attempt was also made to compare the status of efficiency and sensitivity of SAT, IHA and ELISA

  13. Novel Point-of-Care Test for Simultaneous Detection of Nontreponemal and Treponemal Antibodies in Patients with Syphilis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Arnold R.; Esfandiari, Javan; Kumar, Shailendra; Ashton, Matthew (British painter, active from 1728); Kikkert, Susan E.; Park, Mahin M.; Ballard, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a point-of-care immunochromatographic test for the simultaneous detection of both nontreponemal and treponemal antibodies in the sera of patients with syphilis that acts as both a screening and a confirmatory test. A total of 1,601 banked serum samples were examined by the dual test, and the results were compared to those obtained using a quantitative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay. Compared to the RPR test, t...

  14. Hematology and agglutination titer after polyvalent immunization and subsequent challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Hematología y título de aglutinación después de inmunización polivalente y desafío con Aeromonas hydrophila a tilapias del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Bailone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of polyvalent vaccination on the hematological and serum agglutination responses in Nile tilapia challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Two dosis, 1 x 10(4 and 1 x 10(8 Colony Forming Units (CFU/mL, of vaccine containing the same amount of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus durans formalin-inactivated were tested by intraperitoneal (i.p injection. Fish were challenged ten days after vaccination i.p. with a DL50-96h of 1 x 10(7 CFU A. hydrophila/mL. Samples were collected 48 h after challenging fish to check the hematological parameters, antimicrobial activity and agglutination titer of serum, samples were collected 48 h after challenge. Before challenge, the number of erythrocytes was higher in fish vaccinated with 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL. After challenge, total number of thrombocytes was higher in fish that received the greatest dose of vaccine. Before and after challenge, total number of leukocytes and the number of lymphocytes showed the highest values in vaccinated fish. Before challenge, increased number of monocytes in vaccinated and saline-injected fish was observed. The highest agglutination titer against A. hydrophila, P. aeruginosa and E. durans was related in 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL vaccinated fish. Before challenge, high values of antimicrobial activity in non-vaccinated fish and 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL vaccinated ones was also related. Therefore, after challenge, non-vaccinated fish and saline-injected ones showed the highest antimicrobial activity. This study showed that 10 days after immunization with a polyvalent vaccine at a concentration 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL, there was an increase on erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes and circulating lymphocytes production, while the glucose levels were reduced.Este trabajo evaluó el efecto de la vacuna polivalente sobre las respuestas hematológicas y inmunológicas de tilapias del Nilo desafiadas con Aeromonas hydrophila. Dos dosis, 1 x 10(4 y 1 x 10

  15. Comparative Study of Serological Tests for Mycoplasma synoviae Diagnosis in Commercial Poultry Breeders

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Luciano; A. L. S. P. Cardoso; Stoppa, G. F. Z.; Kanashiro, A. M. I.; A. G. M. de Castro; Tessari, E. N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis causes great economic losses to the poultry industry, and one of the major agents involved is Mycoplasma synovie (MS). Serum from commercial poultry breeders ( = 2 7 8 1 ) was tested for MS by serum plate agglutination (SPA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 2,781 samples tested, 736 (26.46%) were positive in SPA. From 712 SPA-positive sera, 30 samples (4.21%) were positive in HI, and 150 samples (21.06%) were positive...

  16. Comparative Study of Serological Tests for Mycoplasma synoviae Diagnosis in Commercial Poultry Breeders

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Luciano; A. L. S. P. Cardoso; Stoppa, G. F. Z.; Kanashiro, A. M. I.; A. G. M. de Castro; Tessari, E. N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis causes great economic losses to the poultry industry, and one of the major agents involved is Mycoplasma synovie (MS). Serum from commercial poultry breeders (n = 2781) was tested for MS by serum plate agglutination (SPA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 2,781 samples tested, 736 (26.46%) were positive in SPA. From 712 SPA-positive sera, 30 samples (4.21%) were positive in HI, and 150 samples (21.06%) were positive in E...

  17. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting livestock and human beings. The human disease lacks pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory tests are essential for its diagnosis. However, most tests are difficult to implement in the areas and countries were brucellosis is endemic. Here, we compared the simple and cheap Rose Bengal Test (RBT with serum agglutination, Coombs, competitive ELISA, Brucellacapt, lateral flow immunochromatography for IgM and IgG detection and immunoprecipitation with Brucella proteins. We tested 208 sera from patients with brucellosis proved by bacteriological isolation, 20 contacts with no brucellosis, and 1559 sera of persons with no recent contact or brucellosis symptoms. RBT was highly sensitive in acute and long evolution brucellosis cases and this related to its ability to detect IgM, IgG and IgA, to the absence of prozones, and to the agglutinating activity of blocking IgA at the pH of the test. RBT was also highly specific in the sera of persons with no contact with Brucella. No test in this study outperformed RBT, and none was fully satisfactory in distinguishing contacts from infected patients. When modified to test serum dilutions, a diagnostic titer >4 in RBT resulted in 87.4% sensitivity (infected patients and 100% specificity (contacts. We discuss the limitations of serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis, particularly in the more chronic forms, and conclude that simplicity and affordability of RBT make it close to the ideal test for small and understaffed hospitals and laboratories.

  18. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for human Brucellosis in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Arabacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical utility of complementary tests for brucellosis are not clear in many situation. This study aimed toevaluate value of these tests for brucellosis in an endemic area in Turkey.Materials and methods: This study was performed at Çanakkale General Hospital in 2009. In a retrospective approach, recordsof the patients who evaluated for brucellosis were collected. During the study period, 236 people (131 symptomaticand 105 non-symptomatic were evaluated for diagnosis of brucellosis. All of the samples from these patients were testedfor Brucella antibody seropositivity by RB slide agglutination, standard serum agglutination, Brucella Coombs, BrucellaCapt,and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. Results: In total, 49 symptomatic patients were hospitalized and blood cultures wereobtained. Brucella spp. were isolated from nine of them (18.4%.The BrucellaCapt test was found to be the most sensitivefor Brucella (74.0% and close behind it was the Coombs test (72.5%. The sensitivity for the RB test was 48.1%. The ELISAIgG test was found more sensitive for brucellosis than the ELISA IgM test was (65.6% and 49.6%, respectively. All examinedtests were found about 100% specific for brucellosis but the RB test was found less specific than the others were (96.1%Positive predictive value for all tests was about 1 but negative predictive values were only valuable for the Coombs andBrucella Capt test (0.744 and 0.755, respectively. The other serological tests were around and below 0.50, which was weakfor negative results.Conclusions: The ELISA IgG and IgM tests were no superior to the other tests. By assessment of receiver operating characteristics(ROC analysis, the Brucella Coombs and BrucellaCapt tests were found to be the most valuable tests for serologicaldiagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The seronegative tests in the symptomatic patients should be evaluated andrepeated in short time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 50-56Key words: Brucella

  19. Study of Latex Agglutination Test for the Detection of Serum Antibodies against Infectious Coryza in Chickens%乳胶凝集试验检测鸡传染性鼻炎血清抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何启盖; 陈焕春; 张小飞; 汪超; 吴斌

    2000-01-01

    将A型和C型鸡副嗜血杆菌培养后,菌落计数,离心计数,离心后用0.01M pH7.4磷酸盐缓冲液洗涤菌体2次.经过对致敏温度、致敏时间、致敏乳胶的菌体浓度及菌体的处理方式等条件的选择,建立了检测鸡传染性鼻炎血清抗体的乳胶凝集试验.与琼脂扩散试验相比,特异性一致,但更加敏感,且操作简便、快速.结果说明,该方法有较好的应用前景,尤其适用于本病的现场快速诊断.

  20. 运用"磁性医院"模式对医院离职管理的探究%Discussion on applying agglutinant hospital mode on hospital turnover management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷辉; 周春艳; 徐袁瑾

    2016-01-01

    目的:借鉴"磁性医院"模式,结合某三甲医院近3年医务人员离职现状,分析影响离职因素,提出有效减少医院离职率的对策与建议,实现医院可持续发展.方法:问卷调查、数据分析和专家咨询.结果:某三甲医院近3年离职人数递增,集中在低层次学历和护士岗位,并且离职高发期在职业生涯初期.离职原因主要包括组织、个人和社会3大因素,离职后去向明显.结论:从医院层面、个人层面和社会层面3个方面让医院像磁铁一样吸引职工留下,减少离职率.%Objectives: To analyze influence factors of turnover and give countermeasures for effective reducing turnover rate in hospital according to agglutinant hospital mode and current 3 years turnover data in a tertiary A level hospital. Methods: questionnaire, data analysis and expert consultation were used. Results: The turnover staff were increasing year by year during the current 3 years which was focused on poor education group and nursing group. The climaxes of turnover are in the beginning of career stage. Main influence factors involve organization, individual and society. Conclusions: It is considered to reduce turnover rate from aspects of hospital, individual and society.

  1. [Effect of erythrocyte preserved for different lengths of time on anti-D antibody identification with three blood matching tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui-Qing; Lin, Wu-Cun; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The specificity of the antigens and length of preservation time of erythrocytes are the interfering factors in blood group serological tests. In order to clarify the influence of preservation time of erythrocytes on the blood matching test, the titers of anti-D antibody were detected with papain method, BioVue cross matching card and DianaGel cross matching card in 7 series of panel red blood cells preserved for various length of time (0 to 9 months). The results showed that the titer of micro-column gel test (DianaGel card) was one tube higher than that of column agglutinating test (BioVue card). The titer of erythrocytes preserved for 9 months was as high as 256 tested by DianaGel card, but it was only 2 by papain method in the same anti-serum. It is suggested that there was no obvious difference between the results of micro-column gel test and column agglutinating test, and titer of papain method was the lowest. PMID:14575550

  2. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski; Gunnar Martin; Maria Teresa Destro; Mariza Landgraf; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample ...

  3. Examination of sensitivity and specificity of some serological tests in diagnostics of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović Kazimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most reliable diagnosis of an infectuous disease is confirmed by isolation of its pathogen. When it comes to brucellosis, it is important to know that brucella isolation is rarely successful; it is not only very complicated but is as well hazardous for laboratory workers. Due to the above mentioned reasons, it is reasonable to use serological tests for routine diagnosis of this zoonose. This paper deals with examination of bovine sera samples with the aim to detect the titer of specific antibodies against brucellosis. In order to choose and evaluate properly the best test in terms of applicability, speed of performance, and provision of correct results, five serological tests were assayed: rapid serum plate agglutination (Rose Bengal test, Brucella abortus bovis test (RB, BAB test; serum agglutination test (titration - by Wright, as micro method (mSAT; reaction of complement fixation, and also as micro method (mCF; indirect imunoenzyime test (iELISA and competitive imunoenzyme test (cELISA. This paper includes 630 samples of bovine blood sera, as well as positive and negative international antibrucella serum as the mandatory control. The presence of specific antibodies against brucella was determined in 125 samples of bovine blood sera. Based on the analysis of the results obtained, evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of these tests was conducted. iELISA and RB test proved to be the most sensitive, while the highest specificity was determined in mCF, and less specific were mSAT and iELISA. RB test had the lowest specificity.

  4. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  5. 评价螺旋体乳胶快速反应实验检测梅毒血清的特异性和敏感性%Sensitivity and specificity of Diesse syphilis fast test in testing syphilis serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋红中; 王家璧; 王晓蜂; 邵燕玲; 何志新; 刘跃华; 洪少林

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess sensitivity and specificity of Diesse syphilis fast test(DSFT) in routine use, and compare it with rapid plasma reagin circle card test(RPR test), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay(TPHA), fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test(FTA-ABS test). Methods: DSFT, RPR, TPHA, FTA-ABS were used to detect 500 cases of syphilis and normal senam. Results :Using FTA-ABS as gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of DSFT were 98.6% (204/207), and 93.2%(273/293) ,respectirely(X2= 1.04, P > 0.05. Using TPHA as gold standard, the sensitivity and specifity of DSFT were 100% (223/223),99.6% (273/277), respectively(x2 = 0.04, P > 0.05). Condusion: The Diesse syphilis fast test in routine use has high sensitivity and specificity in testing syphilis.

  6. Study and evaluation on tumor cell agglutinating activity of human sera%血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性及其意义的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广超; 翟庆云; 石渊渊; 王玉兰

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨血清对肿瘤细胞凝集的影响以及血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性测定的意义。方法:采用体外细胞凝集实验和实验性转移模型等,以及以热变性、酶消化和盐析等方法处理血清。结果:血清诱导促进高转移潜能肿瘤细胞凝集,以恶性肿瘤患者血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性最高,其对恶性肿瘤诊断的灵敏度为90.6%,特异性为92.1%,准确性为91.3%。糖肽能有效地抑制血清诱导的黑色素瘤B16细胞凝集及其实验性肺转移。此外蛋白酶及高碘酸处理血清可使血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性极大的降低,正常人及良性瘤患者血清活性对热较稳定,而恶性肿瘤患者血清活性则比较敏感等。结论:血清中存在肿瘤细胞凝集因子,正常人及良性瘤患者血清中因子可能主要是糖蛋白,恶性肿瘤患者血清中的则可能还有少量氨基多糖和凝集素类。血清可能通过诱导肿瘤细胞凝集促进肿瘤转移。此外,血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性与肿瘤转移相关,其在恶性肿瘤的临床诊断及预后方面可能具有重要的应用价值。%Objective:To probe into the effect of human sera on tumor cell aggregation and evaluate tumor cell agglutinating activity of human sera.Methods:The aggregation of human nasopharyngeal carcinom a cells(CNE-2L2)with high metastatic potential induced by human sera in vitro and the experimental lung metastasis of B16 murine melanoma were quant ified.Human sera were treated by hot,pronase,salt out or periodate oxidation,etc .Results:L2 cell aggregatin was introduced and enhanced b y the sera of normal persons, benign tumor or malignant tumor patients,and the tumor cell aggregating activity of malignant tumor patients’ sera was the highe st.The diagnostic sensity to malignant tumor was 90.6%,the specificity was 92.1% and the accuracy was 91.3%.The experimental metastasis of B16 cells and t umor a ggregation were inhibited by

  7. Testing the Product Test

    OpenAIRE

    Brea, H.; Grifell-Tatjé, Emili; Lovell, C.A. Knox

    2010-01-01

    The product test asks the product of a quantity index number and a price index number to equal the corresponding value change. The literature treats the product test as being so important that it is used to identify acceptable index number pairs, and to construct implicit index numbers when an otherwise desirable pair fails the test. We treat the product test as a hypothesis to be tested, and we provide an empirical application.

