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Sample records for agglomerating burner gasification process

  1. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  2. Development of a multi-fuel burner for coal gasification process; Entwicklung eines Kombibrenners fuer den Kohlevergasungsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Halbouni, Ahmad; Rahms, Hendrik; Chalh-Andreas, Bachir [Brinkmann Industrielle Feuerungssysteme GmbH, Voerde (Germany); Giese, Anne [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany); Benim, Ali Cemal [Fachhochschule Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    In the course of a German ZIM cooperative research project, Brinkmann Industrielle Feuerungssysteme GmbH develops a supersonic oxygen-multi-fuel burner in close cooperation with its research partners Gas- und Waerme-Institut essen e.V. (GWI) and Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences (FHD). This burner is capable of combusting natural gas as well as light oil efficiently, using pure oxygen as an oxidizer. It is intended to be used primarily for energy-intensive applications, but especially as a start-up burner for coal gasification processes. In these processes, specific operating conditions can be found, such as fluctuating pressures, high temperatures and inert atmospheres. Therefore, the main goal of the development is aimed at utilizing the high energy densities found in supersonic by oxy-fuel combustion. This article covers several burner development phases, from initial design and manufacturing activities to burner testing and optimisation. Results achieved up to now are presented and next steps defined. (orig.)

  3. The Shell coal gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Future Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and unmatched efficiency. Efficiency depends on many factors including the type of coal, the gasification process, the gas turbine, the steam cycle. NOx reduction measures and the degree and manner of integration. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an IGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for feeds ranging from bituminous coals to lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is ideally suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV). The excellent environmental capabilities of IGCC systems are based on well established treating processes for removing sulphur and nitrogen species form the syngas. IGCC processes produce modest volumes of environmentally acceptable effluents. Gas turbine burner developments imply lower NOx emissions. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology is being built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The plant is scheduled to start up in 1993

  4. Agglomeration processes in aging societies

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Grafeneder-Weissteiner; Klaus Prettner

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates agglomeration processes in aging societies by introducing an overlapping generation structure into a New Economic Geography model. Whether higher economic integration leads to spatial concentration of economic activity crucially hinges on the economies' demographic properties. While population aging as represented by declining birth rates strengthens agglomeration processes, declining mortality rates weaken them. This is due to the fact that we allow for nonconstant ...

  5. Agglomeration behaviour of high ash Indian coals in fluidized bed gasification pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although gasification of high ash Indian coals is gaining importance, the resultant uncertainties associated with agglomerate formation are still unresolved. To address this, a suitable pilot scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier was utilized in this study. Stabilized operating conditions in terms of coal feed rate, air feed rate, bed temperature, etc., already identified for maximum possible carbon conversion, were maintained in all experiments and the steam flow rate was only varied. Though the ash fusion temperature of the coals were above 1200 °C, agglomerate was formed during gasification at 950 °C with ‘steam to coal ratio’ less than 0.15 (kg/kg). On increasing this ratio above 0.2 local heat-concentration and agglomeration could be avoided with certainty. Chemical composition alone was not sufficient to explain the relative strength of ash-agglomerates. Compositional variation and state of iron within the matrix were assessed through SEM-EDX and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study, respectively. The probing also required the ash-loading and iron-loading factors to be freshly defined in the context of gasification. Localized heat, large compositional variation, presence of iron in Fe2+ state, ash-loading/iron-loading factors influenced intensity of agglomerate formation. Finally, low temperature agglomerate formation was explained by SiO2–Al2O3–FeO phase diagram. - Highlights: • Pilot plant studies on agglomerate formation during high ash coal gasification. • AFT, chemical analysis of coal ash could not give proper indication. • Ash-/iron-loading factors, compositional variation, Fe2+ leads to agglomeration. • Steam to coal ratio was controlled judiciously to avoid agglomeration. • Cause for agglomeration investigated in depth and remedial adjustment was focused

  6. Development and demonstration plant operation of an opposed multi-burner coal-water slurry gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fuchen; ZHOU Zhijie; DAI Zhenhua; GONG Xin; YU Guangsuo; LIU Haifeng; WANG Yifei; YU Zunhong

    2007-01-01

    The features of the opposed multi-burner (OMB) gasification technology,the method and process of the research,and the operation results of a pilot plant and demon stration plants have been introduced.The operation results of the demonstration plants show that when Beisu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Yankuang Cathy Coal Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 8%,and a lower specific carbon consumption of 2%-3% than that of Texaco CWS gasification at the Lunan Fertilizer Plant.When Shenfu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Hua-lu Heng-sheng Chemical Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of more than 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 2%,and a lower specific coal consumption of about 8% than that of the Texaco CWS gasification process at Shanghai Coking & Chemical Corporation.The OMB CWS gasification technology is proven by industrial experience to have a high product yield,low oxygen and coal consumption and robust and safe operation.

  7. Effect of bed temperature and bed composition on agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium, high-sulphur lignite in a spouted fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. McCullough; P.J. Mullinger; P.J. Ashman [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Fluidised bed gasification (FBG) is an alternative process for coal utilisation that delivers improved efficiencies and lower temperature operation compared to conventional technology. Agglomeration and defluidisation are phenomena that have the potential to occur within fluidised bed reactors, which can interrupt stable process operation. While extensive work has been carried out investigating fluidised bed combustion of lignite, relatively little work has been carried out for lignite under fluidised bed gasification conditions. Gasification of high sodium, high sulphur content lignite in a spouted bed gasifier (SBG) indicates that agglomeration and defluidisation is only an issue when maximum bed temperature exceeds approximately 850{degree}C and air/fuel ratios of 2.5 outside of these conditions, defluidisation is not detected. It is also demonstrated that defluidisation occurs before agglomeration, rather than as a result of agglomeration as previously thought. The Rosin-Rammler method of describing particle size distribution is found to yield appropriate variables for quantification of the extent of agglomeration taking place in cases where defluidisation is a factor. However, it has been shown by this method that while initial results indicated that agglomeration extent varies directly with maximum bed temperature, further results have shown that other variables, such as superficial velocity, have a significant impact on the extent of agglomeration. Investigations are currently continuing. 9 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  9. Agglomeration process engineering approach to evaluate the ability of different technologies to agglomerate food powder.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafsa, Ines; Mandato, Sandra; Lafond, Charleyne; Mejean, Serge; Dolivet, Anne; jin Kim, S.; Chevallier, S.; Le Bail, A.; Ruiz, Thierry; Cuq, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Agglomeration technologies are considered as a relevant way to improve functionalities of food powders. The agglomeration process makes it possible to limit segregation phenomena, to reduce dust production, to improve wettability and powders hydration during use, etc. Although largely used in the field of dairy or cereal food products, agglomeration processes are still managed with more or less empirical approaches, and tools. The objective of the present study is to investigate the agglomera...

  10. Experimental determination of bed agglomeration tendencies of some common agricultural residues in fluidized bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, E.; Rao, A.N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Centre for New and Renewable Sources of Energy; Ohman, M.; Nordin, A. [Umea University (Sweden). Energy Technology Centre; Gabra, M. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Liliedahl, T. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1998-12-31

    Ever increasing energy demand and the polluting nature of existing fossil fuel energy sources demonstrate the need for other non-polluting and renewable sources of energy. The agricultural residues available in abundance in many countries can be used for power generation. The fluidized bed technology seems to be suitable for converting a wide range of agricultural residues into energy, due to its inherent advantages of fuel flexibility, low operating temperature and isothermal operating condition. The major ash-related problem encountered in fluidized beds is agglomeration which, in the worst case, may result in total defluidization and unscheduled downtime. The initial agglomeration temperature for some common tropical agricultural residues were experimentally determined by using a newly developed method based on the controlled fluidized bed agglomeration test. The agricultural residues chosen for the study were rice husk, bagasse, cane trash and olive flesh. The results showed that the initial agglomeration temperatures were less than the initial deformation temperature predicted by the ASTM standard ash fusion tests for all fuels considered. The initial agglomeration temperatures of rice husk and bagasse were more than 1000{sup o}C. The agglomeration of cane trash and olive flesh was encountered at relatively low temperatures and their initial agglomeration temperatures in gasification were lower than those in combustion with both bed materials. The use of lime as bed material instead of quartz improved the agglomeration temperature of cane trash and olive flesh in combustion and decreased the same in gasification. The results indicate that rice husk and bagasse can be used in the fluidized bed for energy generation since their agglomeration temperatures are sufficiently high. (author)

  11. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  12. Analysis of bed agglomeration during gasification of wheat straw in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using mullite as bed material

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Bhaird, Seán T.; Walsh, Eilín; Hemmingway, Phil; McDonnell, Kevin; et al.

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and composition of the ash content of straw poses technical challenges to its thermal conversion and have been widely reported to cause severe ash sintering and bed agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification. Literature indicates that a combination of reactor design and bed material measures is required to avoid defluidisation at temperatures above 800 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy this study investigated the initial agglomer...

  13. Analysis and synthesis of solutions for the agglomeration process modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuk, V. A.; Dolotkazin, I. N.; Nizyaev, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The present work is devoted development of model of agglomerating process for propellants based on ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium dinitramide (ADN), HMX, inactive binder, and nanoaluminum. Generalization of experimental data, development of physical picture of agglomeration for listed propellants, development and analysis of mathematical models are carried out. Synthesis of models of various phenomena taking place at agglomeration implementation allows predicting of size and quantity, chemical composition, structure of forming agglomerates and its fraction in set of condensed combustion products. It became possible in many respects due to development of new model of agglomerating particle evolution on the surface of burning propellant. Obtained results correspond to available experimental data. It is supposed that analogical method based on analysis of mathematical models of particular phenomena and their synthesis will allow implementing of the agglomerating process modeling for other types of metalized solid propellants.

  14. Agglomerates processing on in-flight images of granular products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Frederic; Guillaume, S.; Sevila, Francis

    1993-11-01

    Image analysis can be used to characterize granular populations in many processes in food industry or in agricultural engineering. Either global or individual parameters can be extracted from the image. However, granular products may appear agglomerate on the image, bringing biasing on individual parameters. Combining statistical and neural network technics enables the build of a system which can recognize if products are agglomerate or not. To process images after agglomerates detection, two approaches have been studied: the first is based on erosion, followed by conditional dilation with the original image; the second takes advantage of the graph's properties of the agglomerate's skeleton.

  15. Gasification — the process and the technology

    OpenAIRE

    Swaaij, van, W.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermochemical gasification of biomass can produce low, medium and high calorific value gases. The characteristics, applications and potential of the different processes and reactor types are discussed. The introduction of biomass gasification on a large or intermediate scale for the production of power, synthetic natural gas (SNG), methanol etc. will depend on developments in coal and (municipal) solid waste gasification and on the price of biomass. Biomass - and especially wood - is a clean...

  16. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  17. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    OpenAIRE

    RLJ Coetzer; MJ Keyser

    2004-01-01

    Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation. This paper discusses the application of statistical robustness studies as a method for determining the most efficient combination of process variables that might be hard-to-...

  18. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena. Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control

  19. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  20. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  1. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  2. Flow processes in a radiant tube burner: Combusting flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → 3D combusting flow in an industrial radiant tube burner is modelled using the ANSYS-CFX CFD code. → Results are validated against data from an industrial furnace (NO emissions within 7%). → The flame is long and narrow with slight asymmetry. Mixing near the fuel injector is very effective. → The recuperator section is reasonably effective, but design improvements are proposed. → The design is vulnerable to eccentricities due to manufacturing or assembly tolerances. -- Abstract: This paper describes a study of the combustion process in an industrial radiant tube burner (RTB), used in heat treating furnaces, as part of an attempt to improve burner performance. A detailed three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model has been used, validated with experimental test furnace temperature and flue gas composition measurements. Simulations using the Eddy Dissipation combustion model with peak temperature limitation and the Discrete Transfer radiation model showed good agreement with temperature measurements in the inner and outer walls of the burner, as well as with flue gas composition measured at the exhaust (including NO). Other combustion and radiation models were also tested but gave inferior results in various aspects. The effects of certain RTB design features are analysed, and an analysis of the heat transfer processes within the burner is presented.

  3. Process development report: 0.40-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized bed combustion is required in reprocessing the graphite-based fuel elements from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) cores. This burning process requires combustion of beds containing both large particles and very dense particles, and also of fine graphite particles which elutriate from the bed. This report documents the successful long-term operation of the 0.40-m primary burner in burning crushed fuel elements. The 0.40-m system operation is followed from its first short heatup test in September 1976 to a > 40-h burning campaign that processed 20 LHTGR blocks in September 1977. The 0.40-m perforated conical gas distributor, scaled up from the 0.20-m primary burner, has proven reliable in safely burning even the largest, densest adhered graphite/fuel particle clusters originating from the crushing of loaded fuel elements. Such clusters had never been fed to the 0.20-m system. Efficient combustion of graphite fines using the pressurized recycle technique was demonstrated throughout the long-duration operation required to reduce a high carbon fresh feed bed to a low carbon particle bed. Again, such operation had never been completed on the 0.20-m system from which the 0.40-m burner was scaled. The successful completion of the tests was due, in part, to implementation of significant equipment revisions which were suggested by both the initial 0.40-m system tests and by results of ongoing development work on the 0.2-m primary burner. These revisions included additional penetrations in the burner tube side-wall for above-bed fines recycle, replacement and deletion of several metal bellows with bellows of more reliable design, and improvements in designs for burner alignment and feeder mechanisms. 76 figures, 8 tables

  4. Industrial Agglomeration of Chinese Food Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Miao; Goldsmith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Food processing has been widely recognized as a traditional, unskilled-labor intensive production. Yet rapid development in technology drives food processing into more sophisticated and technology-oriented industry. This paper utilizes a fixed effects model to test the hypothesis that the food processing industry is a high technology industry. The research employs a unique natural experiment where some provincial governments in China liberalized migration policies for highly educated/highly s...

  5. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RLJ Coetzer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation. This paper discusses the application of statistical robustness studies as a method for determining the most efficient combination of process variables that might be hard-to-control during normal operation. Response surface models were developed in the process variables for each of the performance variables. It will be shown how statistical robustness studies provided the optimal conditions for sustainable gasifier operability and throughput. In particular, the optimum operability region is significantly expanded towards higher oxygen loads by changing and controlling the particle size distribution of the coal.

  6. Process development report: 0. 20-m secondary burner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickman, W.S.

    1977-09-01

    HTGR fuel reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite; separating, crushing, and reburning the fuel particles to remove the remainder of the burnable carbon; dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials; and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel particles is accomplished in a secondary burner. This is a batch fluidized-bed reactor with in-vessel, off-gas filtration. Process heat is provided by an induction heater. This report documents operational tests performed on a commercial size 0.20-m secondary burner using crushed Fort St. Vrain type TRISO fuel particles. Analysis of a parametric study of burner process variables led to recommending lower bed superficial velocity (0.8 m/s), lower ignition temperature (600/sup 0/C), lower fluid bed operating temperature (850/sup 0/C), lower filter blowback frequency (1 cycle/minute), and a lower fluid bed superficial velocity during final bed burnout (0.45 m/s).

  7. Process development report: 0.20-m secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HTGR fuel reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite; separating, crushing, and reburning the fuel particles to remove the remainder of the burnable carbon; dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials; and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel particles is accomplished in a secondary burner. This is a batch fluidized-bed reactor with in-vessel, off-gas filtration. Process heat is provided by an induction heater. This report documents operational tests performed on a commercial size 0.20-m secondary burner using crushed Fort St. Vrain type TRISO fuel particles. Analysis of a parametric study of burner process variables led to recommending lower bed superficial velocity (0.8 m/s), lower ignition temperature (6000C), lower fluid bed operating temperature (8500C), lower filter blowback frequency (1 cycle/minute), and a lower fluid bed superficial velocity during final bed burnout

  8. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  9. The Effect of Temperature on the Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baláš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a technology that uses fuel to produce power and heat. This technology is also suitable for biomass conversion. Biomass is a renewable energy source that is being developed to diversify the energy mix, so that the Czech Republic can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and on raw materials for energy imported from abroad. During gasification, biomass is converted into a gas that can then be burned in a gas burner, with all the advantages of gas combustion. Alternatively, it can be used in internal combustion engines. The main task during gasification is to achieve maximum purity and maximum calorific value of the gas. The main factors are the type of gasifier, the gasification medium, biomass quality and, last but not least, the gasification mode itself. This paper describes experiments that investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on gas composition and low calorific value. The experiments were performed in an atmospheric gasifier in the laboratories of the Energy Institute atthe Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

  10. 气流床气化洗涤工艺分析%Analysis of Washing Process of Entrained Bed Gasification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕超

    2015-01-01

    介绍了气化炉内灰和渣的形成过程,在分析GE 水煤浆气化、四喷嘴水煤浆气化、GSP干煤粉气化和Choren干粉煤气化等技术的细灰洗涤工艺流程基础上,通过设计和实际生产的对比,提出了优化气化洗涤工艺的思路.%This article introduces the formation process of ash and slag in gasifier .Based on the analysis of the fine ash washing processes of GE Gasifica-tion Process, four-burner gasification process, GSP and Choren Gasification Process, and comparison of the design and the actual production, this paper proposes the optimized ideas of gasification washing process.

  11. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i. e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical intermediate. In this paper, these novel chemical looping gasification processes are described and their advantages and potential challenges for commercialization are discussed.

  12. Nuclear process heat - application to coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature gas cooled reactor has achieved peak coolant temperatures from 775 to 9500C, depending on the core design. These temperatures are sufficiently high to consider the HTR as a source of heat for several large industrial processes. In this article the application is to a coal gasification process which produces a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as the key product. The gasifier system itself is coupled to the HTR via a catalyzed bed coal gasifier operating at 7000C and producing methane. The feed to this gasifier is a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and steam with the stoichiometry chosen to effect an overall athermal reaction so that no heat is directly transferred into the gasifier. Its hydrogen supply is generated by steam reforming the methane produced using the direct HTR heat. This indirect system has advantages in terms of its final product, indirect heat transer and ultimately in the savings of approximately 40% of the coal which would otherwise have been assumed in an all-coal process producing the same final product. (orig.)

  13. OH Diffusion in Silica Glass Preform During Jacketing Process by Oxy-Hydrogen Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.H.Kim; S.R.Han; U.; C.Paek; W.-T.Han; S.; K.Oh

    2003-01-01

    Radial distribution of OH diffusion in silica glass preform during jacketing process using a oxy-hydrogen burner was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The OH peaks at the jacketing boundary and the surface of the preform were found to be due to diffusion of OH incorporated from the burner.

  14. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  15. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  16. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  17. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  18. Gasification of municipal solid waste in the Plasma Gasification Melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► 6 tests are conducted to study the performance of a PGM reactor. ► For air gasification, increasing ER will decrease syngas LHV value. ► Increasing ER will increase syngas yield and energy efficiency. ► High-temperature steam injection can significantly increase syngas yield. ► High-temperature steam injection will also increase syngas LHV value. -- Abstract: A new waste-disposal technology named Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) was developed. A pilot PGM reactor was constructed in northern Israel. The reactor is an updraft moving-bed gasifier, with plasma torches placed next to air nozzles to heat the incoming air to 6000 °C. The inorganic substances of the feedstock are melted by the high-temperature air to form a vitrified slag in which undesirable materials such as heavy metals are trapped. The residual heat in the air supplies additional heat for the gasification process. A series of tests were conducted to study the performance of PGM gasification. The plasma power was varied from 2.88 to 3.12 MJ/kg of municipal solid waste (MSW), and the equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.08 to 0.12. For air and steam gasification, the maximum steam/MSW mass ratio reached 0.33. The composition of the syngas product was analyzed in all tests; the lower heating value (LHV) of the syngas varied from 6 to 7 MJ/Nm3. For air gasification, the syngas LHV decreased with increasing ER, whereas the gas yield and energy efficiency increased with ER. When high-temperature steam was fed into the reactor, the overall gas yield was increased significantly, and the syngas LHV also increased slightly. The positive effect may be attributed to the steam reforming of tar. In air and steam gasification, the influence of increased ER on syngas LHV was negative, while the effect of increased plasma power was positive. The maximum energy efficiency of the tests reached 58%. The main energy loss was due to the formation of tar.

  19. Low-NOx Burner Technologies for High-Temperature Processes With High Furnace Heating Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the presented work is process intensification by means of reduced furnace chamber volumes in combination with the use of low-NOx burner technologies. Fundamental experimental investigations of the reaction zone of different burner types were made. For the development of new burner designs the CFD code FLUENT was used. Throughout the investigations it was possible to increase the furnace heating density from 62 kW/m3 up to 1133 kW/m3. To demonstrate possible technical applications two simulated industrial furnaces designs have been investigated. One main conclusion the work gave is that process intensification without an increase of pollutant emissions is possible by optimizing furnace and burner design and also position and geometry of the furnace load in a combined strategy. (author)

  20. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.)

  1. Equipment for gasification of pulverized fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosach, V.G.; Derevitskii, A.N.; Khopta, G.N.; Kocherezhko, A.N.; Vorob' ev, P.I.; Zholudov, Y.S.

    1981-02-25

    Equipment for gasification of pulverized fuel (PF) consisting of a vertical gasification chamber, a cinder removal chamber connected to the lower part of it, an injector for supplying the PF, a connecting pipe for supplying O/sub 2/-containing gas, a (steam) header for supplying steam located outside of the gasification chamber, and a pipe for drawing off the gasification products. The improvement, having the purpose of increasing the productive capacity, consists in this, that the gasification chamber has a burner located in the upper part of it with connecting pipes for supplying fuel and O/sub 2/ containing gas; the injectors for supplying PF are mounted in the walls of the gasification chamber at an angle to its vertical axis, are directed to the side of the burner, and are connected to the header for supplying steam. The pipe for drawing off the gasification products is located in the cinder removal chamber. In the case of coarser particles in the countercurrent inflow of combustion products and PF, finer ones are introduced into the stream of combustion products, which optimizes the reaction time of the different particles in accordance with their dispersity; 75% of the PF is gasified practically instantaneously because of the great difference in temperatures of the combustion products and PF (thermal shock), which makes it possible to accelerate the gasification process and increase the productive capacity of the equipment three-fold.

  2. Project report on coal gasification by nuclear process heat. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process heat of a HTR is used for conversion of coal to the energy sources H2, MeOH, and SNG. The nuclear gasification processes (non-catalytic steam gasification, catalytic steam gasification, hydrogenation) are compared with the autothermal coal gasification techniques (Texaco, Lurgi). The results of the study show the technical feasibility of the steam gasification process. Cost-benefit analyses show the cost ratios of the nuclear gasification processes to be higher than those of the autothermal processes. Investigations on improvement potentials of the steam gasification process did show possible economic efficiency enhancement, but cost ratios still are above those of the autothermal techniques. In addition, there is need for better or even optimised adjustment of HTR operation to the requirements of the relevant nuclear process heat applications. (orig.) With 6 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs

  3. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time τ - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles nrep - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  4. A thermodynamic analysis of solid waste gasification in the Plasma Gasification Melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlight: • A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the PGM. • Energy recovery using gas furnaces is suggested due to high total energy and exergy. • Gas turbines are not recommended due to high tar yield. • Increasing heat to the PGM is beneficial for cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies. • A small steam addition is beneficial for PGM energy and exergy efficiencies. - Abstract: Plasma Gasification Melting is a promising technology for solid waste treatment. In this work, a thermodynamic analysis has been conducted to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PGM technology. According to the characteristics of the PGM, the whole process was divided into four sections such as drying, pyrolysis, char gasification and inorganics melting. The energy and exergy in each section has been calculated. According to different usage of syngas, two kinds of energy and exergy efficiencies are defined. The results show that the PGM process produces a tar-rich syngas. When considering the raw syngas (syngas with tar), the energy and exergy efficiency of PGM process is very high. The effects of operating conditions on the thermodynamic performance of the PGM process have been analyzed. Considering the energy and exergy of clean syngas, it is beneficial to increase sensible heat input to the PGM system. However, high sensible heat input or high steam injection is not suggested when considering the energy and exergy efficiency of raw syngas

  5. Process development report: 0. 40-m primary burner system. [Spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.T.

    1978-04-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is required in reprocessing the graphite-based fuel elements from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) cores. This burning process requires combustion of beds containing both large particles and very dense particles, and also of fine graphite particles which elutriate from the bed. This report documents the successful long-term operation of the 0.40-m primary burner in burning crushed fuel elements. The 0.40-m system operation is followed from its first short heatup test in September 1976 to a > 40-h burning campaign that processed 20 LHTGR blocks in September 1977. The 0.40-m perforated conical gas distributor, scaled up from the 0.20-m primary burner, has proven reliable in safely burning even the largest, densest adhered graphite/fuel particle clusters originating from the crushing of loaded fuel elements. Such clusters had never been fed to the 0.20-m system. Efficient combustion of graphite fines using the pressurized recycle technique was demonstrated throughout the long-duration operation required to reduce a high carbon fresh feed bed to a low carbon particle bed. Again, such operation had never been completed on the 0.20-m system from which the 0.40-m burner was scaled. The successful completion of the tests was due, in part, to implementation of significant equipment revisions which were suggested by both the initial 0.40-m system tests and by results of ongoing development work on the 0.2-m primary burner. These revisions included additional penetrations in the burner tube side-wall for above-bed fines recycle, replacement and deletion of several metal bellows with bellows of more reliable design, and improvements in designs for burner alignment and feeder mechanisms. 76 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Fabrication of agglomerate-free nanopowders by hydrothermal chemical processing

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Nass, Rüdiger; Burgard, Detlef; Nonninger, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    A chemical processing technique for the fabrication of nanopowders has been developed. The route is based on precipitation processes in solutions, either within aqueous droplets in microemulsions in the presence of surface modifiers like surfactants or by direct precipitation in solutions in the presence of theses surface modifiers or small organic molecules directly bonded to the particle surface. In order to obtain well crystallized or densified particles, a continuous flow hydrothermal pro...

  7. Photolytic process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process and apparatus are disclosed for converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by subjecting the carbon dioxide to radiation in the presence of carbonaceous material such as coal to form carbon monoxide. The preferred form of radiation is solar energy, and the process is preferably carried out in an atmosphere essentially free of oxygen. The invention also includes subjecting carbon monoxide to radiation to form purified carbon and useful heat energy. The two procedures can be combined into a single process for converting solar or other energy into useful thermal energy with the production of useful products. The reactor apparatus is specifically designed to carry out the radiation-induced conversions. Coal can be desulfurized and its caking characteristics altered by solar radiation in the presence of suitable gases. 3 figures

  8. Investigation of non-isothermal and isothermal gasification process of coal char using different kinetic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guangwei; Zhang Jianliang; Shao Jiugang; Li Kejiang; Zuo Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal gasification kinetics of coal char were investigated by using thermogravi-metric analysis (TGA) in CO2 atmosphere, and the experimental data were interpreted with the aids of random pore model (RPM), unreacted shrinking core model (URCM) and volume model (VM). With the increase of heating rate, gasification curve moves into high temperature zone and peak rate of gasification increases;with the increase of gasification temperature, gasification rate increases and the total time of gasification is shortened. The increase of both heating rate and gasification temperature could improve gasification process of coal char. Kinetics analysis indicates that experimental data agree better with the RPM than with the other two models. The apparent activation energy of non-isothermal and isother-mal gasification of coal char using RPM is 193.9 kJ/mol and 212.6 kJ/mol respectively, which are in accor-dance with reported data. Gasification process of coal char under different heating rates and different temperatures are predicted by the RPM derived in this study, and it is found that the RPM predicts the reaction process satisfactorily.

  9. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  10. Prediction of powder stickiness along spray drying process in relation to agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfrancesco, Alessandro; Turchiuli, Christelle; Dumoulin, Élisabeth; Palzer, S.

    2009-01-01

    The spray drying process consists of a fast convective drying of liquid droplets by hot air. Initially, the water activity (aw) of a drop is close to 1. During drying, the drop surface aw decreases while viscosity increases until reaching a sticky rubbery state before further drying. This can be observed for products such as carbohydrates, leading to particles sticking on walls (product losses) or to adhesion between particles leading to agglomeration. In this study, particle stickiness was i...

  11. Thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity in a gas fired heater: Influence of radiant burner configurations and combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent advances in low bandgap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices, further research into the radiant burner and its effect on the performance of TPV systems is particularly needed. The present work investigates various gas fired radiant burner/emitters and the influence of the combustion processes on radiant power and radiant efficiency. The performance tests with the burner/emitters have been conducted in a TPV self powered heater (mini cogenerator). It is shown that the radiant burner performance is affected markedly by the combustion parameters. Care must be taken to diminish the risk of flashback for the surface flame type burner. The maximum radiant power density and radiant efficiency of the burner/emitters have been determined. This is of great interest to TPV generation in gas fired heating appliances. Furthermore, the maximum electric power generated by the GaSb TPV converter is measured under a range of operating conditions for the different burner/emitter configurations. An electric power density of 0.332 W/cm2 has been achieved. Finally, the cogenerating aspects of the TPV systems are discussed

  12. 灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术应用及节能减排措施%Use of Agglomerating Ash Fluid Bed Pulverized Coal Gasification Technology and Measures for Energy Saving and Discharge Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕可军

    2011-01-01

    The agglomerating ash fluid bed pulverized coal gasification technology is described, its special features, process flow and the measures taken for energy saving and discharge reduction, with results. A comparison is given of the gasifiers at atmospheric and 1. 0 Mpa pressures for the production of 1 000 m3 of gas with the UGI oxygen-enriched gasifier, and the results show that the energy consumption of the atmospheric fluid bed gasifier is slightly lower than that of the UGI oxygen-enriched gasifier, while the 1.0 Mpa pressurized one is more advantageous than the atmospheric one in terms of energy saving.%介绍了灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术的特点、工艺流程及采取的节能减排措施和效果.对常压和加压1.0 MPa灰融聚流化床粉煤气化炉生产1 000m3煤气的能耗分别与UGI富氧气化炉进行比较,结果表明:常压灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术的能耗略低于UGI富氧气化技术,而加压1.0 MPa灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术比常压灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术在节能方面更具优势.

  13. The analysis of some low NOx hydrocarbon burners designs based on a numerical modelling of flame processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop low pollutant burning technologies ICPET-RESEARCH S.A. Bucharest studied new solutions of burners able to limit the NOx emissions from the furnaces of the power plants and industrial unit boilers. In this paper we present the results of analysis of the processes in some low NOx hydrocarbon burners. These results were obtained by applying a numerical modelling approach of the gas-thermodynamical and chemical processes in the flame. The FLUENT computer program was used in this purpose. The new solutions, for the case of a 10 MWth power burner showed a reduction of NOx emission of about 3 times for heavy oil fuel and of 22 % for natural gas fuel, respectively, as compared with the currently operated burners in Romania.(author).19 figs

  14. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  15. Biomass ash-bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in FBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, H.J.M.; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial-scale ins...

