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Sample records for agglomerating burner gasification process

  1. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  2. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Ash agglomeration during fluidized bed gasification of high sulphur content lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, V.; Marinov, S.P.; Lazarov, L.; Stefanova, M. (SRTI Energydesign, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1992-09-01

    Intensive ash agglomeration has hampered the fluidized bed gasification of lignites from the Elhovo deposit (Bulgaria) containing 5.9 wt% sulphur in the dry state. Samples of slag and agglomerates from the pilot plant have been examined by means of chemical, X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Pyrrhotite (FeS) and wustite (FeO) have been established in the agglomerates, where junctions between ash particles have been found to consist of magnetite, spinel and garnet grains. The chemical reactions leading to garnet formation have been studied. Centres of sintering and centres of melting during the ash agglomeration process have been distinguished. The pyrite product, an eutectic of FeS and FeO melting at 924[degree]C, is assumed to be responsible for the cessation of lignite gasification with steam and air under pressure at a bed temperature of 930[degree]. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  5. Development and demonstration plant operation of an opposed multi-burner coal-water slurry gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fuchen; ZHOU Zhijie; DAI Zhenhua; GONG Xin; YU Guangsuo; LIU Haifeng; WANG Yifei; YU Zunhong

    2007-01-01

    The features of the opposed multi-burner (OMB) gasification technology,the method and process of the research,and the operation results of a pilot plant and demon stration plants have been introduced.The operation results of the demonstration plants show that when Beisu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Yankuang Cathy Coal Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 8%,and a lower specific carbon consumption of 2%-3% than that of Texaco CWS gasification at the Lunan Fertilizer Plant.When Shenfu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Hua-lu Heng-sheng Chemical Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of more than 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 2%,and a lower specific coal consumption of about 8% than that of the Texaco CWS gasification process at Shanghai Coking & Chemical Corporation.The OMB CWS gasification technology is proven by industrial experience to have a high product yield,low oxygen and coal consumption and robust and safe operation.

  6. Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: a performance and agglomeration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin

    2011-01-01

    Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed.

  7. Developmental research study of coal-fines agglomeration for fixed-bed gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmquist, S.A.; Girimont, J.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Kuby, O.A.; Nelson, S.G.; Paulin, M.O.; Peterson, C.A.; Baker, R.L.; Saller, E.

    1983-05-31

    This report presents the results of an intensive program to develop and evaluate agglomerates made from coal fines for use in a fixed-bed gasifier. There were several tasks completed earlier and their results published prior to this final report. These included: Task 1-A, a literature survey of coal agglomeration, binders and techniques used in coal agglomeration, coal and binder treatments and the results of work done by others; Task 1-B, an examination of performance of lump coals in coal gasification, testing and evaluation of the properties of these coals, and evaluation of mine site coal upgrading methods; and Task 1-C/D, a laboratory investigation of coal agglomerates, including wafers, briquettes and pellets, in which the agglomerated coal fines were formed and tested, and the performance of various coal/binder combinations was recorded and evaluated, and factors affecting commercial scale coal agglomeration and gasification were evaluated. These three prior tasks are presented in this report in condensed form.

  8. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    A number of the processes for converting coal to gas supported by US DOE have reached the pilot plant stage. Laboratory research is also continuing in order to develop data for verifying the feasibility of the specific process and for supporting the operation of the plant. Responsibility for designing, constructing, and operating these pilot plants is given. The most successful test to date was completed in the pilot plant of the BI-GAS Process. The HYGAS Process pilot plant continued testing with Illinois bituminous coal to acquire data necessary to optimize the design of a commercial demonstration plant using the HYGAS process. The Synthane Process pilot plant continued studies of Illinois No. 6 coal. Other processes discussed are: Agglomerating Burner Process, Liquid Phase Methanation Process, Molten Salt Gasification Process, Advanced Coal Gasification System, and Lo-Btu Gasification of Coal for Electric Power Generation. Each project is described briefly with funding, history, and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  9. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  10. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  11. Gasification — the process and the technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermochemical gasification of biomass can produce low, medium and high calorific value gases. The characteristics, applications and potential of the different processes and reactor types are discussed. The introduction of biomass gasification on a large or intermediate scale for the production of p

  12. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  13. Gasification combined cycle power generation - process alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Interest in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants has recently increased also in Finland. The IGCC systems offer the potential of superior efficiency and environmental performance over conventional pulverized coal or peat fired boilers. Potential applications are both large-scale electricity production from coal and medium-scale combined heat and electricity production. In the latter case, the gasification process should also be applicable to peat and wood. Several IGCC processes have been developed in USA and in Europe. These processes differ from each other in many respects. Nearest to commercialization are processes, which employ oxygen gasification and cold gas cleanup. The Cool Water plant, which was brought into operation in 1984 in USA, has demonstrated the feasibility of an IGCC system using Texaco entrained-bed gasifier. Several pressurized fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification processes have also reached a pilot or demonstration stage with a wide variety of coals from lignite to hard coal. Pressurized fluidized-bed gasification of peat (Rheinbraun-HTW-process) will also be demonstrated at the peat ammonia plant of Kemira Oy, which will be commissioned in 1988 in Oulu, Finland. Oxygen gasification and cold gas cleanup are, however, economically viable only in large-scale applications. Technology is being developed to simplify the IGCC system, in order to reduce its capital costs and increase its efficiency. Air gasification combined with ho gas cleanup seems to have a great potential of improving the competitiveness of the IGCC system.

  14. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  15. 水煤浆加压气化烧嘴在线运行周期的影响因素及分析%Effecting Factor and Analysis of Water Coal Slurry Pressurizing Gasification Burner on Running Period in Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乐利

    2014-01-01

    分析了影响水煤浆加压气化烧嘴长周期运行的原因,分别从烧嘴的设计选型、材料选用及加工制造、运行维护与检修等方面提出了应对措施,对水煤浆气化生产企业选用相应的气化烧嘴给出了建议。%Author has analyzed the reason influencing long-term operation of burner for water coal slurry pressurizing gasification , has presented the countermeasures separately from aspects of design and type selection of burner,material selection and processing/manufacturing, operation/maintainance and inspection.

  16. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  17. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE FOR FERTILISATION PURPOSES INCINERATION ASH PELLETS USING GASIFICATION BURNER LESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Gibczyńska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass in system energetics for the purpose of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix by biomass and coal co-combustion is not an optimal solution in the light of previous experience in Poland. It is appropriate to develop local biomass market for energy purposes as a basis for future distributed energy generation based on biomass. This solution facilitates the use of ash from biomass combustion for plant fertilisation. The present paper concerns the assessment of the use of ash from combustion of pellets in an innovative gasifying pellet burner – LESTER type, for soil fertilisation. The paper presents the analysis of the content of macro- and microelements in ash against the chemical composition of pellets in relation to permissible contents in fertilisers. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in bottom and fly ash from combustion of wood pellet and rye straw in LESTER gasifying burner validates the use of this material for soil fertilisation purposes. However, due to low nitrogen content – comparable to that found in soil, the material is not to be considered as fertiliser supplying this macroelement to soil. The analysed bottom ash used for fertilisation meets the conditions set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 9 September 2002. However, fly ash should be used with considerable caution due to high content of iron, zinc and nickel. The yield of bottom ash is several times higher than that of fly ash, therefore the possibility of its use in the form of mixtures in adequate proportions should be considered.

  19. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RLJ Coetzer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation. This paper discusses the application of statistical robustness studies as a method for determining the most efficient combination of process variables that might be hard-to-control during normal operation. Response surface models were developed in the process variables for each of the performance variables. It will be shown how statistical robustness studies provided the optimal conditions for sustainable gasifier operability and throughput. In particular, the optimum operability region is significantly expanded towards higher oxygen loads by changing and controlling the particle size distribution of the coal.

  20. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  1. The Effect of Temperature on the Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baláš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a technology that uses fuel to produce power and heat. This technology is also suitable for biomass conversion. Biomass is a renewable energy source that is being developed to diversify the energy mix, so that the Czech Republic can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and on raw materials for energy imported from abroad. During gasification, biomass is converted into a gas that can then be burned in a gas burner, with all the advantages of gas combustion. Alternatively, it can be used in internal combustion engines. The main task during gasification is to achieve maximum purity and maximum calorific value of the gas. The main factors are the type of gasifier, the gasification medium, biomass quality and, last but not least, the gasification mode itself. This paper describes experiments that investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on gas composition and low calorific value. The experiments were performed in an atmospheric gasifier in the laboratories of the Energy Institute atthe Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

  2. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  3. OH Diffusion in Silica Glass Preform During Jacketing Process by Oxy-Hydrogen Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. H. Kim; S. R. Han; U. C. Paek; W.-T. Han; S. K. Oh

    2003-01-01

    Radial distribution of OH diffusion in silica glass preform during jacketing process using a oxy-hydrogen burner was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The OH peaks at the jacketing boundary and the surface of the preform were found to be due to diffusion of OH incorporated from the burner.

  4. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Exergetic analysis of coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency and economics of the Synthane Gasification process are evaluated and discussed. The efficiency of the Synthane process was determined using the exergy analysis (availability) approach to process evaluation. The exergy analysis utilizes both the first and second laws of thermodynamics to determine the efficiency of a process, and is very useful in determining the causes of inefficiency. In order to accurately apply the exergy analysis, it is essential that the absolute enthalpy and entropy values of each stream be determined. In this study, methods for predicting the enthalpy and entropy of coal, char, tar, and ash, as a function of temperature and material composition previously developed were used. A computer simulation of the Synthane process was developed which allowed for the effect of changes in plant operating parameters on both the efficiency and economics. The simulation included a three-section model of the Synthane fluidized bed gasifier.

  6. Dynamic models of staged gasification processes. Documentation of gasification simulator; Dynamiske modeller a f trinopdelte forgasningsprocesser. Dokumentation til forgasser simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In connection with the ERP project 'Dynamic modelling of staged gasification processes' a gasification simulator has been constructed. The simulator consists of: a mathematical model of the gasification process developed at Technical University of Denmark, a user interface programme, IGSS, and a communication interface between the two programmes. (BA)

  7. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i. e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical intermediate. In this paper, these novel chemical looping gasification processes are described and their advantages and potential challenges for commercialization are discussed.

  8. U-GAS coal gasification process with in-situ desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite have been used in conjunction with the U-GAS coal gasification process for in-situ capture of sulfur present in the coal. Under the reducing conditions of the gasifier, these sorbents react with sulfur compounds to form calcium sulfide. As a unique feature of the U-GAS process, the calcium sulfide could be further reacted with air in the ash discharge zone to form calcium sulfate, which is environmentally acceptable for disposal directly from the gasifier along with the agglomerated ash. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has conducted considerable testing in this area under different programs. The suitability of dolomite as in-situ sulfur capturing agent has been verified in U-GAS process using high-sulfur Pittsburgh coal. The gasification tests were conducted at 1850{degree}F in pressure ranges of 100 to 450 psig. The kinetics of the reaction between calcium based sorbents and hydrogen sulfide at these gasification conditions have been derived separately using a thermogravimetric technique. Effect of temperature, pressure, and particle size on the reaction rate were also included in these latter tests. Furthermore, the operating conditions and the type of sorbents suitable for achieving maximum calcium conversion to calcium sulfate during the oxidation step of the process have also been identified. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  10. A phenomenological model for improving understanding of the ammonium nitrate agglomeration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videla Leiva Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate is intensively used as explosive in the mining industry as the main component of ANFO. The ammonium nitrate is known to be a strong hygroscopic crystal matter which generates problems due to the creation of water bridges between crystals leading later to nucleation and crystallization forming an agglomerated solid cake. The agglomeration process damages the ammonium nitrate performance and is undesirable. Usually either organic or inorganic coatings are used to control agglomeration. In the present work a characterization method of humidity adsorption of the ammonium nitrate crystal was performed under laboratory conditions. Several samples were exposed into a defined humidity in a controlled chamber during 5 hours after which the samples were tested to measure agglomeration as the resistance force to compression. A clear relation was found between coating protection level, humidity and agglomeration. Agglomeration can be then predicted by a phenomenological model based of combination of the mono-layer BET adsorption and CNT nucleation models.

  11. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  12. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  13. A summary report on combustion and gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

  14. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  15. Research and Development of Coal Gasification Technology%煤气化技术的研究现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国峰; 刘勇; 安德成

    2011-01-01

    Coal gasification was the key technology for clean and high-efficiency coal utilization,and also the basis of the development of coal chemical processing.The characteristics of coal gasification technology of Texco,Lugri,Shell,GSP,and Opposed Multi-burner,Two Stage Pulverized Coal,and Ash Agglomerating were introduced,which would provide reference for choice of coal gasification technology.The prospect of China's coal gasification technology was forecasted.%煤气化技术是煤炭高效清洁利用的核心技术,是发展煤化工技术的基础。本文介绍了德士古、鲁奇、壳牌、GSP等国外煤气化技术的工艺特点以及多喷嘴对置、二段干粉及灰熔聚等国内气化技术,为我国企业选择合适的煤气化技术提供参考,并展望了我国煤气化技术的发展方向。

  16. Coal Chemical Gasification Process Schedule Control%煤气化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振

    2015-01-01

    介绍了Lurgi炉固定床加压气化、Texaco水煤浆加压气化、Shell 煤气化工艺和 GSP 粉煤气化工艺4种煤气化工艺,阐述了Shell 煤气化工艺和 GSP 粉煤气化工艺的工艺流程,并对其进行了技术分析。%Introduces the Lurgi fixed bed gasification furnace,Texaco coal-water slurry gasification,Shell coal gasifica-tion Process,GSP coal gasification process four kinds of coal gasification process,and which elaborates technical character-istics and process of coal gasification process control of Shell coal gasification process and GSP process.

  17. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Phase 2, Final report, May 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-09-15

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized, carbonaceous feedstocks for electrical power generation, substitute natural gas, chemical feedstocks, and industrial fuels. This report covers Phase II of the contract period (May 1, 1983 to July 31, 1984) and is a continuation of the work performed in 1983 and reported in the Phase I final report, FE-19122-30. Included is work performed in fiscal 1983 to 1984 on PDU testing, process analysis, cold flow scaleup facility, process and component engineering and design, and laboratory support studies.

  18. Gasification trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.; Karp, A.D. [SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The traditional use of gasification for high value chemicals will continue where fuel prices make gasification more competitive than steam methane reforming. However, oil companies already have the essentials--expertise, fuels, and financing--to be a dominant force in the new world of competitive energy markets. Refinery-based gasification therefore can be expected to proliferate as deregulation of electric power generation promotes the efficiency and economic advantages of cogeneration and trigeneration. The greatest market potential for gasification in the future is electric power generation. In traditional electric utility applications, the efficiency and overall economics of coal gasification may be only marginally superior to those of well-designed, coal-fired steam cycles having state-of-the-art emission controls. Offsetting gasification`s environmental and efficiency advantages in such applications are concerns about capital cost and the need for chemical process expertise. However, power industry deregulation and competition are likely to diminish the importance of large, new central power plants, while imparting increased value to gasification`s strategic advantages, which include: Gasification`s superior environmental performance, particularly in the area of solid wastes; gasification`s superior ability to exploit high-efficiency combustion turbine-based opportunities for combined-cycle and especially cogeneration applications; gasification`s superior ability to exploit a range of fuels--from natural gas and opportunity fuels in the near-to-intermediate term to coal in the longer term, when natural gas prices escalate; and gasification`s superior market economics and flexibility to create and profit from combined power and synthesis gas chemical applications.

  19. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  20. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  1. Burners. The decrease of nitrogen oxides in combustion process: the 2 nd generation GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs, la reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Pillard company has developed, in cooperation with GDF (the French national gas utility), the GR-LONOxFLAM burner concept for reducing NOx emission levels and solid combustion products. The concept consists, for gaseous fuels, in the combination of an internal recirculation and a gas staging process; for liquid fuels, a separated flame process and air staging are combined. These concepts allow for an important reduction in NOx and non-burned residues, even with standard-size burners

  2. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  3. Availability (energetic) analysis of coal gasification process. Pt. 1. Theoretical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1981-10-01

    The concepts of availability, energy, and of exergetic efficiency are developed for use in evaluating coal gasification processes. The problem of defining the thermodynamic surroundings is discussed, and the approach of Bosnjakovic is used to select surroundings. In the second paper in this series the analysis is illustrated by applying it in evaluating the Synthane Gasification process. (13 refs.)