  8. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  9. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeli Kodjo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT, using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1 positive (n=50; (2 borderline (n=35; and (3 negative (n=50. Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted, respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination.

  10. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  11. The Value of Serologic Tests for Diagnosis and Follow up of Patients having Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia E. Lucero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Though diagnosis of human brucellosis is accurate when the causal agent is isolated, this procedure is not always successful and the most of patients are diagnosed on the basis of rising titres of antibodies in serum. The classical tests used for detection of antibodies to S-Brucella sp., include Rose Bengal (RBT, buffered plate antigen (BPAT, serum agglutination (SAT, 2-mercapto-ethanol (2MET and complement fixation (CFT. The modern methods are based on primary binding assays of which a competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA and fluorescence polarization (FPA are the best developed. For antibodies to R-Brucella sp. a rapid slide agglutination (RSAT as screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA as confirmatory tests have been reported. We have selected 23 cases of human brucellosis that were followed up over a long period, to assess which test was most effective in detecting different stages of the disease. The patients were divided into five groups: “chronic” cases; relapses; infection acquired in a laboratory; patients presumptively infected with B. canis and cases with a long history of brucellosis. The results suggest that BPAT is a practical test that reduces non specific reactions and is more sensitive than RBT. SAT detects the acute form but cross reacts with other antibodies and the diagnostic end-point titre has not been satisfactorily established; 2MET should be discontinued because of its toxicity and the scant information it can add; CFT fails to detect the acute form and is technically complicated. CELISA correlate well with the clinical course and is useful to detect acute as well as “chronic” cases and FPA do not work in serum with high lipid content. RSAT and IELISA are useful tests for brucellosis caused by B. canis. A unique protocol for serologic diagnosis that uses robust tests would be of value to the surveillance and control the disease.

  12. Chlamydia Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  13. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gonorrhea Testing , Chlamydia Testing , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing , CSF Analysis All content on Lab Tests ... testing ( polymerase chain reaction, PCR )--this test detects genetic material from the bacteria in the sample from ...

  14. Comparative study between immunoturbidimetric and latex agglutination methods for the detection of rheumatoid factor Estudo comparativo entre as técnicas de aglutinação em látex e de imunoturbidimetria para a detecção de fator reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cristina Rocha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The rheumatoid factor (RF is the most common antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is an inflammatory chronic disease characterized by articular involvement, inflammation of synovial fluid, tissue infiltration by leucocytes and joint destruction, which ultimately determine articular deformities. The rheumatoid factor is found in 70%-80% of the adult population and in 10% of the young population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to compare immunoturbidimetric and latex agglutination methods for the detection of RF in serum. RESULTS: The immunoturbidimetric method displayed sensitivity (95.2%, specificity (89.4% and high positive correlation (R² = 0,8077 with the latex agglutination method in positive serum samples. CONCLUSION: The study allowed to demonstrate that both immunoturbidimetric and latex agglutination methods equally discriminate between negative and positive serum samples for RF.INTRODUÇÃO: O fator reumatoide (FR é o autoanticorpo mais comum encontrado em pacientes com artrite reumatoide, uma doença crônica inflamatória caracterizada pelo envolvimento articular com inflamação do líquido sinovial, infiltração de tecido por leucócitos e destruição das articulações, que acaba por determinar deformidades articulares. O FR é encontrado em 70%-80% da população adulta e em 10% da população juvenil. OBJETIVO: Comparar os métodos de imunoturbidimetria e aglutinação (prova do látex para a determinação de FR em soro. RESULTADO: Foi possível observar que o método imunoturbidimétrico apresenta sensibilidade (95,2%, especificidade (89,4% e correlação positiva elevada (R² = 0,8077 com o método de aglutinação pelo látex em amostras de soro positivas. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo permitiu demonstrar que o método imunoturbidimétrico e o método de aglutinação pelo látex são igualmente capazes de discriminar amostras negativas e positivas para FR.

  15. Clinical application of Brucella fast three tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis%布病快检三项在布鲁杆菌病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景瑶; 赵冬梅; 毕惠梅; 何晶晶; 张柠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of Brucella fast three tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis.Methods Choose to our hospital brucella patients and healthy physical examination as the research object,Fluorescence polarization assay、IELISA、Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT).Results Brucella fast three tests and test tube agglutination test (SAT) detection method of detecting results have good consistency (Kappa ≥ 0.75).Coincidence rate 98.3 % and sensitivity 97.2% of Brucella fast three slightly higher than tube agglutination test (SAT) method.Conclusions Brucella fast three more traditional serological method operation is simple,rapid,For clinical diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis saves time,Is worth popularizing in clinical brucellosis diagnostic applications.%目的 探讨布病快检三项在布鲁杆菌病诊断中的临床应用意义.方法 选取来黑龙江省农垦总局总医院就诊布鲁杆菌病患者和健康体检者为研究对象,分别用间接酶联免疫吸附试验(IELISA)、荧光偏振检测方法(FPA)、传统虎红试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)检测布鲁杆菌病.结果 布病快检三项与试管凝集试验(SAT)检测方法的检测结果均有较好的一致性(Kappa值均≥0.75).布病快检三项的符合率98.3%和灵敏度97.2%要稍高于试管凝集试验(SAT)检测方法.结论 布病快检三项较传统的血清学方法操作简单、快速,为临床布鲁杆菌病诊断和治疗节省了时间,值得在临床布鲁杆菌病诊断中推广应用.

  16. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gonorrhoeae Culture; Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram Stain; Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe Related tests: Chlamydia Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  17. Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a phase III diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S; Singh, R K; Bimal, S K; Gidwani, K; Mishra, A; Maurya, R; Singh, S K; Manandhar, K D; Boelaert, M; Rai, M

    2007-02-01

    In this phase III trial for diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, we compared parasitological diagnosis with several serological tests: direct agglutination test (freeze dried; DAT-FD), rK-39 strip test, rK-26 strip test and a latex agglutination test for antigen detection in urine (KAtex) in 452 subjects from the endemic regions of Bihar, India. The subjects were segregated into four categories: 230 confirmed patients, 52 probable cases, 70 non-cases and 100 healthy endemic controls. The first two groups were used for estimating sensitivity, the latter two for specificity. Sensitivity of DAT-FD was 98.9%, rK-39: 98.9%, KAtex: 67.0% and rK-26: 21.3%. Sensitivity of DAT-FD on blood taken on filter paper (DAT-FDF) was 99.3%, which was comparable with that using serum. Specificity of serological tests was comparable and high (DAT-FD and DAT-FDF: 94%, rK-39 strip test: 97%, KAtex: 99% and rK-26 strip test: 100%). The classical 'gold standard' parasitological demonstration in splenic smear performed poorly as it missed 18.4% of cases that benefited from VL treatment. Reproducibility of the serological tests between field and central laboratories was excellent (kappa = 1.0, 0.99, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively for microscopy, DAT-FD, rK-39 strip test and rK-26 strip test). A high degree of agreement was observed between DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test (kappa = 0.986). Although DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test were highly sensitive with excellent specificity, the ease of use of the latter makes it most suitable for the diagnosis of VL in the field conditions. PMID:17300637

  18. Diagnosis of acute mononucleosis in emergency: comparison of rapid tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Scaggiante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a gammaherpesvirus that causes a number of clinical syndromes, including acute mononucleosis.Acute infection with EBV can vary widely with regard to the severity and presentation of illness, ranging from an asymptomatic infection to a serious, life-threatening version of mononucleosis with associated liver damage and splenomegaly. Additionally, other acute viral syndromes, including those caused by hepatitis viruses and cytomegalovirus (CMV, can lead to similar clinical syndromes. The variety of symptoms and the overlap with other viral infections underscore the importance of laboratory testing in the diagnosis of acute EBV-related disease.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an agglutination test for the detection of heterophile antibodies (Monotest and two EBV-specific rapid immunochromatographic tests (VCA-IgM and VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG. Heterophile antibody determination is resulted to have not a real diagnostic utility for the low sensibility and specificity of the test. In our experience the only use of VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG test is sufficient to discriminate between an acute mononucleosis and a past infection.

  19. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Keddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three commercial typhoid rapid antibody tests for Salmonella Typhi antibodies in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: The diagnostic accuracy of Cromotest® (semiquantitative slide agglutination and single tube Widal test,TUBEX®and Typhidot® was assessed against that of blood culture. Performance was modelled for scenarios with pretest probabilities of 5% and 50%. FINDINGS: In total 92 patients enrolled: 53 (57.6% from South Africa and 39 (42.4% from the United Republic of Tanzania. Salmonella Typhi was isolated from the blood of 28 (30.4% patients. The semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests had positive predictive values (PPVs of 25.0% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.6-80.6 and 20.0% (95% CI: 2.5-55.6, respectively. The newer typhoid rapid antibody tests had comparable PPVs: TUBEX®, 54.1% (95% CI: 36.9-70.5; Typhidot® IgM, 56.7% (95% CI: 37.4-74.5; and Typhidot® IgG, 54.3% (95% CI: 36.6-71.2. For a pretest probability of 5%, PPVs were: TUBEX®, 11.0% (95% CI: 6.6-17.9; Typhidot® IgM, 9.1% (95% CI: 5.8-14.0; and Typhidot® IgG, 11.0% (6.3-18.4. For a pretest probability of 50%, PPVs were: TUBEX®, 70.2% (95% CI: 57.3-80.5; Typhidot® IgM, 65.6% (95% CI: 54.0-75.6; and Typhidot® IgG, 70.0% (95% CI: 56.0-81.1. CONCLUSION: Semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests performed poorly. TUBEX® and Typhidot® may be suitable when pretest probability is high and blood cultures are unavailable, but their performance does not justify deployment in routine care settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill ... even if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get ...

  2. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Smear , Chlamydia Testing , Gonorrhea Testing At a Glance Test ... during a routine gynecologic examination that includes a Pap smear . An FDA-cleared PCR test approved for detection ...

  3. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  4. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): identification and susceptibility testing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygaert, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    Many traditional techniques are useful for identification of MRSA strains, including techniques for detection of penicillin-resistance, such as the nitrocefin disk. Techniques for assessing methicillin-resistance vary from growth on special media or at a lower temperature, to detection of the mecA gene by manual (latex agglutination) and automated (PCR) methods. Technique development is now geared toward making MRSA identification more rapid. Real-time PCR has sped MRSA detection, but can be costly. Resistance to other drugs is also an issue. Clindamycin resistance may need to be induced, so a special disk diffusion test can be performed. Vancomycin resistance is becoming an issue, so alternative drugs need to be identified. Drugs that are currently available for MRSA infections include: daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and tigecycline. Drugs that are in the development phase include: ceftobiprole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin. These drugs provide a promising arsenal against MRSA. PMID:19534447

  6. Is the microagglutination test (MAT) good for predicting the infecting serogroup for leptospirosis in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Galloway, Renee Lynn; Romero, Eliete Caló

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira spp. Knowledge of the prevalent serovars and their maintenance hosts is essential to understand the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of serology by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to predict the serogroups compared with results of identification of leptospires in São Paulo, Brazil. MAT correctly assigned the serogroup of the infecting isolate in 49/52 cases (94.23%). The serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the predominant serogroup (88.46%). This study showed the usefulness of the MAT to correctly identify the infecting serogroup with a good overall agreement between the serologically-identified infecting serogroup and by identification of the isolate and can be used in epidemiological surveys in São Paulo. However, it should be complemented by the identification of Leptospira isolates. PMID:26851592

  7. Test Under Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s national college entrance examination, regarded as a make-or-break test by many students, leaves much to be desired “We’ve bribed the exam supervisors, paying each one 20,000 yuan. They will make everything go smooth during the exams,” Li Feng, a teacher from No.2 High School in

  8. Utility of Serological Tests in the Era of Molecular Testing for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis in Endemic Area with Limited Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Sharada C.; Mutnal, Manohar B; Nagamoti, Mahantesh B; Patil, Chidanand S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The culture has always been the gold standard test for diagnosis of human brucellosis but the conventional Brucella diagnostic tests viz. serology and culture are often beset with poor specificity & sensitivity respectively. The culture positivity rates for Brucella vary from 92% for bone marrow to 10% for non-blood samples and also dependent on the type of sample. The primary immune-determinant for Brucella species is the cell wall surface lipopolysaccharide, which is antigenically similar to other gram-negative rods. Hence, Brucella serological tests cross react with Escherichia coli 0116 and 0157, Salmonella urbana, Yersinia enterocolitica 0:9, Vibrio cholerae, Xanthomonas maltophilia and Afipia clevellandensis infections, which are common in developing countries also having higher incidence of brucellosis. Aim The aim of the study was evaluation of conventional serological techniques and PCR for diagnosis of human brucellosis in and around north Karnataka which is endemic for brucellosis and patients often present with elevated base line antibody titers and confounding clinical manifestations. Materials and Methods Blood/serum samples of 400 patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) were subjected to culture, Brucella slide agglutination test (SAT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT coupled with 2 ME) and PCR. Results Of the 400 AUF patients, anti-Brucella antibodies were detected by SAT and STAT in serum of 35 and 34 patients respectively. IS711 gene for Brucella was identified in 32 patients by PCR. Twenty samples yielded Brucella in culture on biphasic medium with average incubation period of 9 days. All patients having titer of ≥ 160IU / ml in STAT were found positive by PCR also. Conclusion Brucella STAT corroborated well with PCR results in all those cases where antibodies were present at least one dilution above cut-off value of 80 IU/ml. We probably need to raise cut-off titers to ≥160 IU/ml because of endemic region