  16. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  17. Burners. The decrease of nitrogen oxides in combustion process: the 2 nd generation GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs, la reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Pillard company has developed, in cooperation with GDF (the French national gas utility), the GR-LONOxFLAM burner concept for reducing NOx emission levels and solid combustion products. The concept consists, for gaseous fuels, in the combination of an internal recirculation and a gas staging process; for liquid fuels, a separated flame process and air staging are combined. These concepts allow for an important reduction in NOx and non-burned residues, even with standard-size burners

  18. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  19. Mathematical modeling and experimental tests of the air jets mixing process in a new prototype of lignite burner for lower NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decrease the NOx emissions generated by a lignite steam generator, a new prototype burner has been designed. The burner should operate with staggered combustion, to achieve lower temperatures in the first zone of the flame. The paper presents in parallel the results of the mathematical model and experimental tests of the mixing process of primary, secondary and tertiary air-flow jets at environmental temperature. Keywords: mathematical modeling, experimental tests, lignite burner, NOx reduction

  20. Use of nuclear process heat for methane and hydrogen production via in-situ coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal gasification plants and processes have been in existence for many years, using fossil fuel as the source of energy input. However, there appear to be no significant installations carrying out in-situ coal gasification and using high-temperature, high pressure, process heat (e.g., as steam) from a high-temperature nuclear reactor. In the present paper, historical and theoretical aspects of gasification are outlined and a concept is put forward for a full-scale commercial in-situ coal gasification plant using process steam from a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and producing two streams, one being methane for transport use and industrial feedstock, and the other being hydrogen for a future hydrogen economy. The possibility of a CANDU reactor meeting the thermal requirements is discussed

  1. Influences of Different Components on Agglomeration Behavior of MoS2 During Oxidation Roasting Process in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jing-Song; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-05-01

    An agglomeration of the furnace charge always takes place during the oxidation roasting process of molybdenite concentrate (with the main component of MoS2) in multiple hearth furnaces, which greatly affects the production process and furnace service life. In the present work, a preliminary study about the influence of various components on the agglomeration phenomenon of pure MoS2 have been carried out. The results show that reaction temperature, impurity content, and air flow rate have significant effects on the agglomeration extent. Meanwhile, the impurity type added into the pure MoS2 plays a crucial role. It was found that CaO and MgO have a stronger sulfur-fixing effect and that the desulphurization of the roasted product was uncompleted. It was also concluded that the agglomeration is due to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics, including that between MoO3 and impurities and that between MoO3 and Mo4O11. It is suggested that decreasing the impurities contents, especially K, Cu, Pb, and Fe, is an effective method for reducing the extent of agglomeration.

  2. Influences of Different Components on Agglomeration Behavior of MoS2 During Oxidation Roasting Process in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jing-Song; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-08-01

    An agglomeration of the furnace charge always takes place during the oxidation roasting process of molybdenite concentrate (with the main component of MoS2) in multiple hearth furnaces, which greatly affects the production process and furnace service life. In the present work, a preliminary study about the influence of various components on the agglomeration phenomenon of pure MoS2 have been carried out. The results show that reaction temperature, impurity content, and air flow rate have significant effects on the agglomeration extent. Meanwhile, the impurity type added into the pure MoS2 plays a crucial role. It was found that CaO and MgO have a stronger sulfur-fixing effect and that the desulphurization of the roasted product was uncompleted. It was also concluded that the agglomeration is due to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics, including that between MoO3 and impurities and that between MoO3 and Mo4O11. It is suggested that decreasing the impurities contents, especially K, Cu, Pb, and Fe, is an effective method for reducing the extent of agglomeration.

  3. Study on transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing spontaneous agglomeration of catalytic Ni and Co metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer-free graphene synthesis process utilizing metal agglomeration phenomena was investigated by using carbon films deposited on Ni or Co catalyst metals on SiO2/Si substrates. As a result of metal agglomeration at high temperatures, multilayer graphene films appeared to be formed directly on SiO2 films. The microscopic Raman mapping study revealed that graphene films were preferentially synthesized around areas where metal films disappeared at an early stage of agglomeration, and that they finally covered almost the whole surface. It was also found that the synthesized graphene films tended to have better structural qualities and lower layer numbers with the increase in the starting metal thicknesses regardless of the kinds of catalyst metals. Raman study also showed that they had good two-dimensional uniformity in the structural quality. (paper)

  4. Energetic and exergetic performance assessment of some coals in Turkey for gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Ozek, N.; Yuksel, Y.E. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    This paper undertakes a study on energetic and exergetic performance evaluation of various types of coals in Turkey, such as Armutcuk, Amasra, Zonguldak and Catalagzi hard coals and Tuncbilek, Beypazari, Cayirhan, Afsin, Soma, Yatagan, Can and Sorgun lignites for gasification purposes, where syn-gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, heat, hydrogen, etc. in industry. The chemical exergy contents of these coals are determined and compared for a potential use in gasification, and their energetic and exergetic efficiencies are also assessed for performance comparison. In the analysis, exergetic efficiencies are evaluated for an idealised gasifier in which chemical equilibrium is reached, ashes of coals are not considered and heat losses are neglected. It is observed that coals having lower heating value have higher gasification efficiency, and the ratios of hydrogen to chemical exergy of coal are related to the gasification process efficiencies of this coal.

  5. Process simulation of biomass gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bubbling fluidized bed gasification of biomass is studied by computer simulation. • The effect of some critical parameters on gasification performance is studied. • The performance of air–steam gasification of wood chips is analyzed. • Model predictions are compared against available data from the literature. • The optimum operating conditions for the gasification are found. - Abstract: A detailed process model was developed to simulate the air–steam gasification of biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed for hydrogen and syngas production by coupling Aspen Plus simulator and dedicated FORTRAN subroutines. Effects of critical parameters, including gasification temperature, steam/biomass ratio (SBR), equivalence ratio (ER), and biomass particle size (BPS) on the composition of fuel gas were discussed. The results indicate that the high temperature is more favorable for production of useful syngas (H2 and CO) and hydrogen yield (HY). The simulation results also demonstrate that ER is the most important factor in the process; higher ER contributed to higher carbon conversion, tar reforming, and gas yield, however, it lowered gas caloric value and cold gas efficiency. However, steam injection recognized as a key factor to produce more hydrogen rich gas in the SBR range studied, but had a major effect on CO2 formation. The model is validated by experimental data and found relatively to be in good agreement

  6. Design process and instrumentation of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for micro-cogeneration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, O.B.; Gauthier, J.E.D. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Hughes, P.M.; Brandon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2007-07-01

    Air pollution and global climate change have become a serious environmental problem leading to increasingly stringent government regulations worldwide. New designs and methods for improving combustion systems to minimize the production of toxic emissions, like nitrogen oxides (NOx) are therefore needed. In order to control smog, acid rain, ozone depletion, and greenhouse-effect warming, a reduction of nitrogen oxide is necessary. One alternative for combined electrical power and heat generation (CHP) are micro-cogeneration units which use a micro-turbine as a prime mover. However, to increase the efficiencies of these units, micro-cogeneration technology still needs to be developed further. This paper described the design process, building, and testing of a new low NOx wire-mesh duct burner (WMDB) for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. The primary goal of the study was to develop a practical and simple WMDB, which produces low emissions by using lean-premixed surface combustion concept and its objectives were separated into four phases which were described in this paper. Phase I involved the design and construction of the burner. Phase II involved a qualitative flow visualization study for the duct burner premixer to assist the new design of the burner by introducing an efficient premixer that could be used in this new application. Phase III of this research program involved non-reacting flow modeling on the burner premixer flow field using a commercial computational fluid dynamic model. In phase IV, the reacting flow experimental investigation was performed. It was concluded that the burner successfully increased the quantity and the quality of the heat released from the micro-CHP unit and carbon monoxide emissions of less than 9 ppm were reached. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Regenerative burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T.E.; Quinn, D.E.; Watson, J.E.

    1986-08-05

    A regenerative burner is described operable in fire and flue modes comprising: a burner shell having first and second internal chambers, the first chamber being disposed on the flame axis of the burner and the second chamber surrounding the radial perimeter of the first chamber; a gas permeable annular regenerative bed separating the first and second chambers such that gas flow between the first and second chambers must travel through the regenerative bed in a generally radial direction with respect to the flame axis; means for supplying combustion air to the second chamber when the burner is in the fire mode and for exhausting the products of combustion from the second chamber when the burner is in the flue mode; and means for supplying fuel in the vicinity of the flame axis for mixing with combustion air to support combustion when the burner is in the fire mode.

  8. The problem of providing food resources in urban agglomerations (the case study of the Kuzbass agglomeration)

    OpenAIRE

    ZOBOVA L.L.; SHABASHEV V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urban agglomerations are the result of a process of spatial competition for resources. To analyze the functioning of specific urban centers, it is necessary to make a distinction between the process of agglomeration and the state of agglomeration in the spatial structure. This paper shows the interrelation of the process of urban agglomeration and the agglomeration of the production activity as its economic foundation. The study reveals the connection between the urban agglomeration process a...

  9. Regenerative burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, G.M.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method of combusting fuel in a furnace having a pair of regenerative burners, each burner having a combustion chamber. It comprises: supplying fuel and oxygen alternatively to each burner to create alternating firing burners wherein the oxygen is supplied from two sources providing first and second oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations and simultaneously alternating the application of negative pressure to the remaining non-firing burner to recover heat from flue gases exhausted by the regenerative bed of the non-firing burner to be used further to preheat at least part of the oxygen being supplied to the firing burner; mixing the fuel with a fraction of the oxygen under substoichiometric combustion condition to create products of incomplete combustion to form a hot, luminous flame core containing partially pyrolized fuel; and mixing the partially pyrolyzed fuel with a remaining fraction of the oxygen to complete combustion of the pyrolized fuel; and controlling the total flow of fuel and oxygen supplied to each burner to provide each burner with a desired flame stoichiometry.

  10. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Thermal process development on integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, SeongYeon [K. K. Incinerator Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, ManYeong [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The thermal process of wastes with higher calorific value by pyrolysis is reviewed to recover the value added three by-products; a pyrolytic char, a pyrolytic oil, and a non-condensable gas. These by-products from pyrolysis of the waste is converted for electricity power and thermal energy thru gasification process as well as waste heat recovery process. The energy resource and several processes in the integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste treatment are investigated with the conceptual design in using the obtained operation data from the pyrolysis pilot, demonstration and commercial plant.

  12. Thermal process development on integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal process of wastes with higher calorific value by pyrolysis is reviewed to recover the value added three by-products; a pyrolytic char, a pyrolytic oil, and a non-condensable gas. These by-products from pyrolysis of the waste is converted for electricity power and thermal energy thru gasification process as well as waste heat recovery process. The energy resource and several processes in the integrated pyrolysis gasification combined cycle for waste treatment are investigated with the conceptual design in using the obtained operation data from the pyrolysis pilot, demonstration and commercial plant.

  13. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gasification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  14. Use of farm waste biomass in the process of gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechocki, J. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of gasification of waste biomass from farm production was examined along with the energy balance of the process. A newly developed biomass gasification technology that uses manure from poultry farms as the input material was shown to meet all environmental requirements. The gas was purified in a membrane process to increase its calorific value. The gas was then used in an internal combustion engine powering a current generating system to produce electricity and heat in a combined heat and power system (CHP).

  15. Processing and Sintering of Agglomerate-free CaO-ZrO2 Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping LIANG; Shu'e DANG; Dong WU; Yuhan SUN

    2004-01-01

    Coprecipitation supercritical fluid drying technology has been employed to synthesize calcia-stabilized zirconia ultrafine powder with low-cost inorganic salts as the starting materials. The sintering behaviors of these powders were also investigated. The results showed that supercritical fluid drying could effectively alleviate the hard agglomeration of grains during the gel drying process, and the morphology of the powder retained the network texture of the original gel.The resulting particles were characterized by small particle size (5~20 nm), better monodispersity and high surface area, which gave rise to high activity and sinterability. Consequently, these powders could readily be compacted into the desired shape and their densification could be carried out in shorter time and at lower temperatures. For instance,nanometer-sized powder calcined at 600℃ for 2 h could be cold-pressed into a green body and sintered at 1100° for 0.5 h to attain a dense body with bulk density of 5.9718 g/cm3 and specific pore volume of 0.0008 cm3/g.

  16. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  17. Wood gasification – the actual direction of development of timber processing complex of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Rijov; Aleksei Kislicin; Elena Rijova; Vasilii Korotkii

    2014-01-01

    Gasification of vegetable raw materials (biofuel) as available and cheap alternative energy source, instead of steadily rising in price natural minerals it is actual for the majority of the countries of the world. In Russia it is felt especially sharply in such branches, as timber processing complex, the agriculture, processing and other industries where a large number of not utilized waste accumulates.

  18. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  19. Hazelnut shell to hydrogen-rich gaseous products via catalytic gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Konya (Turkey)

    2004-01-15

    The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, which results in a high production of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons, partial oxidation of heavy oil residues, selected steam reforming of aromatic compounds, and gasification of coals and solid wastes to yield a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO (syngas), followed by a water-gas shift reaction to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, are well-established processes. The samples, both untreated and impregnated with a catalyst, were pyrolyzed and gasified at 770, 925, 975, and 1025 K, and 975, 1075, 1175, and 1225 K temperatures, respectively. K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was used as a catalyst, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 50.0 wt% of the shell sample, in the catalytic-pyrolysis runs. The ratios of water-to-hazelnut shell were 0.7 and 1.9 in steam gasification runs. The total volume and the yield of gas from both pyrolysis and gasification increase with increasing temperature. The highest hydrogen-rich gas yield was obtained from the catalytic gasification run (water/hazelnut shell = 1.9) at 1225 K. (Author)

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  1. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m3 producer gas / m2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  2. Artificial neural network modelling approach for a biomass gasification process in fixed bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 2 Different equilibrium models are developed and their performance is analysed. • Neural network prediction models for 2 different fixed bed gasifier types are developed. • The influence of different input parameters on neural network model performance is analysed. • Methodology for neural network model development for different gasifier types is described. • Neural network models are verified for various operating conditions based on measured data. - Abstract: The number of the small and middle-scale biomass gasification combined heat and power plants as well as syngas production plants has been significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to extensive incentives. However, existing issues regarding syngas quality, process efficiency, emissions and environmental standards are preventing biomass gasification technology to become more economically viable. To encounter these issues, special attention is given to the development of mathematical models which can be used for a process analysis or plant control purposes. The presented paper analyses possibilities of neural networks to predict process parameters with high speed and accuracy. After a related literature review and measurement data analysis, different modelling approaches for the process parameter prediction that can be used for an on-line process control were developed and their performance were analysed. Neural network models showed good capability to predict biomass gasification process parameters with reasonable accuracy and speed. Measurement data for the model development, verification and performance analysis were derived from biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden

  3. Use of ceramic recuperator burners for process optimization of a hearth bogie furnace; Prozessoptimierung an einem Herdwagenofen durch Einsatz keramischer Rekuperatorbrenner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, Dirk; Rakette, Roland [NOXMAT GmbH (Germany); Schlager, Stefan [Schlager Industrieofenbau GmbH, Hagen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Potentials for optimization are outlined using the example of a new hearth bogie furnace for a heat-treatment installation. The use of modern recuperator burners which, in this case, are employed for direct heating, favors the exhaustive exploitation of these potentials. The burner and furnace technologies are examined in detail, and initial operating experience is reported. Many of the provisions outlined can be applied analogously to other furnace types, including existing installations. Close cooperation between the burner manufacturer, the furnace engineer and the operator plays a vital role in process optimization. (orig.)

  4. DOES EU-INTEGRATION CHANGE AGGLOMERATION PROCESS? THE IMPACT OF EU MEMBERSHIP PROCESS ON THE CITY-SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the eventual impacts of European Union (EU membership process and other conventional factors on the city-size distribution of a candidate country (Turkey. I can state main results as follows: Analyzing from different estimation methods the direct effect of the EU reforms on agglomerating forces rather than congesting forces are revealed to be dominant for Turkey. However, the main impact of the EU membership process has positive but modest coefficient that indicate the weak willingness of the country for EU reforms.Keywords: Economic itegration, agglomeration, city-size distribution, EU, Turkey.JEL Classification: F15, F22, R12, R23

  5. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process. PMID:25084404

  6. IMPACT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND AGGLOMERATION ON SETTLING OF SOLIDS IN CONTINUOUS MELTERS PROCESSING RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HRMA PR

    2008-12-18

    The major factor limiting waste loading for many waste compositions in continuous waste glass melters is the settling of crystalline materials. The currently used constraints, i.e., the minimum liquidus temperature or the maximum fraction of equilibrium crystallinity at a given temperature, are based on thennodynamic equilibria. Because of the rapid circular convection in the melter, these constraints are probably irrelevant and cannot prevent large crystals from settling. The main factor that detennines the rate of settling ofindividual crystals, such as those ofspinel, is their size. The tiny crystals of RU02 are too small to settle, but they readily fonn large agglomerates that accelerate their rate ofsettling by severalorders ofmagnitude. The RU02 agglomerates originate early in the melting process and then grow by the shear-flocculation mechanism. It is estimated that these agglomerates must either be ofhundreds micrometers in size or have an elongated shape to match the observed rates ofthe sludge-layer fonnation. PACS: 47.57.ef, 81.05.Kj, 81.10.Fg

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigation of biomass gasification process in a fixed bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation concerns the process of air biomass gasification in a fixed bed gasifier. Theoretical equilibrium calculations and experimental investigation of the composition of syngas were carried out and compared with findings of other researchers. The influence of excess air ratio (λ) and parameters of biomass on the composition of syngas were investigated. A theoretical model is proposed, based on the equilibrium and thermodynamic balance of the gasification zone. The experimental investigation was carried out at a setup that consists of a gasifier connected by a pipe with a water boiler fired with coal (50 kWth). Syngas obtained in the gasifier is supplied into the coal firing zone of the boiler, and co-combusted with coal. The moisture content in biomass and excess air ratio of the gasification process are crucial parameters, determining the composition of syngas. Another important parameter is the kind of applied biomass. Despite similar compositions and dimensions of the two investigated feedstocks (wood pellets and oats husk pellets), compositions of syngas obtained in the case of these fuels were different. On the basis of tests it may be stated that oats husk pellets are not a suitable fuel for the purpose of gasification.

  8. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  9. Detailed process modeling of a wood gasification combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide the first process simulation able to depict a complete life cycle inventory of a biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The model predicts the detailed mass and energy balances, minor compounds emissions (such as NOx, SOx, aromatics, etc.). It is based on a phenomenological approach for dryer, reactors (gasification and combustion) and scrubber modeling. Process units are modeled with Aspen Plus® models completed with dedicated Fortran sub-models when more details are required. The gasifier is a Dual Fluidized Bed (DFB). It is decomposed in three sections, describing the three main mechanisms occurring in the reactor: wood pyrolysis, secondary reactions and char combustion. At the outlet of the gasifier, the complete composition of the syngas is predicted, which includes water, permanent gases, inorganics, particles and tars (phenol, benzene, toluene, styrene, indene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene). Simulation results were validated against measurements from a pilot plant and other literature data. A wet conventional syngas cleaning system for gasification plant, including cyclone, catalytic tar cracker, syngas cooler, bag filters, water scrubber and wastewater treatment was considered and modeled. The complexity of tar composition allows a reliable determination of tar dew point. At the outlet of the cleaning system, syngas is burned in gas engines. Gaseous emissions (NOx, SOx, etc.) of the gas engines and the DFB combustor are also handled by the model as well as ashes and liquid waste. The predicted electrical and thermal efficiencies are 27 and 39% respectively. Highlights: ► A new model of a biomass gasification combined heat and power plant is presented. ► The whole gasification process is modelled under Aspen Plus from dryer to gas engine. ► Heat streams are integrated for internal needs and district heating. ► Tar and inorganic compounds are predicted. ► A detailed life cycle inventory

  10. Comparison of reduction disintegration characteristics of TiO2-rich burdens prepared with sintering process and composite agglomeration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-wei; Li, Guang-hui; Liu, Chen; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Zhi-wei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    To reveal the impact of the composite agglomeration process (CAP) on the reduction disintegration properties of TiO2-rich ironmaking burden for a blast furnace, the reduction disintegration indices (RDIs), mineral constituents, and microstructure of the products prepared by the CAP and the traditional sintering process (TSP) were investigated. The results showed that, compared to the sinter with a basicity of 2.0 prepared by the TSP, the RDI+6.3 and the RDI+3.15 of the CAP product with the same basicity increased by 28.2wt% and 13.7wt%, respectively, whereas the RDI-0.5 decreased by 2.7wt%. The analysis of the mineral constituents and microstructure of the products indicated that the decreasing titanohematite content decreased the volume expansion during reduction. Meanwhile, the decreasing perovskite content decreased its detrimental effect on the reduction disintegration properties. In addition, the higher silicoferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) content improved the strength of the CAP product. Together, these factors result in an improvement of the RDI of the CAP products. In addition, compared to the sinter, the reduced CAP products clearly contained fewer cracks, which also led to mitigation of reduction disintegration.

  11. A gas burner device for highspeed heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosach, V.G.; Danchenko, V.N.; Zanemonets, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    The design and the results of the investigations of gas burners with porous cooling by fire Pv of two forms: a gas burner which makes it possible to organize the process of the burning for Pv heating, and a gas burner creating a stream of combustion products.

  12. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  13. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  14. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the gasification section. The advantages of indirect gasification are no syngas dilution with nitrogen and no external heat source required. The production process involves several process units, including biomass gasification, syngas cooler, cleaning and compression, methanation reactors and SNG conditioning. The process is simulated with a computer model using the flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus. The exergy analysis is performed for various operating conditions such as gasifier pressure, methanation pressure and temperature. The largest internal exergy losses occur in the gasifier followed by methanation and SNG conditioning. It is shown that exergetic efficiency of biomass-to-SNG process for woody biomass is higher than that for waste biomass. The exergetic efficiency for all biomass feedstock increases with gasification pressure, whereas the effects of methanation pressure and temperature are opposite for treated wood and waste biomass.

  15. Wood gasification – the actual direction of development of timber processing complex of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rijov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of vegetable raw materials (biofuel as available and cheap alternative energy source, instead of steadily rising in price natural minerals it is actual for the majority of the countries of the world. In Russia it is felt especially sharply in such branches, as timber processing complex, the agriculture, processing and other industries where a large number of not utilized waste accumulates.

  16. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  17. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheek, K. H.

    1982-05-01

    The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

  18. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  19. Gasification of HTGR-fuel-element-graphite as head-end process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process commonly favored for retention of C-14 containing HEAD-END offgas, viz. immobilization of CO2 as CaCO3 generates large waste volumes. The present work was initiated to investigate whether the waste volume decreases if the burning process is changed to one of gasification of the fuel element graphite to CO or CH4 and its subsequent decomposition to soot and the appropriate gaseous components. The experiments were carried out in a differential - fixed bed reactor under nonisothermal conditions. The results show that, at the same temperature, the reaction rate of the hydrogen-high-pressure-gasification on iron catalysts is even higher than that of the burning process. The gasification product gas (CH4) is decomposed in an integrated unit where conversion to C2H2, its decomposition, and finally the separation of soot is carried out. The use of hydrogen as process gas causes a dilution of the tritium released by the fuel elements and contamination of the gasifier offgas. It is, therefore, necessary to develop modified offgas decontamination procedures for tritium as well as krypton-85. With the proposed HEAD-END process it seems possible to decrease the waste volumes by a factor of 3 to 4 as compared with the fixation of CO2 as CaCO3. (orig.)

  20. Gasification processes old and new: a basic review of the major technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R. W. [NETL-US DOE, PO Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. (author)

  1. A Medium-Scale 50 MW fuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MW fuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  2. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  3. Performance analysis of RDF gasification in a two stage fluidized bed-plasma process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzi, M; Lettieri, P; Taylor, R; Chapman, C

    2016-01-01

    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which separates primary gasification and selective tar and ash conversion would be inherently more forgiving and stable. This can be achieved with the use of a separate plasma converter, which has been successfully used in conjunction with conventional thermal treatment units, for the ability to 'polish' the producer gas by organic contaminants and collect the inorganic fraction in a molten (and inert) state. This research focused on the performance analysis of a two-stage fluid bed gasification-plasma process to transform solid waste into clean syngas. Thermodynamic assessment using the two-stage equilibrium method was carried out to determine optimum conditions for the gasification of RDF and to understand the limitations and influence of the second stage on the process performance (gas heating value, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency), along with other parameters. Comparison with a different thermal refining stage, i.e. thermal cracking (via partial oxidation) was also performed. The analysis is supported by experimental data from a pilot plant. PMID:26184896

  4. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  5. Defluidisation of fluidised beds during gasification of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defluidisation and agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification of biomass is analysed and discussed. It is argued that the agglomeration and defluidisation processes, in principle, closely resemble those that determine the behaviour of glass during glass processing. Crucial properties for working with glass melts are the viscosity, stickiness, surface tension, etc. It is, however, (very) difficult to theoretically quantify these properties through thermodynamics or other theoretical means. Hence it will be problematic to theoretically predict agglomeration and defluidisation. Models for predicting defluidisation must therefore probably be of an empirical nature. As a consequence of this, a number of fluidised bed gasification tests were empirically analysed with respect to defluidisation. In total 145 tests were evaluated; of these 51 defluidised or exhibited some kind of bed disturbance. A number of fuels and bed materials were included in the analysis using a multivariate statistical approach. Based on the analysis an empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature during fluidised bed gasification is suggested. -- Highlights: → An empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature is suggested. → Alkali and pressure lowers the defluidisation temperatures, whilst Ca and Mg has the opposite effect. → Magnesite as bed material relative to quartz or olivine sand increase defluidisation temperatures with more than 100 oC.

  6. Relationship between attachment probability and surface energy in adhesion process of gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xi-qing(伍喜庆); A.J. Monhemius; R.J. Gochin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analyses, the adhesion process of fine gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates in a dynamic system was quantitatively investigated in terms of the relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy. The proposed way to establish this relationship is to firstly theoretically derive the formula to evaluate the surface energy change of the system by analyzing the adhesion process of a gold particle on an oil-carbon agglomerate in a mathematic and thermodynamic way. The obtained formula of the maximum energy change of unit surface area is, △ω'max =-1/2σhw (cosθ-1), which involves two measurable elements: interfacial tension and contact angle. In a well-quantified system, based on the related model it is also possible to calculate the complicated concept, namely, the attachment probability by transferring other measurable indices. In this way, after some adhesion experiments and measurements of relevant parameters, the empirical relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy change was established in an exponential function, Pa =Aexp(-△Gsurf/k).

  7. Manipulation of gasification coal feed in order to increase the ash fusion temperature of the coal to operate the gasifiers at higher temperatures / Johannes Chrisstoffel van Dyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyk, Johannes Chrisstoffel

    2006-01-01

    Coal is a crucial feedstock for South Africa's unique synfuels and petrochemicals industry and used by Sasol as a feedstock to produce synthesis gas via the Sasol-Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom (FBDB) gasification process. The ash fusion temperature (AFT) gives detail information on the suitability of a coal source for gasification purposes, and specifically to the extent ash agglomeration or clinkering is likely to occur within the gasifier. Ash clinkering inside the gasifier can cause channel b...

  8. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  9. Process performance improvement in a co-current, fixed bed biomass gasification facility by control system modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Software algorithms for biomass gasification process improvement have been developed. • Advanced control solution has been proposed for on-line process control. • Different process variables have been controlled simultaneously. • Different process improvement cases have been analysed. • Data for system development has been extracted from co-current, fixed bed gasifier. - Abstract: Advanced control solutions are a developing technology which represent a promising approach to tackle problems related to efficiency and environmental aspects of biomass gasification process in a cost effective way. In this paper the potential of advanced control concept to improve gasification process efficiency and to reduce negative environmental effects of the process has been analysed. Advanced control solution, based on feedforward–feedback control approach has been developed using collected operation data and the effects of control concept on gasification process have been analysed using developed artificial neural network based prediction model. Measurement data for the controller and simulation model development has been extracted from a 75 MWth co-current, fixed bed biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden. The effects of 6 different process improvement goals for controller algorithms development have been analysed during 20 h of plant operation. The analysis has shown that with introduction of advanced control solutions process efficiency could be improved up to 20%, together with reduction of negative environmental aspects of the process

  10. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  11. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  12. Carbon to electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell combined with an internal catalytic gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Konsolakis; G. E. Marnellos; A. Al-Musa; N. Kaklidis; I. Garagounis; V. Kyriakou

    2015-01-01

    This study explores strategies to develop highly efficient direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) by com‐bining a solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a catalyst‐aided carbon‐gasification process. This system employs Cu/CeO2 composites as both anodic electrodes and carbon additives in a cell of the type:carbon|Cu‐CeO2/YSZ/Ag|air. The study investigates the impact on in situ carbon‐gasification and DCFC performance characteristics of catalyst addition and variation in the carrier gas used (inert He versus reactive CO2). The results indicate that cell performance is significantly improved by infusing the catalyst into the carbon feedstock and by employing CO2 as the carrier gas. At 800 °C, the maxi‐mum power output is enhanced by approximately 40% and 230% for carbon/CO2 and car‐bon/catalyst/CO2 systems, respectively, compared with that of the carbon/He configuration. The increase observed when employing the catalyst and CO2 as the carrier gas can be primarily at‐tributed to the pronounced effect of the catalyst on carbon‐gasification through the re‐verse‐Boudouard reaction, and the subsequent in situ electro‐oxidation of CO at the anode three‐phase boundary.

  13. Challenges of selecting materials for the process of biomass gasification in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukis, N.; Habicht, W.; Hauer, E.; Dinjus, E. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2010-07-01

    A new process for the gasification of wet biomass is the reaction in supercritical water. The product is a combustible gas, rich in hydrogen with a high calorific value. The reaction is performed under high temperatures - up to 700 C - and pressures up to 30 MPa. The combination of these physical conditions and the corrosive environment is very demanding for the construction materials of the reactor. Only few alloys exhibit the required mechanical properties, especially the mechanical strength at temperatures higher than 600 C. Ni-Base alloys like alloy 625 can be applied up to a temperature of 700 C and are common materials for application under supercritical water conditions. During gasification experiments with corn silage and other biomasses, corrosion of the reactor material alloy 625 appears. The gasification of an aqueous methanol solution in supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 C and 25 - 30 MPa pressure results in an product gas rich in hydrogen, carbon dioxide and some methane. Alloy 625 shows very low corrosion rates in this environment. It is obvious that the heteroatoms and salts present in biomass cause corrosion of the reactor material. (orig.)

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  15. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Soukup, K.; Hejtmánek, V. (Vladimír); Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, O.

    2014-01-01

    Two ex-situ and one in-situ semi-pilot plant UCG experiments in the experimental mine Barbara were performed with hard coal and lignite samples. To evaluate the influence of the UCG process on the textural properties of surrounding strata and coals, samples from various locations of the coal seam and the stratum samples before and after the UCG process were collected. Mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, and physical adsorption of nitrogen were used for the determination of textural proper...

  16. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    incineration capacity, but also a better ability of gasification over incineration to preserve the chemical energy of the waste is important. This chapter provides an overview of pyrolysis and gasification processes related to waste, the technology involved, energy recovery options, and important environmental......Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall...

  17. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO2 capture potential plus CO2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO2 abatement i.e. both possible CO2 capture and CO2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  18. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrin, S.; Lettieri, P.; Chapman, C.; Mazzei, L

    2011-01-01

    Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur po...