  4. Plasma aided coal gasification and the variables in this process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, X.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-12-15

    In order to investigate the characters of plasma aided coal gasification in the industry-scale equipment, the tests with changing feeding rate, steam output pressure, feeding gas flux, input power of plasma generator and the additives were carried out with Datong coal. The produced gas components were analyzed by gas chromatography. And the optimal process conditions, such as, the feeding rate of 150 g/min, the feeding gas flow of 18 m{sup 3}/h, the output power of plasma generator of 100 kW, the steam output pressure of 0.3 MPa are obtained. When the contents of CaO and CaCO{sub 3} in the whole feed are 10 and 5% respectively, the experimental data show their catalytic effect is the best. Considering the molar mass of CaO and CaCO{sub 3}, it is concluded that the catalytic effect of CaO is more important than the reduction of CO{sub 2} in the gasification. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Simulation of Solid Particle Agglomeration Process in Gas Enhanced by High Intensity Sound Field%Simulation of Solid Particle Agglomeration Process in Gas Enhanced by High Intensity Sound Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are two mechanisms in the particle agglomeration process enhanced by the high intensity sound field in the gas-solid system: the orthokinetic interaction mechanism and hydrodynamic interaction mechanism. The orthokinetic interaction mechanism, hydrodynamic interaction mechanism and the acoustic agglomeration process which included the both two mechanisms were investigated by modeling method and MATLAB program. The results showed: the value of acoustic agglomeration kernel function (AAKF) based on the orthokinetic interaction mechanism was zero when the size of two particles in the pair was the same.

  6. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  8. Safety research in the gasification process of novel multi-thermal-source coal gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu-xian; WU Min-huan; WANG Xiao-gang; ZHANG Ya-ping; QIANG Jun-feng; TIAN Xin-wei; WANG Xi-lian

    2009-01-01

    In order to collect the gas safely produced in the gasification process of the novel multi-thermal-source coal gasifier,based on its gasification skill and the characteristics of the products, this paper analyzes the possible dangers in the gasification process, devises the gasifier eruption and explosion experiments, explores the conditions of gasifier eruption and gas explosion, studies their effects on the gasification process and establishes safe operation measures. Gasifier eruption hazard occurs easily in the gasification process of one-thermal-source coal gasifier when Msio: is far higher than that in the normal adjuvant. The gas permeability in the gasifier is not the same and the power supply is too large. However, similar conditions in the gasification of multi-thermal-source coal gasifier do not produce a gasifier eruption accident so easily. When it erupts, the gasifier should be stopped and then cooled down naturally or inert gas can be sprayed on the gasifier to cool it off, and thus gas explosion can be avoided. There is a possibility of direct gas explosion, but it can be avoided when the gas in the gas collecting space is replaced slowly by supplying a small amount of power or the inert gas fills the space in the previous gasification. The time a fire is lit is strictly controlled, the gas is drawn in by using the aspirator pump, and the gasifier pressure is kept in the state of micro-positive pressure in the middle and later gasification process. The conclusion is that the gasification process of the novel multi-thermal-source coal gasifier is safe according to normal operation rules.

  9. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  10. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process simulation and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emun, F.; Gadalla, M.; Majozi, T.; Boer, D. [University of Rovira & Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-03-05

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which offers efficient generation from coal with lower effect on the environment than conventional coal power plants. However, further improvement of its efficiency and thereby lowering emissions are important tasks to achieve a more sustainable energy production. In this paper, a process simulation tool is proposed for simulation of IGCC. This tool is used to improve IGCC's efficiency and the environmental performance through an analysis of the operating conditions, together with process integration studies. Pinch analysis principles and process integration insights are then employed to make topological changes to the flowsheet to improve the energy efficiency and minimize the operation costs. Process data of the Texaco gasifier and the associated plants (coal preparation, air separation unit, gas cleaning, sulfur recovery, gas turbine, steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator) are considered as a base case, and simulated using Aspen Plus. The results of parameter analysis and heat integration studies indicate that thermal efficiency of 45% can be reached, while a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} and SOx emissions is observed. The CO{sub 2} and SOx emission levels reached are 698 kg/MWh and 0.15 kg/MWh, respectively. Application of pinch analysis determines energy targets, and also identifies potential modifications for further improvement to overall energy efficiency. Benefits of energy integration and steam production possibilities can further be quantified. Overall benefits can be translated to minimum operation costs and atmospheric emissions.

  11. Fully-Enclosed Ceramic Micro-burners Using Fugitive Phase and Powder-based Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Truong; Shin, Changseop; Kwon, Patrick; Yeom, Junghoon

    2016-08-01

    Ceramic-based microchemical systems (μCSs) are more suitable for operation under harsh environments such as high temperature and corrosive reactants compared to the more conventional μCS materials such as silicon and polymers. With the recent renewed interests in chemical manufacturing and process intensification, simple, inexpensive, and reliable ceramic manufacturing technologies are needed. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new powder-based fabrication framework, which is a one-pot, cost-effective, and versatile process for ceramic μCS components. The proposed approach employs the compaction of metal-oxide sub-micron powders with a graphite fugitive phase that is burned out to create internal cavities and microchannels before full sintering. Pure alumina powder has been used without any binder phase, enabling more precise dimensional control and less structure shrinkage upon sintering. The key process steps such as powder compaction, graphite burnout during partial sintering, machining in a conventional machine tool, and final densification have been studied to characterize the process. This near-full density ceramic structure with the combustion chamber and various internal channels was fabricated to be used as a micro-burner for gas sensing applications.

  12. Hydrogen generation from polyvinyl alcohol-contaminated wastewater by a process of supercritical water gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-contaminated wastewater in supercritical water (SCW) was investigated in a continuous flow reactor at 723-873 K, 20-36 MPa and residence time of 20-60 s. The gas and liquid products were analyzed by GC/TCD, TOC analyzer and GC/MS. The main gas products were H2, CH4, CO and CO2. Pressure change had no significant influence on gasification efficiency. Higher temperature and longer residence time enhanced gasification efficiency, and lower temperature favored the production of H2. The effects of KOH catalyst on gas product composition were studied, and gasification efficiency were analyzed. The TOC removal efficiency (TOCR), carbon gasification ratio (CGR) and hydrogen gasification ratio (HGR) were up to 96.00%, 95.92% and 126.40% at 873 K and 60 s, respectively, which suggests PVA can be completely gasified in SCW. The results indicate supercritical water gasification for hydrogen generation is a promising process for the treatment of PVA wastewater.

  13. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  14. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.; Korotkikh Alexander G.; Sorokin Ivan V.

    2017-01-01

    Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The o...

  15. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  16. Influences of Different Components on Agglomeration Behavior of MoS2 During Oxidation Roasting Process in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jing-Song; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-08-01

    An agglomeration of the furnace charge always takes place during the oxidation roasting process of molybdenite concentrate (with the main component of MoS2) in multiple hearth furnaces, which greatly affects the production process and furnace service life. In the present work, a preliminary study about the influence of various components on the agglomeration phenomenon of pure MoS2 have been carried out. The results show that reaction temperature, impurity content, and air flow rate have significant effects on the agglomeration extent. Meanwhile, the impurity type added into the pure MoS2 plays a crucial role. It was found that CaO and MgO have a stronger sulfur-fixing effect and that the desulphurization of the roasted product was uncompleted. It was also concluded that the agglomeration is due to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics, including that between MoO3 and impurities and that between MoO3 and Mo4O11. It is suggested that decreasing the impurities contents, especially K, Cu, Pb, and Fe, is an effective method for reducing the extent of agglomeration.

  17. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  19. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  20. Multifuel burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybould, J.D.

    1982-04-28

    A design is proposed for turbulent burner (B) for simultaneous burning of powder, liquid and/or gaseous fuel (F). The liquid F is sprayed with the help of a rotation sprayer arranged on the axis of the burner device. The gas can be supplied through the opening made in the dish-shaped bottom encompassing the central part of the B. The powder F (aeromixture) enters the combustion zone through the channels with vortex blades arranged on the periphery of the bottom of the B. Through the annular channel arranged around the rotation sprayer, primary air is supplied, and through the channels arranged on the periphery of the B, secondary air. The percentage of solid F during operation of the B can be 75-90%.

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  2. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  3. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  4. Processing and Sintering of Agglomerate-free CaO-ZrO2 Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping LIANG; Shu'e DANG; Dong WU; Yuhan SUN

    2004-01-01

    Coprecipitation supercritical fluid drying technology has been employed to synthesize calcia-stabilized zirconia ultrafine powder with low-cost inorganic salts as the starting materials. The sintering behaviors of these powders were also investigated. The results showed that supercritical fluid drying could effectively alleviate the hard agglomeration of grains during the gel drying process, and the morphology of the powder retained the network texture of the original gel.The resulting particles were characterized by small particle size (5~20 nm), better monodispersity and high surface area, which gave rise to high activity and sinterability. Consequently, these powders could readily be compacted into the desired shape and their densification could be carried out in shorter time and at lower temperatures. For instance,nanometer-sized powder calcined at 600℃ for 2 h could be cold-pressed into a green body and sintered at 1100° for 0.5 h to attain a dense body with bulk density of 5.9718 g/cm3 and specific pore volume of 0.0008 cm3/g.

  5. Biomass ash-bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in FBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, H.J.M.; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial-scale ins......In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial...... describes a fundamental study on the mechanisms of defluidization. For the studied process of bed defluidization due to sintering of grain-coating layers, it was found that the onset of the process depends on (a) a critical coating thickness, (b) on the fluidization velocity when it is below approximately...... four times the minimum fluidization velocity, and (c) on the viscosity (stickiness) of the outside of the grains (coating)....

  6. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption.

  7. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  9. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process.

  10. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M.; Jagarlapudi, S. C.; Patel, J. B.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  11. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  12. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Development of Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) process for fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, P. M.; Nehete, Y. G.; Fulzele, A. K.; Baghra, Chetan; Mishra, A. K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J. P.; Kamath, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) technique has been developed at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF), BARC, Tarapur, for manufacturing (Th, 233U)O 2 mixed oxide fuel pellets, which are remotely fabricated in hot cell or shielded glove box facilities to reduce man-rem problem associated with 232U daughter radionuclides. This technique is being investigated to fabricate the fuel for Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). In the IAP process, ThO 2 is converted to free flowing spheroids by powder extrusion route in an unshielded facility which are then coated with uranyl nitrate solution in a shielded facility. The dried coated agglomerate is finally compacted and then sintered in oxidizing/reducing atmosphere to obtain high density (Th,U)O 2 pellets. In this study, fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets containing 3-5 wt.% UO 2 was carried out by IAP process. The pellets obtained were characterized using optical microscopy, XRD and alpha autoradiography. The results obtained were compared with the results for the pellets fabricated by other routes such as Coated Agglomerate Pelletization (CAP) and Powder Oxide Pelletization (POP) route.

  14. Gasification process of refuse derived fuel in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, S.; Kinoshita, Y.; Lee, C.W.; Itaya, Y.; Mori, S. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a fuel gas production system involving gasification of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Although RDF is considered to be a viable source of energy, combustion of RDF has not spread widely because of a lack of conventional incinerators, erosion due to hydrogen chloride, and emissions of dioxin. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the pyrolysis behaviour of 3 kinds of RDF and the particle motion in a cold model CFB. The objective was to clarify operating parameters for optimum control. It was shown that an increase in combustion temperature improves the yield of the combustible gas components and the energy recycling efficiency from the RDF. The highest heating value of pyrolysis gas was obtained at 873 to 973 degrees K. The gas flow rate in the pneumatic valve of the CFB was an important control factor for the circulation flux and solids holdup in the riser. High holdups were observed when minute silica sand particles were used in the CFB. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  15. Process simulation of single-step dimethyl ether production via biomass gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Fudong; Chen, Hanping; Ding, Xuejun; Yang, Haiping; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Shihong; Dai, Zhenghua

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we simulated the single-step process of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis via biomass gasification using ASPEN Plus. The whole process comprised four parts: gasification, water gas shift reaction, gas purification, and single-step DME synthesis. We analyzed the influence of the oxygen/biomass and steam/biomass ratios on biomass gasification and synthesis performance. The syngas H(2)/CO ratio after water gas shift process was modulated to 1, and the syngas was then purified to remove H(2)S and CO(2), using the Rectisol process. Syngas still contained trace amounts of H(2)S and about 3% CO(2) after purification, which satisfied the synthesis demands. However, the high level of cold energy consumption was a problem during the purification process. The DME yield in this study was 0.37, assuming that the DME selectivity was 0.91 and that CO was totally converted. We performed environmental and economic analyses, and propose the development of a poly-generation process based on economic considerations.

  16. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  17. IMPACT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND AGGLOMERATION ON SETTLING OF SOLIDS IN CONTINUOUS MELTERS PROCESSING RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HRMA PR

    2008-12-18

    The major factor limiting waste loading for many waste compositions in continuous waste glass melters is the settling of crystalline materials. The currently used constraints, i.e., the minimum liquidus temperature or the maximum fraction of equilibrium crystallinity at a given temperature, are based on thennodynamic equilibria. Because of the rapid circular convection in the melter, these constraints are probably irrelevant and cannot prevent large crystals from settling. The main factor that detennines the rate of settling ofindividual crystals, such as those ofspinel, is their size. The tiny crystals of RU02 are too small to settle, but they readily fonn large agglomerates that accelerate their rate ofsettling by severalorders ofmagnitude. The RU02 agglomerates originate early in the melting process and then grow by the shear-flocculation mechanism. It is estimated that these agglomerates must either be ofhundreds micrometers in size or have an elongated shape to match the observed rates ofthe sludge-layer fonnation. PACS: 47.57.ef, 81.05.Kj, 81.10.Fg

  18. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Rastko D.; Cvetinović Dejan B.; Stefanović Predrag Lj.; Škobalj Predrag D.; Marković Zoran J.

    2016-01-01

    New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important...

  19. Gasification Processes Old and New: A Basic Review of the Major Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Breault

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres.

  20. Gasification as an alternative method for the destruction of sulfur containing waste (ChemChar process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medcalf, B.D.; Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Larsen, D.W. [Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    The behavior of a non-incinerative reductive thermal cocurrent flow gasification process (ChemChar Process) when used to treat representative sulfur compounds is reported. Gasification of 2,3-benzenedisulfonic acid, thiomorpholine, and sulfuric acid converts the sulfur in these compounds to H{sub 2}S, OCS, and elemental sulfur. The H{sub 2}S and OCS are released in the synthesis with the gas product from which they can be scrubbed, with the elemental sulfur being deposited on the char matrix. No production of sulfur dioxide was detected. Gasified sulfur products recovered amounted to 89--114% of the total sulfur present in the sulfur compounds gasified, although exact mass balances could not be obtained due to the sulfur present in the char.

  1. The Scientific Development of Coal Gasification Process%煤气化的科学发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2011-01-01

    煤气化是一种大型化、适用煤种广、低成本、低污染和易净化气体的技术。文章介绍了煤气化技术发展的前景,着重介绍等离子体煤气化制合成气,焦炉煤气转化为合成气等技术,并且介绍煤气化技术在多级联产,合成醇醚燃料和电力方面的应用,根据现有状况预测其发展趋势。%Coal gasification process is a large-scale process technology, which has the benefits of low cost. low pollution and more adaptability in coal type. It can also produce gas which is easy to purify. The article introduces the prospect of Coal gasification process, and highlights the technology of synthetic gas which is produced by plasma coal gasification process and by the conversion of the coke oven gas, and also introduces the application in synthetic alcohol ether fuel and power fields, and predicts the development trends.

  2. Comparison of reduction disintegration characteristics of TiO2-rich burdens prepared with sintering process and composite agglomeration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-wei; Li, Guang-hui; Liu, Chen; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Zhi-wei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    To reveal the impact of the composite agglomeration process (CAP) on the reduction disintegration properties of TiO2-rich ironmaking burden for a blast furnace, the reduction disintegration indices (RDIs), mineral constituents, and microstructure of the products prepared by the CAP and the traditional sintering process (TSP) were investigated. The results showed that, compared to the sinter with a basicity of 2.0 prepared by the TSP, the RDI+6.3 and the RDI+3.15 of the CAP product with the same basicity increased by 28.2wt% and 13.7wt%, respectively, whereas the RDI-0.5 decreased by 2.7wt%. The analysis of the mineral constituents and microstructure of the products indicated that the decreasing titanohematite content decreased the volume expansion during reduction. Meanwhile, the decreasing perovskite content decreased its detrimental effect on the reduction disintegration properties. In addition, the higher silicoferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) content improved the strength of the CAP product. Together, these factors result in an improvement of the RDI of the CAP products. In addition, compared to the sinter, the reduced CAP products clearly contained fewer cracks, which also led to mitigation of reduction disintegration.