  9. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  10. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  11. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are two types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  12. Importance of nonspecific laboratory tests in Brucella diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Ağca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Brucella infection doesn’t have spesific clinicalevidences, for this reason it can be confused with febrilediseases. In this study we aimed investigating theimportance of diagnosis with nonspesific laboratory testsin brucellosis.Materials and methods: We retrospectively screenedclinically compatible with brucellosis, standard tube agglutination(STA and STA tests with coombs of patientssera which came to Uşak State Hospital Central Laboratorybetween December 2010-May 2011. As controlgroup, we determined random 62 patients attended to thelaboratory between December 2010-May 2011 with STAtest results are negative and not diagnosed brucellosis.Results: C-reactive protein elevated in 54 patients(87.0%, ESR elevated in 44 patients (70.9%, AST elevatedin 22 patients (35.4%, ALT elevated in 7 patients(11.2%, ferritin elevated in 19 patients (30.6%, 8 patientshad anemia (12.9% of patient group. In control group,7 patients elevated CRP (11.2%, 10 patients elevatedESR (16.1%, 1 patient elevated AST (1.6%, 1 patientelevated ALT (1.6%, 6 patients had anemia (9.6% anddecrease in ferritin level wasn’t detected.Conclusion: We concluded statistically significant highlevel of CRP, ESR, ALT, AST and ferritin support the testresults too beside the spesific brucellosis tests. J Clin ExpInvest 2012; 3(1: 87-90

  13. The Problem of Thyroid Antibodies Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lukinac, Ljerka; Krilić, Dražena; Nöthig-Hus, Dunja; Kusić, Zvonko

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, different methods for determination of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TGA), microsomal autoantibodies (TMA) and autoantibodies to enzyme thyroid peroxidase (TPO) have been developed. The specificity and sensitivity of these methods depend on the purity of autoantigen preparation itself, valid standardization and type of the methodology used, e.g., agglutination of gelatine particle carriers sensitized with antigen, radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunometric assay (IRMA), enzyme immunoassay...

  14. Seroprevalence and comparison of different serological tests for brucellosis detection in small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashrath B. Sadhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroprevalence and efficacy of the different serological tests used for detection of antibody against Brucella species in small ruminants of Banaskantha district of North-Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 1000 serum samples comprising of 485 from sheep and 515 from goat tested for detection of antibodies against the Brucella species by three different serological tests viz., Rose bengal plate test (RBPT, Standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 11.30%, 11.10%, and 8.80% by RBPT, STAT, and I-ELISA, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be higher in sheep than goats. The sensitivity of RBPT was found slight more than STAT, but the specificity of both tests was same. In this study, the overall agreement of RBPT and STAT with I-ELISA was found 92.50% and 92.30% in small ruminants, respectively. Conclusion: I-ELISA was a better serological test as compared to RBPT and STAT in the sense of sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity and it could be advocated for screening of brucellosis in sheep and goats.

  15. Seroprevalence and comparison of different serological tests for brucellosis detection in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Dashrath B.; Panchasara, H. H.; Chauhan, H. C.; Sutariya, D. R.; Parmar, V. L.; Prajapati, H. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the seroprevalence and efficacy of the different serological tests used for detection of antibody against Brucella species in small ruminants of Banaskantha district of North-Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 1000 serum samples comprising of 485 from sheep and 515 from goat tested for detection of antibodies against the Brucella species by three different serological tests viz., Rose bengal plate test (RBPT), Standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 11.30%, 11.10%, and 8.80% by RBPT, STAT, and I-ELISA, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be higher in sheep than goats. The sensitivity of RBPT was found slight more than STAT, but the specificity of both tests was same. In this study, the overall agreement of RBPT and STAT with I-ELISA was found 92.50% and 92.30% in small ruminants, respectively. Conclusion: I-ELISA was a better serological test as compared to RBPT and STAT in the sense of sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity and it could be advocated for screening of brucellosis in sheep and goats. PMID:27047135

  16. Use of non-conventional tests for the diagnosis of brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of non-conventional tests to complement traditional diagnostic methods for Brucellosis were established and assessed in order to verify whether the adoption of a panel of methods combined to alternative sampling strategies would increase the possibility of detecting low levels of Brucella spp. antibodies or microorganisms. The diagnostic performance of each test was established by means of reference standards and compared with conventional screening and confirmatory tests under field conditions. Non-conventional tests assessed for detecting Brucella organisms included: an agglutination method using a monoclonal antibody for an early and specific detection of Brucella spp. from colonies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Brucella spp in raw milk. Methods for detecting Brucella spp. antibodies included an ELISA test applied to cow milk, evaluation of milk-ELISA test through repeated sampling and ELISA in milk for the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The adopted strategy of repeated milk testing in dairy cows using ELISA increased the chance of identification of positive animals. (author)

  17. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  18. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... or conditions. What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical procedures that involve testing samples of blood, urine, or other tissues or ...

  19. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  20. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  1. A Novel Quantum Dots–Based Point of Care Test for Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ding

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One-step lateral flow test is recommended as the first line screening of syphilis for primary healthcare settings in developing countries. However, it generally shows low sensitivity. We describe here the development of a novel fluorescent POC (Point Of Care test method to be used for screening for syphilis. The method was designed to combine the rapidness of lateral flow test and sensitiveness of fluorescent method. 50 syphilis-positive specimens and 50 healthy specimens conformed by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA were tested with Quantum Dot-labeled and colloidal gold-labeled lateral flow test strips, respectively. The results showed that both sensitivity and specificity of the quantum dots–based method reached up to 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91–100%, while those of the colloidal gold-based method were 82% (95% CI, 68–91% and 100% (95% CI, 91–100%, respectively. In addition, the naked-eye detection limit of quantum dot–based method could achieve 2 ng/ml of anti-TP47 polyclonal antibodies purified by affinity chromatography with TP47 antigen, which was tenfold higher than that of colloidal gold–based method. In conclusion, the quantum dots were found to be suitable for labels of lateral flow test strip. Its ease of use, sensitiveness and low cost make it well-suited for population-based on-the-site syphilis screening.

  2. A Novel Quantum Dots-Based Point of Care Test for Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Ding; He, Rong; Guo, Qin; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Peng; Cui, Daxiang

    2010-05-01

    One-step lateral flow test is recommended as the first line screening of syphilis for primary healthcare settings in developing countries. However, it generally shows low sensitivity. We describe here the development of a novel fluorescent POC (Point Of Care) test method to be used for screening for syphilis. The method was designed to combine the rapidness of lateral flow test and sensitiveness of fluorescent method. 50 syphilis-positive specimens and 50 healthy specimens conformed by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) were tested with Quantum Dot-labeled and colloidal gold-labeled lateral flow test strips, respectively. The results showed that both sensitivity and specificity of the quantum dots-based method reached up to 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91-100%), while those of the colloidal gold-based method were 82% (95% CI, 68-91%) and 100% (95% CI, 91-100%), respectively. In addition, the naked-eye detection limit of quantum dot-based method could achieve 2 ng/ml of anti-TP47 polyclonal antibodies purified by affinity chromatography with TP47 antigen, which was tenfold higher than that of colloidal gold-based method. In conclusion, the quantum dots were found to be suitable for labels of lateral flow test strip. Its ease of use, sensitiveness and low cost make it well-suited for population-based on-the-site syphilis screening.

  3. [Development of a novel Francisella tularensis antigen stained with tetrazolium-blue for tularemia microagglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2013-07-01

    BTC-Ag and SO-Ag in tularemia seropositive (in ≥ 1/20 titers and when ±1 dilution variation was accepted as normal) and seronegative sera. No significant cross reactivity with Brucella spp. was observed. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of BTC-Ag were found to be 100%. In conclusion, newly developed BTC-Ag for MA test provides better agglutination patterns resulting in a clear supernatant in wells, thus provides easy evaluation for the agglutination reaction, and is expected to facilitate tularemia serodiagnosis. PMID:23971929

  4. Comparison of Widal test with Immunochromatography and Enzyme Immuno Assay for Salmonella typhi IgM and IgG Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Singh Danu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is endemic in Asia Pacific Region, the Indian subcontinent, Africa, and South America. The protean manifestations of typhoid fever make this disease a true diagnostic challenge.Isolates from many parts of the world are now multidrug-resistant (MDR.There is a need for a quick and reliable diagnostic test for typhoid fever as an alternative to the Widal test. Collection and preservation of samples were done as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Widal test was done by two quantitative methods i.e. slide and tube agglutination. About 80 and more than 80 titre was considered as significant titre. Typhifast test is immunochromatographic qualitative test assay performed in test device, which shows colour band when there is IgM in serum against coated antigen.Pink purplish coloured lines which confirm a positive test result. It was compared with positive control, which was also coated in respective test devices. Typhipoint is enzyme immunoassays (EIA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to the extracted protein of salmonella typhi in serum. Absence of this colored dot in the test region indicates negative test result. The results were compared with positive control, which was also coated in respective test devices. Total of 100 blood samples of suspected cases of typhoid fever was tested by three methods i.e. widal test, Typhifast &Typhipoit. Widal test in which, 48 samples (48% were showed positive reaction with slide and tube agglutination method. Widal reaction was positive for TO & TH both in 62.5% of widal positive sample and 30% in suspected cases of typhoid fever&30% for TH in samples. In Widal positive reaction, maximum sample were from age group 21-40 years (58.33%.Out of 48 positive widal sample, 30 (62% were males and 18 (38% were females. Typhoid fever patients were outnumbered in MICU (22.2%.48 (48% samples were positive and 52 (52% were negative by widal. In typhifast 42 (42% were positive and 58 (58% were negative

  5. Performance tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatig...

  6. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  7. Urine test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-23

    On August 6, 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first urine test to detect HIV antibodies. The FDA states that the urine test, developed by Calypte Biomedical Corp. of Berkeley, CA, should not be used to screen donors at blood banks and should be used only as a supplemental diagnostic tool because it is not as accurate as the standard blood-based test. The test, for use only by health care professionals and insurance companies, will be marketed by Seradum Inc. of Indianapolis under the trade name Sentinel. The price will be $40 to $50, comparable to the recently approved saliva-based tests. Advocates of the urine test say it is safer, easier, and less intrusive than blood testing. Critics say the tests are too unreliable and fear that the urine samples used in drug testing in the workplace also could be used to screen out HIV-positive job applicants. PMID:11363733

  8. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林

    2007-01-01

    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  9. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in the tropics of Yucatan Mexico using two different tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Cárdenas-Marrufo, Maria F; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Jorge C; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Blood samples were taken from 400 stray dogs. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test were implemented using Leptospira interrogans serogroups canicola, hardjo, pyrogenes, panama, pomona, tarassovi, icterohaemorrhagiae, gryppotyphosa, wolffi and brastislava. For the ELISA test, sonicated antigen from above mentioned cultures was used. A conjugate AP-labeled anti-dog IgG antibody was used, the optimal cut-off point of ELISA was set at 1.34. Concordance between ELISA and MAT titers was measured by kappa (kappa). Overall prevalence was 35%. The most prevalent serogroups were canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. Positive samples showed titers between 1:100 and 1:25,600, with higher titers found in serogroups canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. Positive serum samples fell within a range of 1.36-1.65. A correlation index of 96% was found between MAT and ELISA. The sensitivity of ELISA was 98.6% and specificity 95.8%. Seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis and titers were high as a direct consequence of environmental conditions in the studied area. The ELISA test showed a good sensitivity, resulting in a good alternative test for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dog serum. PMID:18299115

  10. Imunodifusão em gel de ágar com polissacarídeos de membrana de Brucella abortus 1119-3 no diagnóstico da brucelose bovina Membrane polysaccharides of Brucella abortus 1119-3 in agar gel immunodifusion test in diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Megid

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA, utilizando extrato polissacarídico (POLI O, obtido da amostra de B. abortus 1119-3, com os testes de soroaglutinação rápida em placa, de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, de antígeno acidificado e de 2-mercaptoetanol para o diagnóstico da brucelose bovina. O IDGA mostrou alta especificidade, porém sensibilidade inferior aos métodos convencionais.An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test using the polysaccharide (POLIO O extract obtained from Brucella abortus strain 1119-3, was compared to plate agglutination, tube agglutination, rose bengal plate and mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The AGID assay with B. aborturs polysaccharide antigens, presented a greater specificity but lower sensitivity for detecting brucellosis infected animals as compared to the conventional methods of antibody detection.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  12. Foraminíferos bentónicos aglutinados de los Depósitos turbidíticos. Área Nápoles, Sur de San Marcos de Tarrazú, Costa Rica Agglutinated foraminifera from turbiditic deposits, Nápoles Area, South of San Marcos, Tarrazú, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Campos

    2012-12-01

    ú, located within a broad structural belt not yet fully defined at the boundary between and Térraba and Valle Central sedimentary basins, the sample LOR-10 provided an faunal assemblage of exclusively agglutinated benthic foraminifera. As there were not found planktonic foraminifera, biostratigraphic determinations were not possible to obtain. Of the identified individuals, these correspond to 3 suborders, 9 superfamilies and 33 species. Regarding to the Shannon diversity index (H, the result for paleoecological interpretations was of H = 1.4, indicating conditions of marshes and marginal marine environments. On the other hand, the benthic foraminifera identified in the sample to species level, have very wide ranges of existence: from Triassic to Recent. From the point of view regarding to paleoecological salinity, there were determined the following percentages: rotaliids 53.3%, texturaliids 41.9% and miliolids 2.2%, values that are indicative of brackish lagoon environments, estuarine and shelf, these mix of environments is indicative of an allochthonous reworked deposit. The presence of Portatrochammina sp. (4.3% that appears between 500 and 2000 m, but is abundant approximately between 600 and 700 m and of Cibicides lobatulus (3.2% indicative of the upper middle bathyal zone (500-1500 m, confirm the interpretation of the deposit environment as a submarine fan of middle bathyal waters. Likewise, the preeminence of agglutinated foraminifera suggests an important contribution of detritus into the basin. Finally, stratified, cold, deep, basins with high sedimentation rates favor the preservation of agglutinated foraminifera instead carbonate ones.