  19. RDF gasification with water vapour: influence of process temperature on yield and products composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunity of using RDF (Refused Derived Fuel) to produce fuel gas seems to be promising and particular attention has been focused on alternative process technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification. Within this frame, present work relates to experimental tests and obtained results of a series of experimental surveys on RDF gasification with water vapour, carried out by means of a bench scale rotary kiln plant at different process temperature, using thermogravimetry (TG) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR), in order to characterize the incoming material, and online gas chromatography to qualify the gaseous stream. Experimental data show that gas yield rise with temperature and, with respect to the gas composition, hydrogen content grows up mainly at the expense of the other gaseous compound, pointing out the major extension of secondary cracking reactions into the gaseous fraction at higher temperature. Syngas obtained at process temperature of 950oC or higher seems to be suitable for fuel cells applications; at lower process temperature, gas composition suggest a final utilisation for feedstock recycling. The low organic content of solid residue does not suggest any other exploitation of the char apart from the land filling

  20. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  1. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3

  2. Agglomeration of food powder and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, K; Ghosal, S; Bhattacharya, S

    2011-05-01

    Agglomeration has many applications in food processing and major applications include easy flow table salt, dispersible milk powder and soup mix, instant chocolate mix, beverage powder, compacted cubes for nutritional-intervention program, health bars using expanded/puffed cereals, etc. The main purpose of agglomeration is to improve certain physical properties of food powders such as bulk density, flowability, dispersability, and stability. Agglomerated products are easy to use by the consumers and hence are preferred over the traditional non-agglomerated products that are usually non-flowable in nature. The properties of food agglomerates and the process of agglomeration like employing pressure, extrusion, rewetting, spray-bed drying, steam jet, heat/sintering, and binders have been reviewed. The physical and instant properties of agglomerated food products have also been discussed. PMID:21491268

  3. Study of a nuclear graphite waste 14C decontamination process by CO2 gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of French gas cooled nuclear reactors (UNGG), all arrested since 1994, will generate 23,000 tons of graphite waste classified Low Level and Long Lived and notably containing 14C. The aim of this thesis is to study a new method for selective extraction of this radionuclide by CO2 gasification.The multi-scale organization of virgin and irradiated graphite has been studied by a coupling between microspectrometry Raman and transmission electron microscopy. With the neutron fluence, the structure degrades and the nano-structure can be greatly changed. In extreme cases, the lamellar nano-structure nuclear graphite has become nano-porous. Furthermore, these damages are systematically heterogeneous. An orientation effect of 'crystallites', shown experimentally by ion implantation, could be a cause of these heterogeneities.This study also showed that from a specific fluence, there is an important development of nano-porous zones coinciding with a dramatic 14C concentration increase. This radionuclide could be preferentially concentrated in the nano-porous areas which are potentially more reactive than the remaining laminar areas which could be less rich in 14C. This process by CO2 gasification was firstly tested on 'analogous' non-radioactive materials (mechanically milled graphite). These tests confirmed, for temperatures between 950 and 1000 C, the selective and complete elimination of nano-porous areas.Tests were then carried out on graphite waste from Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux A2 and G2 reactors. The results are promising with notably the quarter of 14C inventory extracted for a weight loss of only few percent. Up to 68 % of 14C inventory was extracted, but with an important gasification. Thus, this treatment could allow extracting selectively a share of 14C inventory (mobile or linked to nano-porous areas) and allows imagining alternative scenarios for graphite waste managing. (author)

  4. Substitution of fossil carbon in metallurgy process approaches for biomass introduction via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Stutterecker, W. (Austrian bioenergy centre gmbH, Area gasification, Graz (Austria)); Kepplinger, W. (Leoben University of Mining and Materials, Institute for Process Technology and Industrial Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria)); Hofbauer, H. (Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Technology and Biosciences, Vienna (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    A look at the historic development shows, that the early production of wrought iron by the peoples Hethitic (turkey) 1500 B.C. and Chinese 600 B.C. (cast iron); 200 A.D (blast furnace) was based on charcoal. In 1709 the utilisation of fossil coke from coal has started. About 1910 the last char coal operated blast furnaces was shut down in the deepest valley in central Europe. Nowadays we have gigantic production of crude iron in Europe, and all over the world. The monitoring of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas is now done in all branches of energy, transportation and production. In this work the production of iron is analysed, as well as the systems of biomass conversion into char coal, oil and product gas. The biomass technologies of pyrolysis and gasification show suitable products. The systems of blast furnace, MIDREX and COREX show connectors to consume these products. In further work the complete utilisation of biomass with high efficiency as an additionally carrier of carbon/hydrogen will be investigated. Regarding to the necessary process data it will be focused on the path of gasification and 'gas coupling'. A path of complete gasification is preferred, because of the connection to a gas injection system of blast furnace, a DR Midrex plant and the coking plant can be combined with. For evaluation an amount of 30,000 m3/h up to 100,000 m3/h of gas with a lower heating value of minimally 10 MJ/m3 is considered. The necessary quantity of needed biomass resources has been evaluated and the delivery seems to be feasible. The gas quality requirements like inerts, acids, heating value, pressure level are discussed. The role of CO{sub 2}, its shift from fossil to renewable and the precipitation with absorption technology is lightened. The results of this work are the basis of decision in next future. (orig.)

  5. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process. PMID:26849201

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Kline, S.; Babu, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the production of co-products from mild gasification. This quarter, 10 mild gasification tests were conducted in the 8-inch-I.D. process research unit (PRU). Modifications to the PRU were made during this period to improve mixing and to overcome the caking tendency of the Illinois No. 6 coal. Six of the tests resulted in satisfactory operation at steady conditions for 2.25 to 3.25 hours. Samples of char, gas, water, and organic condensables were collected over a one-hour period from each of these successful tests and analyzed. The effects of process temperature over the range of 1025{degree} to 1390{degree} was studied during this quarter. Compositional effects on the oils and tars observed with increased temperature are increased light oil content, decreased pitch content, decreased oxygen content, increased nitrogen and sulfur content, and increasing aromaticity. Char upgrading studies continued during the quarter. Briquettes made in a laboratory press, using either a pitch binder or Illinois No. 6 coal to provide an in-situ binder, were calcined and tested for diametral compression strength. Char was also subjected to steam activation at a variety of conditions to determine the potential for use as a low-cost absorbent for water treatment. 2 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  8. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  9. Burner effects on melting process of regenerative aluminum melting furnace%烧嘴对蓄热式铝熔炼炉熔炼过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王计敏; 许朋; 闫红杰; 周孑民; 李世轩; 贵广臣; 李文科

    2013-01-01

    结合蓄热式铝熔炼炉熔炼过程的特点,运用FLUENT UDF和FLUENT Scheme混合编程,耦合用户自定义熔化模型和燃烧器换向及燃烧量变化模型,实现了蓄热式铝熔炼炉熔炼过程的数值模拟。依据优化原则,获得了熔炼时间随影响因子的变化规律:熔炼时间随着旋流数、燃烧器倾角、空气预热温度或天然气流量的增加而缩短;熔炼时间随着燃烧器间水平夹角或空燃比的延长,先减小而后增加;熔炼时间随着燃烧器高度的增加而延长。%According to the features of melting process of regenerative aluminum melting furnaces, a three-dimensional mathematical model with user-developed melting model, burner reversing and burning capacity model was established. The numerical simulation of melting process of a regenerative aluminum melting furnace was presented using hybrid programming method of FLUENT UDF and FLUENT scheme based on the heat balance test. Burner effects on melting process of aluminum melting furnaces were investigated by taking optimization regulations into account. The change rules of melting time on influence factors are achieved. Melting time decreases with swirl number, vertical angle of burner, air preheated temperature or natural gas flow; melting time firstly decreases with horizontal angle between burners or air-fuel ratio, then increases; melting time increases with the height of burner.

  10. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic. PMID:7462912

  11. Pressurized gasification solves many problems. IVOSDIG process for peat, wood and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O.; Repo, A.

    1996-11-01

    Research is now being done on one of the essential elements of pressurized gasification: the feeding of fuel into high pressure. At the IVOSDIG pilot plant in Jyvaeskylae, a pilot-scale piston feeder for peat, wood and sludge has been tested. A piston feeder achieves pressurization through the movement of the piston, not by inert pressurization gas. The feeder cylinder then turns 180 degrees to another position, and the piston forces the fuel contained in the cylinder into the pressure vessel, which is at the process pressure. The feeder has to cylinders; one is filled while the other is being emptied. In pilot-scale tests, the capacity of the feeder is ten cubic metres of fuel per hour. The commercial-scale feeder has been designed for a capacity of fifty cubic metres per hour. The feeder operates hydraulically, and the hydraulic system can be assembled from commercially available components. IVO began development work to devise a feeder based on the piston technique in 1992. During 1993, short tests were performed with the pilot-scale feeder. Tests under real conditions were begun during 1994 at the laboratory of VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, which houses the IVOSDIG pressurized gasification pilot plant for moist fuels developed by IVO

  12. Large pilot plant alternatives for scaleup of the catalytic coal gasification process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    This is the final report for US Department of Energy Contract No. EX-76-C-01-2480, Scaleup Requirements of the Exxon Catalyzed Coal Gasification Process. The objective was to develop the information necessary to determine if an existing DOE large pilot plant could be used to obtain the scaleup data necessary to design and construct a Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) pioneer plant with acceptable risk. A pioneer plant is a stand-alone facility, whose primary function is to operate as a profitable commercial venture. The pioneer plant would contain all equipment of full commercial size, as defined by the requirements for an optimum-sized commercial plant. However, the pioneer plant could have a single train of equipment in some or all of the plant sections. The three tasks contained in this contract are discussed: study design and cost estimate for a grass-roots large pilot plant; selection of the preferred existing pilot plant; and study design and cost estimate for revamp of the preferred existing pilot plant.

  13. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  15. Decay of Metastable State with Account of Agglomeration and Relaxation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kurasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical description of the metastable phase decay kinetics in the presence of specific connections between the embryos of small sizes has been given. The theory of the decay kinetics in the presence of relaxation processes is constructed in analytical manner. The m-mers nucleation is investigated and the global kinetics of decay is also constructed in this case analytically.

  16. Characterisation of (Th,U)O2 pellets fabricated by coated agglomerate pelletization process using XRD and SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for intrinsic proliferation-resistant fuel having higher burnup, more manageable wastes, the advantage of in situ use of bred-in fissile material together with its abundance in the nature has led to a renewed interest in the thorium-based fuels and fuel cycles worldwide. India has a very ambitious three stage nuclear power programme to utilize its vast thorium reserves. Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being developed in this direction which will have the driver fuel in the form of ThO2-233UO2 and ThO2-PuO2. The high gamma radiation associated with the short lived daughter products of 232U, which is always associated with 233U, necessitates remote reprocessing and refabrication of fuel. Coated agglomerate pelletization (CAP) route for fuel fabrication is being developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India for this purpose. The present paper summarizes the characterization of thoria-urania fuel fabricated by CAP process in terms of phase analysis and microstructure by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  17. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, V.P.; Seshan, K.; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid biom

  18. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - SECOND PHASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the second phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurizing gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. The first continuous pilot plant test with U.S. limestone BCR 1691 experienced local stone sintering and severe production of sticky dust du...

  19. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-05-01

    Work continued on the basic mechanisms which underlie various processes for beneficiating aqueous suspensions of coal by selective agglomeration with oil. A new method was demonstrated for characterizing the agglomerability of coal suspensions. This method utilizes a photometric dispersion analyzer to monitor changes in the turbidity of a particle suspension as increasing amounts of oil are added to the suspension in a batch agglomeration test. Agglomeration of the particles leads to a marked decrease in the turbidity of the suspension. Another experimental technique was also demonstrated for characterizing oil agglomeration. This technique involves measuring the rate of growth of agglomerates in a continuous flow system operating under stead-state conditions. The data are analyzed by means of a population balance. The results of a preliminary set of experiments in which Indiana V seam coal was agglomerated with tetralin seemed to fit a particular growth model very well. Equipment was also constructed for studying the kinetics of agglomeration in a batch process. While earlier work showed that quebracho (a commercially available dispersant) is a strong agglomeration depressant for pyrite, recent experiments with mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and mineral pyrite showed that quebracho does not appear to be sufficiently selective. Further consideration was given to the separation of mixtures of coal and pyrite agglomeration with heptane. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  1. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature

  2. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  3. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge. PMID:27364381

  4. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of wastewater from food waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Korean food wastes have high moisture content (more than 85 wt%) and their major treatment processes such as drying or biological fermentations generate concentrated organic wastewater (CODs of about 100,000 mgO{sub 2}/L). For obtaining both wastewater treatment and hydrogen production from renewable resources, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the organic wastewater was carried out in this work. The effect of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reactor residence time on COD destruction and composition of gas products was examined. As a result, a SCWG of the wastewater over Ni- Y/activated charcoal at 700 C, 28 MPa yielded 99 % COD destruction and hydrogen-rich gas production (45 vol% H{sub 2}). A liquid-phase thermal pretreatment to destroy solid particles from the wastewater was proposed for more effective operation of the SCWG system. (orig.)

  5. Preparation of briquettes from the Golden Horn bottom sediments by hydro-thermal agglomeration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, iffet Yakar

    2004-04-01

    The Golden Horn (GH) sediments, which consist mainly of clay, organic substances and heavy metals, are formed with the contribution of industrial and domestic wastes released in the Golden Horn Estuary. On account of their mineralogical and chemical composition, these sediments may be regarded as a suitable raw material for briquette production. In this study, the utilization of GH dredged bottom sediments was investigated for preparation of briquettes. Dried GH sediments were mixed with lime and sand in different percentages, moulded at various squeezing pressures and hardened under several steam pressure values by autoclaving. The briquettes produced through these different process conditions were tested for compressive strength according to the Turkish standards (TS705). It was found that variations in compressive strength were dependent on the amount of lime (Ca(OH)2) and sand (SiO2) added. Results show that the compressive strength increased with increasing lime and decreasing sand in the mixtures prepared for briquettes. It is concluded that briquettes with a compressive strength value of 294 kgf cm(-2) can be produced. This allows the GH sediments to be taken into account as a raw material in brick production, as far as compressive strength requirements are concerned. This possibility may represent an important way either for reducing environmental pollution or for recycling waste materials in industrial applications. PMID:15206521

  6. Exxon catalytic coal gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This report covers the activites for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Development Program during the quarter January 1-March 31, 1979. Construction of a bench apparatus to study reactions of product and recycle gas in furnace and heat exchanger tubes was completed and checkout of the apparatus was begun. A Startup and Initial Operation Schedule, a Checkout Test Plan, and an Initial Startup Plan were developed for the Process Develoment Unit (PDU). The PDU will be started up in a sequential manner, with the gasification system being started up on a once-through basis first. The gas separation system will be started up next, followed by the catalyst recovery system. The programmable controller, which handles valve sequencing, alarming, and other miscellaneous functions on the PDU, was programmed and checkout was completed on the coal feed, gas feed, and filter systems. Work continued on defining the cause of the breakdown of char and lime during digestion in the prototype catalyst recovery unit. It was concluded that both the lime and char particles are fragile and will break down to fines if handled roughly. Removal of the potassium from the char by water washing does not cause the char particles to disintegrate. The perferred processing sequence for catalyst recovery in the PDU has been identified. Bench scale tests confirmed that the change in catalyst from K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to KOH was not responsible for the differences in fluidized bed densities between the present and the predevelopment operations of the FBG. Work was completed on a revised offsites facilities definition and cost estimate to update the CCG Commercial Plant Study Design prepared during the predevelopment program.

  7. The bioliq {sup registered} bioslurry gasification process for the production of biosynfuels, organic chemicals, and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Nicolaus; Henrich, Edmund; Dinjus, Eckhard; Weirich, Friedhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. of Catalysis Research and Technology

    2012-12-15

    Biofuels may play a significant role in regard to carbon emission reduction in the transportation sector. Therefore, a thermochemical process for biomass conversion into synthetic chemicals and fuels is being developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) by producing process energy to achieve a desirable high carbon dioxide reduction potential. In the bioliq process, lignocellulosic biomass is first liquefied by fast pyrolysis in distributed regional plants to produce an energy-dense intermediate suitable for economic transport over long distances. Slurries of pyrolysis condensates and char, also referred to as biosyncrude, are transported to a large central gasification and synthesis plant. The bioslurry is preheated and pumped into a pressurized entrained flow gasifier, atomized with technical oxygen, and converted at > 1,200 C to an almost tar-free, low-methane syngas. Syngas - a mixture of CO and H2 - is a well-known versatile intermediate for the selectively catalyzed production of various base chemicals or synthetic fuels. At KIT, a pilot plant has been constructed together with industrial partners to demonstrate the process chain in representative scale. The process data obtained will allow for process scale-up and reliable cost estimates. In addition, practical experience is gained. The paper describes the background, principal technical concepts, and actual development status of the bioliq process. It is considered to have the potential for worldwide application in large scale since any kind of dry biomass can be used as feedstock. Thus, a significant contribution to a sustainable future energy supply could be achieved.

  8. Experimental study on application of high temperature reactor excess heat in the process of coal and biomass co-gasification to hydrogen-rich gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the experimental study on the simulated application of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) excess heat in the process of allothermal co-gasification of coal and biomass. The laboratory scale installation with a fixed bed gasifier and auxiliary gasification agents pre-heating system, simulating the utilization of the HTR excess heat, were applied in the study. Steam and oxygen were the gasification media employed, and the process was focused on hydrogen-rich gas production. The results of the co-gasification of fuel blends of various biomass content at 800 °C and in various system configurations proved that the application of the simulated HTR excess heat in pre-heating of the gasification agents leads to the increase in the gaseous product yield. Furthermore, the HCA (Hierarchical Clustering Analysis) employed in the experimental data analysis revealed that the gasification of fuel blends of 20 and 40%w/w of biomass content results in higher volumes of the total gas, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide than gasification of fuel blends of higher biomass content. - Highlights: • Simulated utilization of HTR excess heat in co-gasification of coal and biomass. • Assessment of three system configurations in terms of hydrogen production. • Application of the HCA in the experimental data set analysis. • Variation in gas components volume and content with fuel blend composition

  9. Biomass gasification as the first hot step in clean syngas production process - gas quality optimization and primary tar reduction measures in a 100 kW thermal input steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syngas production based on biomass gasification is an attractive, feasible alternative to fossil fuel feedstock for the production of transportation fuels. However, the product gas from biomass gasification must be cleaned and tailored to comply with strict syngas quality requirements, as it consists of a wide variety of major and minor components and impurities. The characterization of such species is important to determine downstream gas treatment steps, and to assess the efficiency of the gasification process. This paper gives an overview of the results obtained during experiments on steam-oxygen gasification of biomass using 100 kW maximal thermal input circulating fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG) that have been performed at Delft University of Technology during the CHRISGAS project. The unit is also equipped with a high-temperature ceramic gas filter and downstream reactors for upgrading of the gas. In the experiments biomass types of both woody and agricultural origin have been used. They were represented by clean wood, demolition wood, an energy crop species (miscanthus) and a true residue (Dutch straw), respectively. Moreover, different bed materials have been applied, namely quartz sand, treated and untreated olivine and magnesite. During the experiments extensive measurements of gas composition have been carried out throughout the integrated test rig. The gas characterization included major gas components as well as certain minor species and tar. The results show that with the use of magnesite as bed material, remarkable increases of hydrogen yield were attained, as compared to sand or olivine; up to a volume fraction of almost 40% (dry, nitrogen-free basis). Also the H2:CO ratio increased from values near or lower than 1 to 2.3-2.6. This is near the values needed, for e.g., Fischer-Tropsch diesel production, indicating a potential for simplification of the gas upgrading. Furthermore, by using magnesite tar content of the raw gas was reduced to values near 2

  10. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    ), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (optimal torrefaction conditions. 500°C is preferred to 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature in two stage gasification because higher primary pyrolysis temperature resulted in more tar and less gasification char. Also, in terms of carbon yield, more carbon is lost in tar while less carbon is retained in gas product using 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature. In addition, pyrolysis char is found to produce less tar and more gas during steam gasification compared with gasification of pyrolysis vapor. Thus it is suggested that torrefaction might be an efficient pretreatment for biomass gasification because it can largely improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work is suggested in the end.

  11. Gasification development - BHEL`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, K.; Ramani, N.V.S. [Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Hyderabad (India)

    1997-12-31

    Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BREL) has been engaged in the development of the pressurized fluidized bed combustion and gasification processes for over a decade. Selection and development of gasification processes in BHEL was an integral and complementary part of the development of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. So far two types namely pressurized moving bed and bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, have been extensively tested for performance independently and also in 6.2 MW IGCC plant developed in-house. Moving bed gasifier performance was also evaluated in a similar gasifier available at IICT. Three fluidized bed gasifier configurations have so far been developed. The basic configuration consists of a two diameter reactor with dry ash removal system. Based on this configuration, initially a 18 tpd PFBG pilot plant had been developed and tested. Recycling of fines from cyclone to gasifier was carried out in the 18 tpd PFBG pilot plant using various types of ejector systems. This configuration was scaled up to a 150 tpd PFBG plant to retrofit in the existing 6.2 MW IGCC plant at BHEL, Trichy. The plant is undergoing initial performance testing. To improve upon the performance, particularly carbon conversion, BHEL has subsequently developed two pilot scale rigs to study ash agglomeration of Indian coals and lignite and a coupled gasifier, where a pressurised fluidized bed combustor operates in tandem with the gasifier. Fines recycle by gravity as well as using L-valve have also been studied in smaller test rigs. A mix of experimental work and mathematical modelling is essential to develop a commercial size gasification reactor. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Gasification Coupled Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal: A Thermodynamic Process Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali A. Borkhade; Shriwas, Preksha A.; Ganesh R. Kale

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamic investigation of gasification coupled chemical looping combustion (CLC) of carbon (coal) is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200°C. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the gasifier and CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions and energy requirements of the gasifier, fuel reactor, and air reactor were determined. Coal (carbon) gasification using 1.5 mol H2O and 1.5 mol CO2 per mole c...

  13. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined......A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant and a...

  14. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  15. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  16. Development of sampling systems and special analyses for pressurized gasification processes; Paineistettujen kaasutusprosessien naeytteenottomenetelmien ja erityisanalytiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, P.; Oesch, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Moilanen, A.; Nieminen, M.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of sampling methods used for measuring impurities contained in gasification gas were studied, and new methods were developed for sampling and sample analyses. The aim of the method development was to improve the representativeness of the samples and to speed up the analysis of gas composition. The study focused on tar, nitrogen and sulphur compounds contained in the gasification gas. In the study of the sampling reliability, the effects of probe and sampling line materials suitable for high temperatures and of the solids deposited in the sampling devices on gas samples drawn from the process were studied. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 250 - 850 deg C both in real conditions and in conditions simulating gasification gas. The durability of samples during storage was also studied. The other main aim of the study was to increase the amount of quick-measurable gas components by developing on-line analytical methods based on GC, FTIR and FI (flow injection) techniques for the measurements of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gasification gas. As these methods are suitable only for the gases that do not contain condensing gas components disturbing the operation of analysers (heavy tar compounds, water), a sampling system operating in dilution principle was developed. The system operates at high pressures and temperatures and is suitable for gasification gases containing heavy tar compounds. The capabilities of analysing heavy tar compounds (mole weight >200 g mol) was improved by adding the amount of compounds identified and calibrated by model substances and by developing analytical methods based on the high-temperature-GC analysis and the thermogravimetric method. (author)

  17. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  19. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  20. Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

  1. Computational simulation of the biomass gasification process in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an agro-industrial country as Cuba many residues of cultivation like the rice and the cane of sugar take place, besides the forest residues in wooded extensions. Is an interesting application for all this biomass, the gasification technology, by its high efficiency and its positive environmental impact. The computer simulation appears like a useful tool in the researches of parameters of operation of a gas- emitting, because it reduces the number of experiments to realise and the cost of the researches. In the work the importance of the application of the computer simulation is emphasized to anticipate the hydrodynamic behavior of fluidized bed and of the process of combustion of the biomass for different residues and different conditions of operation. A model using CFD for the simulation of the process of combustion in a gas- emitting of biomass sets out of fluidized bed, the hydrodynamic parameters of the multiphasic flow from the elaboration of a computer simulator that allows to form and to vary the geometry of the reactor, as well as the influence of the variation of magnitudes are characterized such as: speed, diameter of the sand and equivalent reason. Experimental results in cylindrical channels appear, to complete the study of the computer simulation realised in 2D. (author)

  2. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  3. Coal gasification and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, D.; Towler, B.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, with topics chosen to aid the process engineer who is interested in a complete, coal-to-products system. It provides a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes. The first topic describes the nature and availability of coal. Next, the fundamentals of gasification are described, followed by a description of gasification technologies and gas cleaning processes. The conversion of syngas to electricity, fuels and chemicals is then discussed. Finally, process economics are covered. Emphasis is given to the selection of gasification technology based on the type of coal fed to the gasifier and desired end product: E.g., lower temperature gasifiers produce substantial quantities of methane, which is undesirable in an ammonia synthesis feed. This book also reviews gasification kinetics which is informed by recent papers and process design studies by the US Department of Energy and other groups. Approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, providing a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes - Describes the fundamentals of gasification, gasification technologies, and gas cleaning processes - Emphasizes the importance of the coal types fed to the gasifier and desired end products - Covers gasification kinetics.

  4. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortages of oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil...

  5. Defining urban agglomerations to detect agglomeration economies

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Hatna, Erez; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Agglomeration economies are a persistent subject of debate among economists and urban planners. Their definition turns on whether or not larger cities and regions are more efficient and more productive than smaller ones. We complement existing discussion on agglomeration economies and the urban wage premium here by providing a sensitivity analysis of estimated coefficients to different delineations of urban agglomeration as well as to different definitions of the economic measure that summarises the urban premium. This quantity can consist of total wages measured at the place of work, or of income registered at the place of residence. The chosen option influences the scaling behaviour of city size as well as the spatial distribution of the phenomenon at the city level. Spatial discrepancies between the distribution of jobs and the distribution of households at different economic levels makes city definitions crucial to the estimation of economic relations which vary with city size. We argue this point by regr...

  6. Laboratory simulated slipstream testing of novel sulfur removal processes for gasification application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is investigating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) concept to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production from coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks. Research, development and testing (RD and T) that is currently being conducted under the project is evaluating cost effective process systems for removing contaminants, particularly sulfur species, from the generated gas which contains mainly synthesis gas (syngas), CO2 and steam at concentrations acceptable for the methanol synthesis catalyst. The RD and T includes laboratory testing followed by bench-scale and field testing at the SG Solutions Gasification Plant located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. Actual synthesis gas produced by the plant was utilized at system pressure and temperature for bench-scale field testing. ConocoPhillips Company (COP) developed a sulfur removal technology based on a novel, regenerable sorbent - S Zorb trademark - to remove sulfur contaminants from gasoline at high temperatures. The sorbent was evaluated for its sulfur removal performance from the generated syngas especially in the presence of other components such as water and CO2 which often cause sorbent performance to decline over time. This publication also evaluates the performance of a regenerable activated carbon system developed by Nucon International, Inc. in polishing industrial gas stream by removing sulfur species to parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. (author)

  7. The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the United States to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443 l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25 l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint. (letter)

  8. Bed burners for grate boilers; Baeddbraennare foer rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendelius, Mikael; Schuster, Robert [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this work is to increase the knowledge of bed burners and their optimal positions in furnaces. The results from several computational fluid mechanics calculations are presented. An investigation concerning bed burners among plant owners is included as well. A bed burner is defined as a burner used for enhancing the combustion process on the bed i.e. it is used to dry incoming wet fuel. A load burner is used to quickly increase the boiler load and primarily not for creating better combustion conditions on the grate. Fluid mechanics calculations have been performed for five different cases, including the reference case. The following four bed burner arrangements have been examined: flat flame burner, six burners placed in the combustion chamber, two symmetric placed burners and two asymmetric placed burners. The same furnace model has been used through all the simulations. The incident radiation has been calculated in order to determine which one of the bed burners having the best possibility to improve the combustion process on the grate. The results showed that the flat flame burner and the six burners placed in the combustion chamber gave the most incident radiation on the first two grate zones. Bed burners placed further back in the furnace gave less good results. A comparison between the reference case (the case without burners) and the case with two burners showed that there was almost no difference in incident radiation between the two cases. The case with six burners placed in the combustion chamber gave most incident radiation, however this arrangement gave an irregular distribution of the radiation on the bed. Too high or irregular distributed radiation increases the risk for getting regions, on the grate, where the fuel is completely burnt. Primary air will pass through these regions. This phenomenon will lead to high temperatures that cause increased levels of emissions, in particular NO{sub x}. Reorganizing the burner positions and

  9. Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both electric power and high-temperature flue gas can be cogenerated by combining a furnace burner with thermionic converters, forming a thermionic cogeneration burner. To assess the performance and cost of such a burner, a one-for-one replacement, bolt-on burner, which could be used in most industrial applications, was designed in detail. It was analyzed and parametric performance data was derived from a mathematical model. Details of the design analysis, as well as an economic evaluation of installed cost ($/kW) and internal rate-of-return, are presented

  10. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2012-07-26

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

  11. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  12. Comparison of Shell Coal Gasification Technology with Shell Coal Gasification Process Bottom Quench%壳牌干煤粉气化技术与壳牌下行水激冷流程气化技术的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆丽; 赖智乐; 王盘峰; 胡步千

    2014-01-01

    Afterwards entering the Chinese market of Shell coal gasification technology, Shell Company has again developed the bottom water quench process gasification technology in order to simplify traditional process, to eliminate stoppage problem of dried ash, and to decrease the investment cost. Author has made comparison for 2 kinds of gasification technologies from aspects of process feature, gasifier structure, equipment arrangement, investment cost and so on, has separately indicated the advantage and shortage between Shell dried and pulverized coal gasification technology and the bottom water quench process gasification technology, result indicates that:①The traditional Shell dried and pulverized coal gasification process technology is ripe and reliable with high heat recovery rate, better economy and environmental protection, but with more investment cost at present stage, more equipment in plant, more difficulty in construction/installation and in piping arrangement;②The structure of gasifier is simple forbottom water quench process gasifica-tion technology newly developed with less equipment in plant, less investment of project, but only one set of plant is now put into operation, so its environ-ment protection property and stability of plant are required to be observed.%继壳牌干煤粉气化技术( SCGP)进入中国市场后,壳牌公司又开发了下行水激冷流程气化技术( SCGP Bot-tom Quench),以简化传统流程,消除干灰堵塞问题,降低投资成本。本文从工艺特点、气化炉结构、设备布置以及投资成本等方面进行了2种气化技术的比较,分别指出了SCGP和SCGP Bottom Quench的优势和劣势,结果表明:①传统的SCGP工艺技术成熟可靠,热回收率高,经济环保,但项目前期投资较大,装置设备较多,施工吊装与管道布置难度较大;②新开发的SCGP Bottom Quench气化炉结构简单,装置设备减少,项目投资缩减,但国内仅有1套装

  13. Multiphase flow importance in future nuclear process heat applications: energy alcohol by biomass gasification with HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For future nuclear process heat applications multiphase phenomena are very important in a three-fold sense: For the ability to produce high temperature heat, for the realization of a catastrophe-free nuclear energy technology and for the newly proposed carbondioxide-neutral energy system 'energy alcohol from biomass plus HTR'. The technology of the 'Coated Particle' with the multi-coating of ceramic coatings on microparticles on nuclear fuel for the HTR is the technological reason for the ability to produce high temperature heat from nuclear energy. It is produced by chemical vapour deposition in a fluidized bed, this is a two-phase-fluidized-bed/gaseous-to-solid-states-change by pyrolysis/multi-component/phenomenon. The new requirement of a catastrophe-free nuclear energy technology has led to the identification that the ingress of water droplets into the nuclear core of the HTR should be avoided by self-acting separation of droplets coming from the steam generator tube break before they can get into the core. The behaviour of the water/steam jet in the helium stream is a two-phase-flow/far-from-equilibrium-phase-change/two-component/phenomenon. The biggest challenge to the energy industry is the carbondioxide-climate-change-problem. The solution requires the reduction of the application of fossil primary energy carriers by the factor of about 5 for the world, and e.g. by the factors of about 13 for FRG and about 10 for Japan. As a contribution to the solution a new proposal has been made recently: the production of energy alcohol, e.g. methanol, on the basis 'biomass plus HTR'. The main part of the energy conversion process is the helium-heated fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass. This a two-phase-flow/solid-to-gaseous states-change/pyrolysis and chemical reaction/multi-component/phenomenon. (J.P.N.)