  3. Comparison of reduction disintegration characteristics of TiO2-rich burdens prepared with sintering process and composite agglomeration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-wei Yu; Guang-hui Li; Chen Liu; Feng Zhou; Zhi-wei Peng; Tao Jiang

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the impact of the composite agglomeration process (CAP) on the reduction disintegration properties of TiO2-rich iron-making burden for a blast furnace, the reduction disintegration indices (RDIs), mineral constituents, and microstructure of the products pre-pared by the CAP and the traditional sintering process (TSP) were investigated. The results showed that, compared to the sinter with a ba-sicity of 2.0 prepared by the TSP, the RDI+6.3 and the RDI+3.15 of the CAP product with the same basicity increased by 28.2wt%and 13.7wt%, respectively, whereas the RDI−0.5 decreased by 2.7wt%. The analysis of the mineral constituents and microstructure of the products indicated that the decreasing titanohematite content decreased the volume expansion during reduction. Meanwhile, the decreasing perovskite content decreased its detrimental effect on the reduction disintegration properties. In addition, the higher silicoferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) content improved the strength of the CAP product. Together, these factors result in an improvement of the RDI of the CAP products. In addition, compared to the sinter, the reduced CAP products clearly contained fewer cracks, which also led to mitigation of reduction disintegration.

  4. Performance analysis of RDF gasification in a two stage fluidized bed-plasma process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzi, M; Lettieri, P; Taylor, R; Chapman, C

    2016-01-01

    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which separates primary gasification and selective tar and ash conversion would be inherently more forgiving and stable. This can be achieved with the use of a separate plasma converter, which has been successfully used in conjunction with conventional thermal treatment units, for the ability to 'polish' the producer gas by organic contaminants and collect the inorganic fraction in a molten (and inert) state. This research focused on the performance analysis of a two-stage fluid bed gasification-plasma process to transform solid waste into clean syngas. Thermodynamic assessment using the two-stage equilibrium method was carried out to determine optimum conditions for the gasification of RDF and to understand the limitations and influence of the second stage on the process performance (gas heating value, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency), along with other parameters. Comparison with a different thermal refining stage, i.e. thermal cracking (via partial oxidation) was also performed. The analysis is supported by experimental data from a pilot plant.

  5. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  6. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  7. A Life Cycle Assessment on a Fuel Production Through Distributed Biomass Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Rui; Genchi, Yutaka

    In this paper, we estimated life cycle inventories (energy intensities and CO2 emissions) on the biomass gasification CGS, Bio-H2, Bio-MeOH (methanol) and Bio-DME (di-methyl ether), using the bottom-up methodology. CO2 emissions and energy intensities on material's chipping, transportation and dryer operation were estimated. Also, the uncertainties on the moisture content of biomass materials and the transportation distance to the plant were considered by the Monte Carlo simulation. The energy conversion system was built up by gasification through the BLUE Tower process, with either CGS, PSA (Pressure Swing Absorption) system or the liquefaction process. In our estimation, the biomass materials were the waste products from Japanese Cedar. The uncertainties of moisture content and transportation distance were assumed to be 20 to 50 wt.% and 5 to 50 km, respectively. The capability of the biomass gasification plant was 10 t-dry/d, that is, an annual throughput of 3,000 t-dry/yr. The production energy in each case was used as a functional unit. Finally, the energy intensities of 1.12 to 3.09 MJ/MJ and CO2 emissions of 4.79 to 88.0 g-CO2/MJ were obtained. CGS case contributes to the environmental mitigation, and Bio-H2 and/or Bio-DME cases have a potential to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional ones.

  8. Technoeconomical evaluation of black liquor gasification processes; Teknisk ekonomisk utvaerdering av svartlutfoergasningsprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnqvist, Bjoern; Delin, Lennart [AaF-IPK AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Theliander, Hans; Nohlgren, Ingrid [Luleaa Tekniska Universitet (Sweden). Chemical Engineering Design

    2000-06-01

    Black liquor gasification processes have been studied as an alternative to conventional chemical recovery with recovery boiler/steam turbine. Energy balances and investment costs have been calculated/estimated for four gasification processes in a model mill for 1000 ADt/d bleached kraft market pulp (according to the KAM-Mistra program, i.e. a mill with the best available technology). The original four alternatives studied were: (1) Pressurised entrained-flow high temperature gasifier (950 deg C) with smelt formation. Quencher and gas/liquor production (cf. Chemrec) with high temperature gas turbine, waste heat boiler and steam turbine; (2) Ditto with combined cycle with pressurised steam boiler and gas turbine (moderate gas turbine temperature); (3) Pressurised gasification in a fluidised bed (700 deg C) in a combined cycle with pressurised steam boiler and gas turbine; (4) Pressurised gasification in a fluidised bed with titanate for direct causticising (850-900 deg C) in a combined cycle with pressurised steam boiler and gas turbine. All systems have a bark boiler (falling bark) and steam central. All but the last system also have conventional causticising and lime kiln. All systems also have a condensing turbine to absorb the net surplus of steam that both the conventional recovery and the gasification systems produce. After the completion of the original study, a more detailed description of the Chemrec concept has been made available to us. An alternative that more closely resembles the Chemrec process has therefore been added. A more detailed description of the ABB system has not been available, but this system has also been recalculated for the same type of gas turbine that is used in the Chemrec case. We have also added the alternative that the biomass fuel is gasified and used in a combined cycle. We have furthermore added calculations with the new alternatives implemented in a hypothetical integrated mill with a need for external fuel. The development of

  9. EXERGY ANALYSIS OF COMBUSTION PROCESS OF CERAMIC BURNER%陶瓷燃烧器燃烧过程的可用能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶荣水

    2001-01-01

    Based on exergy analysis of combustion process,the exergy loss rate was presented to estimate the irreversible exergy loss.The paper computed exergy loss rate of combustion process of ceramic burner,and the results showed that compared with tube in tube type ceramic burner,the new type ceramic burner could preheat air and gas,raise theoretical combustion temperature of gas,reduce exergy loss rate during combustion process and raise utilization efficiency of energy.The essential differences between new type ceramic burner and tube in tube type ceramic burner were revealed from the point of view of exergy analysis.%在燃烧过程可用能分析的基础上,提出可用能损失率指标,它可用于衡量燃烧过程不可逆损失的程度。对陶瓷燃烧器燃烧过程的可用能损失率,计算结果表明:与套筒式陶瓷燃烧器相比,新型陶瓷燃烧器对空、煤气有预热作用,可提高煤气的理论燃烧温度,降低燃烧过程的可用能损失率,提高能量的有效利用率。从可用能的观点揭示了新型陶瓷燃烧器与套筒式陶瓷燃烧器的本质区别。

  10. Conceptual design and retrofitting of the coal-gasification wastewater treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, H.; Jiang, Y.; Qian, Y.; Kraslawski, A. [South China University of Technology, Ghangzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The coal-gasification wastewater treatment is the most difficult pollution control task for coal-gasification plants. It is identified that there are two serious problems occurring in the current treatment process, i.e., low performance of phenols removal and plugging induced by ammonia salts. A new treatment process is proposed in this paper to solve these severe problems and pursue clean production. First, ammonia stripping is accomplished before phenols recovery to reduce pH value of the wastewater and to improve the phenols removal performance of extraction. Second, a complex stripper with a side draw is introduced to stripping ammonia and sour gas simultaneously. It is done to eliminate the ionic interaction during stripping and to improve the removal performance of ammonia and sour gas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide). Finally, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is used as extraction solvent instead of diisopropyl ether (DIPE) for further improvement of the phenols removal performance. Conceptual design of the proposed process is accomplished for a large-scale coal-gasification plant based on process simulation. With the proposed process, the concentration of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia in wastewater are reduced to trace, less than 10 mg/L, and about 30 mg/L, respectively. As a result, pH value of the wastewater is reduced from >9 to <7 before extraction, thus the phenols removal performance is greatly improved. Compare to the current process, the removal ratios increase from 60% to 99% for carbon dioxide, 96% to 99.6% for ammonia, and 80% to 94% for total phenols using the proposed process. In consequence, the biochemical treatment of wastewater becomes easier. The economical analysis shows that the operating cost of the proposed process is much lower than that of the current process.

  11. Carbon to electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell combined with an internal catalytic gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Konsolakis; G. E. Marnellos; A. Al-Musa; N. Kaklidis; I. Garagounis; V. Kyriakou

    2015-01-01

    This study explores strategies to develop highly efficient direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) by com‐bining a solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a catalyst‐aided carbon‐gasification process. This system employs Cu/CeO2 composites as both anodic electrodes and carbon additives in a cell of the type:carbon|Cu‐CeO2/YSZ/Ag|air. The study investigates the impact on in situ carbon‐gasification and DCFC performance characteristics of catalyst addition and variation in the carrier gas used (inert He versus reactive CO2). The results indicate that cell performance is significantly improved by infusing the catalyst into the carbon feedstock and by employing CO2 as the carrier gas. At 800 °C, the maxi‐mum power output is enhanced by approximately 40% and 230% for carbon/CO2 and car‐bon/catalyst/CO2 systems, respectively, compared with that of the carbon/He configuration. The increase observed when employing the catalyst and CO2 as the carrier gas can be primarily at‐tributed to the pronounced effect of the catalyst on carbon‐gasification through the re‐verse‐Boudouard reaction, and the subsequent in situ electro‐oxidation of CO at the anode three‐phase boundary.

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  14. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  15. Relationship between attachment probability and surface energy in adhesion process of gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xi-qing(伍喜庆); A.J. Monhemius; R.J. Gochin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analyses, the adhesion process of fine gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates in a dynamic system was quantitatively investigated in terms of the relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy. The proposed way to establish this relationship is to firstly theoretically derive the formula to evaluate the surface energy change of the system by analyzing the adhesion process of a gold particle on an oil-carbon agglomerate in a mathematic and thermodynamic way. The obtained formula of the maximum energy change of unit surface area is, △ω'max =-1/2σhw (cosθ-1), which involves two measurable elements: interfacial tension and contact angle. In a well-quantified system, based on the related model it is also possible to calculate the complicated concept, namely, the attachment probability by transferring other measurable indices. In this way, after some adhesion experiments and measurements of relevant parameters, the empirical relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy change was established in an exponential function, Pa =Aexp(-△Gsurf/k).

  16. Gasification : petcoke gasification for products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R. [GE Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Gasification is a partial oxidation process that can convert any hydrocarbon into carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas). This presentation discussed integrated coking and gasification to address today's refining challenges. Several case studies were presented. General Electric Energy's quench gasification process was also discussed with particular reference to key characteristics such as its simplicity, low cost, efficiency, reliability and flexibility. Other advantages of the process include its entrained flow, slagging, slurry feed and short residence time. Petcoke was discussed as a suitable gasifier feed. Converting petcoke to hydrogen, steam, and power was also presented. The challenges ahead include the piling up of millions of tons of petcoke; emissions rules shrinking the coke segment; shortage of expensive natural gas; increased needs of hydrogen, steam, and power; plant and fuel level emissions mandates; and reducing the carbon dioxide footprint of oil sands. These challenges may result in excess coke and a hydrogen deficit. The presentation concluded by bringing attention to GE Energy's leadership in gasification technology and an alliance between GE Energy and Schlumberger. figs.

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization. This program consists of four tasks. Task 1 is a literature survey of mild gasification processes and product upgrading methods and also a market assessment for mild gasification products. Based on the literature survey, a mild gasification process and char upgrading method will be identified for further development. Task 2 is a bench-scale investigation of mild gasification to generate data for a larger scale reactor. Task 3 is a bench-scale study of char upgrading to value added products. Task 4 is being implemented by building and operating a 1000-pound per hour demonstration facility. Task 4 also includes a technical and economic evaluation based on the performance of the mild gasification demonstration facility.

  18. Hydrogen and electricity co-production schemes based on gasification processes with carbon capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Cristian Cormos; Victoria Goia; Ana-Maria Cormos; Serban Agachi [' Babes - Bolyai' University, Cluj - Napoca (Romania). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the ways for transforming the coal or coal in addition with renewable energy sources (different sorts of biomass e.g. sawdust) or solid waste having energy value (e.g. municipal waste, meat and bone meal), through gasification into different decarbonised energy vectors (power, hydrogen) simultaneous with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The energy conversion processes investigated in the paper will be modelled and simulated using commercial process flow modelling package (ChemCAD) to produce data for performance evaluation of hydrogen and electricity co-production processes based on gasification with carbon capture and storage. The case studies investigated in the paper will produce a flexible ratio between power and hydrogen in the range of about 400 MW electricity and 0 - 200 MW hydrogen (considering the lower heating value of hydrogen) with 80 - 90 % carbon capture rate. A particular accent will be put in the paper on fuel selection criteria (blending fuels for optimizing gasifier performance), proper choice of gasification reactor (among various commercial types e.g. Shell, Siemens, GE Texaco etc.), modelling and simulation of whole process, thermal and power integration of processes, flexibility analysis of the energy conversion processes (production of a certain energy vector at specific moment of time according to the market demand), CO{sub 2} capture and storage and analysing the quality specifications for plant gaseous streams (hydrogen and carbon dioxide) considering the potential use of hydrogen in the transport sector (fuel cells) and carbon dioxide storage in geological formation or using for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effect of the Number of Injectors on the Mixing Process in a Rapidly Mixed Type Tubular Flame Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chouari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional simulations are performed to study the non-reactive mixing process in a rapidly mixed type tubular flame burner (RTFB. The current work examines the effect of the number of injectors (N= 2, 4 and 6 on the mixing process by focusing on three criterions (Flow structure, local swirl intensity and mixing layer thickness. The Discrete Phase Model (DPM is used to track the particle trajectories. Validation of the numerical results is carried out by comparing the predicted particle trajectories, central recirculation zone (CRZ and tangential velocity results to the experimental data. It is concluded that the model offers a satisfactory prediction of the flow field in a RTFB. Numerical results show that, for the same geometrical swirl number (Sw and the same Reynolds number (ReT, the increasing of the number of injectors enhances the mixing process by generating a larger reverse flow and reducing the mixing layer thickness. It is also concluded that the local swirl intensity along of the RTFB can be correlated in terms of geometric swirl number and number of injectors.

  20. Application Of Relevance Maps Method To Evaluate The Suitability Of Coal Samples For Fluidal Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamroz Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The methods being used to visualization of multidimensional data through transformation of multidimensional space into two-dimensional space allow to present multidimensional data on computer screen. Among such methods, relevance maps method can be found which was used in this paper to present and analyze set of seven-dimensional data describing coal samples originating from both mines. It was decided to check whether this method of visualization of multidimensional data allows to divide the samples space into subspaces of various usefulness to the process of fluidal gasification or not. The method enables the visualisation of the optimal subspace containing the set requirements concerning the properties of coals intended for this process.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Malaysian Dolomites as a Tar Cracking Catalyst in Biomass Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of local Malaysian dolomites were characterized to investigate their suitability for use as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process. The dolomites were calcined to examine the effect of the calcination process on dolomite’s catalytic activity and properties. The modifications undergone by dolomites consequent to thermal treatment were investigated using various analytical methods. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses indicated that the dolomites underwent two stages of decomposition during the calcination process. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyses showed that thermal treatment of dolomite played a significant role in the disappearance of the CaMg(CO32 phase, producing the MgO-CaO form of dolomite. The scanning electron microscopy microphotographs of dolomite indicated that the morphological properties were profoundly affected by the calcination process, which led to the formation of a highly porous surface with small spherical particles. In addition, the calcination of dolomite led to the elimination of carbon dioxide and increases in the values of the specific surface area and average pore diameter, as indicated by surface area analysis. The results showed that calcined Malaysian dolomites have great potential to be applied as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process based on their favorable physical properties.