  13. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  14. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to check for mutations linked to Huntington’s Disease. Predispositional Testing: Positive tests results show that you ... results. Twitter YouTube RSS Genetics and Health How Genes Work Genes, Lifestyle, & Environment Collecting Family Health History ...

  15. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct LDL Cholesterol ; VLDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Cardiac Risk Assessment All content on Lab Tests ... tests for triglycerides are usually part of a lipid profile used to identify the risk of developing heart ...

  16. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  17. TSH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results. If you are ... iodine in the body (due to receiving iodine contrast used during imaging tests, such as CT scan) ...

  18. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a photograph.) These are important tests because they characterize the extent to which the immune system is ... by males as well as females. Therefore, one person’s gene test doesn’t necessarily mean that the ...

  19. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  20. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Toxoplasmosis Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... I should know? How is it used? A toxoplasmosis test is used to detect a current or ...

  1. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Ferritin Formal name: Ferritin, serum Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , Hematocrit , Serum Iron , TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin , Iron Tests , Zinc Protoporphyrin , ...

  2. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  3. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  4. Schilling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 absorption test ... This test may be done in four different stages to find the cause of a low vitamin B12 level. ... can absorb vitamin B12. Stage II of the test can tell whether a low vitamin B12 level ...

  5. Analytical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  6. Standardization of serological tests for detecting anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lauricella

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT and hemagglutination test (IHAT were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT and direct agglutination test (DAT were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1 parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134; (2 non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285; (3 dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6; (4 non-infected dogs (n = 56 which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA, one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively, and for CFT and DAT 1/1 and 1/128 respectively. Sensitivity for IFAT, IHAT, CF and DAT were 95%, 84%, 97% and 95% respectively.

  7. Trace test

    OpenAIRE

    Leykin, Anton; Sottile, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We give a brief derivation of the trace test to verify completeness of a partial witness set of an irreducible variety in affine or projective space. We then consider the trace test for subvarieties of products of projective spaces working with multihomogeneous witness sets. We show how a dimension reduction based on Bertini's Theorem leads to a practical trace test in this case involving a curve in a small-dimensional affine space.

  8. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    the insulation and eventually cause breakdown.It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out. In this paper......, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  9. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    , destroy the insulation and eventually cause breakdown. It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out. In this...... paper, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  10. Software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    Now more than ever, scientific results are dependent on sophisticated software and analysis. Why should we trust code written by others? How do you ensure your own code produces sensible results? How do you make sure it continues to do so as you update, modify, and add functionality? Software testing is an integral part of code validation and writing tests should be a requirement for any software project. I will talk about Python-based tools that make managing and running tests much easier and explore some statistics for projects hosted on GitHub that contain tests.

  11. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  12. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies , Chickenpox and Shingles Tests , Parvovirus B19 All content on Lab Tests Online has been ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . ^ Back to top When is it ordered? The ...

  13. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate possible nutritional deficits, patients may be provided nutritional support prior to a surgery or procedure and be monitored regularly during recovery. Laboratory tests may include: For general screening and ... protein For nutritional status and deficiencies: Iron tests such as serum ...

  14. Penetration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zemaníková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the practical demonstration of design penetration testing. Testing is carried out based on the order of a particular entity/subject which is at their request anonymous. The work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. We will be made in first part familiarize with the process and techniques of testing, as is now used in ethical hacking, then we can find in the end appropriate recommendations 6 how to prevent and fight against it in order to protect the...

  15. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from a...... model set up by Moust Jacobsen in 1992. The test results do not show any significant difference in the determined values of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for the samples from Hollerup and Solsø, east and west of the main stationary line for the last ice sheet in Weichselian, respectively. The...

  16. Evaluation of ELISA and Brucellacapt Tests for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasem Golmohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the difficulty in the diagnosis of brucellosis, particularly in endemic areas, the use of new and feasible diagnostic tests seem to be of great importance for resolving the diagnostic obstacles. We evaluated the usefulness of a new serological test based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique in comparison with ELISA test for serological diagnosis of brucellosis.Methods: A total of 11 patients with brucellosis, who had positive blood cultures for Brucella species, and 47 suspected patients were included in this study. Serum samples collected from these patients were tested by brucellacapt and ELISA and the results were, consequently, compared.Results: In patients with positive blood culture, all the samples gave positive results with brucellacapt test while IgM ELISA, IgG ELISA and (IgG + IgM ELISA tests were positive in 8, 9 and 11 patients, respectively. Out of the 46 suspected patients, (IgG + IgM ELISA, Brucellacapt, IgG ELISA and IgM ELISA were positive in 37, 15, 34 and 37 patients, respectively.The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG was 10.78 IU/ml which produced the maximal sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.Conclusion: Both the (IgG + IgM ELISA and Brucellacapt tests demonstrate a high specificity in this study. According to the results of the current study, it is found that both tests are valuable tools for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran as an endemic area of brucellosis. It is strongly suggested that a combination of both tests to be used for the diagnosis of brucellosis

  17. The agreement rate of rose Bengal, modified rose Bengal and rapid Wright tests for detection of positive serum sample of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorgeen Karaji

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rose Bengal is a common test for serologic diagnosis of brucellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement rate between modified rose Bengal, rose Bengal and rapid Wright tests for detection of antibody positive serum samples. Methods: Cross section study was designed. 941 serum sample of patients referred to the central medical laboratory of Kermanshah, were evaluated by rose Bengal, modified rose Bengal and rapid Wright, using convenient sampling method. Positive samples were confirmed and their titers were defined by Wright agglutination test. Results: The number of positive serum samples with modified rose Bengal was two fold higher than conventional rose Bengal test (P<0.001, which included all positive samples with rose Bengal. On the other hand, although the number of positive diagnosed serum samples with modified rose Bengal were nearly two times more than Wright test (P<0.001, but it did not include all positive samples detected by Wright test. All three tests showed acceptable agreement rate (k≥0.583.Conclusion: Results of this study confirmed that modified rose Bengal able to detect more positive serum sample than conventional rose Bengal and it would be substituted rose Bengal. However, the rapid Wright test should be used aside with modified rose Bengal, because it could not cover all positive samples detected by rapid Wright test.

  18. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when the person has a clinical history of bleeding, such as frequent or excessive nose bleeds and easy bruising, which may indicate the presence of a bleeding disorder ^ Back to top What does the test ...

  19. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Calcofluor white stain): in general, if fungal elements are seen, then a fungus is the likely the cause of symptoms. These tests, however, do not identify the fungus. Culture: care must be taken when interpreting culture results. ...

  20. Amylase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Amylase Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Amy Formal name: Amylase Related tests: Lipase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance ...

  1. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells and reactive lymphocytes on a blood smear in the presence of symptoms associated with mono indicates a likely diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. A negative mono test requires ...

  2. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  3. Bilirubin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bilirubin; Indirect Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal name: Bilirubin - blood Related tests: Liver Panel ; GGT ; ALP ; AST ; ALT ; Hepatitis A ; Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin ...

  4. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially as a result of taking non-human (animal or synthetic) insulin, these can interfere with insulin testing. In this case, a C-peptide may be performed as an alternative way to evaluate insulin production. Note also that ...

  5. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mean? Copper test results must be evaluated in context and are usually compared to ceruloplasmin levels . Abnormal ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  6. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  7. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is broken) Considerations Other tests used to detect pancreas diseases may include: Serum amylase Serum lipase Alternative Names ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cystic Fibrosis Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Lipase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel (bowel obstruction) Celiac disease Duodenal ulcer Cancer of the pancreas Infection or swelling of the pancreas This test may also be done for familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency . Risks ... Update Date 2/4/2015 Updated ...

  9. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lipase Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: LPS Formal name: Lipase Related tests: Amylase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance ...

  10. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of HPV infection may benefit from the protection against other types included in the vaccine. ^ Back ... infection. These include having many children, long-term oral contraceptive ... having multiple sex partners, infrequent Pap tests , smoking, a history of ...

  11. Albumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Albumin Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: ALB Formal name: Albumin, serum Related tests: Liver Panel , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , ...

  12. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syphilis . The bacteria that cause syphilis is called Treponema pallidum. Your health care provider may order this test ... 59. Radolf JD, Tramont EC, Salazar JC. Syphilis ( Treponema pallidum ). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  13. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Magnesium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Mg; Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D ...

  14. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hasibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160. Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9% and most specificity (100% for ELISA IgG test, respectively.

  15. Comparative evaluation of competitive ELISA test in Colombian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to contribute to the definition of the best ELISA test for screening and differential diagnosis of Brucella abortus to be applied for control programmes, a total of 2971 sera from Colombian cattle were tested for brucellosis. Conventional agglutination tests, Buffered Plate antigen test (BPAT) and Rose Bengal (RB) as well as Complement Fixation test (CFT) (Alton, et al. 1988) were used comparatively. Radial immunodiffusion test (RID) was also performed to all sera. The sera were also tested using four different ELISAs: indirect ELISA from FAO/IAEA and the indirect ELISA modified by Nielsen, et al. 1992 as well as two competitive ELISAs: one competitive ELISA used B. abortus O-polysaccharide antigen and an enzyme conjugated monoclonal to the O-polysaccharide for competition and detection. The second competitive ELISA used lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antigen, a different monoclonal antibody for competition but also specific for the O-polysaccharide and a commercially available goat anti-mouse IgG enzyme conjugate for detection. The sera were analyzed based on its population status, 987 positive obtained from Brucella abortus infected herds based on clinical and/or bacteriological evidence and a high prevalence of brucellosis, CFT percentage of positive animals in the herd was greater than 5%. Eight hundred sixty six (866) negative sera from non-vaccinated cattle from a brucellosis free area and 1118 negative sera obtained from reglamentary vaccinated areas under a free herd program. Initial cut-off values were derived using negative serum samples. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was defined from frequency histograms based on this cut-off values and using 2x2 tables, corresponding confidence limits (95%) were calculated. The data were also analysed using signal detection analysis (ROC). Kappa statistics was determined for all tests and populations, accuracy was used as index of comparison to evaluate different assays. The data support the initial

  16. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  17. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  18. Fair Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rensink, Arend; Vogler, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a solution to the long-standing problem of characterising the coarsest liveness-preserving pre-congruence with respect to a full (TCSP-inspired) process algebra. In fact, we present two distinct characterisations, which give rise to the same relation: an operational one based on a De Nicola-Hennessy-like testing modality which we call should-testing, and a denotational one based on a refined notion of failures. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the should-t...

  19. Test profiles of broiler breeder flocks housed in farms with endemic Mycoplasma synoviae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Fiorentin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS infection in broiler breeders in Brazil. Many features of the infection remain unrecognizable, because there are no clinical signs of the disease. A detailed testing was performed at each 6 to 8 weeks in three MS-free flocks introduced in farms with endemic MS infection for a follow-up epidemiological study. Every flock was monitored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, by serum plate agglutination (SPA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI for serology studies, and isolation of mycoplasmas from tracheal swabs. PCR was found to be the most sensitive test, detecting early MS infection. Serology was positive in less than 50% of the sera and MS was isolated only between 27 and 28 weeks of age and in a maximum of 60% positive hens. A similar profile was seen for MS infection in all three flocks. Infection started at brooding, whereas laboratory detection of the assymptomatic infection was more probable in the weeks of increasing egg production. This predictable profile during rearing may be very useful for the optimization of monitoring MS infection in broiler breeder flocks.

  20. DHEAS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be ordered, along with other hormone tests, whenever excess (or, more rarely, deficient) androgen production is suspected and/or when a health ... level, in addition to other normal male hormone ( androgen ) levels, likely ... may indicate that excess DHEAS production is causing or contributing to the ...