  14. Gasification to petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification is often used to convert coal, petroleum coke and heavy hydrocarbons to gaseous products for hydrogenation in oil refining and upgrading. Gasification produces a variety of byproducts that can be used to produce petrochemicals. Primary petrochemical derivatives from sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen can enhance the overall economics of the gasification process, and gasification by-products can be combined with other hydrocarbon feedstocks to produce a variety of secondary and tertiary petrochemical products. This presentation examined the potential for primary, secondary and tertiary petrochemicals derived from Alberta's oil sands industry. The gasification units associated with oil sands processing plants are the largest in the world, which suggests that syngas and other gasification products will benefit from economies of scale. A proposed flow scheme for oil sands bitumen using a naphtha cracker to create ethylene and other petrochemicals was presented as well as flow schemes for the creation of light hydrocarbons, syngas and aromatics. Ammonia and methanol synthesis processes from natural gas were reviewed, as well as issues concerning acetic acid synthesis and phenol synthesis from benzene and propylene. It was concluded that all the products and feedstocks reviewed in the analysis are readily transported and have established markets. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to prod...

  16. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  17. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  18. Effect of Process Parameters on the Mass Transport Phenomena during Underground Coal Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Stanczyk, K.; Rogut, J.; Schneider, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    -: -, 2011, GP036. ISBN N. [International Conference GeoProc2011: Cross Boundaries Through THMC Integration /4./. Perth (AU), 06.07.2011-09.07.2011] Grant ostatní: RFCR(XE) CT-2011-00002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : underground coal gasification * texture characteristics * transport parameters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  19. Process characteristics and products of olive kernel high temperature steam gasification (HTSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulou, V; Swiderski, A; Yang, W; Zabaniotou, A

    2009-04-01

    Exploitation of olive kernel for bioenergy production, with respect to the green house gases (GHGs) mitigation, is the main aim of this work. In this study, olive kernels were used as a solid biofuel, and high temperature steam gasification (HTSG) was investigated, in the fixed bed unit at KTH Sweden, with regard to hydrogen maximization in the produced gasification gas. Experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 750-1050 degrees C, with steam as the gasifying agent. The behaviour of olive kernels, under residence times from 120 up to 960 s, has been studied. At 1050 degrees C, a medium to high calorific value gas was obtained (LHVgas=13.62 MJ/Nm3), while an acquired H2/CO molar ratio equal to four proved that olive kernel HTSG gasification could be an effective technology for a hydrogen-rich gas production (approximately 40%vv H2 in the produced gasification gas at 1050 degrees C). The produced char contained 79%ww of fixed carbon, low chlorine and sulphur content, which enables it for further re-use for energetic purposes. Tar content in the produced gas at 750 degrees C was 124.07 g/Nm3, while a 1050 degrees C at 79.64% reduction was observed and reached the value of 25.26 g/Nm3. PMID:19117753

  20. Conceptual design of light integrated gasification fuel cell based on thermodynamic process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Light integrated gasification fuel cell (L-IGFC) power plant is proposed. • Dry gas desulfurization (DGD) is a key to increase the efficiency of the L-IGFC. • Atmospheric L-IGFC gives electrical efficiency over 46%LHV. • Pressurized operation of solid oxide fuel cell offers electrical efficiency of L-IGFC over 50%LHV. - Abstract: Integration of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in coal gasification power plant technology would be one of the most promising technology in the coal utilization for power generation. The clean syngas from gas cleanup unit serves as fuel for SOFC in integrated gasification fuel cell power plant. The heat generated by SOFC can be utilized by heat recovery steam generator to drive steam turbine for electricity production. In this study, proposed plants consisting of coal gasifier and SOFC on the top of a steam turbine (ST), called light integrated gasification fuel cell (L-IGFC), are investigated thermodynamically by using Aspen Plus software to evaluate their performance. The analyses are based on the SOFC module considering ohmic, activation and concentration losses at a certain current density of the cell operating at the intermediate temperature. The influences of gas cleanup unit models were also investigated. The results indicated that the proposed atmospheric L-IGFC plant could achieve electrical efficiency in the range of 39–46.35% in lower heating value

  1. Process simulation of biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2015-03-01

    Biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (BG-SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are of major interest in the context of climate change mitigation, energy security and increasing energy efficiency. Aspen Plus is employed to simulate various BG-SOFC CHP systems. The aim of the research work is to investigate the technical feasibility of these systems and to study the influence of important operating parameters and examine integration options. Systems based on dual fluidised bed steam gasification and tubular SOFC technologies are modelled. The cathode recycle and electric heater integration options are not attractive in comparison to the base case anode recycle system. Thermal integration, i.e. using SOFC flue gas as gasifier oxidant, is desirable. Lowering the syngas preheat temperature (prior to SOFC anodes) is highly recommended and is more practical than lowering the cathode air preheat temperature. Results of the parametric study indicate that: steam to carbon ratio and biomass moisture content should be as low as possible; fuel utilisation factor can change the mode of operation of the plant (focus on electricity or heat); high temperature syngas cleaning is very attractive; gasification air preheating is more attractive than gasification steam superheating. High efficiencies are predicted, proving the technical feasibility of BG-SOFC CHP systems.

  2. Combustor burner vanelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Loveland, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  3. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  4. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  5. Agglomeration and Market Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masahisa; Thisse, Jacques-François

    2002-01-01

    The most salient feature of the spatial economy is the presence of a large variety of economic agglomerations. Our purpose is to review some of the main explanations for this universal phenomenon, as they are proposed in urban economics and modern economic geography. We first show why the competitive framework can hardly be the foundation for the economics of agglomeration. We then briefly review the alternative modelling strategies. In the hope of making our Paper accessible to a broad audie...

  6. SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION – DIRECT TABLETTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Pradnya B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct tabletting technique is the modern and the most efficient process used in tablet manufacturing and has been successfully employed for various poorly soluble and poorly compressible drugs. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape particles which enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. This technique can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present article is on the detailed comprehensive review about advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.

  7. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as...... are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is...

  8. Combustion behaviour of RDF-BO fuel by using gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia, like most of the developing countries, is facing an increase of waste generation and accompanying problems with the disposal of this waste. On average, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Malaysia is about 0.5 - 0.8 kg/person/day and has increased 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. This has forced the local authorities to look at numerous options available for the treatment and processing of MSW. A local private company, Recycle Energy Sdn Bhd (RESB), took the initiative to develop Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) from Malaysia MSW. A pilot plant was set up to serve as the research ground for converting MSW into RDF. However, the calorific value of RDF developed, which is in the range of about 3,500 to 4,000 kcal/kg, is still far off to be a premium fuel even though it is twice over the calorific value of the original MSW. The targeted RDF calorific value to be developed is in the range of 4,000 kcal/kg to 5,000 kcal/kg. As to develop the high quality fuel, numerous studies have been performed to establish the relationship of RDF and various waste materials. Considering the prospective, a research on the project entitles Development of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Fuel Pellets for Industrial and Commercial Usage from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) In Malaysia has been carried out. The research has been conducted through collaboration with the company. From the study, it was accomplished that the blend of bunker oil and RDF in the ratio of 1:9 is able to produce new RDF or so called as RDF-BO fuel with calorific value higher than 4000 kcal/kg. Considerable the environmental pollution problems, the characteristics of the RDF combustion gasses demanded to be established. This paper will look at the findings and recommendations for work carried out on establishing the combustion behavior of RDF, either in its blended condition or when added with a few additives to reduce or arrest the pollution emission, by using gasification process. (Author)

  9. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K.; Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  10. CFD simulation of a burner for syngas characterization and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Desideri, Umberto [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, umberto.desideri@unipg.it; D' Amico, Michele [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Energetic Engineering], E-mail: damico@crbnet.it

    2009-07-01

    Biomass and waste are distributed and renewable energy sources that may contribute effectively to sustainability if used on a small and micro scale. This requires the transformation through efficient technologies (gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion) into a suitable gaseous fuel to use in small internal combustion engines and gas turbines. The characterization of biomass derived syngas during combustion is therefore a key issue to improve the performance of small scale integrated plants because synthesis gas show significant differences with respect to Natural Gas (mixture of gases, low calorific value, hydrogen content, tar and particulate content) that may turn into ignition problems, combustion instabilities, difficulties in emission control and fouling. To this aim a burner for syngas combustion and LHV measurement through mass and energy balance was realized and connected to the rotary-kiln laboratory scale pyrolyzer at the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Perugia. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the burner was carried out considering the combustion of propane to investigate temperature and pressure distribution, heat transmission and distribution of the combustion products and by products. The simulation was carried out using the CFD program Star-CD. Before the simulation a geometrical model of the burner was built and the volume of model was subdivided in cells. A sensibility analysis of cells was carried out to estimate the approximation degree of the model. Experimental data about combustion emission were carried out with the propane combustion in the burner, the comparison between numerical results and experimental data was studied to validate the simulation for future works involved with the combustion of treated or raw (syngas with tar) syngas obtained from pyrolysis process. (author)

  11. Porosity effects in flame length of the porous burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Furnaces are the devices for providing heat to the industrial systems like boilers, gas turbines and etc. The main challenge of furnaces is emission of huge air pollutants. However, porous burners produce less contaminant compared to others. The quality of the combustion process in the porous burners depends on the length of flame in the porous medium. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD is used to investigate the porosity effects on the flame length of the combustion process in porous burner. The simulation results demonstrate that increasing the porosity increases the flame length and the combustion zone extends forward. So, combustion quality increases and production of carbon monoxide decrease. It is possible to conclude that temperature distribution in low porosity burner is lower and more uniform than high porosity one. Therefore, by increasing the porosity of the burner, the production of nitrogen oxides increases. So, using an intermediate porosity in the burner appears to be reasonable.

  12. Influence of ash composition on the sintering behavior during pressurized combustion and gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni-jie JING; Qin-hui WANG; Yu-kun YANG; Le-ming CHENG; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    To determine the ash characteristics during fluidized bed combustion and gasification purposes,the investigation of the impacts of chemical composition of Jincheng coal ash on the sintering temperature was conducted.A series of experiments on the sintering behavior at 0.5 MPa was performed using the pressurized pressure-drop technique in the combustion and gasification atmospheres.Meanwhile,the mineral transformations of sintered ash pellets were observed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analyzer to better understand the experimental results.In addition,quantitative XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM/EDS) analyses of ash samples were used for clarifying the detailed ash melting mechanism.These results show that the addition of Fe2O3 can obviously reduce the sintering temperatures under gasification atmospheres,and only affect a little the sintering temperature under combustion atmosphere.This may be due to the presence of iron-bearing minerals,which will react with other ash compositions to produce low-melting-point eutectics.The FE-SEM/EDS analyses of ash samples with Fe2O3 additive show consistent results with the XRD measurements.The CaO and Na2O can reduce the sintering temperatures under both the combustion and gasification atmospheres.This can be also contributed to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics,decreasing the sintering temperature.Moreover,the fluxing minerals,such as magnetite,anhydrite,muscovite,albite and nepheline,contribute mostly to the reduction of the sintering temperature while the feldspar minerals,such as anorthite,gehlenite and sanidine,can react with other minerals to produce low-melting-point eutectics,and thereby reduce the sintering temperatures.

  13. COMBUSTION STUDY OF MIXTURES RESULTING FROM A GASIFICATION PROCESS OF FOREST BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Magalhaes, Eliseu

    2011-01-01

    Syngas is being recognized as a viable energy source worldwide, particularly for stationary power generation. In the current work, three typical syngas compositions have been considered as representative of the syngas resultant from forest biomass gasification, and the possibility of using it in internal combustion engines is studied. First, laminar burning velocities have been determined from schlieren flame images at normal temperature and pressure, over a range of equivalence ratios within...

  14. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  15. Shell粉煤气化及Texaco水煤浆气化模拟对比及分析%Comparison and analysis of the process simulations of shell pulverized coal gasification and texaco slurry coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚月华; 陈晏杰; 江振西; 张香平; 任保增; 汪敬恒; 黄磊; 董海峰

    2012-01-01

    以Aspen Plus为模拟工具,选择反应平衡模型,应用Gibbs自由能最小化方法建立了Shell粉煤气化模型及Texaco水煤浆气化模型,运用灵敏度分析研究了不同操作条件对气化工艺的影响,结果表明:对于Shell气化工艺,蒸汽煤比和氧煤比是影响Shell气化炉的出口组成的主要因素,当蒸汽煤质量比为0.08~0.11,氧煤质量比为0.8~0.9时进行气化较为合适;对于Texaco气化工艺,水煤浆浓度和氧煤比是影响Texaco气化炉的出口组成的主要因素,当水煤浆浓度在65%(wt)左右,氧煤质量比为0.95~1.05时进行气化较为合适.通过对两种气化工艺的对比与分析,为IGCC、煤气化等过程的气化工艺选择提供了重要的参考.%Taking the Aspen Plus software as the simulation tool, by selecting the reaction balance model and using the minimizing method of the Gibbs free energy, the Shell pulverized coal gasification model and Texaco slurry coal gasification model are built, and the established models have been inspected. The gasification property under different operating conditions is studied based on the sensitivity analysis tool, for the Shell pulverized coal gasification technology, ratio of steam/coal and ratio of oxygen/coal are the main factors on the composition of the raw syngas, and it is fit for occurring gasification reaction when the mass ratio of steam/coal is between 0.08 and 0.11, and the mass ratio of oxygen/coal is between 0.8 and 0.9; for the Texaco slurry gasification technology, the concentration of the slurry and the ratio of oxygen/coal were the main factors on the composition of the raw syngas, and it is fit for occurring gasification reaction when the mass concentration of the slurry is close to 65% and the mass ratio of oxygen/coal is between 0.95 and 1.05. Based on the study of the two gasification technologies, references can be provided for the selection of the gasification technology of certain process including coal

  16. Historical development of underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olness, D.; Gregg, D.W.

    1977-06-30

    The development of underground coal gasification is traced through a discussion of the significant, early experiments with in situ gasification. Emphasized are the features of each experiment that were important in helping to alter and refine the process to its present state. Experimental details, coal characteristics, and gasification data are supplied for many of the experiments. 69 refs.

  17. Gasification of coal to produce hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following are dealt with: a) The physico-chemical basis, the process and the potential applications of water vapour gasification, b) the present state of the gasification industrially used in West Germany at present (Lurgi, Winkler, Koppers-Totzek processes), c) the state and tasks, technical information, operators and projects of the experimental plant for further development of gasification processes commissioned in the 1970's in West Germany d) gasification of coal using heat from nuclear reactors, and e) the prospects of hydrogen supply by gasification of coal. (GG)

  18. Design and construction of thermionic cogeneration burner module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermionic cogeneration burner module is a high temperature burner equipped with thermionic converters. A demonstration of a thermionic cogeneration system is under way. In this demonstration a hot oil heater (used in various industrial processes) was equipped with a thermionic cogeneration burner module. This module contained converters that were connected in series to produce approximately 180 watts at 2.4 volts. The system is now undergoing preliminary testing. It is expected that additional test results will be available in the fall

  19. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this. PMID:21982278

  20. Design and development of a low NOx regenerative burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Regenerative burner technology is used worldwide by a range of process industries to utilize waste heat and reduce specific energy consumption. Regenerative burners are associated with annual energy savings of 6.2 PJ and consequently have a further benefit, reducing CO[sub 2] emissions by approximately 316,000 tonnes/year. However, the high air pre-heat temperatures attained by these burners are also responsible for NOx emissions rates which are substantially higher than those for cold air fired burners. To address this problem the current project was set up to develop a low NOx regenerative burner which would comply with the then anticipated NOx emission legislation. The combination of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling and experimental work has shown that there are available methods to reduce NOx emissions. For instance, in this project NOx emissions from a 3 MW burner were reduced to levels similar to those of a 600 kW unit. (author)

  1. Influential parameters of nitrogen oxides emissions for microturbine swirl burner with pilot burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Swirl burners are the most common type of device in wide range of applications, including gas turbine combustors. Due to their characteristics, swirl flows are extensively used in combustion systems because they enable high energy conversion in small volume with good stabilization behavior over the wide operating range. The flow and mixing process generated by the swirl afford excellent flame stability and reduced NOx emissions. Experimental investigation of NOx emission of a purposely designed micro turbine gas burner with pilot burner is presented. Both burners are equipped with swirlers. Mixtures of air and fuel are introduced separately: through the inner swirler - primary mixture for pilot burner, and through the outer swirler - secondary mixture for main burner. The effects of swirl number variations for the both burners were investigated, including parametric variations of the thermal power and air coefficient. It was found that the outer swirler affects the emission of NOx only for the air coefficient less than 1.4. The increase of swirl number resulted in decrease of NOx emission. The inner swirler and thermal power were found to have negligible effect on emission.

  2. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale. PMID:23522795

  3. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term

  4. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  5. Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckner, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe. PMID:24846797

  6. Agglomeration and Co-Agglomeration of Services Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kolko, Jed

    2007-01-01

    Economic research on industry location and agglomeration has focused nearly exclusively on manufacturing. This paper shows that services are prominent among the most agglomerated industries, especially at the county level. Because traditional measures of knowledge spillovers, natural resource inputs, and labor pooling explain little of agglomeration in services industries, this paper takes an alternative approach and looks at co-agglomeration to assess why industries cluster together. By cons...

  7. The Structure of Agglomerates consisting of Polydisperse Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Eggersdorfer, M. L.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Agglomeration is encountered in many natural or industrial processes, like growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and during material synthesis or even flocculation of suspensions, granulation, crystallization and with colloidal particle processing. These particles collide by different mechanisms and stick together forming irregular or fractal-like agglomerates. Typically, the structure of these agglomerates is characterized with the fractal dimension, Df, and pre-exponential factor, k...

  8. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  9. Bubbling fluidised bed gasification of wheat straw-gasifier performance using mullite as bed material

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Bhaird, Seán T.; Hemmingway, Phil; Walsh, Eilín; McDonnell, Kevin; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of wheat straw as a fuel for gasification processes has been hindered due to a lack of experience and its propensity to cause bed agglomeration in fluidised bed gasifiers. In this study wheat straw was gasified in a small scale, air blown bubbling fluidised bed using mullite as bed material. The gasifier was successfully operated and isothermal bed conditions maintained at temperatures up to 750 ◦C. Below this temperature, the gasifier was operated at equivalence ratios from 0.1 ...

  10. Hydrothermal processing of fermentation residues in a continuous multistage rig – Operational challenges for liquefaction, salt separation, and catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermentation residues are a waste stream of biomethane production containing substantial amounts of organic matter, and thus representing a primary energy source which is mostly unused. For the first time this feedstock was tested for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production. The processing steps include hydrothermal liquefaction, salt separation, as well as catalytic gasification over a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water. In continuous experiments at a feed rate of 1 kg h−1 a partial liquefaction and carbonization of some of the solids was observed. Significant amounts of heavy tars were formed. Around 50% of the feed carbon remained in the rig. Furthermore, a homogeneous coke was formed, presumably originating from condensed tars. The mineralization of sulfur and its separation in the salt separator was insufficient, because most of the sulfur was still organically bound after liquefaction. Desalination was observed at a salt separator set point temperature of 450 °C and 28 MPa; however, some of the salts could not be withdrawn as a concentrated brine. At 430 °C no salt separation took place. Higher temperatures in the salt separator were found to promote tar and coke formation, resulting in conflicting process requirements for efficient biomass liquefaction and desalination. In the salt separator effluent, solid crystals identified as struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were found. This is the first report of struvite formation from a supercritical water biomass conversion process and represents an important finding for producing a fertilizer from the separated salt brine. - Highlights: • Continuous processing of fermentation residues in sub- and supercritical water. • Continuous separation of salt brines at supercritical water conditions. • Struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were recovered from the effluent. • Separation of sulfur from the biomass could not

  11. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  12. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    . However, high costs for both oxygen supply equipment and operation are significant challenges for the commercial implementation of this technology. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes can be used for oxygen separation from air at a lower energy consumption compared to cryogenic...... distillation, especially for small to medium scale plants. This paper examines different configurations for oxygen production using MIEC membranes where the oxygen partial pressure difference is achieved by creating a vacuum on the permeate side, compressing the air on the feed side or a combination of the two....... The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing...

  13. Downhole burner for wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H.; Hazard, H.R.; Hummell, J.D.; Schulz, E.J.

    1966-03-22

    This is a downhole gas and air burner for use in wells to stimulate production. The combustible mixture is supplied to the combustion chamber of the downhole burner through a delivery tube. This tube includes a flow-back preventer and a check valve. The flashback preventers consist of a porous material which has restricted flow paths. The check valve controls the flow of combustible mixture to the combustion chamber and prevents undesirable pulsating flow through the combustion chamber and the delivery tube. The check valve also prevents flooding of the combustion chamber by well fluid. The burner is ignited electrically. The porous material can be flat strip or a conically shaped piece of thin porous metal.

  14. Pyrolysis and gasification of waste: a worldwide technology and business review. Vol.1: Markets and trends; Vol. 2: Technologies and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two volume report, Pyrolysis and Gasification of Waste; a Worldwide Technology and Business Review, covers technology trends and market forces, applications and markets, market profiles by region, decision makers' preferences, and the market forecast for 1999 to 2008 in Volume I. Technologies and processes are addressed in Volume II, with technology concepts, analysis of the processes, a comparative review of selected processes examined. A directory of suppliers, process developers and licenses is provided in the appendices to Volume II. (UK)

  15. Simulation of the influence of tar formation in wood gasification processes on the cost of the purified process gas; Simulation des Einflusses der Teerbildung bei der Vergasung von Holz auf die Kosten des gereinigten Produktgases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The influence of the gasification process and the related tar formation rate on the cost of gas production is investigated with the aid of process models. The processes of gasification, gas purification and adsorptive treatment of waste water were modelled mathematically with a view to process mechanisms and cost. Simulations of the overall process helped to obtain a quantitative assessment of the cost of product gas as a function of process parameters like gasification process and tar formation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Prozessmodellen wird untersucht, welchen Einfluss das Vergasungsverfahren und die damit verbundene Teerbildung mit entsprechenden Reinigungsverfahren auf die Produktionskosten des gereinigten Produktgases besitzt. Hierfuer werden die Prozesse der Vergasung, Gasreinigung und adsorptiven Abwasseraufbereitung hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer Zusammenhaenge und Kosten mathematisch modelliert. Durch Simulation des Gesamtprozesses werden quantitativ die Kosten des Produktgases in Abhaengigkeit von Prozessparametern wie Vergasungsverfahren und Teerbildung ermittelt. (orig./SR)

  16. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). PMID:25458677

  17. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  18. The mathematical description of the gasification process of woody biomass in installations with a plasma heat source for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Safin, R. G.; Gerasimov, M. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Gilfanov, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the scheme of processing of plant biomass in the gasification installation with a plasma heat source to produce synthesis gas suitable for chemical industry. The analyzed physical picture of raw materials' recycling process underlies a mathematical description of the process set out in the form of the basic differential equations with boundary conditions. The received mathematical description allows calculating of the main parameters of equipment for biomass recycling and to determine the optimal modes of its operation.

  19. Filtration behavior of silver nanoparticle agglomerates and effects of the agglomerate model in data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many data evaluation procedures for particle measuring devices and in filtration models, spherical particles are assumed. However, significant fractions of aerosol particles are agglomerates of small primary spheres. The morphology of particles in filtration processes may not be known a priori and if the filtration data are processed with wrong assumption, errors can be induced. In this work, we have quantified such errors for the case of open-structured agglomerates. Filtration efficiency tests with polydisperse silver nanoparticle agglomerates and their sintered spheres were performed. After the sintering process, particles with a compact structure with the shape close to a sphere are obtained, which are referred to as sintered spheres in the present study. The testing method involved generation of particulate forms, passing the particles through the testing section, and measurement of the particle number concentrations and size distributions before and after the filter. Measurements of the aerosols upstream and downstream of the filter were conducted using scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS, TSI Inc.), which covered the rage from 10 to 480 nm. Particles were additionally characterized from the electron microscopic images and the average primary particle size was determined to be 16.8 nm. The number-size distribution curves were obtained and used for penetration calculation. The penetration was dependent on the particle size and morphology. Silver-sintered spheres were captured with a lower efficiency than agglomerates with the same mobility diameter because of the stronger interception effect for agglomerates. Data analysis of the number-size distribution for agglomerates was processed based on sphere assumption and using the model for open-structured agglomerates developed by Lall and Friedlander. The efficiencies based on total concentrations of number, surface and volume were affected when the agglomerate model was used. The effect was weakest for the

  20. Filtration behavior of silver nanoparticle agglomerates and effects of the agglomerate model in data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buha, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.buha@empa.ch [Empa, Analytical Chemistry (Switzerland); Fissan, Heinz [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology e.V. (IUTA) (Germany); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [Empa, Analytical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    In many data evaluation procedures for particle measuring devices and in filtration models, spherical particles are assumed. However, significant fractions of aerosol particles are agglomerates of small primary spheres. The morphology of particles in filtration processes may not be known a priori and if the filtration data are processed with wrong assumption, errors can be induced. In this work, we have quantified such errors for the case of open-structured agglomerates. Filtration efficiency tests with polydisperse silver nanoparticle agglomerates and their sintered spheres were performed. After the sintering process, particles with a compact structure with the shape close to a sphere are obtained, which are referred to as sintered spheres in the present study. The testing method involved generation of particulate forms, passing the particles through the testing section, and measurement of the particle number concentrations and size distributions before and after the filter. Measurements of the aerosols upstream and downstream of the filter were conducted using scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS, TSI Inc.), which covered the rage from 10 to 480 nm. Particles were additionally characterized from the electron microscopic images and the average primary particle size was determined to be 16.8 nm. The number-size distribution curves were obtained and used for penetration calculation. The penetration was dependent on the particle size and morphology. Silver-sintered spheres were captured with a lower efficiency than agglomerates with the same mobility diameter because of the stronger interception effect for agglomerates. Data analysis of the number-size distribution for agglomerates was processed based on sphere assumption and using the model for open-structured agglomerates developed by Lall and Friedlander. The efficiencies based on total concentrations of number, surface and volume were affected when the agglomerate model was used. The effect was weakest for the

  1. Flat flame burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Y.; Mitsudomi, H.

    1976-02-24

    Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.'s new flat-flame heat-treatment burner offers lower material costs, reduced combustion noise, and elimination of the need for a high-pressure fuel gas to provide a high-velocity combustion burner. The flat-flame burner contains an air-swirling chamber with a flame opening in one side; the wall defining the flame opening has a small thickness around the opening and a flat outer face. This construction causes the combustion gas to be forced out from the flame opening in a spiral direction by the swirling air current within the air chamber; together with the orifice effect of permitting the flame to emanate from a small opening to an unconfined outer space, this helps assure the formation of a flat flame spreading out over a very wide area for very rapid, uniform, and highly efficient heat treatment of an article to be heated. This approach also permits the thickness of the overall device to be reduced. The supply of combustion air in the form of a swirling stream makes it possible to provide a high-velocity combustion burner without using a high-pressure fuel gas, with the advantage of satisfactory mixture of the fuel gas and combustion air and consequently markedly reduced combustion noise.

  2. Effect of agglomeration on flowability of baby food powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the wet agglomeration in a fluidized bed on flowability of agglomerated products, such as baby food powders. The agglomeration process was performed in the fluidized bed. The wetting liquid used to the process was: water, 2% lecithin solution, and 50% sugar solution. Food powders flowability was expressed as: Hausner Ratio, pouring time, angles of sliding and of repose and flow function. The composition of materials, used to prepare mixtures, has a significant influence on tested properties. The higher milk powder of the mixtures caused decreasing of their flowability. Wet agglomeration of baby food powders caused an increase in the mean diameter of particles, which made it possible to receive agglomerates with good flowability and decreased bulk density. The increase of milk powder content from 0 to 73% in the mixture before the agglomeration contributed to improve its flowability. Wet agglomeration with 2% lecithin solution and 50% sugar solution reduced particle size and bulk density, improved flowability of received agglomerates in relation to agglomerates received with water as a wetting liquid. PMID:20629874

  3. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  4. Investigation into Syngas Generation from Solid Fuel Using CaSO4-based Chemical Looping Gasification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongzhuo; GUO Qingjie

    2013-01-01

    Chemical-looping gasification(CLG)is a novel process for syngas generation from solid fuels,sharing the same basic principles as chemical-looping combustion(CLC).It also uses oxygen carriers(mainly metal oxide and calcium sulfate)to transfer heat and oxygen to the fuel.In this paper,the primary investigation into the CLG process with CaSO4 as oxygen carrier was carried out by thermodynamic analysis and experiments in the tube reactor.Sulfur-contained gas emission was mainly H2S rather than SO2 in the CLG process,showing some different features from the CLC.The mass and heat balance of CLG processes were calculated thermodynamically to determinate the auto-thermal operating conditions with different CaSO4/C and steam/C molar ratios.It was found that the CaSO4/C molar ratio should be higher than 0.2 to reach auto-thermal balance.The effect of temperature on the reactions between oxygen carrier and coal was investigated based on Gibbs free energy minimum method and experimental results.It indicated that high temperature favored the CLG process in the fuel reactor and part of syngas was consumed to compensate for auto-thermal system.

  5. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  6. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  7. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm² degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm² degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  8. Fluid bed agglomeration with a narrow droplet size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, SH; Vonk, P; Kossen, NWF

    2000-01-01

    In the fluid bed agglomeration processes liquid distribution influences the agglomerate growth. We developed a new nozzle that produces uniform droplets, which allows droplets to be easily controlled in size independently of liquid- and airflow of the nozzle. It was found that the spray rate and the

  9. Agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Páger, Balázs; Komlósi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating...

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Woodchips Gasification Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Integrated gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analysed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which is utilized for feeding the SOFC stacks for electricity...... production. Unreacted hydrocarbons after SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. The domestic hot water is used as heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance of plant is designed...

  11. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electric......An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  14. Staged air biomass gasification. Operation experiences and process optimisation. Final report; Trinopdelt forgasning. Erfaringsindhentning og optimering. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.; Kyster, L.