  2. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  3. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  4. Availability (exergetic) analysis of coal gasification processes. Part II. The Synthane process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency and economics of the Synthane Gasification process are evaluated and discussed. The efficiency of the Synthane process was determined using the 'availability analysis' approach to process evaluation and is given here as an example of the use of that approach. Computer simulation of the Synthane process was used to study the effect of changes in plant operating parameters on both the efficiency and economics of the process. Results of the availability analysis include an overall exergetic efficiency of 61.2 % for the operation of the Synthane plant with a Pittsburgh Seam feed coal, and an overall exergetic efficiency of 61.1 % for a Wyodak Seam feed coal. Increasing the ratio of steam to oxygen fed to the gasifier from 6.83 to 10.0 was found to increase the overall exergetic efficiency from 61.2 % to 64.6 % with a Pittsburgh feed coal. Utilizing an alternative methanator design similar to one presented in a IGT HYGAS process design was found to increase the overall efficiency to 62.3 % with the Pittsburgh feed coal and to 61.9 percent of the Wyodak feed coal. The production cost of the synthetic natural gas (SNG) product from the Synthane process was found to be 4.61 dollars/GJ with the Pittsburgh feed coal, and 6.23 dollars/GJ with the Wyodak feed coal, in third quarter 1979 dollars. The SNG production cost was found to decrease from 4.61 dollars/GJ to 4.37 dollars/GJ when the ratio of steam to oxygen fed to the gasifier was increased from 6.83 to 10.0. A 50 % increase in coal cost was found to increase the SNG production cost by 15 % and 18 % for the Pittsburgh and Wyodak feed coals, respectively, while a 100 % increase in coal cost increased the SNG production cost by 30 % and 36 %, respectively. Changing to the alternative (HYGAS) methanator design resulted in a decrease of 0.21 dollars/GJ in the SNG production cost for the Pittsburg feed coal, and a decrease of 0.26 dollars/GJ for the Wyodak coal.

  5. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  6. Size distribution of agglomerates of milk powder in wet granulation process in a vibro-fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banjac

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of experiments on the influence of technological parameters (intensity of vibration, granulation of the liquid feed, temperature of fluidization agent on the change of size distribution, as well as mass mean diameter of the milk powder particles subjected to the wet granulation process (agglomeration in a vibro-fluidized bed granulator are shown in this paper. Using water as a granulation liquid and air as a fluidization agent, it was found that mass mean diameter increases with increase of water feed, intensity of vibration, and decrease of air temperature. Increasing the intensity of vibration and decreasing the air temperature, primarily induces the increase of the dimensions of the initial nuclei. This can be explained on the basis of different influences that these changes (velocity of particle motion, intensity of particle collision, drying rate have on the coalescence of particles with smaller and/or bigger dimensions.

  7. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  8. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process.

  9. Toxicity studies of underground coal gasification and tarsands processes. Progress report, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Process waters were obtained from trial coal gasification experiments at Hanna, Wyoming and Vernal, Utah. Samples were assayed for toxicity using the Ames test and the Paramecium bioassay. Results indicate that both the Paramecium and Ames bioassays show sporadic genotoxic response to the process waters. (DMC)

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  11. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  12. Spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polowczyk Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid was described. In the first step, the system of good and poor solvents as well as bridging liquid was selected. As a result of a preliminary study, ethyl alcohol, water and carbon tetrachloride were used as the good solvent, poor one, and bridging liquid, respectively. Then, the amount of acetylsalicylic acid and the ratio of the solvents as well as the volume of the bridging liquid were examined. In the last step, the agglomeration conditions, such as mixing intensity and time, were investigated. The spherical agglomerates obtained under optimum conditions could be subjected to a tableting process afterwards.

  13. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  14. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic.

  15. Pressurized gasification solves many problems. IVOSDIG process for peat, wood and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O.; Repo, A.

    1996-11-01

    Research is now being done on one of the essential elements of pressurized gasification: the feeding of fuel into high pressure. At the IVOSDIG pilot plant in Jyvaeskylae, a pilot-scale piston feeder for peat, wood and sludge has been tested. A piston feeder achieves pressurization through the movement of the piston, not by inert pressurization gas. The feeder cylinder then turns 180 degrees to another position, and the piston forces the fuel contained in the cylinder into the pressure vessel, which is at the process pressure. The feeder has to cylinders; one is filled while the other is being emptied. In pilot-scale tests, the capacity of the feeder is ten cubic metres of fuel per hour. The commercial-scale feeder has been designed for a capacity of fifty cubic metres per hour. The feeder operates hydraulically, and the hydraulic system can be assembled from commercially available components. IVO began development work to devise a feeder based on the piston technique in 1992. During 1993, short tests were performed with the pilot-scale feeder. Tests under real conditions were begun during 1994 at the laboratory of VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, which houses the IVOSDIG pressurized gasification pilot plant for moist fuels developed by IVO

  16. High efficiency biomass to power operation experiences and economical aspects of the novel gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Luoma, P. (VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)); Lappi, K.; Haavisto, I. (Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Condens Oy has developed together with VTT a Novel gasification process that combines up draft gasifier with catalytic gas cleaning process to produce woodgas suitable for modern turbocharged gas engines with power production efficiencies of over 30 %. The forced fuel feeding makes it possible for the Novel gasifier to utilise biomass residues and energy crops that can't otherwise be used without expensive pre treatment. The first full size Novel CHP plant is presently under commissioning phase in the town of Kokemaeki, Finland. The plant is equipped with complete gas cleaning train while Jenbacher gas engine is used to produce electricity to the local grid. By product heat is utilized for district heat purposes to achieve high total efficiency. The Novel process offers a feasible solution to produce power from biomass and seems to be economically very attractive especially on the Central and Southern European markets. (orig.)

  17. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  18. Numerical modelling of lighting process in pulverized-coal burner of a boiler unit by the low-temperature plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloshevich, H.; Rychkov, A.D. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Occupational Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The authors numerically modelled the process of aeromixture ignition in a pulverized-coal burner by a central axysymmetric jet of air that is heated in an electrical are plasma generator up to about 5000 K. The aim was to investigate the process of coal particle ignition in the flow and establish the conditions under which the independent combustion of pulverized coal mixture occurs. The results obtained showed the important role of radiation heat transfer in initiating the combustion process of solid fuel particles. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  20. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  1. Combustion of spent shales from the Rotem deposit. Pt. 1. Concurrent thermal processes: Pyrolysis and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabicky, J. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Institutes for Applied Research Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). M.R. Bloch Center for Coal Research); Wohlfarth, A. (Pama - Energy Resources Development Ltd., Arava (Israel))

    1991-06-01

    Spent shales prepared by the Fisher method from oil shales of the Rotem deposit/Israel were studied in a continuous fluidized bed reactor at 700-900deg C under atmospheric pressure, using mixtures of nitrogen and carbon dioxide as the fluidizing gas. A set of simultaneus processes takes place, including pyrolysis of the organic residue in the spent shales, decomposition of calcium carbonate, dehydration of clay phases, decomposition of pyrites, reduction of anhydrite to calcium sulfide and other minor reactions. An important secondary process is gasification of the organic residue by carbon dioxide produced by carbonate decomposition or combustion. The extent to which these reactions take place depends on temperature, composition of the fluidizing gas, particle size of the spent shales, and mean residence time of the particles in the reactor. (orig.).

  2. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  3. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-09-10

    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm.

  4. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  5. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  6. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of wastewater from food waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Korean food wastes have high moisture content (more than 85 wt%) and their major treatment processes such as drying or biological fermentations generate concentrated organic wastewater (CODs of about 100,000 mgO{sub 2}/L). For obtaining both wastewater treatment and hydrogen production from renewable resources, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the organic wastewater was carried out in this work. The effect of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reactor residence time on COD destruction and composition of gas products was examined. As a result, a SCWG of the wastewater over Ni- Y/activated charcoal at 700 C, 28 MPa yielded 99 % COD destruction and hydrogen-rich gas production (45 vol% H{sub 2}). A liquid-phase thermal pretreatment to destroy solid particles from the wastewater was proposed for more effective operation of the SCWG system. (orig.)

  7. Isolation of a highly mutagenic aminophenanthrene from a coal gasification process tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, D A; Stamoudis, V C; Peak, M J; Boparai, A S

    1986-02-01

    A major portion of the mutagenic activity associated with products and by-products of coal conversion can be ascribed to nitrogen-containing bases. We improved the extraction efficiencies for three- to five-ring aromatic bases by extracting them with a mixture of methanol and aqueous HCl, rather than with aqueous HCl alone. A complex mutagenic basic fraction of a coal gasification process tar was successively fractionated using cation exchange and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were assayed for mutagenic activity and were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aminophenanthrenes were identified as major contributors to the mutagenicity of the basic fraction. Aminonaphthalenes, aminobiphenyls, and their alkyl homologs were also present but were not detected as principal mutagens.

  8. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge.

  9. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  10. Decay of Metastable State with Account of Agglomeration and Relaxation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kurasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical description of the metastable phase decay kinetics in the presence of specific connections between the embryos of small sizes has been given. The theory of the decay kinetics in the presence of relaxation processes is constructed in analytical manner. The m-mers nucleation is investigated and the global kinetics of decay is also constructed in this case analytically.

  11. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  12. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  13. The bioliq {sup registered} bioslurry gasification process for the production of biosynfuels, organic chemicals, and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Nicolaus; Henrich, Edmund; Dinjus, Eckhard; Weirich, Friedhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. of Catalysis Research and Technology

    2012-12-15

    Biofuels may play a significant role in regard to carbon emission reduction in the transportation sector. Therefore, a thermochemical process for biomass conversion into synthetic chemicals and fuels is being developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) by producing process energy to achieve a desirable high carbon dioxide reduction potential. In the bioliq process, lignocellulosic biomass is first liquefied by fast pyrolysis in distributed regional plants to produce an energy-dense intermediate suitable for economic transport over long distances. Slurries of pyrolysis condensates and char, also referred to as biosyncrude, are transported to a large central gasification and synthesis plant. The bioslurry is preheated and pumped into a pressurized entrained flow gasifier, atomized with technical oxygen, and converted at > 1,200 C to an almost tar-free, low-methane syngas. Syngas - a mixture of CO and H2 - is a well-known versatile intermediate for the selectively catalyzed production of various base chemicals or synthetic fuels. At KIT, a pilot plant has been constructed together with industrial partners to demonstrate the process chain in representative scale. The process data obtained will allow for process scale-up and reliable cost estimates. In addition, practical experience is gained. The paper describes the background, principal technical concepts, and actual development status of the bioliq process. It is considered to have the potential for worldwide application in large scale since any kind of dry biomass can be used as feedstock. Thus, a significant contribution to a sustainable future energy supply could be achieved.

  14. Performance evaluation of biogas burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A.; Tiwari, G.N.; Srivastava, V.K.; Yadav, Y.P. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)

    1991-01-01

    The results of testing some biogas burners of various brands are presented. A wide variation is found in their performance under similar conditions of testing. Parametric investigations have also been carried out on a typical biogas burner. These investigations reveal that the burner efficiency is a strong function of biogas flow pressure, pan-size and its position over the burner head. (author).

  15. Processes of Defragmentation, Thermocapillary Extraction and Agglomeration of Ultradispersed Gold from Mineral Raw Materials and Technogenic Products within Laser Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Kuzmenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of the results of complex studies of mineral raw materials and man-handle products containing ultra-dispersed gold, silver, and platinum before and after laser treatment, a qualitative physical model which explains the origin of thermal processes occurring under the action of laser radiation is proposed. It is noted that laser treatment of those materials generates processes of defragmentation, thermocapillary extraction, and agglomeration of micro-and nanoinclusions of these metals.

  16. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  17. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christodoulou, C.; Tsekos, C.; Tsalidis, G.A.; Fantini, M.; Panopoulos, K.D.; De Jong, W.; Kakaras, E.

    2014-01-01

    Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel

  18. Development of sampling systems and special analyses for pressurized gasification processes; Paineistettujen kaasutusprosessien naeytteenottomenetelmien ja erityisanalytiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, P.; Oesch, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Moilanen, A.; Nieminen, M.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of sampling methods used for measuring impurities contained in gasification gas were studied, and new methods were developed for sampling and sample analyses. The aim of the method development was to improve the representativeness of the samples and to speed up the analysis of gas composition. The study focused on tar, nitrogen and sulphur compounds contained in the gasification gas. In the study of the sampling reliability, the effects of probe and sampling line materials suitable for high temperatures and of the solids deposited in the sampling devices on gas samples drawn from the process were studied. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 250 - 850 deg C both in real conditions and in conditions simulating gasification gas. The durability of samples during storage was also studied. The other main aim of the study was to increase the amount of quick-measurable gas components by developing on-line analytical methods based on GC, FTIR and FI (flow injection) techniques for the measurements of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gasification gas. As these methods are suitable only for the gases that do not contain condensing gas components disturbing the operation of analysers (heavy tar compounds, water), a sampling system operating in dilution principle was developed. The system operates at high pressures and temperatures and is suitable for gasification gases containing heavy tar compounds. The capabilities of analysing heavy tar compounds (mole weight >200 g mol) was improved by adding the amount of compounds identified and calibrated by model substances and by developing analytical methods based on the high-temperature-GC analysis and the thermogravimetric method. (author)

  19. Supercritical water gasification of biomass for H2 production: process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Castello, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass for H(2) production is analyzed in terms of process development and energetic self-sustainability. The conceptual design of a plant is proposed and the SCWG process involving several substrates (glycerol, microalgae, sewage sludge, grape marc, phenol) is simulated by means of AspenPlus™. The influence of various parameters - biomass concentration and typology, reaction pressure and temperature - is analyzed. The process accounts for the possibility of exploiting the mechanical energy of compressed syngas (later burned to sustain the SCWG reaction) through expansion in turbines, while purified H(2) is fed to fuel cells. Results show that the SCWG reaction can be energetically self-sustained if minimum feed biomass concentrations of 15-25% are adopted. Interestingly, the H(2) yields are found to be maximal at similar feed concentrations. Finally, an energy balance is performed showing that the whole process could provide a net power of about 150 kW(e)/(1000 kg(feed)/h).

  20. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  2. Task 2: Mild gasification technology development process research unit tests using slipstream sampling, February 1988--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-07-01

    Under USDOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel Group is developing a process for the mild gasification of coal in a 100-pound/hour capacity isothermal process research unit (PRU) at IGT in Chicago. The IGT process is capable of converting bituminous coals to value-added co-products that can open new markets for the US coal industry. The conceptual IGT mild gasification process incorporates an integrated fluidized-/entrained-bed reactor supplying heat indirectly by a combination of char and gas recycle. The use of mild operating conditions (1000{degree} to 1300{degree}F), low pressures (<50 psig), and continuous operation in closed reactors, combined with the sale of value-added co-products, offer an environmentally sound and economical approach to advanced coal utilization. The PRU consists of an 8-inch-ID {times} 8-foot-long fluidized-bed reactor closely coupled to a 4-inch-ID {times} 13-foot-long entrained-bed reactor. The PRU test results have demonstrated process performance, including the effect of coal type and temperature on mild gasification co-product yields and their properties. The fates of the heteroatoms have also been analyzed. 9 refs., 16 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  4. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  5. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  6. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

    2012-04-01

    near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  8. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  9. Technological Analysis on Choren High-Pressure Pulverized Coal Gasification Process%科林高压干粉煤气化工艺技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小倩; 胡长胜

    2011-01-01

    The process and features of Choren high-pressure pulveried coal gasification are presented. Operability of the gasification technology is analysed. And the operation data as compared with the other two coal gasification processes, i.e. pulverized coal gasification process with waste heat boiler and coal-water slurry pressure gasification process, using in China are described briefly. Choren high-pressure pulverized coal gasification process is featured with simple in equipment structure, wider applicability of coal variety, lower consumption and high localization of equipment.%介绍了科林高压干粉煤气化的工艺流程、工艺特点.对该气化技术的可操作性进行了分析,并与国内应用的2种煤气化工艺(干粉煤废锅气化工艺和水煤浆加压气化工艺)数据进行了简单对比.科林高压干粉煤气化工艺具有设备结构简单、煤种适用性更宽、消耗低和设备国产化程度高的特点.

  10. The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2013-09-01

    Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the United States to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443 l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25 l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint.

  11. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  13. A breakthrough in coal gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Tearning up with engineers of the Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group in north China's Shanxi Province, CAS researchers have successfully carried out a 1.0MPa, long-period (up to 72 hours) high-pressure test on a semi- industrial platform of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed (AFB) coal gasification.