  1. Diagnostic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic test is provided based on competitive binding in which a partition coefficient is established for the substance whose concentration is to be determined and for the radioactive labeled form of the substance between liquid and solid phases. 10 claims

  2. Stress Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our Nuclear Facilities have recently operated in a special regime. Since March until December they were scrutinised by a team verifying and drilling all possible scenarios in case of emergency situations, earthquake, floods or long-term power supply loss. Stress tests were the hard job but their findings are already now a great contribution. (author)

  3. Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, M; El-Safi, S; Hailu, A; Mukhtar, M; Rijal, S; Sundar, S; Wasunna, M; Aseffa, A; Mbui, J; Menten, J; Desjeux, P; Peeling, R W

    2008-01-01

    Three diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the freeze-dried direct agglutination test (FD-DAT), the rK39 dipstick and a urine latex antigen test (KAtex), were evaluated for use in primary care in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Clinical suspects were prospectively recruited and tissue, blood and urine samples were taken. Direct microscopic examination of tissue smear, and FD-DAT, rK39 and KAtex were performed. Sensitivity and specificity with 95% credible intervals were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. On the Indian subcontinent both the FD-DAT and the rK39 strip test exceeded the 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity target, but not so in East Africa. Sensitivity of the FD-DAT was high in Ethiopia and Kenya but lower in Sudan, while its specificity was below 90% in Kenya. Sensitivity of the rK39 was below 80% in the three countries, and its specificity was only 70% in Ethiopia. KAtex showed moderate to very low sensitivity in all countries. FD-DAT and rK39 can be recommended for clinical practice on the Indian subcontinent. In East Africa, their clinical use should be carefully monitored. More work is needed to improve existing formats, and to develop better VL diagnostics. PMID:17942129

  4. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG, however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  5. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295

  6. An in vitro growth inhibition test for measuring the potency of Leptospira spp. Sejroe group vaccine in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nardi, Geraldo; Genovez, Margareth Elide; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Castro, Vanessa; Jorge, André Mendes

    2010-07-01

    Leptospira spp. serovars Hardjo and Wollfi from Sejroe serogroup have been detected in livestock in Brazil, where the main control procedures rely on vaccination. The potency of two commercial vaccines available in this country was monitored by microagglutination test-MAT and in vitro growth inhibition test-GIT in serum samples from 33 female buffaloes divided into: G1-unvaccinated control; G2-vaccinated with Leptobac-6 containing serovars Hardjo and Wolffi and G3-vaccinated with Triangle-9 containing serovar Hardjo. G2 and G3 animals were vaccinated on day zero, and received a booster and two revaccinations on days 30, 210 and 390 and G1 animals received phosphate buffered saline. Serum samples were collected at 15-day intervals between days 0 and 60; and at 30-day intervals between days 60 and 540 and were tested by MAT and GIT with serovars Hardjo and Wolffi. G1 remained negative throughout the experiment. Both vaccines were able to induce agglutinating and growth inhibition antibodies. Six months after the last revaccination, all animals tested negative by MAT, but still were positive by GIT until the end of experimental period. GIT could be a good tool to evaluate the potency and to monitor antibodies responses of vaccines of Sejroe group serovars. PMID:20332068

  7. Evaluation of different confirmatory algorithms using seven treponemal tests on Architect Syphilis TP-positive/RPR-negative sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, S; Berth, M; Van Esbroeck, M; Blomme, S; Lagrou, K; Padalko, E

    2015-10-01

    The Architect Syphilis TP is considered to be a suitable screening test due to its high sensitivity and full automation. According to the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) 2014 guidelines, however, positive screening tests need confirmation with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP.PA). Among Architect-positive results, samples with a negative non-treponemal test present the major diagnostic challenge. In this multicenter study, we investigated if other, preferable less labor-intensive treponemal tests could replace TP.PA. A total of 178 rapid plasma reagin (RPR)-negative sera with an Architect value between 1 and 15 S/CO were prospectively selected in three centers. These sera were analyzed with TP.PA and six alternative treponemal tests: three immunoblots and three tests on random-access analyzers. The diagnostic performance of the treponemal tests differed substantially, with the overall agreement between the six alternative tests ranging from 44.6 to 82.0%. Based on TP.PA as the gold standard, the INNO-LIA IgG blot, the BioPlex 2200 IgG, and the Syphilis TPA showed a high sensitivity, while the EUROLINE-WB IgG blot, recomLine Treponema IgG blot, and the Chorus Syphilis screen showed a high specificity. However, an Architect cut-off of 5.6 S/CO can serve as an alternative for these confirmatory treponemal tests in case of an RPR-negative result. Treponemal tests show poor agreement in this challenging group of Architect-positive/RPR-negative sera. The most optimal algorithm is obtained by assigning sera with an Architect value >5.6 S/CO as true-positives and sera with a value between 1 and 5.6 S/CO as undetermined, requiring further testing with TP.PA. PMID:26187433

  8. Putting Tests To The Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽荣

    2005-01-01

    Tests are usually a big part of a teacher's life. They are part of the ritual of the classroom. Students expect them. Administrators, school boards and legislators require them. They are important to us in our work; we think about them often and have a lot to say about them.

  9. Comparison of two slide agglutination serotyping methods and PCR-based capsule typing for the characterization of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes Comparação de dois métodos de sorotipagem de cápsula por aglutinação em lamina e o método de PCR para a caracterização de sorotipos de Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E.N. Bonifácio da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-three nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae isolates were serotyped by two slide agglutination methods (SAST 1 and SAST 2 and the results compared with those obtained by capsule type-specific PCR. SAST 1 presented a low correlation with results obtained by PCR (75.2% while SAST 2 showed a better agreement with the molecular technique results (93.5%. These findings suggest that SAST 2 could be an alternative method for adequate detection of H.influenzae type b.Noventa e três isolados nasofaringeanos de H. influenzae foram sorotipados através de 2 métodos de aglutinação em lamina (SAST 1 e SAST 2 e os resultados foram comparados com a sorotipagem por PCR. SAST 1 apresentou uma baixa correlação com os resultados obtidos por PCR (75,2% enquanto que SAST 2 mostrou uma melhor concordância com os resultados da técnica molecular (93,5%. Estes resultados indicam que SAST 2 pode ser um método alternativo para a correta detecção de H. influenzae tipo b.

  10. Harmonisation of European tests for serological diagnosis of Brucella infection in bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGiven, J A; Stack, J A; Perrett, L L; Tucker, J D; Brew, S D; Stubberfield, E; MacMillan, A P

    2006-12-01

    The principal methods for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis are the complement fixation test (CFT), serum agglutination test (SAT), Rose-Bengal test (RBT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and more recently the competitive ELISA (cELISA) and the fluorescent polarisation assay (FPA). Guidelines set by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) describe methods and diagnostic thresholds for each of these tests. Many countries have adopted these methods for the purposes of eradication of brucellosis and have legislated for the use of these tests (the CFT and SAT in particular) for the prevention of the spread of the disease through international trade. Within the European Union (EU) each member state has a National Reference Laboratory which regulates the quality of brucellosis diagnosis and works to the recommendations set by the OIE. This article describes the results from the first three EU ring trials assessing the harmonisation of diagnostic tests between each member state. The general level of harmony for SAT, CFT, and iELISA was found to be good, but issues of standardisation of the RBT, cELISA and FPA remain. The cELISA and FPA in particular need further work to create European harmony. The ring trials also proved successful at providing specific evidence of poor performance in some areas. The decision on whether or not to take action on the basis of these results rested with the individual laboratories concerned. The increase in the number of participants in these trials over time reflected the enlargement of the EU and increased the need for quality assurance. PMID:17361769

  11. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  12. Serological profile of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) female calves vaccinated with standard Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine using rose bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol and complement fixation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G Júnior; Ribeiro, M G; Jorge, A M; Megid, J; Silva, L M P

    2012-03-01

    The serological profiles of 21 female buffaloes vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age using Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) were evaluated by rose bengal (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and complement fixation (CFT) tests. The serum strains were collected in day zero, 15, 30, 45, 60th days and subsequently to each 30 months, until 720th day after vaccination. No animal showed reaction in day zero. In 15th day above 95% of animals revealed reaction in all tests. All the animals presented absence of reactions in CFT, RBT and 2ME tests at 270, 300 and 360 days after vaccination, respectively. Our finding highlighted early response in CFT compared than other conventional agglutination tests. None of animals presented oscillation of titers or reactions in any test after 360 day of study, which enables the use of these tests after this period without interference of antibodies from S19 vaccine origin between 3 and 8 months in buffalo heifers. PMID:22284623

  13. Pros and Cons of serological testing in syphilis diagnosis and follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a proper diagnosis of syphilis is often difficult due to the wide variability of both clinical picture and laboratory test results, early recognition of infection caused by Treponema pallidum is crucial for a timely and effective treatment. In most cases, definitive diagnosis relies upon serological testing. A screening ELISA test, coupled with a quantitative RPR test and specific IgM antibodies detection, is currently regarded as the basic diagnostic procedure. In addition, a quantitative particle agglutination TP-PA test, FTA-abs IgG test and, eventually, a western-blot IgG and IgM test, allow to achieve a whole serological pattern for each patient at the time of first diagnosis. In this study, a group of serum samples (n=107 and cerebro-spinal fluid (n=3 were retrospectively analyzed using the above mentioned tests. A population of 19 patients whose clinical picture was unremarkable for syphilis, showed border-line values at screening and negative results on confirmation tests. Thirty-three out of 91 luetic patients were diagnosed as primary or early secondary syphilis, 36 as latent syphilis, 3 as neurosyphilis, and 3 were neonates with passive specific immunization. Quantitative RPR test and detection of specific IgM antibodies exhibited extremely high values in all 33 primary syphilis patients; a whole positive luetic pattern was also obtained by confirmation tests. Searching for IgM antibodies, a capture elisa test compared with a single device rapid elisa test showed an overall concordance of 98.1%. In luetic patients other than primary syphilis, quantitative RPR test and detection of specific IgM antibodies provided less relevant values and a low prevalence pattern, whereas TP-PA and FTA-abs tests showed persistent positives results. In the follow up of 19 initially treated patients, quantitative RPR values and specific IgM antibodies index showed a slow, progressive decrease until negative. Conclusion: a comprehensive initial

  14. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  15. Characterization of the classical biological false-positive reaction in the serological test for syphilis in the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Liu, Li-Li; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Xi, Ya; Lin, Li-Rong; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Huang, Song-Jie; Chen, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Qiao; Huang, Ge-Ling; Tong, Man-Li; Jiang, Jie; Yang, Tian-Ci

    2014-06-01

    To characterize the CBFP reaction in the modern era, we analyzed the results of parallel rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) tests from a total of 63,765 blood samples obtained at Zhongshan Hospital in the Medical College of Xiamen University from May 2008 to February 2013. Among the 63,765 tested blood samples, 206 (0.32%) had the CBFP reaction. In multivariate analysis, an increased likelihood of the CBFP reaction was associated with female subjects, subjects ≥80years old, and subjects between 16 and 35years old (PRPR test, including false labor, megaloblastic anemias, aplastic anemias, redundant prepuce, congenital malformation of heart, and salpingitis. Among the 206 patients with the CBFP reaction, 35 patients were subjected to follow-up for five years. 26 out of 35 these patients were at a 1:1 initial RPR titer, 8 out of 35 patients were at a 1:2 initial RPR titer, and 1 out of 35 patients were at a 1:4 initial RPR titer. 30 subjects had their RPR seroreverted. In our opinion, additional CBFP research using a large sample population will contribute to the identification of additional underlying serious disorders that are not related to syphilis. Such results could be useful for the prediction and diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:24690532

  16. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China. METHODS: Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests. RESULTS: Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  17. SEROLOGIC SURVEY AND RESULTS OF URINARY PCR TESTING FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, June E; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and a wide variety of mammal species worldwide. Often, rodents and wild animals are identified as important reservoirs for the disease. Twenty-two captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) housed within a zoo were examined as part of a routine census and preventive medicine program. During examinations, blood and urine were collected to screen for exposure to, or infection with, leptospirosis. All animals were apparently healthy at the time of examination. Leptospira microscopic agglutination test identified 12 of 22 (54.5%) prairie dogs with antibody titers ≥1 : 100 against Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava on initial serologic examination. All prairie dogs within this collection were serologically negative for L. interrogans serovars canicola, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona and Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Leptospira polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of urine was negative in all animals tested. This report describes evidence that captive prairie dogs may be exposed to leptospirosis, most likely from wild rodent reservoirs; however, serum titers are low, and lack of leptospiral DNA detected by PCR indicates that these captive animals are unlikely to be important reservoirs for the disease. PMID:26667541

  18. Tests for Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 888-220-5446 Test HSV (genital herpes) test Pap test (Pap smear) Syphilis test Urinalysis and urine culture Vaginal ... just because you had a pelvic exam or Pap test. A Pap test does not test for ...

  19. Comparison of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) toluidine red unheated serum test and the CSF rapid plasma reagin test with the CSF venereal disease research laboratory test for diagnosis of neurosyphilis among HIV-negative syphilis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ=0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ=0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available. PMID:24335955

  20. Trend of glycated hemoglobin testing in diabetic patients: to assess compliance with clinical practice guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine appropriate use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) testing in accordance with current recommended guidelines. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Chemical Pathology Department Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from Oct 2011 to Oct 2012. Material and Methods: We randomly selected 170 known diabetic patients' data from our Laboratory Information System (LIS) who were retrospective analyzed for HbA1c to check for intervals and test frequency for each patient in one year. Patients with follow-up for at least one year at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad and having their routine investigations in our chemical pathology laboratory were included. The concentrations of HbA1c for all the specimens were measured immunoturbidimetrically using a microparticle agglutination inhibition method. Four guidelines namely World Health Organization (WHO), American Diabetic Association (ADA), Canadian Diabetic Association (CDA) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) about HbA1c testing were utilized for data interpretation. All tests ordered within a 2 months period or more than 6 months following the previous order were labeled as inappropriate. Results: Only 35.8% of the patients were being properly monitored as per guidelines. Out of 64% patients who were inappropriately monitored, 12.9% had repeat orders within 2 months while 51.1% of patients were being monitored at longer interval against recommended guidelines. Conclusions: Glycated hemoglobin is a useful tool to objectively assess the prior glycemic control of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The study highlights that in large proportion of diabetic patients, HbA1c is not utilized properly as a tool to assess the risk of diabetic complications but in a small proportion is also tested unnecessarily which adds to avoidable health expenditure. (author)

  1. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  2. APU diaphragm testing. Test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) fuel (hydrazine) tanks have had to be removed from the Columbia Shuttle (OV-102) because they have been in service for 11 years, which is the limit of their useful life. As part of an effort to determine whether the useful life of the fuel tanks can be extended, examination of the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) diaphragm and the metal from one of the APU tanks is required. The JSC Propulsion and Power Division has requested White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to examine the EPR diaphragm thoroughly and the metal casing generally from one tank. The objective is to examine the EPR diaphragm for signs of degradation that may limit the life of its function in the APU propellant tank. The metal casing will also be examined for signs of surface corrosion.