    2011-05-15

    The project's aim was to optimize the drying plant for wood chips, and to accumulate operating experience from the entire facility through a half year of operation. Based on theoretical considerations the potential for improving the drying process was evaluated. Possibilities to take into the flue gas humidity as a control parameter was studied, but after a few simple measurements it was concluded that the most relevant change was to seal of the plant to minimize the risk of ingress of cold air into the fuel. After finding the cause of the leaking a new fuel inlet to the dryer has been constructed, and the original, leaky rotary valve has been replaced. Both changes have led to a significant improvement of the drying plant. Operational experience from plant operation showed with clarity that the energy loss from charcoal in the ashes was significantly higher than desirable. The volume meant that the handling and disposal of charcoal in itself constituted a major operational cost. At the end of the project, promising experiments with incorporation of an extra step in the gasification process were carried out. It seems to be an effective method to convert the remaining carbon matter to flammable gas and increase gas generator efficiency. Work on reducing charcoal production now continues in a new project. (ln)

  15. Study of technical, environmental and economic assessment of the process of waste gasification by plasma torch of PlascoEnergy Group - Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at assessing technical, environmental and economic performance of a technology developed by PlascoEnergy Group in its application to French household and similar wastes, at analysing PlascoEnergy project for their processing in a city of southern France, and at providing a global analysis of the appropriateness of plasma torch technologies to the gasification of these wastes, of other wastes to be defined, biomass and so on. After a presentation of the technology and a reference to a demonstrator project in Ottawa, the report presents the PlascoEnergy Company, the French installation and its differences with the demonstration project. Based on documents provided by PlascoEnergy, it reports an analysis of various critical points (waste preparation, gasification, waste introduction, waste movements in the oven, hot air recovery, gasification performance, syngas processing, engines, valorisation and removal of solid residues). Performance of the Ottawa plant are presented and commented. The use of the plasma torch technology in waste processing is described

  16. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  17. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  18. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  19. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  20. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  1. Pilot Scale Test to Treat High Concentration Gasification Wastewater Using Catalytic Oxidation and Aerobic Biological Fluid-Bed Combination Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Na; HUANG Jun-li; WANG Wei; ZHAO Jian-wei; WANG Cui-lin; CUI Chong-wei

    2008-01-01

    The gasitication wastewatet is a kind of typical ocgauic industrial wastewatet with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia uitrogen,which could not be completely degraded by the traditional physical,chimical and bidogical method.So it is very important to find an effective treatment process.A combination process of catalytic oxidation with noble metal catalysts and aerobic biological fluid-bed packed with the new uitrastructure biological carriers,which was devdoped by ourselves,was investigated to treat the gasification wastcwater.The pilot scale test with 0.5m3/h influent flow was carried out to investigate the performance of this new combination process.The results showed that the effluent COD was 84.02 mg/L,ananonia nitrogen was 14.15 mg/L,and total phenol was 0.20 mg/L,which could completely meet the Grade I of Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996),when the influent average COD was 5564 mg/L,anunonia nitrogen was 237 mg/L,and total phenol was 1100 mg/L.The two catalytic reactors could evidently improve the wastewater biodegradability,and the value of BOD5/COD(B/C) increased from 0.23 to 0.413 in the one-stage catalytic reactor and from 0.273 to 0.421 in two-stage catalytic reactor.The further experiment results showed that the effluent quality of this new combination progess could still meet the discharge standard,aromatic and heterocyclic compounds were degraded effectively in this combination process.

  2. Potential electrical energy generation in Brazil with biomass waste by gasification process; Potencial para geracao de energia eletrica no Brasil com residuos de biomassa atraves da gaseificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Rachel Martins

    2009-01-15

    The adoption of new technologies for generating electricity is based on technical, economic and environmental analysis. An important factor for choose the technology to be adopted is the raw material available for this purpose. Given the energy application below the potential of agricultural and urban solid waste, the growing demand for energy and the existence of environmental concerns, this thesis aims to emphasize the technology of gasification as an alternative for energy use of agricultural and urban solid waste. Thus, it describes the technology's state of the art, its maturity and improvement. Of great importance for understanding this process, it is needed to add the conclusions derived from experience in the gasification pilot plant at the University of Louvain la Neuve, Belgium. Considering the waste selected, the quantity available and the technology chosen, it is estimated the potential for electric energy that could be generated if the inputs were gasified. (author)

  3. Preliminary results on the ash behavior of peach stones during fluidized bed gasification: evaluation of fractionation and leaching as pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvelakis, S.; Koukios, E.G. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gehrmann, H. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik Institut GmbH, Claushal Zellerfeld (Germany); Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus Universitat Dept. of Process Engineering and Environment, Weimar (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Peach stones comprise a valuable agroindustrial by-product that is available in many countries of the World and especially in the Mediterranean region. A number of important advantages such as its high energy value, the low ash content in combination with the absence of transportation costs due to the fact that is produced in agro-industries, make peach stones an ideal fuel for energy production via gasification. Gasification tests were performed in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier in order to study the behavior of peach stones and especially its ash during the gasification process. Apart from the tests with the initial peach stone samples, gasification tests were performed using peach stones that had been pre-treated using two different methods fractionation and leaching. Pre-treatments used in order to study their effect on the beneficiation of the materials ash and on the avoidance of ash-related problems such as deposition, agglomeration and corrosion during the gasification process. A water-cooled steel tube placed vertical to the flow of the gasification gases was used in order to collect samples of ash deposits that were analyzed using SEM-EDX analysis techniques in order to assess the effect of the pre-treatment techniques on the peach stones ash behavior. The produced results showed that peach stones can be used as gasification feedstock without significant ash problems. Fractionation resulted in a deterioration of the ash behavior of the material, increasing the amounts of alkali metals and chlorine included in its ash, while leaching showed a positive effect but to a moderate extent. (author)

  4. Use of the available energy in the re-gasification process of liquefied natural gas by coupling combined heat and power cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgarbi, P.V.; Schmeda Lopez, D.R.; Indrusiak, M.L.S.; Schneider, P. Smith [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: guetuso@gmail.com, diego.schmeda@ufrgs.br, sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net, pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the possibilities of taking advantage of the heat transferred in the re-gasification process of liquid natural gas (LNG). It is proposed the coupling of a Brayton-Rankine combined heat and power plant (CHP) to a LNG re-gasification plant in order to use the heat involved in this process as cold source for the CHP plant. For comparison, the same CHP is simulated exchanging heat with a reference environment. An analysis is performed assuming that the amount of natural gas fed to the Brayton sub-cycle combustion chamber is equal for both cases. The CHP coupled to the re-gasification plant present a net power generation of 22.7 MW and the efficiency is 45.5%. It represents a gain of 2.98 MW in the power generation and 15% in the cycle efficiency, when compared to the reference cycle. The exergetic efficiency with this proposal is 49.3%, which is 9% higher than the reference cycle. (author)

  5. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  6. Modeling of biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Optimal conversion of chemical energy of the biomass or other solid fuel into the desired gas depends on proper configuration, sizing, and choice of gasifier operating conditions. Optimum operating conditions are often derived through trials on the unit or by experiments on pilot plants. Simulation, or mathematical modeling, allows the designer or plant engineer to reasonably optimize the operation or the design of the plant. The good mathematical model can: find optimum operating conditions or a design for the gasifier, provide information on extreme operating conditions (high temperature, high pressure) where experiments are difficult to perform, provide information over a much wider range of conditions than one can obtain experimentally, better interpret experimental results and analyze abnormal behavior of a gasifier, if that occurs, assist scale-up of the gasifier from one successfully operating size to another, and from one feedstock to another. The equilibrium model is independent of the gasifier design which can make them more suitable for a system study of the most important process parameters. The use of an equilibrium model assumes that the residence time of the reactants in the gasifier is high enough to reach chemical equilibrium. For established biomass ultimate analysis, temperature of gasification air and temperature of produced gas, combining the mass balance equations with the equations for the equilibrium constants and equation of energy balance, the equivalence ratio (ER) and composition of produced gas can be obtained. A mathematical model for investigation of the influence of temperature of the produced gas and temperature of gasification air on the process parameters was developed. It can be used for estimation and design of gasification equipment. key words: biomass gasification, mathematical modeling, equilibrium model

  7. Gasification of leached orujillo (olive oil waste) in a pilot plant circulating fluidised bed reactor. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly a quarter of the world's olive oil production takes place in Spain, where energy companies are starting to exploit the potential of the residues from this industry as biomass fuel for energy production. Approximately, 2 million t/yr of orujillo (a residual by-product of the olive oil production industry) are generated in Spain. Fluidised bed gasification is considered to be the most advanced method for thermochemical conversion of various biomass fuels to energy. Ash-related problems such as sintering, agglomeration, deposition, erosion and corrosion, which are due to the low melting point of ash in the agroresidues, are the main obstacles for economical and viable application of this conversion method for energy exploitation of the specific residues. The leaching (washing) of inorganic constituents from biomass leads to changes in inorganic composition and substantial improvements in ash thermal behaviour under gasification conditions. Leached orujillo has been tested in a 300 kWth atmospheric circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) gasification facility using air as a fluidisation agent. In this paper, the effect of experimental conditions on gasification process with the aim of enhancing the gas production and improving its composition and energetic content was analysed. The first tests have demonstrated that the CFB test rig operates adequately and makes it possible to carry out gasification experiments with orujillo as a fuel. The lower heating value of the producer gas obtained is 3.8 MJ/Nm3 at the lowest temperature (780 deg. C). The carbon conversion in orujillo gasification at the 800 deg. C set points was in the range of 81.0-86.9%. The increase in equivalence ratio did not improve carbon conversion significantly. The gas yield increases when equivalence ratio increases

  8. Effect of polymers on crystallo-co-agglomeration of ibuprofen-paracetamol: Factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar A; Paradkar A; Kadam S; Mahadik K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of concentration of polyethylene glycol and ethyl cellulose on the properties of agglomerates of ibuprofen-paracetamol obtained by crystallo-co-agglomeration technique. The process of crystallo-co-agglomeration involved recrystallization of ibuprofen and its simultaneous agglomeration with paracetamol in presence polymers. The effect of combination of polyethylene glycol and ethylcellulose was studied by 2 2 factorial design. Ibuprofen con...

  9. 环境友好的煤气化技术——壳牌煤气化%Environmentally-friendly Gasification Technology—Shell Coal Gasification Process ( SCGP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗飞; 唐凤金; 王光友; 陈巳樊

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the basic situation of SCGP unit, introduces the operating situation of the typical SCGP unit, and analyzes the ad-vantages of SCGP applied in large-sized coal gasification projects.Result indicates that:(1) The operating situation of the SCGP plant is favorable, and the typical plant's availability is generally above 300 days annually;(2) The SCGP unit meets the national industry policy and has satisfied environmen-tal protection indicators, and boasts the features of high energy efficiency, low coal consumption and water consumption, and good economic benefit;(3) The investment of SCGP unit can be reduced by equipment domesticization and material grade optimization, and SCGP will be applied further in the large-sized coal chemical projects during the 13th Five-year Plan of China.%简述了壳牌煤气化装置的基本情况,介绍了壳牌煤气化典型装置的运行状况,分析了壳牌煤气化技术在大型煤气化项目上的应用优势. 结果表明:① 壳牌煤气化装置的运行状况良好,典型装置全年总运行天数普遍在300 d以上;②壳牌煤气化装置具有良好的环保指标,高能效、低煤耗、低水耗以及良好的经济效益,符合国家产业政策;③壳牌煤气化装置已实现设备国产化,通过优化材料等级可降低装置投资,将在我国"十三五"期间的大型煤化工项目中得到更进一步的应用.

  10. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  11. Bio-gasification of post transesterified microalgae residues: A route to improving overall process renewabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2012-01-01

    Using results from experiments and process modelling tools, a renewability assessment was carried out for the use of the conventional and in-situ transesterification processes for a large scale microalgae biodiesel production. In a present day scenario, all the transesterification processes were shown to be non-renewable. The process renewability of biodiesel production from microalgae was found to significantly improve with the use of renewable electricity, reacting alcohols from biomass fer...

  12. Bio-gasification of post transesterified microalgae residues: A route to improving overall process renewabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    Using results from experiments and process modelling tools, a renewability assessment was carried out for the use of the conventional and in-situ transesterification processes for a large scale microalgae biodiesel production. In a present day scenario, all the transesterification processes were...... shown to be non-renewable. The process renewability of biodiesel production from microalgae was found to significantly improve with the use of renewable electricity, reacting alcohols from biomass fermentation and process heating and biomass drying using heat from wood pellet combustion or heat pump...

  13. Oil burner nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald G.

    1982-01-01

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  14. Effect of polymers on crystallo-co-agglomeration of ibuprofen-paracetamol: Factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of concentration of polyethylene glycol and ethyl cellulose on the properties of agglomerates of ibuprofen-paracetamol obtained by crystallo-co-agglomeration technique. The process of crystallo-co-agglomeration involved recrystallization of ibuprofen and its simultaneous agglomeration with paracetamol in presence polymers. The effect of combination of polyethylene glycol and ethylcellulose was studied by 2 2 factorial design. Ibuprofen content of the agglomerate increased with increase in ethyl cellulose while paracetamol content was decreased with increase in polyethylene glycol. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of agglomerates showed the unchanged endotherm for ibuprofen melting, whereas paracetamol endotherm was diffused with low enthalpy. The agglomerates were spherical but increase in polyethylene glycol caused its deformation. Agglomerates containing ethylcellulose with polyethylene glycol have higher resistance for fragmentation, modulus of elasticity but impart high tensile strength.

  15. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T. [NICERT, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI-DEECA, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, University of Saragossa, 50018 Saragossa (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  16. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  17. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of...... transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  18. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  19. Biomass Waste Gasification – Can Be the Two Stage Process Suitable for Tar Reduction and Power Generation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, J.; Štojdl, J.; Richter, M.; Popelka, J.; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, J.; Vacek, J.; Skoblia, S.; Buryan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 692-700. ISSN 0956-053X Grant ostatní: RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : waste biomass * gasification * tar Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.485, year: 2012

  20. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip; Chollacoop, Nuwong; Cheali, Peam

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as...... Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because there...

  1. Optical scattering on ferrofluid agglomerates

    OpenAIRE

    Bacri, J. -C.; Salin, D.

    1982-01-01

    Direct microscopic observation of a thin sample of ionic ferrofluid, in the presence of a magnetic field, shows the existence of a locally hexagonal lattice of agglomerates. We have observed the unusual pattern of the light scattered by this array.

  2. Nucleation of point defect agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory of the agglomeration of point defects into dislocation loops and voids is formulated. A critical comparison between theory and experiment is made for nickel and copper irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope

  3. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  4. Process optimisation in waste combustion and gasification; Prozessoptimierung bei der Verbrennung und Vergasung von Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg, Inst. IEC, Fakultaet 4 (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Optimisation of thermal treatment processes is chiefly geared to the following aims: in terms of process engineering, to the homogenisation of input materials, improvement of process effectivity (increased reaction rates), intensification of mixing and exploitation of residence time (approximation to thermodynamic equilibria); in ecological terms, to the minimisation of material flows and pollutant generation and limitation of emissions; and in economic terms to the simplification of process techniques, maximisation of net energy production, and minimisation of the quantity and pollutant content of arising wastes. The present contribution takes a closer look at some of these ways of optimisation. [Deutsch] Die Optimierung der thermischen Behandlungsprozesse wird vor allem mit folgenden Zielstellung durchgefuehrt: - verfahrenstechnisch durch - Homogenisierung der Input-Materialien, Verbesserung der Effektivitaet der Prozesse (Erhoehung der Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit), Intensivierung der Mischung und Nutzung der Verweilzeit (Annaeherung an thermodynamische Gleichgewichte). - Oekologisch durch - Minimierung der Stoffstroeme, Minimierung der Schadstoffentstehung, Begrenzung der Emissionen. - Oekonomisch durch - Vereinfachung der Verfahrenstechnik, Maximierung der Nettoenergieproduktion, Minimierung der Mengen und Schadstoffgehalte entstehender Abfaelle. In den folgenden Ausfuehrungen sollen einige dieser Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten naeher betrachtet werden. (orig./SR)

  5. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  7. Optimal agglomerations in dynamic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, William A.; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Athanasios. N. Yannacopoulos

    2012-01-01

    We study rational expectations equilibrium problems and social optimum problems in innite horizon spatial economies in the context of a Ramsey type capital accumulation problem with geographical spillovers. We identify sufficient local and global conditions for the emergence (or not) of optimal agglomeration, using techniques from monotone operator theory and spectral theory in innite dimensional Hilbert spaces. We show that agglomerations may emerge, with any type of returns to scale (increa...

  8. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  9. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs

  10. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  11. Biomass Gasification - Process analysis and dimensioning aspects for downdraft units and gas cleaning lines

    OpenAIRE

    Stoppiello, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In such territories where food production is mostly scattered in several small / medium size or even domestic farms, a lot of heterogeneous residues are produced yearly, since farmers usually carry out different activities in their properties. The amount and composition of farm residues, therefore, widely change during year, according to the single production process periodically achieved. Coupling high efficiency micro-cogeneration energy units with easy handling biomass conversion equipm...

  12. Performance Analysis of Rdf Gasification in a Two Stage Fluid Bed - Plasma Process

    OpenAIRE

    Materazzi, M.; Lettieri, P.; Taylor, R.; Chapman, C

    2015-01-01

    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which sep...

  13. Biomass thermal conversion : pelletisation of lignocelluloses and the effect on the gasification process

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Kyriakos Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural residues and energy crops constitute an important part of the energy chain although they are not being used extensively in the energy generation processes since they are associated with disadvantages such as low bulk and energy densities and handling problems. One solution is the pelletisation of these residues, which solves a great deal of these problems and enables the competition of biomass with other types of fuels. A large amount of work, concerning the combus...

  14. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  15. The Potentials for Integration of Black Liquor Gasification with Gas Fired Paper Drying Processes - A Study from the Energy Cost Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Kristian; Stenstroem, Stig [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-15

    To improve the process economics for gas fired paper drying processes, such as the air impingement dryer or the Yankee dryer, alternative gaseous fuels to replace natural gas and propane should be considered. This gaseous fuel should preferably be renewable and suitable to fire a gas turbine cycle for combined heat and power generation. One such fuel could be the product gas from black liquor gasification. In this work the possibilities for integration of the black liquor gasification process with the paper drying process were assessed based on overall energy costs for an integrated pulp and paper model mill, using computer modelling. The model mill included both the pulp and paper producing processes, and the paper mill included two paper machines; one conventional multicylinder dryer producing fine paper and one gas fired Yankee dryer producing tissue. Three different configurations of the combined heat and power plant were evaluated at a fixed pulp and paper production rate. The study was performed by computer modelling, using a modular simulation tool developed for energy use and cost analysis for the pulp and paper industry in the software entitled Extend. From this study it can be concluded that the product gas from black liquor gasification is a possible fuel to be used in gas fired paper drying processes, such as the Yankee dryer. The thermodynamic properties of the syngas from oxygen-blown, high-temperature gasifiers are very similar to those of natural gas and propane. In addition to being a renewable fuel, the use of syngas instead of fossil fuels would lead to reduced energy costs for the mill. In the case of installing a small gasification plant for production of enough syngas to replace the natural gas in the Yankee dryer hood the total energy costs would be reduced by approximately 10 MSEK/year. This would probably not be sufficient to justify the investment cost for the gasification process, insofar as the installation not simultaneously increases

  16. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  17. Low NO sub x regenerative burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovis, J.E.; Finke, H.P.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvements in a regenerative burner having a regenerative bed, a burner port and a fuel nozzle. The improvement comprises: a burner baffle having apertures therein for selectively directing combustion air and inducing combustion gas recirculation into a primary combustion zone for suppressing NO{sub x} emissions, the baffle and the fuel nozzle being positioned substantially adjacent the burner port and being substantially coplanar in a plane perpendicular to a burner axis.

  18. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  19. Enhancing the production of biomethane : A comparison between GoBiGas process and new process of combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Daheem

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there is a rapid growing interest in the use of biomethane for the transport sector. A new method of combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification is proposed.The feasibility study shows that more biomethane can be produced; resulting in an increase in the revenue compared to individual biogas plants. The GoBiGas project,which is initiated by Göteborg Energi, adopted another method based on gasification, water gas shift and methanation to enable biomethane production...

  20. Flat flame burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Y.; Mitsudomi, H.

    1976-03-09

    Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.'s new flat-flame burner has an air-swirling chamber with a flame opening in one side so constructed that combustion gas is forced out from the flame opening in a spiral direction by the swirling air current within the air chamber. The orifice effect of permitting the flame to emanate from a small opening to an unconfined outer space assures formation of a flat flame spreading out over a very wide area, thereby ensuring very rapid, uniform and highly efficient heat treatment of an article to be heated. With the present invention, moreover, it is possible to materially reduce the thickness of the overall device.

  1. A new process concept for highly efficient conversion of sewage sludge by combined fermentation and gasification and power generation in a hybrid system consisting of a SOFC and a gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A process concept for highly efficient conversion of sewage sludge is presented. • Fermentation waste is dried and converted in a gasifier with wood. • Synergetic effects are used by converting biogas and gasification gas in SOFC. • A hybrid system (SOFC + gas turbine) raises the el. efficiency from 34% to 53%. • Waste heat of the overall process can be used to dry the fermentation waste. - Abstract: Sewage sludge can be disposed of by fermentation, incineration or gasification. Conversion of the resulting biogas, combustion heat or gasification gas into electricity is often employed. Since sewage sludge cannot be fermented completely and due to the significant heat requirements for drying it in the incineration plant or before the gasifier, the electrical output in all cases is very low. Consequently, this work seeks to investigate a combination of fermentation and gasification in which dried fermentation waste is converted in a gasifier. With the aim of combining these two biomass conversion processes with power generation in an efficient manner, a hybrid system consisting of a SOFC and a gas turbine is investigated. This combination of a biogas plant and a gasifier has the advantage that waste heat can be used as a heat source in drying the fermentation waste. Another advantage is the combined conversion of biogas and gasification gas in the SOFC. As steam from gasification gas is used for internal reforming of methane out of biogas at the anode of the SOFC, the complexity of the plant is reduced and the efficiency is increased. A configuration including a pressurized gasification process was identified as most efficient in terms of electrical output

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  3. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  4. Control of optical active borates nanocrystals agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cieślik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purposes of this study explore the possibility of total control the agglomeration of nanoborates powders. The great potential of PDLCs can be enhanced by using dye-doped or nanoparticles-doped materials, such as borates [1]. It is important to know how to prepare nanoparticles in order to obtain a high level of dispersion in the composites. Otherwise, even small an agglomeration does not give a possibility on the appropriate characteristic of properties and interpretation of the results. The deagglomeration methods applied until now give the decrease of agglomeration to a lesser extent than our method. Characteristic size and shape of particles made with sol-gel process is difficult to perform. Design/methodology/approach: Nanopowders samples of YAB and LCBO were prepared with sol-gel method. Deagglomeration process was carried out using acetic acid. The morphology and size of nanopowders were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The crystallite sizes were determinated with IPS UA method. Findings: It was confirmed that the acetic acid influence on the decrease of agglomeration. It was also determined of conditions for preparation borates nanopowders samples (concentration acetic acind time and temperature of drying prepared samples. We have proved that a reagent used for deagglomeration process does not affect the structure of the investigated nanoborates used in an experimental. Research limitations/implications: The results can be used to the prepared of nanocompades of borates to observe a morphology and reliable assessment of nanocrystalline size. Originality/value: Our study shows how to prepare a sample of particles to observe morphology and measure the size of nanograins. In our study we found excellent solution, the medium, which not influence the inorganic nanomaterial structure. Result seems to be excellent and very perspective. We have showed as that measurement type influence the results of particles size.

  5. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  6. Environmental and technical aspects of the utilization of SRC, AFBC, and low-Btu coal gasification in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.A.; Brown, C.D.; Hamilton, R.W.; Habegger, L.J.

    1978-10-01

    The decreasing availability of oil and natural gas has stimulated the search for industrial coal-utilization methods that are alternatives to conventional coal combustion. Three such alternative methods discussed in this report are solvent refined coal (SRC-I), atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), and low-Btu coal gasification. Clean low-Btu gas and SRC may have several nonboiler industrial applications. In contrast to conventional coal combustion, use of these fuels has the potential for reduced environmental impact at the industrial plant site, although the impact of coal mining and transportation will be higher. The impact of coal gasification and liquefaction on occupational health and safety will cause the greatest concern.

  7. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  8. Process simulation and thermodynamic analysis of an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) plant with an entrained coal gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) is a widely used electrical power generation system that allows for a variety of feedstocks with high efficiencies. In this study, a 300 MW class IGCC plant was simulated using the PRO/II software package, and thermodynamic analysis was performed. The simulated results were compared to the basic design data for a 300 MW Class IGCC demonstration plant to evaluate the validity. Since changing the feed coal grade causes one of the most significant issues in operating an IGCC system, this study investigated the coal sensitivity of the system by examining two different grade coals (Coal #1: 25,439 kJ/kg and Coal #2:21,338 kJ/kg). Their net powers were determined via thermodynamic analysis and by evaluating the power generation and power consumption and were found to be 324.4 MW and 279.1 MW for Coal #1 and Coal #2. Based on the inlet coal energy, the overall efficiencies under the same conditions were found to be 40.38% for Coal #1 and 41.42% for Coal #2. This paper presents Sankey diagrams for the energy and exergy flow associated with the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and discusses how they influence the major components of the IGCC. As a final point, in order to elucidate the preferable coal in terms of financial sense, economic analysis was carried out on the viability of the cases considered. The costs of electricity for Coal #1 and Coal #2 were evaluated as 0.07 US$/kWh and 0.08 US$/kWh. Hence, Coal #1 can confidently be chosen as a more economic option even though, it costs relatively higher than the other Coal #2. - Highlights: • Process modeling and simulation for IGCC was carried out using PRO/II. • The simulation methodology and result were validated using commercial design data. • Coal sensitivity analysis was performed with two different grade coals. • Power consumption, net power and thermal efficiencies were evaluated for two coals. • Sankey diagram was presented for energy and exergy

  9. Modelling of Underground Coal Gasification Process Using CFD Methods / Modelowanie Procesu Podziemnego Zgazowania Węgla Kamiennego Z Zastosowaniem Metod CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowicz, Jan; Łączny, Jacek Marian; Iwaszenko, Sebastian; Janoszek, Tomasz; Cempa-Balewicz, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The results of model studies involving numerical simulation of underground coal gasification process are presented. For the purpose of the study, the software of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was selected for simulation of underground coal gasification. Based on the review of the literature, it was decided that ANSYS-Fluent will be used as software for the performance of model studies. The ANSYS- -Fluent software was used for numerical calculations in order to identify the distribution of changes in the concentration of syngas components as a function of duration of coal gasification process. The nature of the calculations was predictive. A geometric model has been developed based on construction data of the georeactor used during the researches in Experimental Mine "Barbara" and Coal Mine "Wieczorek" and it was prepared by generating a numerical grid. Data concerning the georeactor power supply method and the parameters maintained during the process used to define the numerical model. Some part of data was supplemented based on the literature sources. The main assumption was to base the simulation of the georeactor operation on a mathematical models describing reactive fluid flow. Components of the process gas and the gasification agent move along the gasification channel and simulate physicochemical phenomena associated with the transfer of mass and energy as well as chemical reactions (together with the energy effect). Chemical reactions of the gasification process are based on a kinetic equation which determines the course of a particular type of equation of chemical coal gasification. The interaction of gas with the surrounding coal layer has also been described as a part of the model. The description concerned the transport of thermal energy. The coal seam and the mass rock are treated as a homogeneous body. Modelling studies assumed the coal gasification process is carried out with the participation of separately oxygen and air as a gasification agent

  10. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process, and the...... design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  11. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  12. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  13. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  14. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 oC [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA, located in Alto Alentejo, in the city of de Vale do Peso

  15. Analysis on the Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Financial Agglomeration with Markov Chain Approach in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard approach to studying financial industrial agglomeration is to construct measures of the degree of agglomeration within financial industry. But such measures often fail to exploit the convergence or divergence of financial agglomeration. In this paper, we apply Markov chain approach to diagnose the convergence of financial agglomeration in China based on the location quotient coefficients across the provincial regions over 1993–2011. The estimation of Markov transition probability matrix offers more detailed insights into the mechanics of financial agglomeration evolution process in China during the research period. The results show that the spatial evolution of financial agglomeration changes faster in the period of 2003–2011 than that in the period of 1993–2002. Furthermore, there exists a very uneven financial development patterns, but there is regional convergence for financial agglomeration in China.

  16. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  17. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  18. Poly-generation process for gasification of dairy manure with fixed beds%牛粪固定床气化多联产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦恒飞; 周建斌; 王筠祥; 张齐生

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse effect and environmental pollution caused by natural fermentation of cow dung and also to reduce the cost and increase benefits of the dairy farming, the dairy manure was gasified using homemade fixed bed SGL gasifier. The dairy manure gasification can get three products, such as flammable gas, dairy manure carbon and pyrolysis extract liquid. These three products were recycled to achieve the goals of emission reduction and pollution control. The influences of water content, gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were studied, and the results showed that the optimal gasification parameters were raw material 12%~18%, gasification temperature 850~ 900°C and equivalence ratio 0.25~0.30. When dairy manure moisture was 17.78%, gasification temperature was 850°C and equivalence ratio was 0.30, the yield of gas was 1.42 m3/kg' the inferior calorific value was 2.84 MJ/m3, the yield of dairy manure carbon was 23.82% and the yield of pyrolysis extract liquid was 24.17%. Dairy manure gasification of poly-generation process experiment can provide a theoretical basis for engineering implementation.%为了减少畜禽粪便自然发酵造成的温室效应和环境污染,降低养殖奶牛的成本和增加养殖奶牛的效益,该文利用自制的固、气、液(Solid,gas,liquid)多联产固定床气化炉将牛粪气化,气化可得到固体牛粪炭、可燃气、提取液三相产品,三相产品均可以资源化利用,从而达到减排、减污的目标.考察了含水率、气化温度及气化剂的当量比对气化效果的影响.结果表明:原料含水率控制在12%~18%,气化温度为850~900℃,当量比在0.25~0.30时,气化效果较好,牛粪含水率为17.78%,气化温度为850℃,当量比为0.30时,气体产率为1.42 m3·kg-1,可燃气体的低位热值为2.84MJm-3,牛粪炭得率为23.82%,提取液得率是24.17%.牛粪气化多联产工艺试验为工程化实施提了基础和基本数据.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  20. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  1. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  2. Comparative study of gasification of wood of coffee and coal plant fruit for dehydration; Estudo comparativo da gaseificacao da lenha de cafe e do carvao vegetal para desidratacao de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], Emails: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Renewable energy sources, in particular the biomass, has been gaining more space in the national and global energy matrix, mainly by reducing dependence on fossil fuels and being ecologically correct. The gasification is a process that has been viable and more efficient than conventional ovens and burners. In this context, this work is justified and has its importance in studying various kinds of biomasses used as raw material for production of heated air through the gasification. The objective of this research is to conduct a comparative study of the gasification of the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal, with heating air purpose for dehydration of fruit. The temperature of the drying air was kept in approximately 70 deg C, through the control of air entrance in the mixer. It was concluded that both the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal have potential as a fuel for gasification, with purpose of fruits dehydration. However it is recommended the use of the vegetal coal as the fuel to supply hot and clean air for food drying processes. (author)

  3. Syngas yield during pyrolysis and steam gasification of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main characteristics of gaseous yield from steam gasification have been investigated experimentally. Results of steam gasification have been compared to that of pyrolysis. The temperature range investigated were 600-1000 °C in steps of 100 °C. Results have been obtained under pyrolysis conditions at same temperatures. For steam gasification runs, steam flow rate was kept constant at 8.0 g/min. Investigated characteristics were evolution of syngas flow rate with time, hydrogen flow rate and chemical composition of syngas, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency. Residuals from both processes were quantified and compared as well. Material destruction, hydrogen yield and energy yield is better with gasification as compared to pyrolysis. This advantage of the gasification process is attributed mainly to char gasification process. Char gasification is found to be more sensitive to the reactor temperature than pyrolysis. Pyrolysis can start at low temperatures of 400 °C; however char gasification starts at 700 °C. A partial overlap between gasification and pyrolysis exists and is presented here. This partial overlap increases with increase in temperature. As an example, at reactor temperature 800 °C this overlap represents around 27% of the char gasification process and almost 95% at reactor temperature 1000 °C.