  14. 壳牌干煤粉气化技术与壳牌下行水激冷流程气化技术的比较%Comparison of Shell Coal Gasification Technology with Shell Coal Gasification Process Bottom Quench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆丽; 赖智乐; 王盘峰; 胡步千

    2014-01-01

    Afterwards entering the Chinese market of Shell coal gasification technology, Shell Company has again developed the bottom water quench process gasification technology in order to simplify traditional process, to eliminate stoppage problem of dried ash, and to decrease the investment cost. Author has made comparison for 2 kinds of gasification technologies from aspects of process feature, gasifier structure, equipment arrangement, investment cost and so on, has separately indicated the advantage and shortage between Shell dried and pulverized coal gasification technology and the bottom water quench process gasification technology, result indicates that:①The traditional Shell dried and pulverized coal gasification process technology is ripe and reliable with high heat recovery rate, better economy and environmental protection, but with more investment cost at present stage, more equipment in plant, more difficulty in construction/installation and in piping arrangement;②The structure of gasifier is simple forbottom water quench process gasifica-tion technology newly developed with less equipment in plant, less investment of project, but only one set of plant is now put into operation, so its environ-ment protection property and stability of plant are required to be observed.%继壳牌干煤粉气化技术( SCGP)进入中国市场后,壳牌公司又开发了下行水激冷流程气化技术( SCGP Bot-tom Quench),以简化传统流程,消除干灰堵塞问题,降低投资成本。本文从工艺特点、气化炉结构、设备布置以及投资成本等方面进行了2种气化技术的比较,分别指出了SCGP和SCGP Bottom Quench的优势和劣势,结果表明:①传统的SCGP工艺技术成熟可靠,热回收率高,经济环保,但项目前期投资较大,装置设备较多,施工吊装与管道布置难度较大;②新开发的SCGP Bottom Quench气化炉结构简单,装置设备减少,项目投资缩减,但国内仅有1套装

  15. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  16. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion

  17. Defining urban agglomerations to detect agglomeration economies

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Hatna, Erez; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Agglomeration economies are a persistent subject of debate among economists and urban planners. Their definition turns on whether or not larger cities and regions are more efficient and more productive than smaller ones. We complement existing discussion on agglomeration economies and the urban wage premium here by providing a sensitivity analysis of estimated coefficients to different delineations of urban agglomeration as well as to different definitions of the economic measure that summarises the urban premium. This quantity can consist of total wages measured at the place of work, or of income registered at the place of residence. The chosen option influences the scaling behaviour of city size as well as the spatial distribution of the phenomenon at the city level. Spatial discrepancies between the distribution of jobs and the distribution of households at different economic levels makes city definitions crucial to the estimation of economic relations which vary with city size. We argue this point by regr...

  18. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen–steam biomass gasification produces a high quality syngas with a high H2/CO ratio that is suitable for upgrading to liquid fuels. Such a gas is also well suited for use in conjunction with solid oxide fuel cells giving rise to a system yielding high electrical efficiency based on biomass....... The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing...

  19. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  20. Green Gasoline from Wood using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udengaard, Niels [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Knight, Richard [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Wendt, Jesper [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Patel, Jim [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Walston, Kip [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Jokela, Pekka [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Adams, Cheryl [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-02-19

    This final report presents the results of a four-year technology demonstration project carried out by a consortium of companies sponsored in part by a $25 million funding by the Department of Energy (DOE) under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a new, economical technology for the thermochemical conversion of woody biomass into gasoline and to demonstrate that the gasoline produced in this way is suitable for direct inclusion in the already existing gasoline pool. The process that was demonstrated uses the Andritz-Carbona fluidized-bed steam-oxygen gasification technology and advanced tar reforming catalytic systems to produce a clean syngas from waste wood, integrated conventional gas cleanup steps, and finally utilizes Haldor Topsoe’s (Topsoe) innovative Topsoe Improved Gasoline Synthesis (TIGASTM) syngas-to-gasoline process. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out the bulk of the testing work at their Flex Fuel development facility in Des Plaines, Illinois; UPM in Minnesota supplied and prepared the feedstocks, and characterization of liquid products was conducted in Phillips 66 labs in Oklahoma. The produced gasoline was used for a single-engine emission test at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®) in San Antonio, TX, as well as in a fleet test at Transportation Research Center, Inc. (TRC Inc.) in East Liberty, Ohio. The project benefited from the use of existing pilot plant equipment at GTI, including a 21.6 bone dry short ton/day gasifier, tar reformer, Morphysorb® acid gas removal, associated syngas cleanup and gasifier feeding and oxygen systems.

  1. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Sewage sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which was used as a support for ferric oxides to form a catalyst (FeOx/SBAC) by a simple impregnation method. The new material was then used to improve the performance of Fenton oxidation of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the prepared FeOx/SBAC significantly enhanced the pollutant removal performance in the Fenton process, so that the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic. The best performance was obtained over a wide pH range from 2 to 7, temperature 30°C, 15 mg/L of H2O2 and 1g/L of catalyst, and the treated effluent concentrations of COD, total phenols, BOD5 and TOC all met the discharge limits in China. Meanwhile, on the basis of significant inhibition by a radical scavenger in the heterogeneous Fenton process as well as the evolution of FT-IR spectra of pollutant-saturated FeOx/BAC with and without H2O2, it was deduced that the catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals, and a possible reaction pathway and interface mechanism were proposed. Moreover, FeOx/SBAC showed superior stability over five successive oxidation runs. Thus, heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of biologically pretreated CGW by FeOx/SBAC, with the advantages of being economical, efficient and sustainable, holds promise for engineering application.

  2. Biomass gasification and in-bed contaminants removal: performance of iron enriched olivine and bauxite in a process of steam/O2 gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisano, D; Freda, C; Nanna, F; Fanelli, E; Villone, A

    2012-08-01

    A modified Olivine, enriched in iron content (10% Fe/Olivine), and a natural bauxite, were tested in the in-bed reduction of tar and alkali halides (NaCl and KCl) released in a process of biomass steam/O(2) gasification. The tests were carried out at an ICBFB bench scale reactor under the operating conditions of: 855-890 °C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 steam/biomass and 0.33 ER ratios. From the use of the two materials, a reduction in the contaminant contents of the fuel gas produced was found. For the alkali halides, a decrease up to 70%(wt) was observed for the potassium concentration, while for sodium, the reduction was found to be quite poor. For the organic content, compared to unmodified Olivine, the chromatographically determined total tar quantity showed a removal efficiency of 38%(wt). Moreover, regarding the particulate content a rough doubling in the fuel gas revealed a certain brittleness of the new bed material.

  3. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.`` The purpose is to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. Engineering development included bench-scale process development, component development adaptation or modification of existing unit operations, proof-of-concept (POC) module design, fabrication, testing, data evaluation, and conceptual design of a commercial facility. The information obtained during POC operation resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant. Throughout this project performance targets for the engineering development of selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR). Additional objectives included producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is suitable for conventional coal handling systems. The selective agglomeration process, as applied to coal cleaning, is based on differences in the surface chemistry of coal and its associated impurities. Coal particles are hydrophobic (i.e., repel water) while the majority of its impurities are hydrophilic (i.e., stabilized in water). During selective agglomeration, a liquid (the agglomerant) that is immiscible with water is introduced into a coal-water slurry and agitated to disperse it in the slurry, thereby allowing it to come into contact with all particles in the slurry. The coal particles, due to their hydrophobic nature, are attracted to the agglomerant phase. The hydrophilic mineral impurities remain in the water phase. Continued agitation of the agglomerant-coated coal particles causes them to coalesce to form agglomerates. Once the agglomerates are formed, they are separated from the mineral matter-bearing aqueous phase by subsequent processing steps.

  4. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  5. New candidate for biofuel feedstock beyond terrestrial biomass for thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis/gasification) enhanced by carbon dioxide (CO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2012-11-01

    The enhanced thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis/gasification) of various macroalgae using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a reaction medium was mainly investigated. The enhanced thermo-chemical process was achieved by expediting the thermal cracking of volatile chemical species derived from the thermal degradation of the macroalgae. This process enables the modification of the end products from the thermo-chemical process and significant reduction of the amount of condensable hydrocarbons (i.e., tar, ∼50%), thereby directly increasing the efficiency of the gasification process.

  6. Improved burner without pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graat, H.W.; Remie, H.T.; Verhagen, A.M.

    1980-10-02

    The burner described in main patent 2828319 is operated with fluid pulverised fuel and air in a nearly stochiometric ratio. In order to achieve correct ignition with this composition, it is proposed to insert a heatable body, preferably a wire spiral or ignition spiral in the area of the pulverising and mixing chamber.

  7. On the mechanism of agglomeration in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Agglomeration in suspension is a size enlargement method that facilitates operation of solid processing and preserves the solubilization properties of fine particles. A small quantity of binder liquid is added into a suspension of microparticles, directly in the stirred vessel where the precipitation or crystallization took place. This study deals with the evaluation of the effect of agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid on agglomerates properties in order to give some insights into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Methods: Carbamazepine is used as a model drug and isopropyl acetate is used as binder liquid. The agglomerates characterization includes the particle size, morphology and density. Results: The results showed that, by increasing the agitation time before addition of binder liquid, smaller agglomerates with less density and irregular forms composed of larger crystals were obtained. However, with increasing agitation time after addition of binder liquid the agglomerates size and density increases and morphology improves. Indeed, by continuing agitation along the course of agglomeration the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Conclusion: With optimized agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid, spherical and dense agglomerates can be obtained.

  8. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  9. 两种加压煤气化工艺的比较%Comparison Between Two Types of Coal Gasification Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡洪涛; 范贵鑫

    2012-01-01

    Inherent advantages and disadvantages of the pressurized entrained flow coal gasification process and the pressurized fixed bed coal gasification process is introduced. By analyzing the utilization rate of the high temperature sensible heat from the gas gained from the pressurized entrained flow coal gasification process and the comparison of the features between two different pressurized gasification processes the paper concluded that the pressurized fixed bed coal gasification is a more advantageous process in producing SNG.%介绍了加压气流床煤气化工艺和加压固定床煤气化工艺固有的优点和缺点.分析了加压气流床煤气高温显热的利用率,探讨了加压固定床蒸汽消耗高、废水处理成本高和气化工艺氧耗低的原因.认为煤制天然气选择加压固定床煤气化工艺具有更多的优点.

  10. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  11. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots.

  12. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K.; Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  13. Influence of ash composition on the sintering behavior during pressurized combustion and gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni-jie JING; Qin-hui WANG; Yu-kun YANG; Le-ming CHENG; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    To determine the ash characteristics during fluidized bed combustion and gasification purposes,the investigation of the impacts of chemical composition of Jincheng coal ash on the sintering temperature was conducted.A series of experiments on the sintering behavior at 0.5 MPa was performed using the pressurized pressure-drop technique in the combustion and gasification atmospheres.Meanwhile,the mineral transformations of sintered ash pellets were observed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analyzer to better understand the experimental results.In addition,quantitative XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM/EDS) analyses of ash samples were used for clarifying the detailed ash melting mechanism.These results show that the addition of Fe2O3 can obviously reduce the sintering temperatures under gasification atmospheres,and only affect a little the sintering temperature under combustion atmosphere.This may be due to the presence of iron-bearing minerals,which will react with other ash compositions to produce low-melting-point eutectics.The FE-SEM/EDS analyses of ash samples with Fe2O3 additive show consistent results with the XRD measurements.The CaO and Na2O can reduce the sintering temperatures under both the combustion and gasification atmospheres.This can be also contributed to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics,decreasing the sintering temperature.Moreover,the fluxing minerals,such as magnetite,anhydrite,muscovite,albite and nepheline,contribute mostly to the reduction of the sintering temperature while the feldspar minerals,such as anorthite,gehlenite and sanidine,can react with other minerals to produce low-melting-point eutectics,and thereby reduce the sintering temperatures.

  14. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  15. Biomass-Ash-Induced Agglomeration in a Fluidized Bed. Part 1: Experimental Study on the Effects of a Gas Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Fluidized beds have been widely applied to gasification and combustion of biomass. During gasification, a high temperature is preferable to increase the carbon conversion and to reduce the undesirable tar. However, the high temperature may lead to a severe agglomeration problem in a fluidized bed....... Understanding of the agglomeration in various atmospheres is crucial to optimize the design and operation conditions. This study focuses on the effects of gases on agglomeration tendency with different types of biomass, including corn straw, rice straw, and wheat straw. The biomass ash samples are mixed...

  16. Dark Matter Burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Wai, Lawrence L.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  17. 煤质变化对Shell粉煤气化工艺的影响%THE EFFECT OF COAL QUALITY CHANGE ON SHELL PULVERIZED-COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国祥

    2011-01-01

    The Shell pulverized-coal gasification process is introduced,the specific requirement for coal quality by Shell pulverized-coal gasification process summarized,several factors related to coal quality and the effect of the changes of these factors on Shell pulverized-coal gasification plant highlighted and the preventive measures based on the effects concluded.%介绍Shell粉煤气化工艺流程,总结Shell粉煤气化工艺对煤质的具体要求,阐述与煤质相关的几方面因素及这些因素的变化对Shell粉煤气化装置的影响,并根据这些影响得出相应的预防措施。

  18. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  19. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  20. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  1. Waste burner overfire draft system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlert, G.; Pommer, L.; Davis, J.; Whebell, B.

    1977-11-22

    An overfire draft system for a waste burner is disclosed. Such system comprises air vents arranged circumferentially around the base of the burner for communicating the interior of the burner to the atmosphere and a draft modulated damper plate located in each air vent for automatically regulating the volume of overfire air delivered to the interior of the burner. Each draft modulated damper plate is provided with a lower lip which is deflected by a predetermined angle with respect to the plate to create an aerodynamic lift effect with large opening moment to assist the damper plate in its response under low air velocity conditions, and an oppositely deflected upper lip with proportionately less bent surface to avoid flutter or hunting of the damper as it approaches the maximum open position and to provide added dynamic opening force. The overfire draft system is also provided with ducts connected to the air vents and oriented so as to direct air tangentially around the base of the burner and toward the lower inside wall of the burner so as to minimize the disturbance of the inside air. The waste burner may also be provided with draft modulated or forced air vents arranged circumferentially at mid-elevation around the burner and duct means connected to such vents and directed at a small angle with the radius of the burner so as to cause turbulence in the flame zone and reduce the vertical velocity of gases above the fire, thus reducing emission of particulate materials.

  2. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    ), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work is suggested in the end.

  3. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW.

  4. Conversion of biomass, prediction and solution methods for ash agglomeration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Olsen, A. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    be an agglomeration problem during thermal conversion. In general a high K-content means an increased risk for agglomeration. However, the K-content alone is not a good indicator. Also chlorine proved to be very important. From the methods used in the project, laboratory fluid bed agglomeration experiments seem to give the most reliable information about conditions and temperatures where agglomeration takes place. Contrary to methods like DTA, compression strength and ash melting temperatures, all processes that. might be relevant for agglomeration actually can occur during fluid bed experiments: fuel-bed material interactions, volatilization and condensation, shear forces, temperature homogeneity and accumulation. Standard tests have been developed where process temperature is gradually increasing until agglomeration. These tests have been applied in the project at three different laboratories: ECN (Netherlands), ETC (Sweden) and VTT (Finland). They have proved to be accurate and reproducible. It has been shown that the addition of kaolin, magnesite, dolomite and sewage sludge significantly reduce the risk of agglomeration. The agglomeration temperatures increased with at least 60C in these cases. During combustion experiments, measured particle temperatures appeared to be up to 100C higher than the bed temperature. This might have a large influence on agglomeration. Because gasification, contrary to combustion, is a process where peak temperatures are lower or even absent, one might expect that agglomeration during gasification will occur at higher temperatures than during combustion. This however can not be concluded from the experiments, illustrating the importance of other factors like the design of fluid beds (the gas distribution, the type of nozzles, etc.). It can be concluded that not only the type of fuel and other chemical 'input' is determining the agglomeration temperature, also other factors like gas distribution, size of bed material, type of

  5. Modeling of mould cavity filling process with cast iron in Lost Foam method Part 1. Mathematical model – rate of pattern gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a mathematical model of mould cavity filling process with cast iron for lost foam method was shown, enclosing phenomena connected with gasification of foamed polystyrene pattern. For its description the thermal balance equation was used, which together with pouring rate equations (part 2 and pressure change equations (part 3 enabled determination of permeability, refractory coating thickness and foam pattern density influence on pouring rate, gas pressure in gas gap and its size. In this work authors showed results of numerical simulation concerning rate of pattern gasification and gas gap size, based on developed mathematical model. Presented studies indicated, that with decrease in coating permeability and increase in its thickness the gas gap size increased causing the decrease of foamed polystyrene pattern gasification rate.