  3. [Largest outbreak of legionellosis associated with spa baths: comparison of diagnostic tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Kimiko; Okada, Mika; Kura, Fumiaki; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Watanabe, Haruo

    2007-03-01

    In July 2002, a large outbreak of legionellosis occurred in a bathhouse with spa facilities in Miyazaki Prefecture. Among the visitors, 295, including suspected cases had pneumonia and/or symptoms of fever, coughing, etc. Of these, 37% were hospitalized and 7 died. Clinical samples from 95 mainly inpatients were collected and microbiologically tested at our laboratory. Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 was isolated from 3 of 24 in sputum culture, and none of the 3 had been treated effectively with antibiotics at sputa collection. L. pneumophila antigen in urine was detected by using enzyme immunoassay and/or immunochromatographic kits in 23 of 75 patients. Serum antibodies to L. pneumophila SG1 and Legionella dumoffii were detected in 5 each of 66 patients--9 cases including a case at mixed infection-by microplate agglutination test and/or indirect immunofluorescence assay. At our laboratory, 32 were diagnosed with legionellosis. In this outbreak, 14 were diagnosed at other laboratories, resulting in 46 confirmed cases. Urine antigen was detected more frequently by Binax NOW immunochromatographic assay than by Biotest EIA-31% versus 16% of cases tested. Both assays detected urine antigen only in samples collected within 4 weeks after onset. Antigen concentration in urine enhanced sensitivity-58% and 51%-and extended the period of antigen detection beyond 5 weeks. Both antibody titers to L. pneumophila SG1 and L. dumoffii in more than 90% of sera collected within 3 weeks after onset were or = 1:128 within 3 weeks was 1.6%, during 4 to 6 weeks less than 10%, and after 7 weeks or more 8 to 25%. After an administrative report was published, L. pneumophila DNA in sputa was detected in 5 of 17 patients by nested PCR, resulting in extra 3 cases. Altogether, urinary antigen detection and PCR were more effective in laboratory diagnostic tests than culture and serology. Culture combined with molecular epidemiology is critical, however, for confirming the source of

  4. Comparison of B.melitensis and B.abortus Bacteremias with Respect to Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Aliskan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis are most commonly caused by the Brucella species Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. This study was aimed to determine the differences in the routine diagnostic tests (serological tests and blood culture positivity that differentiate bacteremias caused by B. melitensis and B. abortus. Material and Method: This study included a total of 42 patients from whose blood cultures Brucella sp. were isolated between January 2010 and April 2014. A 8-10 ml blood sample was put into BACTEC plus/Aerobic F culture bottles after being drawn from patients (n:42 with suspected brucellosis. The obtained samples were incubated in BACTEC 9240 device (BD Diagnostic, Maryland, USA for 21 days. Sera of the blood samples taken simultaneously with the blood culture were studied with the Rose Bengal and Standard Tube Agglutination (STA tests. Results: In patients with acute brucellosis, B. melitensis and B. abortus species showed no significant differences with respect to time to positive signal in blood cultures (for hours p=0.850; for days p=0.696 and the mean time to positivity. The earliest signal in the device was delivered at day 2., 44th hour and the latest at day 6., 123rd hour. No significant difference was noted between the two species with respect to the mean time to positivity. Discussion: This study did not show any significant differences between B. melitensis (n=22 and B. abortus (n=20 bacteremias with respect to age, sex, time to blood culture positivity, and STA test titer level.

  5. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test. PMID:27185543

  6. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  7. A1C test

    Science.gov (United States)

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  8. Comparison of diagnostic tests for the detection of Brucella spp. in camel sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwida Mayada M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis in livestock causes enormous losses for economies of developing countries and poses a severe health risk to consumers of dairy products. Little information is known especially on camel brucellosis and its impact on human health. For surveillance and control of the disease, sensitive and reliable detection methods are needed. Although serological tests are the mainstay of diagnosis in camel brucellosis, these tests have been directly transposed from cattle without adequate validation. To date, little information on application of real-time PCR for detection of Brucella in camel serum is available. Therefore, this study was performed to compare the diagnostic efficiency of different serological tests and real-time PCR in order to identify the most sensitive, rapid and simple combination of tests for detecting Brucella infection in camels. Findings A total of 895 serum samples collected from apparently healthy Sudanese camels was investigated. Sudan is a well documented endemic region for brucellosis with cases in humans, ruminants, and camels. Rose Bengal Test (RBT, Complement Fixation Test (CFT, Slow Agglutination Test (SAT, Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (cELISA and Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA as well as real-time PCR were used. Our findings revealed that bcsp31 kDa real-time PCR detected Brucella DNA in 84.8% (759/895 of the examined samples, of which 15.5% (118/759 were serologically negative. Our results show no relevant difference in sensitivity between the different serological tests. FPA detected the highest number of positive cases (79.3% followed by CFT (71.4%, RBT (70.7%, SAT (70.6% and cELISA (68.8%. A combination of real-time PCR with one of the used serological tests identified brucellosis in more than 99% of the infected animals. 59.7% of the examined samples were positive in all serological tests and real-time PCR. A subpopulation of 6.8% of animals was positive in all

  9. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of prototype rapid tests for human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT remains a challenge both for active screening, which is critical in control of the disease, and in the point-of-care scenario where early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Recently, the first field deployment of a lateral flow rapid diagnostic test (RDT for HAT, "SD BIOLINE HAT" has taken place. In this study, we evaluated the performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and two new prototype RDTs.The performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and 2 prototype RDTs was tested using archived plasma from 250 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients, and 250 endemic controls. As well as comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of each device, the performance of individual antigens was assessed and the hypothetical performance of novel antigen combinations extrapolated. Neither of the prototype devices were inferior in sensitivity or specificity to "SD BIOLINE HAT" (sensitivity 0.82±0.01, specificity 0.97±0.01, 95% CI at the 5% margins, while one of the devices (BBI had significantly superior sensitivity (0.88±0.03. Analysis of the performance of individual antigens was used to model new antigen combinations to be explored in development of the next generation of HAT RDTs. The modelling showed that an RDT using two recombinant antigens (rLiTat1.5 and rISG65 would give a performance similar to the best devices in this study, and would also offer the most robust performance under deteriorating field conditions.Both "SD BIOLINE HAT" and the prototype devices performed comparably well to one another and also to the published performance range of the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis in sensitivity and specificity. The performance of individual antigens enabled us to predict that an all-recombinant antigen RDT can be developed with an accuracy equivalent to " SD BIOLINE HAT." Such an RDT would have advantages in simplified manufacture, lower unit cost and assured reproducibility.

  10. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  11. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  12. Tests in contingency tables as regression tests

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Anatolyev; Grigory Kosenok

    2006-01-01

    Applied researchers often use tests based on contingency tables in preliminary data analysis and diagnostic testing. We show that many of such tests may be alternatively implemented by testing for coecient restrictions in linear regression systems (as a rule, employing the Wald test). This uni es the theories of regression analysis and contingency tables, sheds more light on intuitive contents of contingency table tests, and provides a more convenient and familiar tool for practitioners.

  13. Analysis of test result for 204 brucellosis cases%204例布氏杆菌病实验室检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋耀丽; 张俊杰; 牛国永; 刘伟伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective Based on the result of laboratory test, the diagnosis for brucelosis was determined, in order to sup-port of trend prediction and making control measures for brucelosis.Methods According to the experimental diagnostic criteria for brucellosis, the combined detection of tiger red plate agglutination test ( RBPT) and serum agglutination test ( SAT) was performed in detection of brucella antibody on infected cases, suspected cases and related conective individu-als.Results The brucella antibody were detected in 204 cases among all of 470 subjects,with a positive rate 43.4%. Among the brucellosis cases, the ratio of male to female was 1.62 ∶1, cases in 40 to 69 years age accounted for 75.49%, farmers accounted for 40.69%, slaughter workers accounted for 32.35%.Conclusions It is to strengthen control brucel-losis measures to the individuals engaged in aquaculture and animal husbandry, and improve their awareness of self-protec-tion.%目的:通过实验室检测,发现布氏杆菌感染者,掌握疫情动态,为预测布氏杆菌病流行趋势、制订防治对策提供依据。方法根据布氏杆菌病实验室诊断标准,利用虎红平板凝集试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)相结合的试验方法,对布氏杆菌病疑似病例和有接触史等的人员进行布氏杆菌抗体检测。结果在470例监测对象中,布氏杆菌抗体阳性病例204例,阳性率43.4%。在阳性病例中,男女性别比为1.62∶1;40~69岁年龄组占75.49%;畜牧养殖人员占40.69%,屠宰作业者占32.35%。结论应加强对养殖业和畜牧业人员的预防控制工作,提高其自我防护意识。

  14. TEST SUITE GENERATION PROCESS FOR AGENT TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUHAMDI ZINA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software agents are a promising technology for today's complex, distributed systems. Methodologies and techniques that address testing and reliability of multi agent systems are increasingly demanded, in particular to support automated test case generation and execution. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for goal-oriented software agent testing. It specifies a testing process that complements the goal oriented methodology Tropos and reinforces the mutual relationship between goal analysis and testing. Furthermore, it defines a structured and comprehensive agent test suite generation process by providing a systematic way of deriving test cases from goal analysis.

  15. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  16. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  17. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, p<0.001) but a considerably higher sensitivity (98.1% versus 84.4%, χ(2)=33.39, p<0.001). We conclude that the Surra Sero K-SeT may become an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi for sensitive detection of antibodies against T. evansi in domestic animals. PMID:26012857

  18. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  19. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: DAT; Direct Coombs Test; Direct Anti-human Globulin Test Formal name: ... antiglobulin test (DAT), also known as the direct Coombs test, is used primarily to help determine whether ...

  20. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  1. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  2. Lab and Imaging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Treatment Lab and Imaging Tests Lab and Imaging Tests Lab and Imaging Tests SHARE: Print Glossary Doctors use several different lab and imaging tests to help detect (diagnose) a blood cancer ( ...

  3. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with the fungus ...

  4. Genetic Testing (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Genetic Testing KidsHealth > For Parents > Genetic Testing Print A A ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, pregnant ...

  5. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your area, please visit www.nsgc.org . Genetic Testing Genetic testing can help determine the cause of FALS ... couples planning on having children to pursue prenatal testing. Genetic testing does not: Currently change medical treatment. Diagnose ...

  6. Intelligent test integration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  7. To test or not to test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...

  8. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300-600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection. PMID:25437803

  11. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655 are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300–600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection.

  12. Web Security Testing Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hope, Paco

    2008-01-01

    Among the tests you perform on web applications, security testing is perhaps the most important, yet it's often the most neglected. The recipes in the Web Security Testing Cookbook demonstrate how developers and testers can check for the most common web security issues, while conducting unit tests, regression tests, or exploratory tests. Unlike ad hoc security assessments, these recipes are repeatable, concise, and systematic-perfect for integrating into your regular test suite.

  13. Automated functional software testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelnikar, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The following work describes an approach to software test automation of functional testing. In the introductory part we are introducing what testing problems development companies are facing. The second chapter describes some testing methods, what role does testing have in software development, some approaches to software development and the meaning of testing environment. Chapter 3 is all about test automation. After a brief historical presentation, we are demonstrating through s...

  14. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > Get tested for HIV HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Get tested for HIV When should I get tested for HIV? Types ... to top More information on Get tested for HIV Explore other publications and websites HIV Anonymous Testing, ...

  15. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine test; Arginine-GHRH test ... of re-inserting the needle each time. The test takes between 2 to 5 hours. The procedure ... eat for 10 to 12 hours before the test. Eating food can change the test results. Some ...

  17. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  18. Sensitivity and Specificity of a New Vertical Flow Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Serodiagnosis of Human Leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Goarant

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Leptospirosis is a growing public health concern in many tropical and subtropical countries. However, its diagnosis is difficult because of non-specific symptoms and concurrent other endemic febrile diseases. In many regions, the laboratory diagnosis is not available due to a lack of preparedness and simple diagnostic assay or difficult access to reference laboratories. Yet, an early antibiotic treatment is decisive to the outcome. The need for Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs for bedside diagnosis of leptospirosis has been recognized. We developed a vertical flow immunochromatography strip RDT detecting anti-Leptospira human IgM and evaluated it in patients from New Caledonia, France, and French West Indies. Methodology/Principal Findings : Whole killed Leptospira fainei cells were used as antigen for the test line and purified human IgM as the control line. The mobile phase was made of gold particles conjugated with goat anti-human IgM. Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy criteria were used to assess the performance of this RDT. The Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT was used as the gold standard with a cut-off titer of ≥400. The sensitivity was 89.8% and the specificity 93.7%. Positive and negative Likelihood Ratios of 14.18 and 0.108 respectively, and a Diagnostic Odds Ratio of 130.737 confirmed its usefulness. This RDT had satisfactory reproducibility, repeatability, thermal tolerance and shelf-life. The comparison with MAT evidenced the earliness of the RDT to detect seroconversion. When compared with other RDT, the Vertical Flow RDT developed displayed good diagnostic performances.This RDT might be used as a point of care diagnostic tool in limited resources countries. An evaluation in field conditions and in other epidemiological contexts should be considered to assess its validity over a wider range of serogroups or when facing different endemic pathogens. It might prove useful in endemic contexts or outbreak

  19. Efficacy of a chairside diagnostic test kit for estimation of C-reactive protein levels in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarale Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein [CRP] levels increase to hundreds of mg/mL within hours following infection. Studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in periodontal disease. However, in all the previous studies, CRP levels were measured by using high-sensitivity CRP assay kits with minimal detection limits of 0.1 to 3 mg/L, which was much below the normal value of 10 mg/L. These high-sensitivity CRP assays need a proper laboratory setup, and these methods cannot be used as a routine chair-side test in the dental office. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum CRP levels in subjects with periodontal disease by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit with a lower detection limit of 6 mg/L and to compare the CRP levels before and after periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 systemically healthy subjects were selected for the study. Subjects were divided into three groups: group A: healthy controls, group B: gingivitis, group C: periodontitis. Serum levels of CRP were determined by using a latex slide agglutination method with commercially available kit with lower detection limit of 6 mg/L. Results: CRP was negative in all the 15 subjects in groups A and B at baseline, 7th and 30th day. CRP was positive only in 2 subjects in Group C at baseline and 7th day. Conclusion: Estimation of serum CRP by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit is not of any significance in subjects with periodontitis.