  4. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  5. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  6. HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION OF MINERAL FINES IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS AND ITS APPLICATION IN FLOTATION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    BINGQIAO YANG; SHAOXIAN SONG

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shea...

  7. Design and construction of an air inductor burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents research results performed with the purpose of obtain design parameters, construction, and air inductor burner operation, which are used in industrial combustion systems, in several processes such as: metal fusion (fusion furnaces), fluids heating (immerse heating tubes), steam production (steam boiler), drying processes, etc. In order to achieve such objectives, a prototype with thermal power modulation from 6 to 52 kW, was built to be either operated with natural gas or with LPG. The burner was built taking in mind the know how (design procedure) developed according to theoretical schemes of different bibliographic references and knowledge of the research group in gas science and technology of the University of Antioquia. However, with such procedure only the burner mixer is dimensioned and five parameters must to be selected by the designer: burner thermal power, primary aeration ratio, counter pressure at combustion chamber, air pressure admission and gas fuel intended to use. For head design we took in mind research done before by the group of science and technology in gas research: Mono port and bar burner heads with their respective stabilization flame systems

  8. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  9. Regenerative ceramic burner has highest efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative ceramic burners consisting of a double gas/air burner and utilising waste heat which is stored via regenerators are described. The system is capable of operating at 1400/sup 0/C, it removes about 85-90% of energy from hot waste gases and exhibits energy savings of 40-60% over cold nozzle mix burners and 20-25% over recuperative burners. (UK).

  10. Centralized coke gasification study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Plessis, Duke [Alberta Innovates (Canada); Pietrusik, Debbie [Alberta Finance and Enterprise (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    By the year 2020 Alberta will produce 3 million barrels of bitumen per day. Refining bitumen yields several by-products such as petroleum coke and off-gasses. These products can be further utilized as a low cost feedstock for additional applications to increase revenue. Alberta currently has the largest amount of coke stockpiled in the world. The presentation explores what is the most profitable way to use this coke and what future technologies would improve the economic and environmental impact of the process. The development of methane and hydrogen becomes competitive at intermediate gas and oil prices. The next generation of gasification technologies is going to be cheaper, efficient and much smaller. Pilot projects have shown positive results. Economies of scale can be reached simply by only 20-30% of annual coke production. The high cost of the current technology is creating the biggest challenge but new technologies and process innovations have the potential to drive down cost.

  11. Solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  12. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  13. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  14. Crystallo-co-agglomeration: A novel particle engineering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradkar Anant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA is a novel particle engineering/design technique developed by Kadam et al, to overcome the limitations of spherical crystallization (SC. Basically, it′s single step process used for size enlargement of single, two or more, small dose or large dose drugs, in combination with or without diluent. The process of CCA involves simultaneous crystallization and agglomeration of drug/s with/without excipients/s from good solvent and/or bridging liquid by addition of a non-solvent. Till date CCA has been applied for spherical agglomeration of talc, bromhexine hydrochloride-talc, ibuprofen-talc, ibuprofen-paracetamol, and naproxen-starch. The spherical agglomerates obtained by CCA can be used as intact beads (encapsulated spansules or directly compressible tablet intermediates having satisfactory micromeritic (flowability, mechanical (friability, crushing, compressional (compressibility, compactibility, and drug release properties. Modified drug release from agglomerates and compacts thereof can be achieved using suitable polymer composition in the process design. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCA is a simple and cost effective process, which can be tailor-made for particle design of all majority of drugs and combinations thereof.

  15. Agglomeration and networks in spatial economies

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Börje; Quigley, John M.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the parallel developments in the economics of agglomeration and the economics of networks. We explore the complementarities between the productivity benefits of agglomeration and those of network linkages, arguing that networks of actors dispersed over space may substitute for agglomerations of actors at a single point.

  16. Agglomeration effects : studying agglomeration e ffects from Norwegian hydroelectricity plants

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Marius; Risa, Erling

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to answer the research question \\To what extent did the shocks to eco- nomic activity and population following openings of Norwegian hydroelectricity plants in the early 20th century lead to long run agglomeration eff ects?". The question is answered using data on population density and taxable income in 67 Norwegian municipalities in the period between 1876 and 2013. We utilize the fact that hydroelectricity plants opened before transportation of electricity o...

  17. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilized soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Project has started 1995 by determination of fertilized areas in Finland, Portugal and Spain. According to the results obtained from the analysis proper amount of pine and eucalyptus samples were selected for combustion and gasification tests. After that atmospheric and pressurized combustion and gasifications tests, including few series of gas clean up tests, have been performed by INETI and VTT. The 1 MW-scale long term test, were conducted by CIEMAT. The results are indicating that fertilization increases the potassium content in trees up to 50% or more depending upon the climate and conditions in soil. Alkali release seems to be an inverse function of the pressure indicating that the highest alkali release take place under atmospheric conditions corresponding to 111 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is over 25 wt.-% of total potassium in pine and 214 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is 32 wt.-% of total potassium in eucalyptus as received in the 1 MW ABFBC-tests. The potassium release is higher than allowed for the gas turbine process. Therefore the flue gas need to be cleaned up before it enters the gas turbine. For alkali removal at the operation conditions in oxidizing environment, the sorbent technology looks promising. According to the gasification tests the alkali release seems to be somewhat lower. Using for example filter system such as ceramic cancel filter the alkali emissions can be kept below requirements for gas turbine process using temperatures between 460-480 deg C. The research conducted here shows that fertilized biomass accumulate nutrients such potassium more than the non fertilized biomasses. Also the soil conditions has an effect to that. Due to the fact that alkalies in biomass are bonded differently than that of coal, the release is also higher. It could be shown that in combined gas turbine process the release of potassium is too high and need to be removed from the flue gas. It could also be shown that alkalies can be captured between 95-100 % at high temperature

  18. The soundscape dynamics of human agglomeration

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S; Evangelista, L R

    2011-01-01

    We report a statistical analysis about people agglomeration soundscape. Specifically, we investigate the normalized sound amplitudes and intensities that emerge from people collective meetings. Our findings support the existence of nontrivial dynamics characterized by heavy tail distributions in the sound amplitudes, long-range correlations in the sound intensity and non-exponential distributions in the return interval distributions. Additionally, motivated by the time-dependent behavior present in the volatility/variance series, we compare the observational data with those obtained from a minimalist autoregressive stochastic model, a GARCH process, finding a good agreement.

  19. Insights into methane hydrate formation, agglomeration, and dissociation in water + diesel oil dispersed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrate agglomeration occurs at initial hydrate formation or under shutting down stages. • The agglomeration of hydrate is inhibited and dispersed with the action of anti-agglomerants. • The appearance of surface water may cause the agglomeration of hydrate during hydrate dissociation. • A mechanism was proposed to describe hydrate dissociation from water in oil dispersed system. - Abstract: Methane hydrate formation and dissociation in (5 vol% water + 95 vol% diesel oil) dispersed system containing a combined anti-agglomerant were experimentally studied using a high pressure autoclave installed with particle video microscope and focused beam reflectance measurement probes. The agglomeration of hydrate was found to occur at the initial hydrate formation stage. With the continuous formation of hydrate, the agglomeration of hydrate will be inhibited and hydrate was dispersed with the action of the anti-agglomerant. The agglomeration of hydrate also occurs when the hydrate containing fluid is under static state for a certain time. Larger hydrate particles attached by gas bubble with grape-like shape were found during hydrate dissociation. The dissociated surface water would contact with un-dissociated hydrate and accumulate to larger water/hydrate particles may be the reason that causes the agglomeration during initial hydrate dissociation process. A mechanism was proposed to describe hydrate dissociation from water in oil dispersed system

  20. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications. PMID:24032692

  1. STUDY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROCESS FROM SLUDGE COAL SLURRY GASIFICATION%污泥煤浆气化制氢工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志刚; 亢万忠

    2012-01-01

    Both the method and the process flows for producing hydrogen through the gasification of sludge coal slurry made of excess activated sludge from sewage treatment plant and coal are introduced and the economy and reliability thereof analyzed. It has been found from the study that the effective gas at the outlet of sludge coal slurry gasifier amounts to approximately up to 80% ,the cold gas eiticiency is 12% and me syngas yield is 86%.The energy consumption in hydrogen production by sludge coal slurry gasification is 20.5 GJ/1 000 m3 H2.With each 5% increase of sludge addition, the energy consumption per unit hydrogen-making increases about 1.5%.For the hydrogen production by sludge coal slurry gasification,the cost of main raw materials is about RMB¥920.00/1 000 m3 H2 and with the increase of sludge addition, the cost decreases.Hydrogen-making by taking sludge may treat the wastes difficult to deal with in some other process and thus have good economic and environmental benefits.%介绍污水处理厂剩余污泥与煤制成污泥煤浆进行气化制氢的方法和流程,分析其经济性和可靠性。研究发现,污泥煤浆气化出口合成气有效气约为80%,冷煤气效率约为72%,合成气产出率约为86%。污泥煤浆制氢能耗约为20.5GJ/1000m3H2,污泥添加量每增加5%,单位制氢能耗增加1.5%。采用污泥煤浆制氢,主要原料成本约920元/1000m3H2,且随着污泥添加量的增加,制氢成本下降。采用污泥制氢能处理到非常难于处理的废弃物,具有很好的经济效益和环境效益。

  2. Multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in fuel cell systems; Mehrstofffaehige Brenner auf Basis der Porenbrennertechnik fuer den Einsatz in Brennstoffzellensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.

    2006-07-01

    The present doctoral thesis describes the development of multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in hydrocarbon driven fuel cell systems. One objective of such burners is the heating of the fuel cell system to the operating temperature at the cold start. In stationary operation the burner has to postcombust the waste gases from the fuel cell and the gas processing system in order to reduce the pollutant emissions. As the produced heat is required for endothermal processes like the steam reforming the burner has a significant influence on the system's efficiency. The performed investigations are targeting on a gasoline driven PEMFC-System with steam reforming. In such systems the burner has to be capable to combust the system's fuel gasoline at the cold start, a low calorific fuel cell offgas (HU = 6,4 MJ/kg) in stationary operation and a hydrogen rich gas in the case of an emergency shut down. Pre-tests revealed that in state of the art porous burners the flame front of hydrogen/air combustion can only be stabilized at very high excess air ratios. In basic investigations concerning the stabilization of flame fronts in porous media the dominant influence parameters were determined. Based on this findings a new flame trap was developed which increases the operational range with hydrogen rich mixtures significantly. Furthermore the burning velocity at stationary combustion in porous media was investigated. The dependency of the porous burning velocity on the excess air ratio for different hydrocarbons and hydrogen as well as for mixtures of both was determined. The results of these basic investigations were applied for the design of a multifuel burner. In order to achieve an evaporation of the gasoline without the use of additional energy, an internal heat exchanger section for heating the combustion air was integrated into the burner. Additionally different experimental and numerical methods were applied for designing the

  3. Impact of agglomeration on the regional growth of Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero, Grace Carolina Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical approaches have been developed to examine the effect of agglomeration on growth. However, the understanding of the mechanisms of agglomeration in developing countries remains unaddressed. This paper aims to give empirical evidence of the role of agglomeration on the growth of Latin American regions. The study of the subcontinent is crucial because of the evidence of a rapid pace of urbanization process. Using a database with information of 162 regions of 8 Latin American countries...

  4. Do urban social enterprises benefit from agglomeration? Evidence from four UK cities

    OpenAIRE

    Pinch, Steven; Sunley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pinch S. and Sunley P. Do urban social enterprises benefit from agglomeration? Evidence from four UK cities, Regional Studies. This paper examines the relevance of clustering theory for an understanding of the location of social enterprises (SEs). This is accomplished through an analysis of the extent to which managers of SEs in four major UK cities perceive themselves to benefit from agglomeration effects. The paper concentrates on two broad sets of agglomeration processes: the first is Mars...

  5. Steam gasification of carbon: Catalyst properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, J.L.

    1991-09-16

    This research uses several techniques to measure the concentration of catalyst sites and determine their stoichiometry for the catalyzed gasification of carbon. Both alkali and alkaline earth oxides are effective catalysts for accelerating the gasification rate of coal chars, but only a fraction of the catalyst appears to be in a form that is effective for gasification, and the composition of that catalyst is not established. Transient techniques, with {sup 13}C labeling, are being used to study the surface processes, to measure the concentration of active sites, and to determine the specific reaction rates. We have used secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for both high surface area samples of carbon/alkali carbonate mixtures and for model carbon surfaces with deposited alkali atoms. SIMS provides a direct measure of surface combination of these results can provide knowledge of catalyst dispersion and composition, and thus indicate the way to optimally utilize carbon gasification catalysts.

  6. Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Baldwin; Paul Krugman

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers tax competition and tax harmonization in the presence of agglomeration forces and falling trade costs. With agglomerative forces operating, industry is not indifferent to location in equilibrium, so perfectly mobile capital becomes a quasi-fixed factor. This suggests that the tax game is something subtler than a race to the bottom. Advanced 'core' nations may act like limit-pricing monopolists toward less advanced 'periphery' countries. Consequently, integration need not ...

  7. Tar removal from biosyngas in the biomass gasification process. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium {water + solvent (paraxylene and methyl hexadecanoate) + model molecules of tar (benzene, toluene, phenol)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibria at atmospheric pressure. ► Solubility of benzene (or toluene or phenol) in paraxylene at (303 to 343) K. ► Solubility of benzene (or toluene or phenol) in methyl palmitate or methyl hexadecanoate at (303 to 343) K. ► Correlation of LLE using NRTL model. - Abstract: Tar is generated in the process by the condensation of the gas resulting from biomass gasification. The objective of this work is a contribution to the database on thermodynamic quantity which will be useful at the operation of tar removal from aqueous medium. With this aim, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {water + solvent (paraxylene and methyl hexadecanoate) + model molecules of tar (benzene, toluene, phenol)} was studied at temperatures (303.2, 323.2, and 343.2) K. The data obtained were correlated with the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model.

  8. Study on Semi-Gasification Combustion Technology of Stover

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qing-Ling; Chen Fu-Jin; Wang Yang-Yang; Zhang Bai-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a mechanism of clean and efficient combustion, this study studied the combustion mechanism of stover semi-gasification by a clean stove designed. The experimental material was corn Stover briquettes. Process of semi-gasification combustion can be divided into two parts: gasification stage and combustion stage. First, under the low primary air amount, stover gives off partly combustible gas (Volatile matter). Then, the combustible gas rises and burns in the upper Furnace wh...

  9. Clean Coal and Gasification Technology: How it Works?

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sidorová; Gabriel Wittenberger

    2006-01-01

    Gasification of coal is the oldest method for the production of hydrogen. Coal gasification is a process that converts coal from a solid to a gaseous state. The gas that is created is very similar to natural gas and can be used to produce chemicals, fertilizers, and/or the electric power [1]. Cleanest of all coal-based electric power technologies, gasification has significantly lower levels of air emissions (including volatile mercury), solid wastes, and wastewater.Due to its high efficiencie...

  10. Basic equations of channel model for underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The underground coal gasification has advantages of zero rubbish, nonpollution, low cost and high safety. According to the characteristics of the gasification, the channel model of chemical fluid mechanics is used to set up the fluid equations and chemical equations by some reasonable suppositions in this paper, which lays a theoretical foundation on requirements of fluid movement rules in the process of underground coal gasification.

  11. Optimal Design of Heating Process for Heating Furnace of Regenerative Burners%蓄热式烧嘴加热炉加热过程的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锦铭

    2011-01-01

    介绍了蓄热式烧嘴在加热炉的应用过程中出现在钢坯长度方向上的温差问题,针对该温差问题在后续工作中对于加热炉加热过程做出了合理的调整和优化,达到了解决问题的目的,取得了良好的经济效益.%This paper introduces the temperature difference problem on the length of the billet in the reheating furnace of regenerative burner and for this, it carries out reasonable adjustment and design optimization in the heating process, so that the purpose of solving the problem is achieved and good economic benefit is obtained.

  12. Influences of seed size and number on agglomeration in synthetic Bayer liquors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; ZHOU Ke-chao; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2006-01-01

    By means of Malvern laser particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy, the influences of seed size and number on agglomeration in Bayer process were investigated. Agglomeration is almost finished in 8 h,seeds, below 5 μm, especially below 2 μm, gather together rapidly and almost disappear in 8 h. In the same supersaturation of aluminate solution and seed size, the smaller the number of seed is, the bigger the degree of agglomeration is. With the same primary number of seed, the agglomeration of larger seed is superior to that of small seed,and the agglomeration does not happen among the coarse seeds. The agglomeration mainly happens among fine particles, and the combinations among the fine particles are unconsolidated.

  13. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

  14. Characteristics of cardboard and paper gasification with CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolutionary behavior of syngas chemical composition and yield have been examined for paper and cardboard at three different temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C using CO2 as the gasifying agent at constant flow rate. Specifically the evolution of syngas chemical composition with time has been investigated. Pyrolysis of the sample was dominant at the beginning of the gasification process as observed from the high initial devolatilization of the sample followed by char gasification of material to form syngas for a long period of time. Results provided the role of gasification temperature on kinetics of the CO2 gasification process. Increase in gasification temperature provided increased conversion of the sample material to syngas. Thus the sample conversion to syngas was low at the low temperature of 800 °C while at elevated temperatures of 900 and 1000 °C substantial enhancement of the kinetics process occurred. The evolution of extensive reaction rate of carbon-monoxide was calculated. Results show that increase in temperature increased the extensive reaction rate of carbon-monoxide. The global behavior of syngas chemical composition examined at three different temperatures revealed a peak in concentration of H2 to exhibit after few minutes into the gasification that changed with gasification temperature. At 800 °C gasification temperature peak in H2 was displayed at 3 min into gasification while it decreased to only 2 min, approximately, at gasification temperatures of 900 and 1000 °C. The effect of reactor temperature on CO mole fraction has also been examined. Increase in the gasification temperature enhances the mole fraction of CO yields. This is attributed to the increase in forward reaction rate of the Boudouard reaction (C+CO2↔2CO). The results show important role of CO2 gas for the gasification of wastes and low grade fuels to clean syngas.

  15. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass: A Literature and Technology Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.; Harinck, J.; Smit, K.G.; De Jong, W.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification process is an alternative to both conventional gasification as well as anaerobic digestion as it does not require drying and the process takes place at much shorter residence times; a few minutes at most. The drastic changes in the thermo-physical properties of w

  16. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  17. Experimental studies of the gravitational agglomeration of aerosols. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of gravitational agglomeration as an aerosol depletion process in a small containment vessel. The resulting data will aid in the development of computer codes that describe aerosol transport processes following severe reactor accidents. (author)

  18. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. CFD Analysis of Coal and Heavy Oil Gasification for Syngas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the gasification of coal and heavy oil for syngas production using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Gasification which includes complex physical and chemical processes such as turbulence, multiphase flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions has been modeled using a...... phases. Gasification consists of the processes of passive heating, devolatilization, volatiles oxidation, char gasification and gas phase reactions. Attention is given here to the chemical kinetics of the gasification processes. The coal gasification model has been validated for entrained-flow gasifiers...... carbon iv dioxide is overestimated. The deviation is fairly small, particularly for the improved chemical kinetics scheme. The heavy oil gasification model has been validated for a pilot-scale entrained-flow gasifier operating under different oxygen ratios. A gasification model similar to that developed...

  20. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  1. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

    2001-11-06

    coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the

  2. Theranostic potential of gold nanoparticle-protein agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpui, Pallab; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the ever-increasing applications, glittered with astonishing success of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in biomedical research as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, the study of Au NP-protein interaction seems critical for maximizing their theranostic efficiency, and thus demands comprehensive understanding. The mutual interaction of Au NPs and proteins at physiological conditions may result in the aggregation of protein, which can ultimately lead to the formation of Au NP-protein agglomerates. In the present article, we try to appreciate the plausible steps involved in the Au NP-induced aggregation of proteins and also the importance of the proteins' three-dimensional structures in the process. The Au NP-protein agglomerates can potentially be exploited for efficient loading and subsequent release of various therapeutically important molecules, including anticancer drugs, with the unique opportunity of incorporating hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drugs in the same nanocarrier system. Moreover, the Au NP-protein agglomerates can act as `self-diagnostic' systems, allowing investigation of the conformational state of the associated protein(s) as well as the protein-protein or protein-Au NP interaction within the agglomerates. Furthermore, the potential of these Au NP-protein agglomerates as a novel platform for multifunctional theranostic application along with exciting future-possibilities is highlighted here.

  3. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  4. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge. • We evaluate the temperature range for different process. • Product gas compositions during gasification at different temperature ranges. • Appropriate temperature range assessed for gasification with efficient carbon conversion. • Kinetic constant estimation using Friedman and Coats and Redfern method. - Abstract: The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification

  5. Gasification - R and D opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is based on how gasification is viewed by industrial gas companies. It began with a assessment of the technology risk profile for gasification pointing out on the negative side: its high capital cost, low reliability, high start up costs are offset on the positive side by high flexibility in feed-stocks and relatively low CO2 capture costs. Comparing this with potential customer risk profiles the key development areas from an industrial gas perspective were identified as being process optimization around feedstocks and improving operability, and lowering costs in oxygen production, for which was described a potential Air Products breakthrough, the development of their ITM technology for oxygen production, which could reduce oxygen plant costs by more than 30%

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  7. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  8. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-05-01

    The investigation of basic mechanisms which underlie various processes for cleaning coal by selective agglomeration with oil was continued. Further measurements were made of the heat of wetting or immersion of various types of coal and graphite. The heat of immersion is an indicator of hydrophobicity which appears to correlate with other indicators such as induction time. The heat of immersion of Upper Freeport coal was increased greatly by heating the material in air at 150{degree}C for 7 days. The increase appeared due to a combination of surface oxidation and other factors such as an increase in the heats of rehydration and swelling. Leaching Upper Freeport coal with boiling hydrochloric acid increased the heat of immersion at low pH. Further consideration was given to potential pyrite depressants and quebracho was selected for evaluation. The degree of suppression was observed to depend on the nature of the solids and the amount of agglomerant (heptane) as well as the concentration of quebracho. 12 figs.

  9. Agglomeration and the product mix

    OpenAIRE

    Dalvai, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide trade flows are dominated by high-productivity firms, that have a large range of products. Since the product range of firms reflects partly trade flows, it is a source of economic differences in space. In this paper, I analyze the effects of the product mix of firms on agglomeration. I build a theoretical model of multiproduct firms à la Mayer, Melitz, and Ottaviano (2014, AER), expand it with skilled, mobile workers and a spatial equilibrium. I show that a larger product mix of fir...

  10. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn(v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Znv, that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  11. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas was...... rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam...... generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system...

  12. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  14. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  15. Regenerative burner generates more savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinden, D.

    The latest developments in high-efficiency gas-fired burners are traced, and the transfer of the new technology from laboratory to industry is outlined. The system described depends on the ceramic regenerator reducing the flue gas temperature so that conventional cold air fans can be used and on a packing of alumina balls to recover 90% of the available heat in waste gases.

  16. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two pote

  17. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluidized Bed Gasification of Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmina Begum; Mohammad G. Rasul; Delwar Akbar; David Cork

    2013-01-01

    Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbon-based products such as biomass and coal into a gas mixture known as synthetic gas or syngas. Various types of gasification methods exist, and fluidized bed gasification is one of them which is considered more efficient than others as fuel is fluidized in oxygen, steam or air. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of fluidized bed gasification of solid waste (SW) (wood). The experimental measurement of syngas...

  18. Human Capital, Talent, Agglomeration and Regional Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Charlie; Johansson, Börje; Stough, Roger R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an introductory overview highlighting some of the current knowledge as regards three critical questions related to the emerging knowledge economy: i) Why does human capital and talent tend to agglomerate in large urban regions?, ii) How does this agglomeration affect the location of different types of economic activities?, and iii) How does this agglomeration affect regional growth? There are different underlying agglomerative forces creating spatially concentrated increasing re...

  19. Industrial Scope of Agglomeration Economies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi; Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp

    2015-01-01

    The tendency towards urbanization in the emerging world accompanied by the constant pursuit for higher productivity prompts an urge for studies aiming at understanding agglomeration economies. In the context of Brazil, a country with extremely high regional disparities, exploring this issue is important not only for private stakeholders, but also for public policy practitioners. In the framework of static agglomeration effects, we investigate the industrial scope of agglomeration economies in...

  20. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  1. VTT Energy`s new gasification and pyrolysis technology programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    The publicly funded gasification and pyrolysis research activities of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) have been integrated into three-year programme, known as PROGAS, to promote Finnish gasification and pyrolysis R and D and improve contacts with companies that utilize these technologies. The programme will focus on applied technical research and on process and equipment development carried out with industry

  2. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  3. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  4. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  5. Tests of gas-blast burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the most sold small gas-blast burners on the Danish market was carried out with regard to carbon monoxide emission contra the content of oxygen in the flue gas in relation to the burners' combustion stability at varying fire box pressures. The burners tested were Weishaupt WG 1: DG no. 2506, Riello 40 GS3: DG no. 2722, Bentone BEG 15: DG no. 2153 and Box 1 G: no. 1104. This covers 90% of the Danish market for gas burners. It was concluded that all the burners had a broader area of adjustment possibilities without carbon monoxide emission than previously tested box burners. This with the exception of when surplus oxygen is low, where large of amounts of carbon monoxide are generated at an oxygen content in flue gas of ca. 2% (10.8% CO2). Burners in which the total pressure in the blower was high were the most stable with regard to air supply and varying fire-box pressure. It is pointed out that other conditions of design have also influence in this respect. In the cases of Weishaupt, Bentone and Riello burners there is a significant relation between blast pressure and oxygen content in the flue gas, whereas in the case of the Box burner, the percentage of oxygen in the flue gas rises in relation to increased pressure in the smoke outlet. The results of the tests are presented in great detail. (AB)

  6. Simulation research on monomer agglomeration of nonmetallic inclusions in steel with a diffusion limited aggregation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The monomer agglomeration of nonmetallic inclusions was simulated with a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model of the fractal theory.The simulation study with a random two-dimensional diffusion was carried out.The results indicate that the DLA model can be used for the simulation of agglomeration behavior of the cluster-type inclusions.The morphology of clusters was observed with SEM and compared with the simulated agglomerates.The modelling procedure of the DLA model is applicable for the agglomeration process.The uncertainty of agglomeration process and the persuasive average agglomerative ratio was analyzed.The factors about the agglomerative ratio with the collision path distance and the size of particles or seed were discussed.The adherence of the nonmetallic inclusions on the dam, the weir and the walls of a tundish, and the absorption of inclusions by stopper or nozzle were also discussed.

  7. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  8. Process analysis for polygeneration of Fischer-Tropsch liquids and power with CO{sub 2} capture based on coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge-wen Yu; Yuan-yuan Xu; Xu Hao; Yong-wang Li; Guang-qi Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2010-05-15

    This paper designs four cases to investigate the performances of the polygeneration processes, which depend on the commercially ready technology to convert coal to liquid fuels (CTL) and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. With Excel-Aspen Plus based models, mass and energy conversion are calculated in detail. The simulation shows that the thermal efficiency is down with the synfuels yield decrease though the electricity generation is increased. It also suggests that the largest low heat value (LHV) loss of coal occurs in the gasification unit. From the comparison of the four cases, prominent differences of coal energy transition appear in water-gas shift (WGS) units, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis and combined cycle processes. CO{sub 2} capture and vent are discussed and the results show that the vent amount of CO{sub 2} increases with the increase of percentage of the syngas going to produce electricity. The results also show that the ratio of carbon captured to total carbon increases from 58% to 93% which is an important contribution to cutting down the greenhouse gas vent. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. ANALYSIS OF ASH FUSION IN SHELL PULVERIZED-COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS%Shell粉煤气化工艺煤灰熔融性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚东; 王洪进; 王可运

    2011-01-01

    The process of fly ash formation and its features in Shell pulverized-coal gasification are introduced,the ash fusion analyzed and the operation proposal for a stable running of gasifier put forward.The ash fusion is not only related to the ash composition,but also to the interaction among the components in the ash during the combustion process.The temperature of ash fusion is mainly depending on the mineral composition in the coal,the composition and ratio of its oxides and combustion atmosphere.%介绍Shell粉煤气化工艺中飞灰的形成过程及其特性,对煤灰的熔融性进行探析并提出稳定气化炉运行的操作建议。煤灰的熔融特性不仅与灰的成分有关,还与燃烧过程中灰中各成分之间的相互作用有关。灰熔融性温度主要取决于煤中的矿物组成、其氧化物的成分和配比及燃烧气氛等。

  10. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  11. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas(trademark) technology (E-Gas(trademark) is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas(trademark) process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation

  12. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  13. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  14. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  15. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  16. Regenerative burner systems for batch furnaces in the steel industry; Regenerativbrenner fuer Doppel-P-Strahlheizrohre in einer Feuerverzinkungslinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiew, A. [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Wuenning, J.G.; Bonnet, U. [WS Waermeprozesstechnik GmbH, Renningen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    This article will describe the application of a new self regenerative burner in a continuous galvanizing line. After a brief introduction of the process line, the self regenerative burner will be described. Very high air preheat temperatures enable considerable energy savings and flameless oxidation suppresses the formation of NO{sub x}. (orig.)

  17. Regenerative burner systems for batch furnaces in the steel industry; Regenerativbrenner fuer Doppel-P-Strahlheizrohre in einer Feuerverzinkungslinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiew, Alexander [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Wuenning, Joachim G.; Bonnet, Uwe [WS Waermeprozesstechnik GmbH, Renningen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This article will describe the application of a new self regenerative burner in a continuous galvanizing line. After a brief introduction of the process line, the self regenerative burner will be described. Very high air preheat temperatures enable considerable energy savings and flameless oxidation suppresses the formation of NO{sub X}. (orig.)

  18. Some parameters and conditions defining the efficiency of burners in the destruction of long-lived nuclear wastes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Seliverstov

    2007-02-01

    A number of new wordings and statements regarding the targeted problem of destruction of long-lived wastes (transmutation) is considered. Some new criteria concerning the efficiency of a particular burner type are proposed. It is shown that the destruction efficiency of a specific burner is greatly influenced by the prospective time period of the whole destruction process.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  20. Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reethof, G.