  6. Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckner, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe.

  7. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications.

  8. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale.

  9. Refractoriless liquid fuel burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.E.

    1986-07-15

    A liquid fuel burner head is described which consists of: A. a generally annular burner head housing spacedly enveloping a generally cylindrical primary air assembly, the head and assembly each having corresponding forward and rearward ends, (a) the primary air assembly having a plurality of internal primary air supply passage means extending in a generally forwardly direction in the assembly and emerging through annularly disposed primary air port means at the forward end of the primary air assembly, (b) means effective to produce a swirl of primary air in one direction about the axis of the primary air assembly as the air emerges from the primary air port means, (c) means associated with the primary air port means for adjusting the location of flame origin forward of and relative to the primary air port means, (d) the primary air assembly including a liquid fuel supply passage and a nozzle, the nozzle being centrally disposed at the forward end of the primary air assembly and encompassed by the primary air port means, the liquid fuel nozzle being effective to discharge a substantially fan-like spray of liquid fuel just forward of and across the primary air port means, (e) the primary air assembly and the nozzle together being axially movable relative to the housing between forwardmost and rearwardmost positions respectively responsive to change in burner firing rate between minimum and maximum; B. secondary air supply passage means disposed in the space between the housing and the primary air assembly; C. means rearwardly of the secondary air directional means and port means effective to meter the amount of secondary air supplied air port means from a lesser quantity when the primary air assembly and nozzle are in their forwardmost position to a greater quantity when the primary air assembly and nozzle are in their rearwardmost position.

  10. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  11. GE与Shell两种煤制气方法的技术特点比较%Technologies and Process Comparison of GE and Shell Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟延平

    2012-01-01

    对GE和Shell两种煤制气方法的技术现状进行剖析,对其工艺特点进行比较。%To analyze the present situation of GE and Shell.Two kinds of coal gasification technologies.To compare the process characteristics of these two technologies.

  12. Engineering of Piroxicam Agglomerates by Additives Using Wet Agglomeration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi 1 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wet agglomeration is a method wherein the crystals of dispersion are held together in aggregates by small amount of a liquid acting as an intercrystal binder. In present study, in order to study the possible modification of agglomerate structure, low concentrations of additives (0.1-1% were added to binder liquid. Methods: Piroxicam agglomerates were produced by wet agglomeration method by three solvent systems including a good solvent (dimethylformamide or acetone, antisolvent (water and a binder liquid (ethylacetate or isopropylacetate. Span 80, talc, ethylcellulose and Eudragit RS in different concentrations were used as additives. The agglomerates were evaluated for production yield of agglomerates, size, friability and drug release properties. Results: The results showed that formation of agglomerates was possible in presence of span and talc. However, no agglomerates could be obtained with polymers tested (ethylcellulose and Eudragit RS. Talc increased agglomerate size, whereas the obtained agglomerates were more susceptible to breakup. However, using span as opposed to talc resulted in agglomerates with higher strength but smaller particle size. The dissolution tests showed that both additives adversely affected the dissolution rate of piroxicam from the agglomerates. Conclusion: Result of this study suggested that additives even in small amounts played a major role in agglomerate properties.

  13. Flame monitoring enhances burner management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Bailey, R.; Fuller, T.; Daw, S.; Finney, C.; Stallings, J. [Babcock & Wilcox Research Center (USA)

    2003-02-01

    A new burner monitoring and diagnostic system called Flame Doctor offers users a more precise and discriminating understanding of burner conditions. Alpha testing on Unit 4 at AmerenUE's Meramec power plant in St. Louis, MO, USA and Beta testing is underway at plants owned by Dynegy and Allegheny Energy. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term

  15. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  16. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  17. Simulation of the influence of tar formation in wood gasification processes on the cost of the purified process gas; Simulation des Einflusses der Teerbildung bei der Vergasung von Holz auf die Kosten des gereinigten Produktgases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The influence of the gasification process and the related tar formation rate on the cost of gas production is investigated with the aid of process models. The processes of gasification, gas purification and adsorptive treatment of waste water were modelled mathematically with a view to process mechanisms and cost. Simulations of the overall process helped to obtain a quantitative assessment of the cost of product gas as a function of process parameters like gasification process and tar formation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Prozessmodellen wird untersucht, welchen Einfluss das Vergasungsverfahren und die damit verbundene Teerbildung mit entsprechenden Reinigungsverfahren auf die Produktionskosten des gereinigten Produktgases besitzt. Hierfuer werden die Prozesse der Vergasung, Gasreinigung und adsorptiven Abwasseraufbereitung hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer Zusammenhaenge und Kosten mathematisch modelliert. Durch Simulation des Gesamtprozesses werden quantitativ die Kosten des Produktgases in Abhaengigkeit von Prozessparametern wie Vergasungsverfahren und Teerbildung ermittelt. (orig./SR)

  18. A coal dust burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhrshev, B.M.; Khasnullin, I.G.; Krauze, Ye.G.; Ushakov, Yu.A.; Zinovyev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The burner for combustion of coal dust fuel, primarily, in rotating furnaces, contains coaxially disposed pipes, a branch pipe for feeding in the air mixture and a rotating mechanism. The first two pipes are switched in to an air source. The third pipe on the input end has an oblique section and the pipe may be rotated around an axis by a mechanism. The first pipe has ports and it may be moved in an axial direction. By installing the third pipe in the first and second positions, it is possible to direct the dust coming from the branch pipe along the central (the larger part of the dust) or the central pipe, respectively, which makes it possible to regulate the configuration of the torch and its temperature. Hot air is sucked from the furnace through the ports in the perforated first pipe to the mouth of the burner, which makes it possible to intensify combustion. By moving the fifitpipe to the right it is possible to overlap the ports with the projections and to rule out suction of the air. The possibility of regulating combustion in wide ranges makes it possible to reduce the expenditure of fuel by 2 to 3 percent.

  19. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  20. Treatment of sewage sludge in supercritical water and evaluation of the combined process of supercritical water gasification and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lili; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Donghai; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying; Wang, Longfei

    2015-01-01

    Influences of temperature and oxidation coefficient (n) on sewage sludge treatment in supercritical water and its corresponding reaction mechanism were studied. Moreover, the combined process of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was also investigated. The results show that ammonia nitrogen, phenols and pyridines are main refractory intermediates. The weight of solid products at 873K and n=4 is only 3.5wt.% of the initial weight, which is lower than that after combustion. Volatile organics in solid phase have almost released at 723K and n=0. Highest yield of combustible gases was obtained at n=0, and H2 yield can reach 11.81mol/kg at 873K. Furthermore, the combination of SCWG at 723K and SCWO at 873K with a total n=1 is feasible for its good effluent quality and low operation costs.

  1. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  2. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  3. Chronic studies in rats exposed to liquid effluent from coal gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostial, K; Blanusa, M; Rabar, I; Maljković, T; Kello, D; Landeka, M; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1981-02-01

    The health effects of the E-effluent (water for quenching ash) from a coal gasification plant were assayed in a chronic experiment (16 month exposure) and a three generation reproduction study. Animals exposed to 100% E-effluent had an increased daily intake of various inorganic elements (Fe, Cu, K, I, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, As, F and Cr). In spite of that, the exposed and control animals had the same mortality rate, haematological findings, urinary protein excretion, trace element concentrations in kidneys, liver and femur, bone composition and morphometry, and histological findings. The pre- and post-natal development and growth was unchanged during three generations. It is concluded that the higher intake of various inorganics caused no change in the parameters measured.

  4. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  5. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant (Steam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  6. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  7. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  8. HT-L与Shell及Texaco粉煤气化技术的比较%Technological Comparison of HT-L with Shell and Texaco Pulverized Coal Gasification Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜军

    2011-01-01

    介绍了HT-L粉煤气化技术的工艺特点,并从比氧耗、有效气成分、煤气化效率、能耗等方面与Shell 及Texaco粉煤气化技术进行了分析比较.结果表明:HT-L粉煤气化技术具有高效节能、煤种适用范围广、气化效率高、能耗低、建设和运行成本低、工艺成熟可靠并具有自主知识产权的优点,具有广阔的发展前景.%Process features are described of the HT-L pulverized coal gasification technology, and an analytical comparison is done with the Shell and Texaco pulverized coal gasification technology in terms of specific oxygen consumption, active gas constituent, coal gasification efficiency, and energy consumption. The results show that the HT-L technology has the advantages of highly efficient energy saving, wide scope of application to various coal types, high gasification efficiency, low energy consumption, low construction and operation cost, mature and reliable technology, and possession of independent intellectual property, and so it brings about broad prospects for development.

  9. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 μg/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed.

  10. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  11. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  12. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;

    2014-01-01

    such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because......For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  13. Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Aguirre, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and air to the system. The mineralization process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The NNs model reproduced the experimental data to within a 90% confidence level and allowed the simulation of the process for any values of the parameters within the experimental range studied. At the optimum conditions (H(2)O(2) flow rate=120 mL/h, [Fe(II)]=7.6 mg/L, pH=3.75 and air flow rate=1 m(3)/h), a 90% mineralization was achieved in 150 min. Determination of the hydrogen peroxide consumed and remaining in the water revealed that 1.2 mol of H(2)O(2) was consumed per each mol of total organic carbon removed from solution. This result confirmed that an excess of dissolved H(2)O(2) was needed to achieve high mineralization rates, so continuous addition of peroxide is recommended for industrial application of this process. Air flow slightly improved the mineralization rate due to the formation of peroxo-organic radicals which enhanced the oxidation process.

  14. Modeling of the coal gasification processes in a hybrid plasma torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2007-12-15

    The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of the computational-fluid-dynamics-computational method, preliminary 3-D calculations of heat exchange in a 1-MW plasma generator operating with direct vortex and RV have been conducted at the air flow rate of 100 g/s. For the investigated mode and designed parameters, reduction of the total wall heat transfer for the reverse scheme is about 65 kW, which corresponds to an increase of the plasma generator efficiency by approximately 6.5%. This new hybrid plasma torch operates as a multimode, high power plasma system with a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turn down ratio, and offers convenient and simultaneous feeding of several additional reagents into the discharge zone.

  15. Some Trace Elements Enrichment Features during Coal Gasification Process in Ningdong Coal Gasification Plant%宁东气化厂煤气化过程中几种微量元素的富集特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓帅; 唐跃刚; 桓斌斌; 徐靖杰

    2016-01-01

    Through plasma mass spectrometric, atomic fluorescence spectrometric methods carried out trace elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ba, Se, As and Pb content determination and analysis for coal and its residue during coal gasification process in the Ningdong coal gas⁃ification plant. The result has shown that compared with in the raw coal, the majority of these elements have showed better enrichment trend during gasification, enrichment extent of different gasified residues of same element can be 2~10 times as high. The lithophile ele⁃ments in the gasification coal showed better correlativity. Based on the GB15618-2008“Environmental Quality Standards for Soils”, el⁃ements As, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn can be directly discharged, as for other elements should be continued to pay attention to and study their environmental effects further.%运用等离子体质谱分析法、原子荧光法等方法对宁东气化厂气化过程煤及其残渣进行了V、Cr、Cu、Zn、Ba、Se、As、Pb微量元素含量的测定与分析。结果表明:气化过程中这8种微量元素与原煤相比多数表现富集的趋势,相同元素不同气化残渣富集程度可达2~10倍;气化用煤中亲石元素表现出较好的相关性;根据GB15618-1995《土壤环境质量标准》,气化残渣中As、Cu、Pb、Cr、Zn元素可直接排放,其它元素需继续关注和进一步研究其环境效应。

  16. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  17. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  18. Marketization Process, Financial Industry Agglomeration and Regional Economic Growth%金融产业集聚、市场化进程与地区经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪玉俊; 周素娟

    2015-01-01

    As an important industry in national economy , the financial industry agglomeration can promote regional economic growth , and the realization of the growth effect is related to regional marketization process .Empirically test about the effect of China's financial industry agglomeration on provincial economic growth shows that financial industry agglomeration has promoting effect on the regional economic growth , using data from 1992 to 2011;adding the marketization process to construct threshold regression model to analyze shows that marketization process influ -ences the extent of financial industry agglomeration's growth effect on regional economic , that is to say , a higher level of marketization can better promote the effect of financial industry agglomeration on regional economic growth .%作为国民经济中的重要产业,金融产业集聚可以促进地区经济增长,而这一增长效应的实现与地区市场化进程有关。实证检验我国1992年—2011年各省市金融产业集聚的区域经济增长效应发现,金融产业集聚对区域经济增长具有促进效应;通过加入市场化进程构建门槛回归模型进行分析得出,市场化进程影响金融产业集聚的区域经济增长效应发挥程度,较高的市场化水平可以更好的促进金融产业集聚对区域经济增长效应的发挥。

  19. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  1. 生物质气化中焦油特性及其处理%The Features and Elimination of Tar in Biomass Gasification Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高正伟; 武震; 陈王琦; 康天山

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of tar in biomass gasification processes plays a significant role in improving the efficiency of the gasification system, and the management itself will pose a great effect on the final commercialization.With the condensation of tar, it will not only erode reactors, but also affect the subsequent reaction process.So it is indispensable to handle with the tar through the gasification processes.The influencing factors to the output of the tar in the gasification processes were summarized, such as temperature, stagnation time and catalyst, the measures of tar elimination in the industrial production were elaborate.%生物质气化过程中产生的焦油问题对整个气化系统的效率以及最终商业化发展有着重要的作用,焦油的危害在于其冷凝之后对反应设备有较大的腐蚀性而且对后续的反应也有影响。因此,生物质气化过程中去除焦油十分必要。本文综述了气化过程中温度、停滞时间、催化剂种类等因素对生物质气化过程中焦油产量的影响,并且详细介绍与对比了现实工业生产中去除焦油的几种常用方法。

  2. Burner ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  3. The formation mechanism of CO2 and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Zheng, Mingdong; Qiu, Jieshan; Zhao, Zongbin; Ma, Tengcai

    2006-05-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO2 with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO2 yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C2 radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO2 yield is, which means that the CO2 formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO2 and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO2 conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H2 reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7-68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO2 and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO2 and the production of synthesis gas.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  6. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  7. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  8. Potential electrical energy generation in Brazil with biomass waste by gasification process; Potencial para geracao de energia eletrica no Brasil com residuos de biomassa atraves da gaseificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Rachel Martins

    2009-01-15

    The adoption of new technologies for generating electricity is based on technical, economic and environmental analysis. An important factor for choose the technology to be adopted is the raw material available for this purpose. Given the energy application below the potential of agricultural and urban solid waste, the growing demand for energy and the existence of environmental concerns, this thesis aims to emphasize the technology of gasification as an alternative for energy use of agricultural and urban solid waste. Thus, it describes the technology's state of the art, its maturity and improvement. Of great importance for understanding this process, it is needed to add the conclusions derived from experience in the gasification pilot plant at the University of Louvain la Neuve, Belgium. Considering the waste selected, the quantity available and the technology chosen, it is estimated the potential for electric energy that could be generated if the inputs were gasified. (author)

  9. 煤气化的工艺技术与发展趋势的分析%Process Technology and Development Trend of Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏茂胜

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of texaco as typical examples of gas technology,the process were detailed analysis,expounds the positive influence of coal gasification technology to the special period of the lean coal rich,and the protection of ecological environment urgent,and a simple analysis of the opportunities for the development of coal gasification technology.%以德士古为例对煤气化技术的特点、工艺流程进行详细分析,阐述了煤气化技术对我国当前贫油富煤,且保护生态环境刻不容缓的特殊时期的积极影响,并简单分析了煤气化技术的发展机遇。

  10. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process, and th...

  11. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  12. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  13. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  14. Comments on an Analytical Thermal Agglomeration for Problems with Surface Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Up until Dec 2016, the thermal agglomeration was very heuristic, and as such, difficult to define. The lack of predictability became problematic, and the current notes represent the first real attempt to systematize the specification of the agglomerated process parameters.