  20. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  1. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  2. Structural Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...

  3. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  4. CSF-VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venereal disease research laboratory slide test - CSF ... provider's instructions on how to prepare for this test. ... The CSF-VDRL test is done to diagnose syphilis in the brain or spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord involvement is often a ...

  5. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  6. ALP isoenzyme test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  7. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  8. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickledex; Hgb S test ... This test is done to tell if a person has abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle ... and no symptoms, or only mild ones. This test does not tell the difference between these two ...

  9. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  10. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin A Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Vitamin B12 and Folate , Vitamin D Tests , Iron Tests , ...

  11. Creatine phosphokinase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPK test ... vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture . This test may be repeated over 2 or 3 days ... helps determine which tissue has been damaged. This test may be used to: Diagnose heart attack Evaluate ...

  12. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  13. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  14. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms Next Topic Colorectal cancer stages Tests for colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer is often found after symptoms appear, ... of the cancer . Imaging tests to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic ...

  15. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 test ... temporarily stop taking certain medicines that may affect test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... helps prevent sperm from dying too early. This test may be ordered to check: How well your ...

  16. Service functional test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillah, Lom Messan; Maesano, Ariele-Paolo; Rosa, Fabio; Maesano, Libero; Lettere, Marco; Fontanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of the functional test of services (black-box testing) and services architectures (grey-box testing) that has been developed by the MIDAS project and is accessible on the MIDAS SaaS. In particular, the paper illustrates the solutions of tough functional test automation problems such as: (i) the configuration of the automated test execution system against large and complex services architectures, (ii) the constraint-based test input generation, (iii) the spec...

  17. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  18. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  19. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  20. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  1. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  2. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  3. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  4. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  5. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hailu; G.J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2006-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitol

  6. Localizing Test Power Consumption for Scan Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Dong; LI Kai-wei

    2005-01-01

    A two stage scan architecture is proposed to do low powerand low test application cost scan testing. The first stage includes multiple scan chains, where each scan chain is driven by a primary input. Each scan flip-flop in the multiple scan chains drives a group of scan flip-flops. The scan flip-flop in the multiple scan chain and the scan flipflop driven by it are assigned the same values for all test vectors. Scan flip-flops in the multiple scan chains and those in the second stage use separate clock signals, but the design for testability technqiue needs only one clock. The proposed scan architecture localizes test power consumption to the multiple scan chains during test application. Test signals assigned to scan flip-flops in the multiple scan chains are applied to the scan flip-flops in the second stage after the test vector has been applied to the multiple scan chains. This technique can make test power consumption very small.

  7. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements.

  8. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  9. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements

  10. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  11. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  12. Nationale test i naturfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....

  13. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye test -- color; Vision test -- color; Ishihara color vision test ... lighting. The health care provider will explain the test to you. You will be shown several cards with colored dot patterns. These cards are called Ishihara plates. In the patterns, some of the dots ...

  14. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m2, film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  15. Flight Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  16. ITER test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER has been designed to operate in two phases. The first phase which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Numeracy Tests For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k

  18. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  19. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  20. Grimsel test site. Overview and test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the host rock and surrounding rock strata is of fundamental importance for concepts which provide for final disposal of radioactive waste in geological formations. Taking the studies in the Stripa Rock Laboratory into account, the objectives of the Grimsel Test Site were defined as follows: checking the applicability of foreign research results to geological conditions in Switzerland; carrying out specific experiments which are necessary in the context of the Nagra disposal concepts; acquisition of know-how in planning, implementation and interpretation of underground tests in different experimental areas; acquisition of practical experience in development, testing and use of experimental apparatus and measurement methods. At Grimsel, experiments are to be carried out in the following fields: excavation tests; migration; rock stress measurements; neo-tectonics; geophysics; heat-induced processes; hydrogeology; laboratory experiments. Various tests are already under way. The Grimsel Test Site was established between April 1983 and May 1984. It lies at a depth of 450 m under the Juchlistock and is reached by an access tunnel. The Test Site is operated by Nagra. The experiments are carried out by Nagra and the following two German research establishments: the 'Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)' and the 'Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF)', both under the auspices of the German 'Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT)'. (author)

  1. RT Level Test Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    J. Blatný; Z. Kotásek; J. Hlavička

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of exploiting parallelism in testing of VLSI circuits. A circuit at the register transfer level is denoted as an RTL circuit. The model utilizes the concept of TACG (Test Application Conflict Graph). For the testing process the resource utilization model is defined and used for the TACG construction.  Different conflicts that must be taken into account during an RTL circuit test scheduling are presented. The problem of concurrent test application is transf...

  2. POWER CONSCIOUS TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    BONHOMME Y.; Girard, P.; LANDRAULT C.; PRAVOSSOUDOVITCH S.

    2003-01-01

    Test power relates to the power consumed during test of integrated circuits or embedded cores. Test power is now a big concern in large System-on-Chip designs. In this paper, we propose to shortly review the state-of-the-art in this domain. We first survey the recent approaches proposed for minimizing test power. Next, we propose some interesting directions for the development of new low power testing techniques by enumerating the relevant criteria that have to be satisfied.

  3. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, John S.

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  4. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m2. After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m2, film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  5. Teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar Testing pulmonary vasoreactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Clarindo Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial pulmonar é classificada como idiopática ou secundária (associada a colagenoses, cardiopatias, hipertensão portal, tromboembolismo pulmonar e doenças da vasculatura pulmonar. O teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar é indicado para definir a melhor opção terapêutica. Muitas drogas têm sido utilizadas para a realização desse teste, sendo o óxido nítrico inalado a melhor opção, por apresentar ação específica pulmonar e meia vida muita curta (5-10 s. O resultado desse teste identifica candidatos à cirurgia cardíaca nas cardiopatias congênitas e candidatos ao uso de antagonista de cálcio nas outras formas de hipertensão pulmonar. A realização e interpretação do teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar exigem grande responsabilidade, e erros podem levar a decisões erradas e à ocorrência de óbitos.Pulmonary arterial hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary (associated with collagenoses, heart disease, portal hypertension, pulmonary thromboembolism, and pulmonary vascular diseases. Pulmonary vasoreactivity should be tested in order to define the best treatment option. Of the many drugs that have been used to test pulmonary vasoreactivity, inhaled nitric oxide is the best choice, due its specific pulmonary effect and very short half-life (5-10 s. The results of this test identify candidates for heart surgery among patients with congenital heart disease and candidates for the use of calcium antagonists among patients with other forms of pulmonary hypertension. Performing and interpreting the results of such tests are a great responsibility, since mistakes can lead to incorrect treatment decisions, resulting in the death of patients.

  6. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests adm...

  7. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from...... working with the first four rounds of the test data. We provide a brief introduction to adaptive testing, the available data and general data issues including missing data, test participation and data transformations. Additionally, we construct a standardized measure of the raw pupil ability estimate...... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  8. Nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM has transferred know-how from reactor technology to materials testing. The high and to a large extent new quality standards in the nuclear industry necessitate reliable measuring and testing equipment of the highest precision. Many of the tasks presented to us could not be solved with the equipment available on the market, for which reason we have developed our own measuring, testing and control systems. We have therefore acquired considerable experience in dealing with specific measuring, testing and control tasks and can handle even out-of-the-way problems that are submitted to us from a wide variety of fields. Our mechanical systems for the checking of close-tolerance gaps, the automatic determination of pellet dimensions and the measurement of absolute lengths and absolute velocities are in use in many different industrial fields. We have succeeded in solving unusual testing and sorting problems with the aid of automated surface testing equipment working on optical principles. Our main activities in the field of non-destructive testing have been concentrated on ultrasonic and eddy current testing and, of late, acoustic emission analysis. NUKEM ultrasonic systems are notable for their high defect detection rate and testing accuracy, combined with high testing speed. The equipment we supply includes ultrasonic rotary systems for the production testing of quality tubes, ultrasonic immersion systems for the final testing of reactor cladding tubes, weld testing equipment, and test equipment for the bonds in multi-layer plates. (orig./RW)

  9. Advanced test reactor. Testing capabilities and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world's premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner 'lobes' to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plants for the NSUF. (author)

  10. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  11. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  12. On Reading Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long discussion over the construct validity of reading tests. In china's reading tests, multiple choice is the main test method in view of the4 long controversy over the validity of multiple choice, construct validation is called for to empirically test the hypothesized relationships between test scores and abilities. The national CET committee conducted a comprehensive validation study. As part of the project, the specialists studied the reading comprehension test's validity by qualitative means, namely "introspective verbal reports". The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority of the questions items were handled through "expected reading operations".

  13. Rules for Optical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  14. 牛布鲁氏菌四种血清学检测方法的比较%Comparison of 4 Serological Tests for Bovine Brucellosis Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任璐; 周晓翠; 范伟兴; 武瑞

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide a reference for choosing an appropriate serological test method for bovine brucellosis in clinical detection,4 serological tests for bovine brucellosis detection were compared and analyzed. 294 bovine serum samples were tested by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test(RBT),Serum Agglutination Test(SAT),Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA)and Complement Fixation Test(CFT),respectively. The coincidence rate and Kappa were compared between RBT and ELISA,SAT and CFT,respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4 tests were compared using CFT as a standard. The coincidence rate of RBT and ELISA,SAT and CFT was over 95% as well as the Kappa values > 0.75. Taking CFT as a standard,the sensitivity of RBT and ELISA was better,but it exised a certain false positive. The specificity of SAT was better,but it existed a certain false negative. ELISA had better sensitivity and speci-ficity than RBT and SAT. RBT and ELISA were suitable for screening,and CFT was suitable for definite diagnosing in clinical detection. It was better to choose more than two tests for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.%[目的]为在布鲁氏菌病临床检疫中选择可靠的血清学检测方法提供参考。[方法]对采集的294份牛血清样品用虎红平板凝集试验(RBT)、试管凝集试验(SAT)、酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)和补体结合试验(CFT)进行布鲁氏菌病抗体检测,比较RBT与ELISA,SAT与CFT的符合率及Kappa值,以CFT作为判定标准,比较四种检测方法的敏感性和特异性。[结果] RBT与ELISA、SAT与CFT检测方法的符合率高达到95%以上,且Kappa值均大于0.75。以CFT作为判定标准,RBT和ELISA的敏感性较好,但有假阳性;SAT的特异性较好,但有假阴性。综合比较认为ELISA的敏感性和特异性都比较理想。[结论]临床工作中使用RBT或ELISA对布鲁氏菌病进行初筛,用CFT进行复核确诊,通过两种或两种以上的血清学检

  15. Testing (HIV). Quick test receives Singapore approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-22

    Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 is a rapid HIV antibody immunoassay developed by Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (SDS) which can be used by anyone who can read the product insert. The test kit is comprised of a small lancet for a finger stick, a cylindrical tube with a capillary tip and a SDS diagnostic strip inside, and a vial of buffer. Once blood is drawn by the lancet, the capillary tip is placed upon the blood droplet and the blood is automatically drawn into the tube. The tube is then inserted tip first into the vial of buffer. The buffer and blood migrate over the diagnostic strip inside, yielding stable results within 15 minutes. Studies have found Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 to have a sensitivity and specificity greater than 99.4%, as accurate as most conventional HIV tests which require the use of laboratory equipment and trained staff, and possibly hours to produce results. Moreover, the test kit requires neither refrigeration nor special storage. Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 has received a certificate of free sale from the Ministry of Health in Singapore and is now being submitted for regulatory approval in Brazil, China, Russia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and the UK. SDS products in production include Sero-Strip HIV 1/2, a rapid serum-based HIV antibody test; Omni-SAL, a saliva collector which is the principal sample collection device used by British insurance companies for HIV testing with other confirmatory tests; Omni-Swab, a serrated swab which collects body fluids or cells; Saliva-Sampler, a saliva collection device used for general testing purposes; and Saliva Check, a test which checks the composition of saliva samples. SDS is in the final stages of developing Saliva-Strip HIV-1/2, a rapid saliva-based HIV antibody test. The company also intends to complete development in 1996 of a rapid blood-based antibody test for the Helicobacter pylori bacteria, a pathogen linked to 80% of peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. PMID:12290908

  16. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  17. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  18. Directory of Medical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... variety of illnesses or signs of infection. Blood chemistry test. Basic blood chemistry tests measure the levels ...