    1980-02-01

    Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

  1. The hydrometallurgy, the agglomeration and the absorption like alternative of cleaner production in the processes of gold benefit in the northeast antioqueno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Colombia the small mining of precious metals, commonly uses traditional technologies with a low technological profile as consequence of the limitations in the capital of available work for the mining operation in our country, those which slowly they have specialized according to the origin of the mineral observing a tendency toward the gravimetric concentration in the alluvial mining, while in the underground mining more complex processes are used that include the triturating, mill, amalgamation and cyanidation. Independently of the tendency, in each one of the carried out processes they are presented lost of materials for the inefficiency and the not well state of the equipment, generating different levels of environmental impacts and that for their importance in most of the cases invite to the search of alternative economically viable that allow the progressive decrease of the effects on the natural resources and the communities in general. It is as well as Corantioquia has come developing some successful experiences in the search of the sustainability of the mining sector, contributing alternative that allow the decrease of the row material for reuse and of the effusions of highly toxic materials as they are the mercury and the cyanide. For the emissions control of mercury to the atmosphere, the use of the retorts was fomented by means of the technical exploration of all and each one of the available systems commercially in the market, reaching superior yields to 80% in the recovery of the mercury in the burns process of the amalgam, but its use has always been surrounded of an aureole of distrust on the part of the small miner that has not allowed the massification of the system and especially in the sales and purchases of gold; factor that impelled the development of the denominated cubicle of mercury like a contribution of the corporation, in which allows the miner and the observers to see the burn of the amalgam in permanent form through the walls in

  2. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M.; Hoelder, D.; Backhaus, C.; Althaus, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  3. Development of selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) for NH{sub 3} and HCN removal from gasification gas; Selektiivisen katalyyttisen hapetusprosessin (SCO) kehittaeminen kaasutuskaasun NH{sub 3}:n ja HCN:n poistoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Heiskanen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In gasification, reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly NH{sub 3} and HCN) are formed from fuel nitrogen. If the gas containing NH{sub 3} is burned, a high NO{sub x} emission may be formed. The content of nitrogen compounds of the hot gasification gas could be reduced in Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) process. In this process small amounts of reactive oxidisers are injected into the gas in order to convert NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2}. The utilization of SCO process together with low NO{sub x} burners in advanced gasification power stations might offer an alternative for flue gas treatment technologies like SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction). In the earlier research, conditions were found, where oxidizers reacted selectively with ammonia in the gasification gas. Highest ammonia reduction took place in the aluminium oxide bed in the presence of NO and O{sub 2}. The aim of this study is to examine the reaction mechanism in order to be able to further evaluate the development possibilities of this kind process. The effect of composition and the amount of added oxidizer, the content of combustible gas components, space velocity, pressure and temperature will be studied. The experiments are carried out with the laboratory scale high pressure flow reactor of VTT Energy. Kinetic modelling of the experimental results is carried out in co-operation with the combustion chemistry group of Aabo Akademi. The aim of the modelling work is to bring insight to the gas-phase reactions that are important for the SCO-process. (orig.)

  4. Steam gasification of coal using a pressurized circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subject of this investigation is the process engineering of a coal gasification using nuclear heat. A special aspect is the efficiency. To this purpose a new method for calculating the kinetics of hard coal steam gasification in a fluidized bed is presented. It is used for evaluations of gasification kinetics in a large-scale process on the basis of laboratory-scale experiments. The method is verified by experimental data from a large-scale gasifier. The investment costs and the operating costs of the designed process are estimated. (orig.)

  5. Gasificación con aire en lecho fluidizado de los residuos sólidos del proceso industrial de la naranja//Air gasification in fluidized bed of solid residue the orange industrial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar-Trujillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria procesadora de la naranja genera elevados volúmenes de residuos sólidos. Este residuo se ha utilizado en la alimentación animal y en procesos bioquímicos; pero no se ha aprovechado a través de la gasificación. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el aporte energético por medio del proceso de gasificación, realizándose estudios de los residuos sólidos de naranja, utilizando aire en reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante (variando la temperatura de gasificación, relación estequiométrica y altura del lecho. En el proceso se utilizó un diseño de experimento factorial completo de 2k, valorando la influencia de las variables independientes y sus interacciones en las respuestas, con un grado de significación del 95 %. Se obtuvieron los parámetros para efectuar el proceso de gasificación de los residuos sólidos de naranja, obteniendo un gas de bajo poder calórico, próximo a 5046 kJ/m3N, demostrando sus cualidades para su aprovechamiento energético.Palabras claves: gasificación con aire, lecho fluidizado, residuo de naranja._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe orange industrial process generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used as complement in the animal feeding and biochemical processes; but it has not taken advantage through of the gasification process. The objective of the work was to determine the energy contribution by means ofthe gasification process, were carried out studies of the orange solid residue, using air in reactor of bubbling fluidized bed (varying the gasification temperature, air ratio and bed height. In the process a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, was used, valuing the influence of the independent variables and its interactions in the answers, using a confidence level of 95 %. Were obtained the parameters to make the process of gasification of the orange solid residue, obtaining a gas of lower heating

  6. Engineering study hard coal gasification with pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has been concentrated on the design of the power plant and the interface between reactor and gasification unit. First of all, the combination of a PWR with a Lurgi pressure gasification was investigated. This first phase of the study has been completed. To meet the Lurgi pressure gasification characteristics, the saturated PWR-steam is brought to the required higher stage of pressure by steam compressors and superheated by fossil fired steam boilers. To obtain the higher availability of process steam for the hard coal gasification coal fired quick start stand-by boilers are provided. To judge the economic prospectives, the costs for supply of process steam and electric energy have been determined. The results are showing that hard coal gasification with a PWR is more economic than autothermal processes and that it is expedient and promising to continue the work on combined gasification processes in order to improve the efficiency of the overall plant. By request of the public authorities the RAG/Ruhrgas work on advanced gasification processes to be coupled with a PWR has been stopped temporary. (orig.)

  7. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  8. Gasifier burner ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The BI-GAS pilot plant is designed such that its lower region (Stage I) is the combustion zone where oxygen and steam contact and react with recycled char. As with other combustion systems, provisions must be made to initiate combustion at start-up, to reinitiate combustion in case of a process upset where combustion is lost, and to continuously monitor the presence of combustion. An ignition system had to be developed, capable of reliable and repeated operation at pressures up to 1500 psi in a methane-rich or otherwise reducing atmosphere. The initial development work was done by Babcock and Wilcox and included development of both the ignitor system and the flame confirmation system. B and W's initial proposal specifically dealt with investigating a hypergolic (chemical auto-combustion) igniter. Hypergolic ignition is the spontaneous combustion of a compound upon contact with an oxygen containing media. This oxygen source includes air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water. The liquid compound studied was triethylaluminum (Al(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/) otherwise identified as TEA and supplied by Ethyl Corporation, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The hypergolic ignition system has been operated successfully and proved reliable at high pressure (750 psig) through repeated testing over a three-year period. The system designed by Stearns-Roger based on the study by Babcock and Wilcox was basically correct. Two relatively minor design defects and operational revisions to improve performance were accomplished by on-site personnel with little expenditure of time or money. The remaining problems currently experienced with the TEA ignition system are considered minor. Further work should continue to determine the lowest possible TEA concentration that can be used and still provide consistent ignition, and the system should be tested soon at the full design operating pressure of 1500 psig.

  9. Underground coal gasification. Gasificacion subterranea del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Amor, G.; Obis, A. (ITGE, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-07-01

    In spite of the low price of both oil and gas, underground coal gasification is still an attractive option because of the possibility for exploiting coal which it would be uneconomic to mine by conventional methods. New technology has recently made gasification into a reality and methods have been developed to gasify both deep and superficial inclined seams. Recent tests in nearly level seams in the USA have been successful so that the process has become competitive in spite of current oil prices. 3 figs.

  10. Gas Cleaning in Gasification: Particle Removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Jeremiáš, Michal; Tošnarová, Markéta

    Madrid: CIEMAT, 2012, s. 1-5. [International Summer Schoolon Advanced Concepts and Process Schemes for CO2-Free Fluidized and Entrained Bed Co-Gasification of Coal , Biomass and Waste . Madrid (ES), 03.07.2012-06.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020366; GA MŠk(CZ) 7C11009 Grant ostatní: RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gasification * cleaning * dust Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  11. Removal of ammonia from producer gas in biomass gasification: integration of gasification optimisation and hot catalytic gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongrapipat, Janjira; Saw, Woei-Lean; Pang, Shusheng [University of Canterbury, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the main contaminants in the biomass gasification producer gas, which is undesirable in downstream applications, and thus must be removed. When the producer gas is used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, NH{sub 3} is the main precursor of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed in gas turbine, whereas in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) technology, the NH{sub 3} gas poisons the catalysts employed. This paper presents a critical review on the recent development in the understanding of the NH{sub 3} formation in biomass gasification process and in the NH{sub 3} gas cleaning technologies. The NH{sub 3} gas concentration in the producer gas can firstly be reduced by the primary measures taken in the gasification process by operation optimisation and using in-bed catalytic materials. Further removal of the NH{sub 3} gas can be implemented by the secondary measures introduced in the post-gasification gas-cleaning process. Focus is given on the catalytic gas cleaning in the secondary measures and its advantages are analysed including energy efficiency, impacts on environment and recyclability of the catalyst. Based on the review, the most effective cleaning process is proposed with integration of both the primary and the secondary measures for application in a biomass gasification process. (orig.)

  12. Experimental study of porous metal burners for domestic stove applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The flat flame cooktop burner is experimental and analytical investigated. • The heat transfer flux can be evaluated using analytical and numerical methods. • The performance of the flat flame burners is superior to Bunsen flame type burners. • Efficiency and emissions of the flat flame burners can be well controlled. - Abstract: This paper investigates a clean and highly efficient domestic stove burner composed of a flat flame burner for cooking and water heating. The feasibility of the flat flame burner is experimentally verified by demonstrating that the flame is stabilized by a porous metal medium and by comparison with a typical Bunsen flame burner. The flame appearance, temperature distribution, relative thermal efficiency and pollution emissions in terms of Emission Index of CO (EICO) and Emission Index of NOx (EINOx) were measured and analyzed. The results show that the operating range, turndown ratio, and pollution emissions of the flat flame burners are superior to those of traditional Bunsen flame burners. The heat transfer and efficiency for both the jet flame burner and the flat flame burner can be evaluated using analytical and numerical methods. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional Bunsen flame burners, the efficiency and pollution emissions of flat flame burners are not strongly affected by the distance between the cool boundary of pot or pan and the burner exit. For domestic stove applications in particular, where different sized pots and pans are used, the efficiency and pollution emissions can be well controlled with a flat flame burner

  13. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  14. Understanding lateritic ore agglomeration behaviour as a precursor to enhanced heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nickel (Ni) laterite ores constitute the majority of Ni mineralization resource world-wide, in contrast to Ni sulphides, their processing via conventional beneficiation (e.g. multi-gravity and flotation) and hydrometallurgical routes is intractable as they are predominantly low grade and complex, both mineralogically and chemically. Due to their physico-chemical characteristics, low grade lateritic ores require more aggressive but costly chemical and hydrometallurgical techniques (e.g., leaching in high pressurized tanks) for value metal (Ni and Co) extraction. Processing such ores through cost-competitive heap (4-10 m high) leaching as an alternative, requires successful agglomeration of the feed into robust and porous granules. To date, producing of granules with desirable attributes poses a major geotechnical challenge to industry. In the present work, we investigate agglomeration behaviour of siliceous goethite Ni laterite ore and selected oxides and clay minerals (hematite, quartz and kao-linite) which constitute the predominant host gangue phases of typical low grade Ni laterite ores. Fundamental knowledge and understanding of the agglomeration mechanisms and kinetics which are essential for producing robust real ore granules, and pivotal to the subsequent heap leaching process, are gleaned. Isothermal, batch agglomeration tests involving 30 and 44 % w/w sulphuric acid solution as a binder indicated that 5 – 40 mm granules of differing roughness and morphologies were produced in 8-14 min. The results showed feed characteristics (e.g., mineralogy and particle size distribution) and binder content (15-25 wt.%) dependent agglomeration behaviour. Slow agglomerate nucleation and growth were displayed by the kaolinite clay mineral whilst the oxides exhibited faster agglomeration kinetics. Siliceous goethite feed ore fine/coarse ratio, H2SO4 binder dosage and acid content, product drying temperature and aging conditions, all showed significant impact on

  15. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  16. Study and mathematical model of ultra-low gas burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project is prediction and reduction of NOx and CO2 emissions under levels recommended from European standards for gas combustion processes. A mathematical model of burner and combustion chamber is developed based on interacting fluid dynamics processes: turbulent flow, gas phase chemical reactions, heat and radiation transfer The NOx prediction model for prompt and thermal NOx is developed. The validation of CFD (Computer fluid-dynamics) simulations corresponds to 5 MWI burner type - TEA, installed on CASPER boiler. This burner is three-stream air distribution burner with swirl effect, designed by ENEL to meet future NOx emission standards. For performing combustion computer modelling, FLUENT CFD code is preferred, because of its capabilities to provide accurately description of large number of rapid interacting processes: turbulent flow, phase chemical reactions and heat transfer and for its possibilities to present wide range of calculation and graphical output reporting data The computational tool used in this study is FLUENT version 5.4.1, installed on fs 8200 UNIX systems The work includes: study the effectiveness of low-NOx concepts and understand the impact of combustion and swirl air distribution and flue gas recirculation on peak flame temperatures, flame structure and fuel/air mixing. A finite rate combustion model: Eddy-Dissipation (Magnussen-Hjertager) Chemical Model for 1, 2 step Chemical reactions of bi-dimensional (2D) grid is developed along with NOx and CO2 predictions. The experimental part of the project consists of participation at combustion tests on experimental facilities located in Livorno. The results of the experiments are used, to obtain better vision for combustion process on small-scaled design and to collect the necessary input data for further Fluent simulations

  17. Infrared Imaging of Uninhibited Cup-Burner Flame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevrlý, Václav; Bitala, P.; Střižík, Michal; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Danihelka, P.; Kollárik, T.; Grigorová, E.; Jánošík, L.; Jelínková, R.; Mikoczy, A.; Filipi, B.; Dudáček, A.

    Vienna: Verlag ProcessEng Engineering GmbH, 2009. s. 317-317. ISBN 978-3-902655-06-6. [European Combustion Meeting /4./. 14.04.2009–17.04.2009, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : cup burner * flame * infrared imaging * soot Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  18. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  19. Development and demonstration of a gas-fired recuperative confined radiant burner (deliverable 42/43). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate an innovative, efficient, low-pollutant, recuperative gas-fired IR-system (infrared radiation) for industrial processes (hereafter referred to as the CONRAD-system). The CONRAD-system is confined, so flue gases from the combustion can be kept separated from the product. The gas/air mixture to the burner is preheated by means of the flue gas, which increases the radiant efficiency of the CONRAD-system significantly over traditional gas-fired IR burners. During the first phase of the project, the CONRAD-system was designed and developed. The conducted work included a survey on suitable burner materials, modelling of the burner system, basic design of burner construction, control etc., experimental characterisation of several preprototypes and detailed design of the internal heat exchanger in the burner. The result is a cost effective burner system with a documented radiant efficiency up to 66% and low emissions (NO{sub x} and CO) all in accordance with the criteria of success set up at the start of the project. In the second phase of the project, the burner system was established and tested in laboratory and in four selected industrial applications: 1) Drying of coatings on sand cores in the automotive industry. 2) Baking of bread/cake. 3) General purpose painting/powder curing process 4. Curing of powder paint on wood components. The results from the preliminary tests Overe used to optimise the CONRAD-system, before it was applied in the industrial processes and demonstrated. However, the optimised burners manufactured for demonstration suffered from different 'infant failures', which made the installation in an industrial environment very cumbersome, and even impossible in the food industry and the automotive industry. In the latter cases realistic laboratory tests Overe carried out and the established know how reported for use when the burner problems are overcome.(au)

  20. Gasification of refuse-derived fuel in a high throughput gasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing quantities of municipal wastes have led to the development of numerous technologies for combustion or gasification of these wastes. Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Battelle has completed a preliminary investigation of gasification of prepared municipal wastes [refuse derived fuel (RDF)] to produce a medium Btu gas without oxygen in its High Throughput Gasification system. A successful test program was conducted in a 12 TPD Process Research Unit (PRU) to provide data on product gas composition and production rates possible with the RDF feedstock. Test data generated during the program were compared to an extensive data base generated with wood in the research unit. Results of this test program are presented along with data on waste water characteristics from the PRU. Data generated during the experimental program were used in the generation of a process conceptual design. A preliminary economic evaluation based on this design indicates that the Battelle process provides significant economic benefits when compared to mass burn technologies

  1. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    -aromatics in the product gas. There is an indication that the tars are the products of the stepwise destruction of the primary structure of the biomass. Increased temperature favours dissociation of the heavy tar compounds to lighter structures. During gasification a part of the fuel-bound nitrogen (fb-N) converts to ammonia which forms NO{sub x} in the following combustion steps of the product gas. The degree of conversion to ammonia is dependent on the process parameters and generally increases with increasing ER and temperature until a total carbon conversion is achieved. The mechanisms of the release of the fb-N and also the routes to minimise the ammonia in the product gas are discussed. In a gasification plant alkali metals can be the reason beyond problems such as agglomeration of the bed material, deposit formation on cold surfaces and erosion and corrosion of the ceramic and metallic parts. The experimental results show that the type of alkali from the fuel has a crucial importance in causing the alkali-related problems.

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  3. RF torch discharge combined with conventional burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the combined flame-rf-plasma reactor and experimental examination of this reactor are presented. For the determination of the temperature in different parts of the combined burner plasma the methods of emission spectroscopy were used. The temperatures measured in the conventional burner reach the maximum temperature 1900 K but in the burner with the superimposed rf discharge the neutral gas temperature substantially increased up to 2600 K but also the plasma volume increases substantially. Consequently, the resident time of reactants in the reaction zone increases

  4. Regenerative burner combination and method of burning a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, B.J.

    1992-06-17

    Regenerative burners fire alternatively into respective radiant tubes which are closed at their ends remote from the burners. Products of combustion from each flame tube pass to the closed end of the tube and back to be exhausted from the radiant tube associated with the firing burner through a transfer duct to the other burner, where heat is extracted before the products of combustion are discharged, for heating combustion air for use when the other burner is firing. (Author).

  5. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Ivlev, Alexei; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong dust density waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilising the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  6. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Municipal solid waste gasification using non-transferred plasma torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Mašláni, Alan

    Toulouse: CNRS, 2014. ISBN N. [High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP13). 22.06.2014-27.06.2014, Toulouse] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * gasification * degradation * waste Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  8. Structures and stabilization of low calorific value gas turbulent partially premixed flames in a conical burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, B.; Liu, C. [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Li, Z.S.; Alden, M. [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Baudoin, E.; Bai, X.S. [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Chen, G. [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Mansour, M.S. [Cairo University, Natl Inst Laser Enhanced Sci., Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    Experiments are carried out on partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized in a conical burner. The investigated gaseous fuels are methane, methane diluted with nitrogen, and mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, simulating typical products from gasification of biomass, and co-firing of gasification gas with methane. The fuel and air are partially premixed in concentric tubes. Flame stabilization behavior is investigated and significantly different stabilization characteristics are observed in flames with and without the cone. Planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of a fuel-tracer species, acetone, and OH radicals is carried out to characterize the flame structures. Large eddy simulations of the conical flames are carried out to gain further understanding of the flame/flow interaction in the cone. The data show that the flames with the cone are more stable than those without the cone. Without the cone (i.e. jet burner) the critical jet velocities for blowoff and liftoff of biomass derived gases are higher than that for methane/nitrogen mixture with the same heating values, indicating the enhanced flame stabilization by hydrogen in the mixture. With the cone the stability of flames is not sensitive to the compositions of the fuels, owing to the different flame stabilization mechanism in the conical flames than that in the jet flames. From the PLIF images it is shown that in the conical burner, the flame is stabilized by the cone at nearly the same position for different fuels. From large eddy simulations, the flames are shown to be controlled by the recirculation flows inside cone, which depends on the cone angle, but less sensitive to the fuel compositions and flow speed. The flames tend to be hold in the recirculation zones even at very high flow speed. Flame blowoff occurs when significant local extinction in the main body of the flame appears at high turbulence intensities. (author)

  9. Correcting agglomeration economies: How air pollution matters

    OpenAIRE

    Drut, Marion; Mahieu, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to correct standard measures of agglomeration economies to account for air pollution generated by commuting. This paper examines the impact of nitrogen oxide (NOX) ? a pollutant mainly released by transportation ? on worker productivity. On one side, literature on agglomeration economies highlights the positive role of employment density on productivity, without accounting for the environmental impact of a better accessibility. On the other side, several studies (Graham, 2007;...

  10. Agglomeration of Charged Nanopowders in Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Werth, J. H.; Linsenbuehler, M.; Dammer, S. M.; Farkas, Z.; Hinrichsen, H.; Wirth, K. -E.; Wolf, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand agglomeration of charged powders suspended in nonpolar fluids. The concerted influence of electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and van der Waals forces as well as Brownian motion leads to a complex agglomeration behaviour which depends on several parameters, e.g., the ratios of electric charges, particle sizes, temperature and concentrations of the particles. Both experimental and theoretical considerations are presented.

  11. The magnitude and causes of agglomeration economies

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Puga

    2009-01-01

    Firms and workers are much more productive in large and dense urban environments. There is substantial evidence of such agglomeration economies based on three aproaches. First, on a clustering of production beyond what can be explained by chance or comparative advantage. Second, on spatial patterns in wages and rents. Third, on systematic variations in productivity with the urban environment. However, more needs to be learned about the causes of agglomeration economies. We have good models of...

  12. Control of optical active borates nanocrystals agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    I. Cieślik; R. Węgłowski; J. Żmija; K. Kurzydłowski; M. Płocińska; M. Oćwieja

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study explore the possibility of total control the agglomeration of nanoborates powders. The great potential of PDLCs can be enhanced by using dye-doped or nanoparticles-doped materials, such as borates [1]. It is important to know how to prepare nanoparticles in order to obtain a high level of dispersion in the composites. Otherwise, even small an agglomeration does not give a possibility on the appropriate characteristic of properties and interp...

  13. Industrial Agglomeration and Use of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wu, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    textabstractTaiwan has been hailed as a world leader in the development of global innovation and industrial clusters for the past decade. This paper investigates the effects of industrial agglomeration on the use of the internet and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships between industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage for industries are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufactu...

  14. Industrial Agglomeration and Use of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C-L; McAleer, M.J.; Wu, Y-C

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan has been hailed as a world leader in the development of global innovation and industrial clusters for the past decade. This paper investigates the effects of industrial agglomeration on the use of the internet and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships between industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage for industries are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants,...

  15. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  16. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  17. The investigations of temperature distributions in an opposed multi-burner gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The temperatures of gasification chamber and quench chamber are measured by thermocouples. → The temperatures of gasification chamber increase slowly as the inserted distance increases in both diesel and coal -water slurry (CWS) tests. → The syngas temperature decrease rapidly when it passes through the inlet of quench chamber. → Flame temperature distributions are reconstructed by the Filtered back-projection method. → Temperature distributions of diesel impinging flames are 1650-2100 oC and those of CWS flames are 1500-2000 oC at the test conditions. -- Abstract: In a bench-scale opposed multi-burner (OMB) gasifier, the temperatures of gasification chamber and quench chamber are measured by thermocouples, and the temperature distributions of flame sections are reconstructed by the Filtered back-projection method. The results show that the temperature of gasification chamber increases slowly as the inserted distance increases in both diesel and coal-water slurry (CWS) tests. The syngas temperature decreases rapidly when it passes through the inlet of quench chamber. The impinging flames of diesel or CWS gasification all focus on the gasifier center due to restraining by each other, and can avoid scouring the refractory wall and prolong the lives of refractory. At the test conditions, the temperature distributions of diesel flames are 1650-2100 oC and those of CWS flames are 1500-2000 oC. The flame temperature distributions appear to be a typical simple peak. The investigations can provide some information for the industrial gasifier.

  18. Design aspects of a Low-NOx burner for a Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepter, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    process. Finally, the behaviour of the PIM burner with different fuel gases like methane, propane, methane-hydrogen mixtures and syngas is presented based on experimental results. Stability and emissions of CO and NOx under different operating conditions are discussed. The possible pathways of formation of NOx are analysed. Strong correlation of the NOx emissions with the temperature at the burner outlet is found. Based on this, a way of predicting the NOx emissions by simple empirical correlations that are valid for all fuel gases that have been used is presented. (author)

  19. Ground subsidence resulting from underground gasification of coal. [36 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, D W

    1977-03-29

    Ground subsidence has been found to be a very significant physical phenomenon that must be dealt with in the design and operation of an underground coal gasification process. This report deals with the types of subsidence that one might expect, and how they affect the process. A brief theory of bending subsidence is presented, and the experience the Soviets had while operating their commercial underground gasification stations is reviewed.

  20. An intelligent monitoring system for the detection of slag deposition on a pulverized coal fired burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.K.; Wilcox, S.J.; Ward, J.; Lewitt, M. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). School for Technology

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the further development of a monitoring system to detect the presence of so-called burner eyebrows, i.e. relatively large deposits of slag around the burner quarl in pulverized coal fired boilers. Experiments were undertaken with a range of coals and with various artificial eyebrows constructed from cast refractory inserts. The system uses a microphone to detect combustion noise and an infrared sensor which measures flame radiation, and the signals from these cheap, easily installed sensors were analyzed by a hybrid neural network. In tests with two coals, the system was able to distinguish the different eyebrows with a high degree of accuracy if representative data were used to train the network for each particular coal. In further tests with a range of six different coals, the system was able to distinguish between a clean burner and one fitted with a particular sized eyebrow. In this case, it proved to be possible to use only the features from three of the coals in the training process and the data from the remaining fuels for validation. The monitoring system, therefore, appears to be relatively independent of changes to the coal fired by the burner if trained with a representative range of coals. Finally, this paper presents a possible method to detect burner eyebrows via the evaluation of so-called 'eyebrow indices' using a self-organizing map which is trained solely using clean burner sensor patterns.

  1. Spherically agglomerated solid dispersions of valsartan to improve solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit R. Tapas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of valsartan (VAL a poorly water soluble antihypertensive, by spherically agglomerated solid dispersions using methanol, water and dichloromethane as good solvent, poor solvent and bridging liquid, respectively. The hydrophilic polymers like polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were used in agglomeration process. The pure drug (VAL and its agglomerates with different polymers were characterize by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopic studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The DSC results indicated that decrease in melting enthalpy related to disorder in the crystalline content. XRD studies also showed changes in crystallanity, IR spectroscopy revealed that there were no chemical changes in the recrystallized agglomerates. The spherically agglomerated solid dispersions with different polymers exhibited marked increase in solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties (bulk density, flow property, compactability compared with VAL. The SEM studies showed that the agglomerates posseeses a good spherical shape.Keywords: Valsartan; Spherical agglomeration; Solid dispersion; Solubility; Dissolution rate; Micromeritic properties.

  2. Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerino, Erick; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2013-01-01

    Radiatively heated levitated functional droplets with nanosilica suspensions exhibit three distinct stages namely pure evaporation, agglomeration, and finally structure formation. The temporal history of the droplet surface temperature shows two inflection points. One inflection point corresponds to a local maximum and demarcates the end of transient heating of the droplet and domination of vaporization. The second inflection point is a local minimum and indicates slowing down of the evaporation rate due to surface accumulation of nanoparticles. Morphology and final precipitation structures of levitated droplets are due to competing mechanisms of particle agglomeration, evaporation, and shape deformation. In this work, we provide a detailed analysis for each process and propose two important timescales for evaporation and agglomeration that determine the final diameter of the structure formed. It is seen that both agglomeration and evaporation timescales are similar functions of acoustic amplitude (sound pressure level), droplet size, viscosity, and density. However, we show that while the agglomeration timescale decreases with initial particle concentration, the evaporation timescale shows the opposite trend. The final normalized diameter can be shown to be dependent solely on the ratio of agglomeration to evaporation timescales for all concentrations and acoustic amplitudes. The structures also exhibit various aspect ratios (bowls, rings, spheroids) which depend on the ratio of the deformation timescale (tdef) and the agglomeration timescale (tg). For tdef

  3. Coke yield and heat transfer in reaction of liquid-solid agglomerates of Athabasca vacuum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M.; Courtney, M.; Boddez, L.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Delayed coking and fluid-bed coking are the most common commercial processes used by the petroleum industry for the thermal conversion of vacuum residues into petroleum distillate products. This paper presented the results of an experimental study of coke yield at long reaction times from agglomerates of coke particles and Athabasca vacuum residue (AVR). The ultimate coke yield was determined for a range of agglomerate thicknesses, liquid concentrations and reaction temperatures. The agglomerates were heated on Curie-point alloy strips in an induction furnace at 503 and 530 degrees C until all toluene-soluble material was converted. A simple heat transfer model was used to describe the temperature profile within the agglomerates. Coke yield results from agglomerates were compared to the coke yield results from reacting thin films of vacuum residue. The average coke yield from the agglomerates was 23 per cent, while the coke yield from thin films of 20 {mu}m thickness was 11 per cent, which supports the role of mass transfer in coke formation reactions. The ultimate coke yield was insensitive to vacuum residue concentration, agglomerate size, and reaction temperature. According to control experiments on thin films of liquid at different heating rates, the temperature-time history has little effect on the ultimata coke yield. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. APPLICATION OF SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE MICROMERITIC PROPERTIES AND DISSOLUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF NABUMETONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of Nabumetone, 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphalenyl-2-butanone water insoluble anti-inflammatory drug by spherical agglomeration technique using a solvent change method consisting of acetone, water and dichloromethane as solvent, non solvent and bridging liquid respectively. The hydrophilic polymers like poly vinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP and sodium alginate were used in the agglomeration process. Infrared (I.R spectroscopic studies, Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used for characterization of pure drug and its agglomerates. The I.R spectroscopy revealed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymers, also indicated that no chemical changes in the crystallized agglomerates .The agglomerates exhibited significantly improved solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties (angle of repose, Carr’s index, bulk density, tapped density. Hausner’s ratio compared with pure drug Nabumetone. The aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of the drug from spherical agglomerates was significantly (p < 0.05 increased (nearly two times. SEM studies revealed that the agglomerates possess a good spherical shape. The study revealed that Micromeritic Properties, Solubility and Invitro drug release rate is increased with increase in PVP concentration from 0.25% to 1% as compared to sodium alginate.

  5. Low NO[sub x] regenerative burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-12-01

    A joint development project between British Gas and Hotwork Development has resulted in maintaining the efficiency of a regenerative burner but without the penalty of the higher NO[sub x] emissions normally associated with combustion air preheat. (author)

  6. Energetic assessment of air-steam gasification of sewage sludge and of the integration of sewage sludge pyrolysis and air-steam gasification of char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg−1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg−1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process

  7. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  8. Reversible or not? Distinguishing agglomeration and aggregation at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are prone to clustering either via aggregation (irreversible) or agglomeration (reversible) processes. It is exceedingly difficult to distinguish the two via conventional techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), or electron microscopy imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) as such techniques only generally confirm the presence of large particle clusters. Herein we develop a joint approach to tackle the issue of distinguishing between nanoparticle aggregation vs agglomeration by characterizing a colloidal system of Ag NPs using DLS, NTA, SEM imaging and the electrochemical nanoimpacts technique. In contrast to the conventional techniques which all reveal the presence of large clusters of particles, electrochemical nanoimpacts provide information regarding individual nanoparticles in the solution phase and reveal the presence of small nanoparticles (detection of small nanoparticles in high ionic strength media evidence the clustering to be a reversible process. As a result it is concluded that agglomeration rather than irreversible aggregation takes place. This observation is of general importance for all colloids as it provides a feasible analysis technique for a wide range of systems with an ability to distinguish subtly different processes. PMID:26352558

  9. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  10. Regenerative burner use on reheat furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggley, G.W. [Bloom Engineering Co. Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The environmental advantages of using regenerative burner technology on steel reheat furnaces are explored in this article, in particular improved fuel energy efficiencies and reduced pollution emissions, of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Experience of the use of regenerative burners in the United States and Japan, where they have achieved significant market penetration is also described, including a case history of a top-fired billet reheat furnace installed in the United States. (UK)

  11. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  12. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  13. Transport phenomena in underground coal gasification channels (transportverschijnselen in ondergrondse kolenvergassingskanalen). Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyper, R.A.