  15. Biomass gasification and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Nikoo, M.B. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The ASPEN PLUS simulation program was used to model an atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The aim of the study was develop a simulation capable of accurately predicting steady state performance of the gasifier in relation to hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. The influences of feed decomposition, volatile reactions, gas gasification and gas-solid separation were considered through modularized ASPEN PLUS models. The ASPEN PLUS yield reactor was used to simulate biomass feed decomposition. A separation column model was used to separate volatile materials and solids. Experimental data from a pine biomass gasification experiment conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed gasifier was used to validate the simulation results. Good agreement was shown for gas composition, although carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) rates were slightly underestimated. The study also demonstrated that higher temperatures improved the gasification process and carbon conversion. The optimized gasification process produced more carbon monoxide (CO) and less CO{sub 2}. The introduction of lower temperature steam to the gasification process increased tar output. It was concluded that the conversion efficiency increased when the equivalence ratio was increased. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  16. Ecothal burner development; Ecothal braennarutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, Thomas [KANTHAL AB, Hallstahammar (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    A SER burner system with catalytic cleaning have been optimised for an outer tube OD 100-115 mm. The aim has been to develop a burner with an emission of nitrogen oxides below 50 ppm and an efficiency higher than 80%. An optimised burner system have been realised but will not be stable enough for commercialisation. In order to fullfill the requirements it have to be regulated with closed loop oxygen sensor system regulating the air/gas supply (Lambda-value). Practically it is possible to reach 200-300 ppm nitrogen oxide with an efficiency around 70-80%. Following work have to focus on how to improve the stability considering geometrical changes when in operation but also towards accomodation of production tolerances and fluctuations in gas supply systems.

  17. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  18. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...... by commercial software. The aim of this work is to develop detailed process flow diagram for the FT technology in order to subsequently study the economic feasibility based on once-Through mode. A cost analysis is performed to find out the convenience of the proposed solutions....

  19. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  20. Bio-gasification of post transesterified microalgae residues: A route to improving overall process renewabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    Using results from experiments and process modelling tools, a renewability assessment was carried out for the use of the conventional and in-situ transesterification processes for a large scale microalgae biodiesel production. In a present day scenario, all the transesterification processes were ...

  1. Mathematical Model of Combustion in Blunt Annular Ceramic Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The computer simulation of the combustion process in blast furnace (BF) stove has been studied by using the k-ε-g turbulent diffusion flame model. The combustion process in blunt annular ceramic burner was calculated by using the software. The profiles of gas and air velocity, temperature of the combustion products, concentration of the components, and the shape and length of the flame during combustion have been researched . Compared with the original annular ceramic burner, the new design of the blunt one improves the mixing of the gas and the air significantly, and shortened the length of the flame.

  2. Literature review and binder and coal selection for research studies on coal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Girimont, J.A.; peterson, C.A.; Saller, E.

    1982-02-26

    This report discusses the results of a literature survey on coal agglomeration and the approaches that were employed in selecting binders and coals to be studied in a process development program currently being performed for the Department of Energy. The survey is the first step toward the development of a useful process for the agglomeration of coal fines for use in a fixed-bed gasifier. Literature was found and reviewed on the effects of coal composition and physical properties, on agglomeration techniques and operating variables, on binders or additives to promote agglomeration, on pretreatment techniques on agglomerate feedstocks and post-treatment techniques on formed agglomerates, and on test results obtained by researchers in the past using various additives, treatments and agglomeration techniques. Much of this information did not deal directly with agglomerates for fixed-bed gasifiers, but the reported observations and results could be extrapolated to give useful guidelines for research plans. Conclusions and plans for further work are presented.

  3. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economical comparisons of the Westinghouse and I. G. T. U-Gas coal-gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Koneru, P.B.

    1981-07-01

    Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to prepare technical and economic assessments of the Westinghouse and IGT U-Gas processes such that comparison of the two would be on a consistent basis. Kellogg carried out this task in essentially two phases: (a) preparation of consistent designs of coal-to-SNG plants using the two processes, and (b) evaluation of the design bases in light of research data. Comparable designs and economics were prepared for grass-roots facilities to produce SNG equivalent to 250 billion Btu/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, using the Westinghouse and U-Gas gasifiers. The C.F. Braun Guidelines were followed. The capital and operating costs are almost identical for the two processes. In Kellogg's view, the economics as developed during this study do not show cause to favor either process over the other. The small differences in costs are well within the accuracies of the estimates and should be considered insignificant. Nine differences between the Westinghouse and U-Gas processes are listed which could possibly provide an advantage to one or to the other. Opportunities exist for both processes to enhance efficiencies and/or to reduce costs by optimization of the gas treating and byproduct recovery areas. Kellogg observes that both Westinghouse and U-Gas appear to be very competitive (in economics as developed during this study) with other coal gasification processes evaluated under the Joint DOE/GRI Program.

  4. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  5. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  6. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of coal gasification technology. Combined-cycle gas turbine power plants are reviewed. References also discuss dry-feed gasification, gas turbine interface, coal gasification pilot plants, underground coal gasification, gasification with nuclear heat, and molten bath processes. Clean-coal based electric power generation and environmental issues are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  8. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  9. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications.

  10. Multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in fuel cell systems; Mehrstofffaehige Brenner auf Basis der Porenbrennertechnik fuer den Einsatz in Brennstoffzellensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.

    2006-07-01

    The present doctoral thesis describes the development of multifuel burners based on the porous burner technology for the application in hydrocarbon driven fuel cell systems. One objective of such burners is the heating of the fuel cell system to the operating temperature at the cold start. In stationary operation the burner has to postcombust the waste gases from the fuel cell and the gas processing system in order to reduce the pollutant emissions. As the produced heat is required for endothermal processes like the steam reforming the burner has a significant influence on the system's efficiency. The performed investigations are targeting on a gasoline driven PEMFC-System with steam reforming. In such systems the burner has to be capable to combust the system's fuel gasoline at the cold start, a low calorific fuel cell offgas (HU = 6,4 MJ/kg) in stationary operation and a hydrogen rich gas in the case of an emergency shut down. Pre-tests revealed that in state of the art porous burners the flame front of hydrogen/air combustion can only be stabilized at very high excess air ratios. In basic investigations concerning the stabilization of flame fronts in porous media the dominant influence parameters were determined. Based on this findings a new flame trap was developed which increases the operational range with hydrogen rich mixtures significantly. Furthermore the burning velocity at stationary combustion in porous media was investigated. The dependency of the porous burning velocity on the excess air ratio for different hydrocarbons and hydrogen as well as for mixtures of both was determined. The results of these basic investigations were applied for the design of a multifuel burner. In order to achieve an evaporation of the gasoline without the use of additional energy, an internal heat exchanger section for heating the combustion air was integrated into the burner. Additionally different experimental and numerical methods were applied for designing the

  11. The Potentials for Integration of Black Liquor Gasification with Gas Fired Paper Drying Processes - A Study from the Energy Cost Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Kristian; Stenstroem, Stig [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-15

    To improve the process economics for gas fired paper drying processes, such as the air impingement dryer or the Yankee dryer, alternative gaseous fuels to replace natural gas and propane should be considered. This gaseous fuel should preferably be renewable and suitable to fire a gas turbine cycle for combined heat and power generation. One such fuel could be the product gas from black liquor gasification. In this work the possibilities for integration of the black liquor gasification process with the paper drying process were assessed based on overall energy costs for an integrated pulp and paper model mill, using computer modelling. The model mill included both the pulp and paper producing processes, and the paper mill included two paper machines; one conventional multicylinder dryer producing fine paper and one gas fired Yankee dryer producing tissue. Three different configurations of the combined heat and power plant were evaluated at a fixed pulp and paper production rate. The study was performed by computer modelling, using a modular simulation tool developed for energy use and cost analysis for the pulp and paper industry in the software entitled Extend. From this study it can be concluded that the product gas from black liquor gasification is a possible fuel to be used in gas fired paper drying processes, such as the Yankee dryer. The thermodynamic properties of the syngas from oxygen-blown, high-temperature gasifiers are very similar to those of natural gas and propane. In addition to being a renewable fuel, the use of syngas instead of fossil fuels would lead to reduced energy costs for the mill. In the case of installing a small gasification plant for production of enough syngas to replace the natural gas in the Yankee dryer hood the total energy costs would be reduced by approximately 10 MSEK/year. This would probably not be sufficient to justify the investment cost for the gasification process, insofar as the installation not simultaneously increases

  12. Effect of polymers on crystallo-co-agglomeration of ibuprofen-paracetamol: Factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of concentration of polyethylene glycol and ethyl cellulose on the properties of agglomerates of ibuprofen-paracetamol obtained by crystallo-co-agglomeration technique. The process of crystallo-co-agglomeration involved recrystallization of ibuprofen and its simultaneous agglomeration with paracetamol in presence polymers. The effect of combination of polyethylene glycol and ethylcellulose was studied by 2 2 factorial design. Ibuprofen content of the agglomerate increased with increase in ethyl cellulose while paracetamol content was decreased with increase in polyethylene glycol. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of agglomerates showed the unchanged endotherm for ibuprofen melting, whereas paracetamol endotherm was diffused with low enthalpy. The agglomerates were spherical but increase in polyethylene glycol caused its deformation. Agglomerates containing ethylcellulose with polyethylene glycol have higher resistance for fragmentation, modulus of elasticity but impart high tensile strength.

  13. Comparative study of gasification of wood of coffee and coal plant fruit for dehydration; Estudo comparativo da gaseificacao da lenha de cafe e do carvao vegetal para desidratacao de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], Emails: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Renewable energy sources, in particular the biomass, has been gaining more space in the national and global energy matrix, mainly by reducing dependence on fossil fuels and being ecologically correct. The gasification is a process that has been viable and more efficient than conventional ovens and burners. In this context, this work is justified and has its importance in studying various kinds of biomasses used as raw material for production of heated air through the gasification. The objective of this research is to conduct a comparative study of the gasification of the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal, with heating air purpose for dehydration of fruit. The temperature of the drying air was kept in approximately 70 deg C, through the control of air entrance in the mixer. It was concluded that both the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal have potential as a fuel for gasification, with purpose of fruits dehydration. However it is recommended the use of the vegetal coal as the fuel to supply hot and clean air for food drying processes. (author)

  14. Effect of fuel size and process temperature on fuel gas quality from CFB gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A.; Van Doorn, J. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A bench-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier with a capacity of max. 500 kWh{sub th} has been used to study the effect of fuel size and process temperature. A higher process temperature (range tested: 750 to 910C) results in more air needed to maintain the desired temperature, a lower heating value of the product gas, a higher carbon conversion and a net increase of cold gas efficiency of the gasifier. A higher process temperature also results in less heavy tars. However, light tars (measured using the solid phase adsorbent (SPA) method) do show an odd behaviour. Some individual components within the group of light tars even increase in concentration when process temperature is raised. The main reason probably is that heavy tars decompose to these relatively stable light tar components. The particle size of the fuel does influence some product gas parameters considerably. The presence of small particles seems to increase the (heavy) tar concentration and decrease the conversion of fuel-nitrogen to ammonia. Small particles can also be responsible for large temperature gradients along the axis of the riser of a CFB-gasifier. This effect can be avoided by either mixing the fuel with larger particles or feed the small particles at the bottom of the reactor. 5 refs.

  15. Process optimisation in waste combustion and gasification; Prozessoptimierung bei der Verbrennung und Vergasung von Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg, Inst. IEC, Fakultaet 4 (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Optimisation of thermal treatment processes is chiefly geared to the following aims: in terms of process engineering, to the homogenisation of input materials, improvement of process effectivity (increased reaction rates), intensification of mixing and exploitation of residence time (approximation to thermodynamic equilibria); in ecological terms, to the minimisation of material flows and pollutant generation and limitation of emissions; and in economic terms to the simplification of process techniques, maximisation of net energy production, and minimisation of the quantity and pollutant content of arising wastes. The present contribution takes a closer look at some of these ways of optimisation. [Deutsch] Die Optimierung der thermischen Behandlungsprozesse wird vor allem mit folgenden Zielstellung durchgefuehrt: - verfahrenstechnisch durch - Homogenisierung der Input-Materialien, Verbesserung der Effektivitaet der Prozesse (Erhoehung der Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit), Intensivierung der Mischung und Nutzung der Verweilzeit (Annaeherung an thermodynamische Gleichgewichte). - Oekologisch durch - Minimierung der Stoffstroeme, Minimierung der Schadstoffentstehung, Begrenzung der Emissionen. - Oekonomisch durch - Vereinfachung der Verfahrenstechnik, Maximierung der Nettoenergieproduktion, Minimierung der Mengen und Schadstoffgehalte entstehender Abfaelle. In den folgenden Ausfuehrungen sollen einige dieser Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten naeher betrachtet werden. (orig./SR)

  16. Exxon catalytic coal-gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euker, Jr, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques. Equipment specifications have been completed for two cases with countercurrent water washing using rotary-drum filters for the solid-liquid separations. Material and energy balances have been completed for an alternative methane recovery process configuration using low pressure stripping which requires 26% less horsepower than the Study Design system. A study has been initiated to identify trace components which might be present in the CCG gas loop and to assess their potential impacts on the CCG process. This information will be used to assist in planning an appropriate series of analyses for the PDU gasifier effluent. A study has been initiated to evaluate the use of a small conventional steam reformer operating in parallel with a preheat furnace for heat input to the catalytic gasifier which avoids the potential problem of carbon laydown. Preliminary replies from ten manufacturers are being evaluated as part of a study to determine the types and performance of coal crushing equipment appropriate for commercial CCG plants. A material and energy balance computer model for the CCG reactor system has been completed. The new model will provide accurate, consistent and cost-efficient material and energy balances for the extensive laboratory guidance and process definition studies planned under the current program. Other activities are described briefly.

  17. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

  18. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  19. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  20. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  1. Ukrainian experience of oil agglomeration of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biletskyi, V.S. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine). Dept. of Coal Preparation

    1997-12-31

    During the years 1980-1996 a series of investigations related to the applied and theoretical aspects of the coal oil agglomeration processing were carried out in the Ukraine at the Donetsk State Technical University and Coal Chemistry National Academy of Sciences (NAN) of Ukraine, institutes UralVTI, VNIIPIHidrotruboprovod, LenNIlkhimmash, Kharkiv polytechnical Institute, Institute of Biocolloide Chemistry NAN of Ukraine and also at coal preparation plants and thermoelectric power stations in the Donbas. Theoretical bases of the process of selective oil agglomeration are developed on the basis of modern physical chemistry, physical-chemical hydrodynamics, adhesion theory, and solid fuel chemistry. The necessary sufficient conditions for aggregate forming coal and oil components in water have been formulated. The central problem of `coal-reagent` interaction during coal aggregation has been solved, and a mathematical description of processes for forming coal-oil aggregates including kinetics has been made. Analysis of factors which influence the process and its mathematical models have been realized. Rational conditions of pelletising of energetic and coking coal, coal raw material and products of coal preparation plants, electric power stations, and hydrotransport systems have been determined. Results of the complex study of technological properties of coal aggregates as objects of dewatering, hydrotransportation, consumption, coking, pyrolysis and carriers at gold adhesive preparation are presented. The theoretical principles and experimental data served as a basis for creating about 40 new methods and devices for the process of coal selective oil agglomeration. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  3. Investigating Efficient Tar Management from Biomass and Waste to Energy Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    air/minute From the ideal gas law PV=nRT or V=nRT/P. From Himmelblauxx R =10.73(psia)(ft3)/(lbmole)(oR) V= [(0.0935 lbmoles Air/minute...use in the engine while evaluating the gas cleanup potential of the R -8 fuel. 1 In this work...were filled with R -8 (renewable JP-8) and the effluent from the sampling bench was forced into the GC vials as opposed to drawing the process gas into

  4. Agglomeration, Inequality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    David Castells; Vicente Royuela

    2014-01-01

    The impact of income inequality on economic growth is dependent on several factors, including the time horizon considered, the initial level of income and its initial distribution. Yet, as growth and inequality are also uneven across space, it is also pertinent to consider the effects of the geographical agglomeration of economic activity. Moreover, it would also seem pertinent to consider not just the levels of inequality and agglomeration, but also the changes they undergo (i.e., their with...

  5. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  6. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  7. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Loth, J.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  8. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  11. Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydary Juma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the gasification of a fraction of municipal solid waste, MSW, generally separated from inorganic materials and biodegradable components, the so-called refuse-derived fuel (RDF, was studied using material characterisation methods, and the modelling of an industrial scale process was presented. The composition of RDF was determined by the separation of a representative sample into its basic components (paper, foils, hard plastics, textiles. All RDF components as well as a representative mixed sample of the RDF were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and bomb calorimetry to determine their proximate and elemental compositions, and a higher heating value. An industrial scale gasification process was studied by mathematical modelling and computer simulations. All techniques, gasification with air, gasification with oxygen, and gasification with both oxygen and steam were investigated under different conditions. The RDF conversion of 100 % was achieved by the gasification with air at the air to RDF mass ratio of 3.2. The gas heating value was 4.4 MJ/Nm3. The gasification of RDF using oxygen enables the production of gas with the heating value of around 10 MJ/Nm3 at the oxygen to RDF mass ratio of 0.65. By increasing the steam to the RDF mass ratio, the contents of H2 and CO2 increased, while the content of CO, reactor temperature and the gas heating value decreased.