  19. The non destructive testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author after having indicated the methods used in nondestructive testing presents 4 of these methods - X-ray and gamma radiography - ultrasonic testing - eddy current - acoustic emission

  20. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  1. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  2. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  3. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  4. Get Tested for Glaucoma!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Get Tested for Glaucoma! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... and why it is so important to get tested. To Find Out More MedlinePlus: www.medlineplus.gov ...

  5. Get Your Eyes Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Your Eyes Tested Browse Sections The Basics Overview Eye Exams Vision ... The Basics The Basics: Overview Have your eyes tested (examined) regularly to help find problems early, when ...

  6. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...

  7. Strep Throat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this website will be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Strep Throat Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Throat Culture; Culture, Throat; Rapid Strep Test; Rapid Antigen Detection ...

  8. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  9. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  10. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  11. CSD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  12. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  13. Integrated Usability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ternauciuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to regularly test the usability of a learning management system, in order to ensure a fast adoption by new users and rapidly shift the focus from the platform to the content and the learning experience. Quantitative testing yields the most reliable results due to the large number of data points acquired, but lacks the in-depth analysis of the qualitative research from a controlled testing setup. We are proposing in this paper an integrated usability testing tool, which can replace a certain type of laboratory testing, where the users’ actions on the real platform are measured and analyzed. We conducted tests with the tool and compared the results with a small scale laboratory test using the same scenarios. The results seem to confirm the proposed tool as a viable alternative to the laboratory test.

  14. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  15. LDL Particle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests: HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct LDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Cholesterol ; Apo A-I ; Apo B ; Lp(a) ; ... is typically done along with or following a lipid profile . While for many people, the LDL-C test ...

  16. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  17. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the spinal column and brain (called neural tube defects). This test is a screening test, so it ... Absence of part of the brain and skull (anencephaly) Defect in the baby's intestines or other nearby ...

  18. PHYSICAL SIMULATION & TEST

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Crew Station/Turret Motion Based Simulator (CS/TMBS) Test station simulates operational scenarios The CS/TMBS is a high-capacity six-degrees-of-freedom test device....

  19. Exams and Test Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Exams and Tests for Cancer Learn about the tests ... and classify cancer may relieve some of your stress. It can also help you work with your ...

  20. Lyme Disease Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lyme Disease Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Lyme disease tests are used to determine if a person ...

  1. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  2. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  3. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  4. Testing for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  5. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  6. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  7. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to: Adrenal tumor that produces cortisol Pituitary tumor that produces ACTH Tumor in the body that ... test: no change Cushing syndrome caused by a pituitary tumor (Cushing disease) Low-dose test: no change High- ...

  8. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  9. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  10. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000386.htm Cholesterol testing and results To use the sharing features ... can tell you what your goal should be. Cholesterol Tests Some cholesterol is considered good and some ...

  11. Lung diffusion testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003854.htm Lung diffusion testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange ...

  12. Myasthenia Gravis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Myasthenia Gravis Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Tests The goals with testing are to diagnose myasthenia gravis (MG), distinguish it from other conditions with ...

  13. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  14. Test i folkeskolen

    OpenAIRE

    Barnung, Kristine Krøyer; Danielsen, Mads Danker; Frich, Dorthea Holm; Hansen, Anja; Helms, Stine; Jessen, Ditte Strandbygaard

    2007-01-01

    Projektet omhandler et casestudie af en folkeskoleklasse, hvor test spiller en stor rolle i hverdagen. Interviews med klassens elever og lærere analyseres ud fra prblemstillingen: Hvilke betingelser skaber test for folkeskoleelevers motivation og læring?

  15. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  16. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  17. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis ...

  18. HPV and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close + - Text Size HPV and HPV Testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) What are viruses? Viruses are very ... does it mean? If you have cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and an abnormal Pap test ...

  19. Sickle Cell Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sickle Cell Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Sickle cell tests are used to identify the presence of ...

  20. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  1. Beyond the Turing Test

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Gary; New York University; Rossi, Francesca; University of Padova; Veloso, Manuela; Carnegie Mellon University

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of AI Magazine include those that propose specific tests, and those that look at the challenges inherent in building robust, valid, and reliable tests for advancing the state of the art in AI.

  2. Genetic Testing and PXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Search form Search You are here Home › Genetic Testing and PXE Shi Y, Terry SF, Terry ... LG, Gerard GF. Development of a rapid, reliable genetic test for pseudoxanthoma elasticum . J Mol Diagn . 2007 ...

  3. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  4. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  5. Serum bactericidal test.

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, C W

    1988-01-01

    The serum bactericidal test represents one of the few in vitro tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory that combines the interaction of the pathogen, the antimicrobial agent, and the patient. Although the use of such a test antedates the antimicrobial era, its performance, results, and interpretation have been subject to question and controversy. Much of the confusion concerning the serum bactericidal test can be avoided by an understanding of the various factors which influen...

  6. Uniform Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  7. Security Testing: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Felderer, M.; Büchlein, M.; Johns, M; Brucker, A.D.; Breu, R.; Pretschner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying vulnerabilities and ensuring security functionality by security testing is a widely applied measure to evaluate and improve the security of software. Due to the openness of modern software-based systems, applying appropriate security testing techniques is of growing importance and essential to perform effective and efficient security testing. Therefore, an overview of actual security testing techniques is of high value both for researchers to evaluate and refine the techniques and...

  8. Automation of dissolution tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Rolli

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution testing of drug formulations was introduced in the 1960s and accepted by health regulatory authorities in the 1970s. Since then, the importance of dissolution has grown rapidly as have the number of tests and demands in quality-control laboratories. Recent research works lead to the development of in-vitro dissolution tests as replacements for human and animal bioequivalence studies. For many years, a lot of time and effort has been invested in automation of dissolution tests. The...

  9. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  10. Tubing weld cracking test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators

  11. Sperm function test

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Talwar; Suryakant Hayatnagarkar

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give ins...

  12. T3RU test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health care provider interpret the results of T3 and T4 blood tests. Because the free T4 blood test ... many different hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), T3, and T4. This test helps see how much thyroxin binding ...

  13. Testing Java ME Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2008-01-01

    Today, mobile applications have a wide use and their development is growing fast. Testing mobile applications is an important aspect of their development, keeping in mind the importance of these applications and their specific characteristics. In this paper are shown the main aspects of testing the mobile applications, focusing on unit testing of Java ME applications.

  14. Testing Java ME Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, mobile applications have a wide use and their development is growing fast. Testing mobile applications is an important aspect of their development, keeping in mind the importance of these applications and their specific characteristics. In this paper are shown the main aspects of testing the mobile applications, focusing on unit testing of Java ME applications.

  15. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  16. STRESS TESTING OF WOODSTOVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses stress testing of woodstoves. tress testing is a way to test the long- term durability of woodstove models in the laboratory in a 1 to 2 week time frame. (NOTE: Woodstove field studies have shown that new technology woodstoves designed to have low particulate ...

  17. Parvovirus B19 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done. Viral detection If a parvovirus B19 DNA test is positive, then the person is currently infected ... The PCR assay is used to detect viral DNA and is the optimal method for detecting chronic ... a reticulocyte test may be performed along with parvovirus B19 testing ...

  18. Testing Backbone.js

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with the step by step tutorial and instructions in recipe format helping you setup test infrastructure and gradually advance your skills to plan, develop, and test your backbone applications.If you are a JavaScript developer looking for recipes to create and implement test support for your backbone application, then this book is ideal for you.

  19. About Instruction Sequence Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra

    2012-01-01

    Software testing is presented as a so-called theme within which different authors and groups have defined different subjects each of these subjects having a different focus on testing. A uniform concept of software testing is non-existent and the space of possible coherent perspectives on software t

  20. Test Reviewing in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeister, Carmen; Kersting, Martin; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, a (new) German standard for test reviewing was passed (Testkuratorium, 2006). There was already a European standard in place (European Federation of Psychologists' Associations, 2008). This article presents the German standard for test reviewing and explains how the German test review system was derived from demands in the German standard…

  1. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...

  2. Testing Technology, June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getsch, B; Floyd, H L; Parrott, L; Van Arsdall, A

    1992-01-01

    This report highlights the following topics: Photon Correlation Spectroscopy--a new application in jet fuel analysis, Testing news in brief; Solar test facility supports space station research; Shock isolation technique developed for piezoresistive accelerometer; High-speed photography captures Distant Image measurements; and, Radiation effects test revised for CMOS electronics.

  3. Test Administration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  4. The Tyranny of Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Standardized tests which measure a narrow span of intelligence unfairly penalize students whose strengths don't fall within that range. Three kinds of intelligence (analytical, creative, practical) are discussed. Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test, currently being test-piloted, assesses all three aspects of intelligence in contrast to current…

  5. Aldosterone and Renin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat high blood pressure. Stress, exercise, and pregnancy can also affect the test results. Coffee, tea or cola can affect the 24-hour urine sample test. Your doctor will tell you if you should change the amount of ... routine before aldosterone testing. Licorice may mimic aldosterone ...

  6. Evaluation and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these tests is to assess your neurological function, including your muscle strength, how your autonomic nerves are functioning, and ... causes for neuropathy. These include tests for: Vitamin B12 and folate levels Thyroid, liver and ... evaluation Oral glucose tolerance test Antibodies to ...

  7. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    disease, and may be nonspecific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on the physiological basis of the tests and on practical applicability. Finally, diagnostic criteria, based on autonomic nerve function tests, are...

  8. Toroid magnet test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.

  9. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  10. TV-2 test borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new test borehole was drilled for testing logging radiometers for uranium surveying and for dimensioning logging cables. The borehole is 660 m deep and located in it are 4 artificial radioactivity anomalies. The uncased interval is 120 m long, it has significant differences in resistance (200 to 14 000 Ωm) and makes it possible to test all types of electric logging probes. The test borehole makes possible the control of logging instruments after repair in the field, the testing of new probes prior to their being put into operation, the quality and quick dimensioning of logging cables and the performing of developmental and methodological measurements. (A.K.)

  11. Nondestructive testing of weldings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the nondestructive testing of materials with transverse weldings would be often neglect. Because the production of this parts will get more expensive it is interesting to test the parts eg. cans with ultrasound. Within this research program we developed a testing device for automatically testing of materials with transverse weldings, e.g. tubes. Functional characteristics: after putting in the test tube in the testing device the transducer is adjusted automatically to the best adjustment. This takes place with three step motors. The mechanic of adjustments gets its information from an optimal computer. The optimal computer processes the signals, which it gets from the automatic evaluator during the adjustment and stores the optimal adjustment parameters. With an additional equipment on can identify the exact source of error, if the testing device turns out and the repairing of the part can take place very fast. With an appropiate mechanical science the devide is useable in a production line with high flow rate. (orig.)

  12. The LHC Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, O; Aiba, M; Albert, M; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Arduini, Gianluigi; Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bottura, L; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Butterworth, A; Calaga, R; Carlier, E; Collier, P; Dehning, B; Deniau, L; Fartoukh, S; Follin, F; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuchsberger, K; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gras, J J; Hatziangeli, E; Hagen, P; Jacquet, D; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kozsar, I; Kramer, T; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Lewis, J; Losito, R; MacPherson, A; Masi, A; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Page, S; Ponce, L; Puccio, B; Redaelli, S; Roderick, C; Roesler, S; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, R; Sliwinski, W; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Sun, Y; Todd, B; Todesco, E; Tomas Garcia, R; Uythoven, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vincke, H; Vincke, H; Veyrunes, E; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    A series of LHC injection tests was performed in August and September 2008. The first saw beam injected into sector 23; the second into sectors 78 and 23; the third into sectors 78-67 and sectors 23-34-45. The fourth, into sectors 23-34-45, was performed the evening before the extended injection test on the 10th September which saw both beams brought around the full circumference of the LHC. The tests enabled the testing and debugging of a number of critical control and hardware systems; testing and validation of instrumentation with beam for the first time; deployment, and validation of a number of measurement procedures. Beam based measurements revealed a number of machine configuration issues that were rapidly resolved. The tests were undoubtedly an essential precursor to the successful start of LHC beam commissioning. This paper provides an outline of preparation for the tests, the machine configuration and summarizes the measurements made and individual system performance.

  13. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.)

  14. Pendulum detector testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs

  15. COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement

  16. 3株与O139群霍乱弧菌血清交叉凝集的麦氏弧菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of 3 strains of vibrio metschnikovii isolates which cross-agglutinated with Vibrio Cholerae O139

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映霞; 许少洪; 黄芳; 吴琪; 曾雅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect and identify 3 suspected vibrio cholerae O139 isolates which isolated from 2011 to 2012.Methods The samples were isolated and cultured,serological tested and biochemical identified according to inspection standard.Results The 3 strains were identified as vibrio metschnikovii,and the 3 strains were cross-reacted with vibrio cholerae O139 diagnostic serum.Conclusions The 3 strains were not the vibrio cholerae O139,but vibrio metschnikovii.In order to prevent the possibility of false-positive results,the accuracy of identification should be assured.Especially when dealing with the cholera outbreak,the correct identification of pathogenic bacteria can provide scientific basis for control and prevent epidemics.%目的 2011-2012年对3株疑似O139群霍乱弧菌进行检测与分离鉴定.方法 依据检验标准对样本进行分离培养、血清学试验、生化反应等鉴定.结果 该3株菌为麦氏弧菌,与O139群霍乱弧菌诊断血清有交叉凝集.结论 该3菌株不是O139群霍乱弧菌,而是麦氏弧菌.为避免实验结果出现假阳性,必须进行系统生化鉴定,以确保菌株鉴定的准确性.特别是在处理霍乱疫情时,病原菌的正确鉴定可为控制疫情提供科学依据.

  17. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers

  18. Sperm function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  19. Sperm function test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  20. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.