    1994-06-16

    Underground coal gasification is an attractive option to recover energy from thin deep-lying coal seams. By injecting air into the coal layer, combustible gases are formed underground which can be used to produce energy at the surface. During a coal gasification field test in Pricetown (USA), an open channel structure had formed underground. In this thesis, the wide range of transport processes occurring in such underground coal gasification channels has been studied. The principal aim of this study was to understand and describe the transport processes which determine the behavior of the gasification process. The main aspects of the gasification process have been studied separately. Due to this approach, the influence of the various aspects of the gasification process on the behavior of the process has become clear. In the first part of this thesis, the influence of geometrical aspects of the gasification channel on the natural-convection flow in the channel has been studied by considering the natural-convection flow in various differentially heated enclosures. This approach led to a fundamental study on natural-convection flows. The second part of this thesis is associated with the transport processes arising during gasification. Here, a simulation model has been refined step by step. In the final simulation model, all main transport processes occurring in a rectangular gasification channel are described.

  14. Role of Solvents in Improvement of Dissolution Rate of Drugs: Crystal Habit and Crystal Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is often used for manufacturing drug substances. Advances of crystallization have achieved control over drug identity and purity, but control over the physical form remains poor. This review discusses the influence of solvents used in crystallization process on crystal habit and agglomeration of crystals with potential implication for dissolution. According to literature it has been known that habit modification of crystals by use of proper solvents may enhance the dissolution properties by changing the size, number and the nature of crystal faces exposed to the dissolution medium. Also, the faster dissolution rate of drug from the agglomerates of crystals compared with the single crystals may be related to porous structure of the agglomerates and consequently their better wettability. It is concluded from this review that in-depth understanding of role of the solvents in crystallization process can be applied to engineering of crystal habit or crystal agglomeration, and predictably dissolution improvement in poorly soluble drugs.

  15. Light-Induced Agglomeration and Diffusion of Different Particles with Optical Tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-Cong; SUN Xiu-Dong; LIU Hong-Peng; ZHANG Jian-Long

    2010-01-01

    @@ The dynamic process of light-induced agglomeration of carbon nanotubes(CNTs),C60 and Escherichia coli(E.coli)in aqueous solutions is demonstrated using an optical tweezers system.Based on the results,the diameter of the agglomerated region and the agglomeration rate increase with the increasing laser power.After the saturation-stable period,CNTs diffuse completely,C60 dusters only diffuse partially,and E.coli never diffuses in the agglomeration region.Theoretical analyses show that the molecular polarization and thermal diffusion of particles play crucial roles in the diffusion process.The results indicate the possibility of using light to aggregate and sort nanoparticles.

  16. Kinetics of the steam gasification of a phenolic circuit board in the presence of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The gasification was effective to produce clean hydrogen from plastic WEEE content. ► The reaction proceeded through an initial pyrolysis and latter gasification of char. ► Both the pyrolysis and the latter gasification were accelerated by the carbonate. ► Physical contact of steam, carbonate and char was important for the gasification. ► The gasification occurred mainly in outer layer of char infiltrated by the carbonate. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of a phenolic board in the presence of molten carbonate was studied as a means to recover useful metals effectively from electronic waste while also converting its plastic fraction into clean fuel gas. In the steam gasification of the phenolic board, the presence of carbonate considerably accelerated the conversion of tar and char into gaseous products. When pulverized phenolic board particles <0.15 mm were gasified, carbonate and steam permeated the sample particles, and the resulting gasification proceeded was well modeled by a homogeneous kinetic model. On the other hand relatively large phenolic board particles appeared to undergo two different hydrogen-producing gasification processes: the observed hydrogen formation rates suggest that an initial gasification occurred in the surface layer, which carbonate and steam were able to infiltrate into, and after this layer was consumed, the gasification proceeded only on the surface of the resulting char. The reactivity of char in the steam gasification depends sensitively on the conditions whereby the char is produced: rapid pyrolysis of the phenolic board produced highly reactive char, evidenced by markedly increased hydrogen formation rates in the steam gasification of chars formed under more rapid heating. However, once the char was pulverized finely, no obvious difference in reactivity was observed in the steam gasification based on the size of the phenolic board particles used to produce the char.

  17. AGGLOMERATION AND RADIATION EFFECT OF THE PULL OF URBANIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jin-li

    2003-01-01

    In order to explore the train of thought for China's urbanizing development and coordinated rural eco-nomic development, and to find good ways of solving rural problems through urbanization, this paper absorbs the push-and-pull forces theory and the systematic dynamic theory in the traditional population migration theories, views urbanization as a dynamic system, makes research on the push-and-pull mechanism of urbanization. The pull ingpower of urbanization is analyzed according to two aspects, the agglomeration effect and the radiation effect of cities. The agglomeration effect provides continuous propelling force for urbanization, and the radiation effect furtheraccelerates the urbanization process by pushing forward the development of rural economy. Of course, the slow de-velopment of urbanization can result in the hindrance to rural economic development.

  18. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  19. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude

  20. Distribution Characteristics and Compressibility of Agglomerates as a Reflection of Granulation Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Macho Oliver; Peciar Peter; Peciar Marián; Svěrák Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Selective adjustment of the properties of particular material agglomeration has its inherent place in the chemical, food, but especially in the pharmaceutical, industry. The requirement to produce an agglomerate with desired particle size at a given strength is often formulated. To create the targeted product, it is necessary to know the process parameters affecting the preparation of its features. This paper deals with survey distribution characteristics and compressibility changes of an agg...

  1. Agglomeration in counter-current spray drying towers. Part B: Interaction between multiple spraying levels

    OpenAIRE

    Francia, V; Martín, L; Bayly, AE; Simmons, MJH

    2016-01-01

    A new experimental method is developed here to investigate agglomeration in spray drying towers operating with multiple nozzles. It allows studying independently the contribution of each spray to the product and obtaining a valuable insight into the agglomeration processes. The paper studies a two level swirl counter-current dryer of detergent in a full-scale production system. It shows that operation with two nozzle levels increases the energy efficiency compared to the use of single sprays,...

  2. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  3. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  4. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

    2003-06-01

    A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

  6. Experimental data regarding the characterization of the flame behavior near lean blowout in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2016-03-01

    The data are related to the research article “Image processing for the characterization of flame stability in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner near lean blowout” in Aerospace Science and Technology [1].

  7. Thermodynamics second law efficiency analysis for high temperature biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key challenge for biomass-based system is to develop efficient conversion technologies to reduce impact of ecological drawbacks. The development of efficient technologies for biomass gasification requires correct use of thermodynamics. This paper addresses gasifier performance analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to quantify irreversibilities in biomass gasification process at high temperatures in the range 800K-1400K. The analysis is based on exegetic model that account for the quality of energy by means of irreversibilities. (author)

  8. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  9. Agglomeration Evolution of Nano-Particles Aluminium in Normal Incident Shock Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zheng-Xin; WU Jing-He; HU Dong; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Agglomeration behaviour of nano-particle aluminium (nano-Al) in normal incident shock waves is investigated by our devised shock tube technology. The morphology, particle size, agglomeration process of nano-Al studied in normal incident shock waves are comprehensible evaluated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The above-mentioned techniques show that the high strength and temperature of incident shock wave give a chance for activity of nano-Al in the reactions and decrease the agglomeration, and the morphology of agglomeration is affected by the temperature of nano-Al reaction region. The dynamic temperature of reaction region determined by the intensity ratio of two AlO bands is 2602K, which is closer to nano-Al actual reacted temperature than the determined temperature of ordinary methods (i.e. six channel instantaneous optical pyrometer; plank black body radiation law, etc.)

  10. Compression Behaviour of Porous Dust Agglomerates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The early planetesimal growth proceeds through a sequence of sticking collisions of dust agglomerates. Very uncertain is still the relative velocity regime in which growth rather than destruction can take place. The outcome of a collision depends on the bulk properties of the porous dust agglomerates. Continuum models of dust agglomerates require a set of material parameters that are often difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. Here, we aim at determining those parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our goal is to improveon the existing model that describe the interaction of individual monomers. We use a molecular dynamics approach featuring a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. The model includes normal forces, rolling, twisting and sliding between the dust grains. We present a new treatment of wall-particle interaction that allows us to perform customized simulations that directly correspond to laboratory experiments. We find that the existing i...

  11. Development of New Co-gasification Technology Based on Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yue-hong; WEN Hao; GUO Zhan-cheng; XU Zhi-hong

    2005-01-01

    A new co-gasification technology was proposed. The core of this co-gasification technology is a gasifier capable of being operated on a wide range of fuels and being reconstructed from blast furnace or shaft furnace.Based on this innovative concept, the lab-scale experiment and modeling study were carried out to demonstrate its technical validity and thermodynamic characteristics. The obtained results indicate that co-gasification process can be undertaken under ideal thermodynamic conditions where quasi-equilibrium could be reached without catalysts and Aspen Plus is a useful tool for this process development. Furthermore, potential applications of co-gasification were discussed.

  12. Design of Agglomerated Crystals of Ibuprofen During Crystallization: Influence of Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIbuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting, and dissolution due to its poor solubility, hydrophobicity, and tendency to stick to surface. Because of the bad compaction behavior ibuprofen has to be granulated usually before tableting. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. Materials and Methods Crystallization of ibuprofen was carried out using the quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method in presence of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Tween 80. The particles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD and were evaluated for particle size, flowability, drug release and tableting behavior. ResultsIbuprofen particles obtained in the presence of surfactants consisted of numerous plate- shaped crystals which had agglomerated together as near spherical shape. The obtained agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as tableting behavior than untreated drug crystals. The agglomerates size and size distribution was largely controlled by surfactant concentration, but there was no significant influence found on the tableting properties. The dissolution tests showed that the agglomerates obtained in presence of SLS exhibited enhanced dissolution rate while the agglomerates made in the presence of Tween 80 had no significant impact on dissolution rate of ibuprofen in comparison to untreated sample. The XRPD and DSC results showed that during the agglomeration process, ibuprofen did not undergo any polymorphic changes.Conclusion The study highlights the influence of surfactants on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

  13. Quantitative characterization of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling blender by using the Stokes number approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2013-03-01

    Removal of microcrystalline cellulose agglomerates in a dry-mixing system (lactose, 100 M) predominantly occurs via abrasion. The agglomerate abrasion rate potential is estimated by the Stokes abrasion (StAbr) number of the system. The StAbr number equals the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. Basically, the StAbr number concept describes the blending condition of the dry-mixing system. The concept has been applied to investigate the relevance of process parameters on agglomerate abrasion in tumbling blenders. Here, process parameters such as blender rotational speed and relative fill volumes were investigated. In this study, the StAbr approach revealed a transition point between abrasion rate behaviors. Below this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerate abrasion is dominated by the kinetic energy density of the powder blend. Above this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerates show (undesirable) slow abrasion rates. In this situation, the blending condition is mainly determined by the high fill volume of the filler. PMID:23250711

  14. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported. PMID:22728180

  15. Flashback Analysis in Tangential Swirl Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blowoff limits coupled with low NOx emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front.

  16. Sewage Sludge Gasification for CHP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCahey, S.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.

    2003-07-01

    Many routes previously available for sewage sludge disposal within the European Union are now prohibited or constrained by environmental legislation. Meanwhile, sewage sludge production increases annually as more rigorous treatment processes are used. This paper introduces an ongoing project, supported by the European Commission FP5 Programme, which seeks to examine the key technical environmental and economic issues relating to the gasification of sewage sludge for utilisation in CHP applications and ultimately to establish the commercial viability of the process. Sewage sludge treatment data has been collected by country and region and a database compiled. Laboratory and pilot plant scale gasification trials are underway and two small engines and a generator have been installed and commissioned. This paper discusses the concurrent development of ECLIPSE process simulation models for the three selected gasification processes, namely fluidised bed, spouted bed and fixed bed. These models have been validated and are being used to predict the behaviour of appropriately sized commercial scale plant, enabling informed decisions regarding technical suitability. The next step in this project is to determine capital costs and economic performance. Process routes will be identified that offer the most cost effective routes to reducing environmental burdens by using sewage sludge in CHP applications. (author)

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC COOKER BURNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Kirick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a complex theoretical and experimental investigations a principally new design of small inertial burner for electric cookers has been developed that significantly out-perform burners of conventional types. 

  18. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  19. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  20. Implementation of thermal processes for feedstock recycling of bromine and antimony, with energy recovery, from plastics waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Phase 1. Literature survey/status update, evaluation, and ranking of combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis based technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerrigter, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    The bromine industry wants to process plastic Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs), to recycle bromine, antimony, and other valuable metals, with energy recovery for sustainable production and closing the bromine loop at the End-of-Life. The motivation to perform the underlying study was that insufficient detailed information was available regarding the technical and economical feasibility of processing of WEEE with thermal processes (i.e. combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis-based technologies). The objective of the study was to make an inventory of available processes and evaluate them based on the following six criteria:Energy efficiency, Bromine and Antimony recovery, Emissions (legislation permits), General quality of residues/secondary products, Operational experience, and Profit expectations (ROI). 57 refs.

  1. Ceramic application for regenerative burner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.B.; Park, B.H.; Kim, Y.W.; Bae, W.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    Recently, regenerative burner system was developed and begins to be gradually used for better energy savings. Compared to conventional burner system, the regenerative one has the several merits such as higher fuel efficiency, light weight of apparatus, low harmful toxic gas and homogeneous heating zone, etc. The regenerative material, a very important component of the new regenerative burner system should possess the properties of low specific density, higher surface area and high specific heat capacity. Ceramics is the best regenerative material because of stable mechanical properties even at high temperature and better thermal properties and excellent chemical stability. In this study, alumina ball, alumina tube, 3-D ceramic foam and honeycomb as regenerative materials were tested and evaluated. The computer simulation was conducted and compared to the result of field test. This paper is aimed to introduce a new application of ceramics at high temperature. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Laser-induced agglomeration of gold nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser irradiation of dense gold nanoparticles colloidal solution can result in their agglomeration. • Gas bubbles in-phase pulsation induced by laser radiation accounts for nanoparticles agglomeration. • Time evolution of the size distribution function proceeds in activation mode. • The electrostatic-like model of nanoparticles agglomeration is in good correspondence with the experimental data. - Abstract: Dynamics of gold nanoparticles (NPs) ensemble in dense aqueous solution under exposure to picosecond laser radiation is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Properties of NPs are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and size-measuring disk centrifuge. Theoretical investigation of NPs ensemble behavior is based on the analytical model taking into account collisions and agglomeration of particles. It is shown that in case of dense NPs colloidal solutions (above 1014 particles per milliliter) the process of laser fragmentation typical for nanosecond laser exposure turns into laser-induced agglomeration which leads to formation of the particles with larger sizes. It is shown that there is a critical concentration of NPs: at higher concentrations agglomeration rate increases tremendously. The results of mathematical simulation are in compliance with experimental data

  3. Laser-induced agglomeration of gold nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A.; Shcherbina, M.E. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, P.G., E-mail: qzzzma@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, N.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser irradiation of dense gold nanoparticles colloidal solution can result in their agglomeration. • Gas bubbles in-phase pulsation induced by laser radiation accounts for nanoparticles agglomeration. • Time evolution of the size distribution function proceeds in activation mode. • The electrostatic-like model of nanoparticles agglomeration is in good correspondence with the experimental data. - Abstract: Dynamics of gold nanoparticles (NPs) ensemble in dense aqueous solution under exposure to picosecond laser radiation is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Properties of NPs are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and size-measuring disk centrifuge. Theoretical investigation of NPs ensemble behavior is based on the analytical model taking into account collisions and agglomeration of particles. It is shown that in case of dense NPs colloidal solutions (above 10{sup 14} particles per milliliter) the process of laser fragmentation typical for nanosecond laser exposure turns into laser-induced agglomeration which leads to formation of the particles with larger sizes. It is shown that there is a critical concentration of NPs: at higher concentrations agglomeration rate increases tremendously. The results of mathematical simulation are in compliance with experimental data.

  4. Measuring Agglomeration Forces in a Financial Center

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    Basing on Scitovsky's (1954) definition of external economies and applying the method of Caballero and Lyons (1990) to macro data of Luxembourg services industry, we find significant agglomeration forces between financial intermediaries (downstream industry) on the one hand and business services and computer industry (upstream industries) on the other.

  5. Industrial Agglomeration and Use of the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractTaiwan has been hailed as a world leader in the development of global innovation and industrial clusters for the past decade. This paper investigates the effects of industrial agglomeration on the use of the internet and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whe

  6. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK LIQUOR STEAM GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Shri Ramaswamy Mail; Hua-Jiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform for the use of abundant, renewable forest-based biomass as raw material. The pulping processes produce a large amount of black liquor solids, which is currently burnt in a conventional Tomlinson recovery boiler for recovery of energy and inorganic chemicals. This combustion technology can recover chemicals with good efficiency, and steam and power can be produced for the mills. However, Black Liquor Gasification (BLG) can be used to substitute f...

  7. DESIGN REPORT LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  8. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  9. LASER-ENHANCED IONIZATION SPECTROMETRY WITH A TOTAL CONSUMPTION BURNER

    OpenAIRE

    Green, R; Hall, Janet

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a total consumption burner as an analytical atom reservoir for laser-enhanced ionization spectrometry. A total consumption burner and premixed burner are compared for limits of detection and matrix interferences. These results demonstrate that high sensitivity laser-enhanced ionization measurements are possible in adverse sample environments where traditional methods of optical spectrometry have proven inadequate.

  10. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  11. Coffee husks gasification using high temperature air/steam agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Brinellvaegen 23, SE 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); John, Geoffrey R.; Mhilu, Cuthbert F. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, P O Box 35131 Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)

    2010-10-15

    Analyses made on the world's biomass energy potential show that biomass energy is the most abundant sustainable renewable energy. The available technical biomass energy potential surpasses the total world's consumption levels of petroleum oils, coal and natural gas. In order to achieve a sustainable harnessing of the biomass energy potential and to increase its contribution to the world's primary energy consumption, there is therefore a need to develop and sustain contemporary technologies that increase the biomass-to-energy conversion. One such technology is the high temperature air/steam gasification (HTAG) of biomass. In this paper we present findings of gasification experimental studies that were conducted using coffee husks under high temperature conditions. The experiments were performed using a batch facility, which was maintained at three different gasification temperatures of 900 C, 800 C, and 700 C. The study findings exhibited the positive influence of high temperature on increasing the gasification process. Chars left while gasifying at 800 C and 700 C were respectively 1.5 and 2.4 times that for the case of 900 C. Furthermore, increased gasification temperature led to a linear increment of CO concentration in the syngas for all gasification conditions. The effect was more pronounced for the generally poorly performing gasification conditions of N{sub 2} and 2% oxygen concentration. When gasification temperature was increased from 700 C to 900 C the CO yield for the 2% O{sub 2} concentration increased by 6 times and that of N{sub 2} condition by 2.5 times. The respective increment for the 3% and 4% O{sub 2} conditions were only twofold. This study estimated the kinetic parameters for the coffee husks thermal degradation that exhibited a reaction mechanism of zero order with apparent activation energy of 161 kJ/mol and frequency factor of 3.89 x 10{sup 4}/min. (author)

  12. Bipolar charged aerosol agglomeration and collection by a two zone agglomerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In older to collect fine particles more efficiently, a new-type electrostatic agglomerator with two sones was developed. The distinguishing feature of this electrostatic agglomerator is that the particles are bipolarly charged and coagulated in the same alternating electric field simultaneously. The silica flour with 2 μm mass median diameter and the smoke from burning wood powder were used as test aerosol. The comparison experimental results have shown that when the mean electric field is 4 kV/cm the collection efficiency of the new electrostatic agglomerator was 98.2% for silica flour and 67.4% for wood powder smoke. Under the same experimental condition, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator with three zones was 97.4% for collecting silica flour and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator was 56.3% for wood powder smoke.

  13. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  14. CFD Analysis of NOx Emissions of a Natural Gas Lean Premixed Burner for Heavy Duty Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreini, A.; Cerutti, M; B. Facchini; Innocenti, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents a numerical analysis of a low NOx partially premixed burner for heavy duty gas turbine. The first part of the paper is focused on the study of the premixing process inside the burner using standard RANS CFD approach. The resulting profiles at different test points have been used to perform reactive simulations of an experimental test rig, where exhaust NOx emissions were measured. A reliable numerical setup was found comparing predicted and measured NOx emissions at ...

  15. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  16. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  17. Hydrogen production and CO{sub 2} fixation by flue-gas treatment using methane tri-reforming or coke/coal gasification combined with lime carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmann, M. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Steinfeld, A. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The production of hydrogen and the fixation of CO{sub 2} can be achieved by treatment of flue gases derived from fossil fuel fired power plants via catalytic methane tri-reforming or by coal gasification in the presence of CaO. A two-step process is designed to be carried out in two reactors: a) a catalytic gasifier or steam-reformer, operating exothermally at 900-1000 K, with inputs of the flue gas, a carbonaceous source, steam and air, as well as CaO from the calciner, and outputs of H{sub 2}, and of ''spent'' CaCO{sub 3} to the calciner; b) a calciner, operating endothermally at 1100-1300 K, with inputs of spent CaCO{sub 3} from the gasifier, make-up fresh CaCO{sub 3}, and outputs of CO{sub 2}, as well as of CaO, partly recycled to the gasifier and partly processed in a cement plant. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations along with mass/energy balances indicate that for flue-gas treatment by tri-reforming, CO{sub 2} emission avoidance of up to {proportional_to}59% and fossil fuel savings of up to {proportional_to}75% may be attained when concentrated solar energy is supplied as high-temperature process heat for the calcination step, all relative to conventional H{sub 2} production by coal gasification. If instead fossil fuel would be used to drive the calcination step, the CO{sub 2} emission avoidance and the fuel savings would be only 20% and 67%, respectively. Estimated annual H{sub 2} production from a coal-fired 500 MWe burner by the proposed flue-gas treatment using either CH{sub 4}-tri-reforming or coal gasification would amount to 0.7 x 10{sup 6} or 0.6 x 10{sup 6} metric tons H{sub 2}, respectively. Estimated fossil fuel consumption for H{sub 2} production by tri-reforming or coke gasification would be 149 or 143 GJ fuel/ton H{sub 2}. (author)

  18. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  19. Catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin into aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas over Rh supported on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Chunze; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-10-01

    Efficient catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin were conducted over a versatile supported catalyst Rh/La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2 to give high-value aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas. The removal of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most prevalent reaction, and importantly, almost no phenols, undesired char and saturating the aromatic ring were detected. Meanwhile, the feedstock and solvent both played key roles in H2 generation that contributed to the hydrodeoxygenation of liquid components and made the whole catalytic process out of H2 supply. Reusability tests of catalyst indicated that the crystalline phase transition and agglomeration of support, the loss of noble metal Rh and carbon deposition were the possible reasons for its deactivation in supercritical ethanol. Comparing with water, methanol and isopropanol system, ethanol was the only effective solvent for the depolymerization process. PMID:27441830

  20. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  1. Fibre agglomerate transport in a horizontal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of coolant accidents in the primary circuit of pressure and boiling water reactors can cause the damage of adjacent insulation materials. These materials may then find their way to the containment sump where water is drawn into the ECCS (emergency core cooling system). Strainers in the containment sump may become fully or partially blocked by the insulation materials. The consequences of such blockages are an increased pressure drop acting on the operating ECCS pumps. If the strainers are partially blocked smaller particles can also penetrate the strainers. These smaller particles can therefore enter the reactor coolant system and then accumulate in the reactor pressure vessel. An experimental and theoretical study that concentrates on mineral wool fibre transport in the containment sump and the ECCS is being performed. The study entails the generation of fibre agglomerates and the assessment of their transport in single and multi-effect experiments. The experiments include measurement of the terminal settling velocity, the strainer pressure drop, fibre sedimentation and resuspension in a channel flow, jet flow in a rectangular tank and the importance of chemical effects on any filter cake formed on the strainer. An integrated test facility is also operated to assess the compounded effects. Each experimental facility is used to provide data for the validation of equivalent computational fluid dynamic models. The channel flow facility allows the determination of the steady state distribution of the fibres at different flow velocities. The channel has a racetrack configuration with nine straight sections (1 m by 1 m by 0.1 m) and two 90 deg. bends with a radius of 0.5 m to the channel midpoint. The height of the bends is also 1 m and the channel width is 0.1 m. An elliptical section located upstream of one of the bends is used to house the impellers, which drives the flow into the next bend. Laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry, ultrasound

  2. An Alberta firm dives into deep coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkau, R.

    2009-06-15

    A synfuel plant in Calgary is now planning to gasify coal deposits located more than 1000 meters underground, and at the same time pump up a synthetic gas made of methane and hydrogen that is less greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive than natural gas. The plant will be the first in a series of commercial projects that will use carbon capture and storage to prevent air emissions from in situ coal gasification processes. The demonstration project will showcase the gasification technology, which subjects coal to heat and pressure in order to cause a series of chemical reactions that convert the feedstock into syngas. A pair of wells is drilled into the coal seam. Oxygen and water is then injected to support a limited amount of combustion. The combined effect of the high temperatures, steam, and natural in situ pressure create the right conditions for the coal to undergo gasification. The process is less expensive than surface gasification. Slag and ash byproducts also remain underground. Water used in the process is recycled and re-used, and the process does not contaminate fresh water supplies. It was concluded that a significant portion of Alberta's 600 billion tonnes of deep coal reserves are amenable to the gasification process. 3 figs.

  3. Coal gasification. Quo vadis?; Kohlevergasung. Quo Vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graebner, Martin; Meyer, Bernd [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Dept. of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering

    2010-11-15

    To summarize, it can be stated for coal gasification that in the last decade, an increase of synthesis gas capacity of 17.7 GW was observed, mainly concentrated in the Chinese region (15.3 GW). All these plants produce chemicals, primarily ammonia and methanol. Most of the announced North American and European IGCC projects (partly including CO{sub 2} capture) are either on hold or canceled. Hence, the development shows that mono-power generation applying CCS is not feasible under the current boundary conditions. If one poses the question ''Coal gasification - Quo vadis?'', it would be instructive to develop new strategies keeping in mind boundary conditions like oil depletion, climate protection, coal properties and grid instabilities. Since lots of chemical raw materials contain carbon, a carbon source for the post-oil era has to be identified. As only gasification processes are able to condition coal for chemical utilization, they indicate the direction for further development. In this context it is advisable to combine the production os chemicals and power. Modern polygeneration plants or ''energy factories'' would allow the highest creation of value at minimized CO{sub 2} emissions and flexible load deploying processes tailored to coal quality. The experiences of the recently constructed plants will enrich research and development so that concept design could successfully materialize as technical installations. (orig.)

  4. Agglomeration techniques for the production of spheres for packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One attractive fusion-breeder-blanket design features a lithium bearing ceramic in the form of spheres packed into a random array. The spheres have diameters of 3 mm and 0.3 mm. This report surveys techniques used to produce ceramic spheres on an industrial scale. The methods examined include tumbling and mixing granulation, extrusion, briquetting and pelletizing. It is concluded that the required quantities of 0.3 mm diameter spheres can be produced by the tumbling agglomeration of a feed powder. The 3 mm diameter spheres will be made using a process of extrusion, chopping and rolling

  5. Investigation of coalescence kinetics of microcristalline cellulose in fluidised bed spray agglomeration: experimental studies and modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peglow

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a model for fluidized bed spray agglomeration is presented. To describe the processes of heat and mass transfer, a physical based model is derived. The model takes evaporation process from the wetted particles as well as the effects of transfer phenomena between suspension gas and bypass gas into account. The change of particle size distribution during agglomeration, modeled by population balances, is linked to the heat and mass transfer model. A new technique is derived to extract agglomeration and nucleation rates from experimental data. Comparisons of experiments and simulations are presented.

  6. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  7. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  8. Regenerative burner in the metals industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.

    1986-07-01

    The Regenerative Ceramic Burner, RCB is becoming widely accepted in the UK as the successor of the world famous recuperative burner. This paper describes the RCB and its modes of operation and compares it with the recuperative burner. This comparison uses the example of a reheating furnace employed to heat a 10 tonne billet to 1250/sup 0/C. The superior technical performance of the RCB is mirrored in its economic attractiveness. For most medium and large furnace applications the device can pay for itself in less than two years with 40 to 50% fuel savings. Examples of the use of the device are presented from both the steel and aluminium industries. In all cases, operation and worthwhile energy savings have been achieved. In its role on an aluminum melter, the burner has demonstrated its ability to handle contaminated gases with minimum maintenance requirement. The paper concludes with ideas for future developments of the technology which will extend its use into other industry sectors.

  9. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  10. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  11. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphalen, D. [A.D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  12. Distribution Characteristics and Compressibility of Agglomerates as a Reflection of Granulation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macho Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective adjustment of the properties of particular material agglomeration has its inherent place in the chemical, food, but especially in the pharmaceutical, industry. The requirement to produce an agglomerate with desired particle size at a given strength is often formulated. To create the targeted product, it is necessary to know the process parameters affecting the preparation of its features. This paper deals with survey distribution characteristics and compressibility changes of an agglomerate in dependence on the duration of the granulation process through the usage of the most modern devices working with particulate materials. The investigated product will be prepared for coating granulating disc designed at the Institute of Process Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava.

  13. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  14. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) and underground coal incineration (UCI) are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  15. Change in the electric potential of solid fuels on their combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Zakharov, A.G.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1979-01-01

    Solid fuels of various degrees of graphitization (graphite, coke, hard coal, lignite) were used to study the changes in electric potential of samples during gasification and combustion in air. The potential shows three peaks during combustion, the third corresponding to ignition. Two peaks occur during the gasification process.

  16. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

  17. Industry-specific firm growth and agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Duschl, Matthias; Scholl, Tobias; Brenner, Thomas; Luxen, Dennis; Raschke, Falk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the industry-specific relationship between industrial clustering and firm growth. The literature usually considers industrial clusters as positive for the general economic development of regions. In particular, their relationship with the formation rate of new firms and the survival rate of existing firms is well documented. However, the impact of agglomeration effects on growth prospects of firms is less clear. Because of the heterogeneity of industries, different agglomer...

  18. Sports Facilities, Agglomeration, and Urban Redevelopment

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Brad; Zhou, Li

    2013-01-01

    We develop a monopolistic competition model of urban service consumption and production that includes spatial structure and property values. The model shows that the introduction of a new professional sports facility and team generates agglomeration effects that change the mix of services and property values, and increases local welfare, part of which is transferred to the team as subsidies for the construction of the facility. The distributional consequences of the new facility and the impli...

  19. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  20. The Power of Hydroelectric Dams: Agglomeration Spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Severnini, Edson R.

    2014-01-01

    How much of the geographic clustering of economic activity is attributable to agglomeration spillovers as opposed to natural advantages? I present evidence on this question using data on the long-run effects of large scale hydroelectric dams built in the U.S. over the 20th century, obtained through a unique comparison between counties with or without dams but with similar hydropower potential. Until mid-century, the availability of cheap local power from hydroelectric dams conveyed an importa...