  12. Modelling of Underground Coal Gasification Process Using CFD Methods / Modelowanie Procesu Podziemnego Zgazowania Węgla Kamiennego Z Zastosowaniem Metod CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowicz, Jan; Łączny, Jacek Marian; Iwaszenko, Sebastian; Janoszek, Tomasz; Cempa-Balewicz, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The results of model studies involving numerical simulation of underground coal gasification process are presented. For the purpose of the study, the software of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was selected for simulation of underground coal gasification. Based on the review of the literature, it was decided that ANSYS-Fluent will be used as software for the performance of model studies. The ANSYS- -Fluent software was used for numerical calculations in order to identify the distribution of changes in the concentration of syngas components as a function of duration of coal gasification process. The nature of the calculations was predictive. A geometric model has been developed based on construction data of the georeactor used during the researches in Experimental Mine "Barbara" and Coal Mine "Wieczorek" and it was prepared by generating a numerical grid. Data concerning the georeactor power supply method and the parameters maintained during the process used to define the numerical model. Some part of data was supplemented based on the literature sources. The main assumption was to base the simulation of the georeactor operation on a mathematical models describing reactive fluid flow. Components of the process gas and the gasification agent move along the gasification channel and simulate physicochemical phenomena associated with the transfer of mass and energy as well as chemical reactions (together with the energy effect). Chemical reactions of the gasification process are based on a kinetic equation which determines the course of a particular type of equation of chemical coal gasification. The interaction of gas with the surrounding coal layer has also been described as a part of the model. The description concerned the transport of thermal energy. The coal seam and the mass rock are treated as a homogeneous body. Modelling studies assumed the coal gasification process is carried out with the participation of separately oxygen and air as a gasification agent

  13. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized f

  14. Exploration of the effect of process variables on the production of high-value fuel gas from glucose via supercritical water gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Doug; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Jacoby, William

    2011-02-01

    A new continuous supercritical water gasification reactor was designed to investigate glucose gasification in supercritical water at high temperatures and low residence times. A 2(3) full factorial experiment was performed to determine the effects of feed concentration, temperature, and residence time on glucose gasification. The temperature levels (750°C and 800°C) were higher than ever used, while the residence times (4 and 6.5s) were shorter than ever used in previous supercritical water gasification studies. The reactor proved capable of attaining higher gasification rates than previously shown with high efficiencies and yields. In addition, the glucose gasification reaction was modeled by estimating activation energy and reaction order of glucose gasification in supercritical water.

  15. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This project describes the work carried out to prepare a highly reactive and mechanically strong MgO based sorbents and to develop a Population Balance Equations (PBE) approach to describe the evolution of the particle porosity distribution that is linked with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to perform simulations of the CO2 capture and sorbent regeneration. A large number of MgO-based regenerable sorbents were prepared using low cost and abundant dolomite as the base material. Among various preparation parameters investigated the potassium/magnesium (K/Mg) ratio was identified as the key variable affecting the reactivity and CO2 capacity of the sorbent. The optimum K/Mg ratio is about 0.15. The sorbent formulation HD52-P2 was identified as the “best” sorbent formulation and a large batch (one kg) of the sorbent was prepared for the detailed study. The results of parametric study indicate the optimum carbonation and regeneration temperatures are 360° and 500°C, respectively. The results also indicate that steam has a beneficial effect on the rate of carbonation and regeneration of the sorbent and that the reactivity and capacity of the sorbent decreases in the cycling process (sorbent deactivation). The results indicate that to achieve a high CO2 removal efficiency, the bed of sorbent should be operated at a temperature range of 370-410°C which also favors production of hydrogen through the WGS reaction. To describe the carbonation reaction kinetics of the MgO, the Variable Diffusivity shrinking core Model (VDM) was developed in this project, which was shown to accurately fit the experimental data. An important advantage of this model is that the changes in the sorbent conversion with time can be expressed in an explicit manner, which will significantly reduce the CFD computation time. A Computational Fluid Dynamic/Population Balance Equations (CFD/PBE) model was developed that accounts for the particle (sorbent) porosity distribution and a new version of

  16. Power coal plasma gasification. Computation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.A. Bastyrev; V.I. Golysh; M.A. Gorokhovski; Yu.E. Karpenko; V.G. Lukiaschenko; V.E. Messerle; A.O. Nagibin; E.F. Osadchaya; S.F. Osadchy; I.G. Stepanov; K.A. Umbetkaliev; A.B. Ustimenko [Combustion Problems Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2005-07-01

    Results of complex experimental and numerical investigation of coal plasma gasification in steam and air are presented. To analyse numerically the universal thermodynamic calculation code TERRA was used. The data base of it contains thermodynamic properties for 3500 individual components in temperature interval from 300 to 6000 K. Experiments were fulfilled at an original installation for coal plasma gasification. Nominal power of the plasma gasifier is 100 kW and sum consumption of the reagents is up to 25 kg/h. High integral indexes of the gasification processes were achieved. The numerical and experimental results comparison showed their satisfied agreement. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Industrial burners with compact burner management system on industrial applications; Industriebrenner mit kompaktem Brenner-Management-System in verschiedenen industriellen Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, P.; Bloess, H. [CRONE Waermetechnik GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Industrial burners are the heart of every thermal process-based production line. The quality of the final product depends largely on the burner's reliability and performance. Small maintenance effort and maximum availability, high energy efficiency and seamless integration into existing automation systems are the key requirements placed on advanced industrial firing systems. Whether thermal after-burning, drying or assisted firing, the scope of industrial applications demands an extensive range of solutions. Depending on individual requirements, the LMV family of burner management systems from Siemens Building Technologies (SBT) offers complete high-end solutions for the control of thermal process-based production lines reaching from metalworking to the production of glass wool, ceramics or automobiles, textiles, paper, plastics and rubber. This paper describes various burner management systems that are used on a number of different applications. (orig.)

  19. CFD Analysis of Coal and Heavy Oil Gasification for Syngas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    phases. Gasification consists of the processes of passive heating, devolatilization, volatiles oxidation, char gasification and gas phase reactions. Attention is given here to the chemical kinetics of the gasification processes. The coal gasification model has been validated for entrained-flow gasifiers...... dioxide is overestimated. The deviation is fairly small, particularly for the improved chemical kinetics scheme. The heavy oil gasification model has been validated for a pilot-scale entrained-flow gasifier operating under different oxygen ratios. A gasification model similar to that developed for coal...... gasification is proposed for heavy oil gasification, using a single chemical kinetics scheme. Predictions of heavy oil gasification are rare in the literature, so that the present work holds some significance. The predictions of the temperature along the gasifier centerline and the species mole fractions...

  20. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  1. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  2. Investigating the Integration of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and a Gas Turbine System with Coal Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    conceptually integrate the hybrid power system with existing and imminent coal gasification technologies. The gasification technologies include the Kellogg...Brown Root (KBR) Transport Reactor and entrained coal gasification . Parametric studies will be performed wherein pertinent fuel cell stack process...dependent variables of interest. Coal gasification data and a proven SOFC model will be used to test the theoretical integration. Feasibility and

  3. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  4. Agglomerates containing pantoprazole microparticles: modulating the drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Renata P; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Jornada, Denise S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2009-01-01

    Pantoprazole-loaded microparticles were prepared using a blend of Eudragit S100 and Methocel F4M. The accelerated stability was carried out during 6 months at 40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. In order to improve technological characteristics of the pantoprazole-loaded microparticles, soft agglomerates were prepared viewing an oral delayed release and gastro-resistant solid dosage form. The agglomeration was performed by mixing the pantoprazole microparticles with spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders. The effects of factors such as the amount of lecithin in the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders and the ratio between pantoprazole microparticles and spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders were evaluated. The pantoprazole-loaded microparticles present no significant degradation in 6 months. The agglomerates presented spherical shape, with smooth surface and very small quantity of non-agglomerated particles. The agglomerates presented different yields (35.5-79.0%), drug loading (58-101%), and mechanical properties (tensile strength varied from 44 to 69 mN mm(-2)), when the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders with different lecithin amounts were used. The biopharmaceutical characteristics of pantoprazole microparticles, i.e., their delayed-release properties, were not affected by the agglomeration process. The gastro-resistance of the agglomerates was affected by the amount of spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders. The ratio of lecithin in the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders was the key factor in the agglomerate formation and in the drug release profiles. The agglomerates presenting better mechanical and biopharmaceutical characteristics were prepared with 1:2 (w/w) ratio of pantoprazole-loaded microparticles and mannitol/lecithin (80:20) powder.

  5. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  6. Flame investigations of coal and biomass combustion with a 35 MW DS {sup registered} burner and modification for indirect firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, Tanja; Leisse, Alfons; Niesbach, Juergen; Kuhr, Christian; Koczorowski, Hans-Joachim [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Based on experimental flame investigations the capability of a DS {sup registered} burner to operate in a wide load range with different fuels was verified. A DS {sup registered} burner with a thermal capacity of 35 MW was installed in a combustion test facility in order to perform in-flame ash sampling and detailed measurements of temperatures, flue gas species as well as convective and radioactive heat fluxes. Moreover the DS {sup registered} burner was modified to DS {sup registered} T burner for the use of dense phase fuel conveying for indirect firing systems including the oxyfuel process. (orig.)

  7. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  8. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  9. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel...... system based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant and a SKC plant is presented and investigated. The system is called IGSKC (Integrated Gasification SOFC Simple Kalina Cycle). The system layout is studied, and the optimal ammonia-water mole fraction is selected. An electrical efficiency of 58...

  11. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  12. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  13. Analysis on the Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Financial Agglomeration with Markov Chain Approach in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard approach to studying financial industrial agglomeration is to construct measures of the degree of agglomeration within financial industry. But such measures often fail to exploit the convergence or divergence of financial agglomeration. In this paper, we apply Markov chain approach to diagnose the convergence of financial agglomeration in China based on the location quotient coefficients across the provincial regions over 1993–2011. The estimation of Markov transition probability matrix offers more detailed insights into the mechanics of financial agglomeration evolution process in China during the research period. The results show that the spatial evolution of financial agglomeration changes faster in the period of 2003–2011 than that in the period of 1993–2002. Furthermore, there exists a very uneven financial development patterns, but there is regional convergence for financial agglomeration in China.

  14. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  15. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  16. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  17. Agglomeration Control during Ultrasonic Crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Gielen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of ultrasound during crystallization can efficiently inhibit agglomeration. However, the mechanism is unclear and sonication is usually enabled throughout the entire process, which increases the energy demand. Additionally, improper operation results in significant crystal damage. Therefore, the present work addresses these issues by identifying the stage in which sonication impacts agglomeration without eroding the crystals. This study was performed using a commercially available API that showed a high tendency to agglomerate during seeded crystallization. The crystallization progress was monitored using process analytical tools (PAT, including focus beam reflectance measurements (FBRM to track to crystal size and number and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to quantify the supersaturation level. These tools provided insight in the mechanism by which ultrasound inhibits agglomeration. A combination of improved micromixing, fast crystal formation which accelerates depletion of the supersaturation and a higher collision frequency prevent crystal cementation to occur. The use of ultrasound as a post-treatment can break some of the agglomerates, but resulted in fractured crystals. Alternatively, sonication during the initial seeding stage could assist in generating nuclei and prevent agglomeration, provided that ultrasound was enabled until complete desupersaturation at the seeding temperature. FTIR and FBRM can be used to determine this end point.

  18. Basic equations of channel model for underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The underground coal gasification has advantages of zero rubbish, nonpollution, low cost and high safety. According to the characteristics of the gasification, the channel model of chemical fluid mechanics is used to set up the fluid equations and chemical equations by some reasonable suppositions in this paper, which lays a theoretical foundation on requirements of fluid movement rules in the process of underground coal gasification.

  19. Processes forming Gas, Tar, and Coke in Cellulose Gasification from Gas-Phase Reactions of Levoglucosan as Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2015-07-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of levoglucosan (LG), the major intermediate species during cellulose gasification, was studied experimentally over the temperature range of 400-900 °C. Gaseous LG did not produce any dehydration products, which include coke, furans, and aromatic substances, although these are characteristic products of the pyrolysis of molten LG. Alternatively, at >500 °C, gaseous LG produced only fragmentation products, such as noncondensable gases and condensable C1 -C3 fragments, as intermediates during noncondensable gas formation. Therefore, it was determined that secondary reactions of gaseous LG can result in the clean (tar- and coke-free) gasification of cellulose. Cooling of the remaining LG in the gas phase caused coke formation by the transition of the LG to the molten state. The molecular mechanisms that govern the gas- and molten-phase reactions of LG are discussed in terms of the acid catalyst effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding to promote the molten-phase dehydration reactions.

  20. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  1. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  2. Some parameters and conditions defining the efficiency of burners in the destruction of long-lived nuclear wastes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Seliverstov

    2007-02-01

    A number of new wordings and statements regarding the targeted problem of destruction of long-lived wastes (transmutation) is considered. Some new criteria concerning the efficiency of a particular burner type are proposed. It is shown that the destruction efficiency of a specific burner is greatly influenced by the prospective time period of the whole destruction process.

  3. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass: A Literature and Technology Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.; Harinck, J.; Smit, K.G.; De Jong, W.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification process is an alternative to both conventional gasification as well as anaerobic digestion as it does not require drying and the process takes place at much shorter residence times; a few minutes at most. The drastic changes in the thermo-physical properties of w

  4. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  5. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  6. Burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  7. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  8. Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized.

  9. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  10. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.

  11. Crystallo-co-agglomeration: A novel particle engineering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradkar Anant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA is a novel particle engineering/design technique developed by Kadam et al, to overcome the limitations of spherical crystallization (SC. Basically, it′s single step process used for size enlargement of single, two or more, small dose or large dose drugs, in combination with or without diluent. The process of CCA involves simultaneous crystallization and agglomeration of drug/s with/without excipients/s from good solvent and/or bridging liquid by addition of a non-solvent. Till date CCA has been applied for spherical agglomeration of talc, bromhexine hydrochloride-talc, ibuprofen-talc, ibuprofen-paracetamol, and naproxen-starch. The spherical agglomerates obtained by CCA can be used as intact beads (encapsulated spansules or directly compressible tablet intermediates having satisfactory micromeritic (flowability, mechanical (friability, crushing, compressional (compressibility, compactibility, and drug release properties. Modified drug release from agglomerates and compacts thereof can be achieved using suitable polymer composition in the process design. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCA is a simple and cost effective process, which can be tailor-made for particle design of all majority of drugs and combinations thereof.

  12. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  13. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  14. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluidized Bed Gasification of Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmina Begum; Mohammad G. Rasul; Delwar Akbar; David Cork

    2013-01-01

    Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbon-based products such as biomass and coal into a gas mixture known as synthetic gas or syngas. Various types of gasification methods exist, and fluidized bed gasification is one of them which is considered more efficient than others as fuel is fluidized in oxygen, steam or air. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of fluidized bed gasification of solid waste (SW) (wood). The experimental measurement of syngas...

  15. Low Acoustic Impact Burner; Combustore a basso impatto acustico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Cesini, G.; Mattei, E.; Salvi, D. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica; Sesterzi, M. [Accorroni S.r.l., Osimo, AN (Italy)

    2000-03-01

    The combustion process in some gas burners generates low frequency vibrations which cause sound energy; in order to reducing those acoustic emissions all the releasing sources of the unit have been analysed, choosing to operate directly upon the combustion process. The combustion noise has been reduced of 7.5 dB, with an increase in the number of the burner's releasing sources, keeping constant engaged thermal power. [Italian] Il processo di combustione che avviene in alcuni bruciatori a gas genera pulsazioni a bassa frequenza che liberano energia sonora; allo scopo di ridurre tali emissioni acustiche sono state analizzate tutte le sorgenti emissive del complesso, decidendo di intervenire direttamente sul processo di combustione. Il rumore di combustione e' stato ridotto di 7,5 dB aumentando il numero delle sorgenti emissive del bruciatore, tenendo costante la potenza termica impegnata.

  16. An integrated process for hydrogen-rich gas production from cotton stalks: The simultaneous gasification of pyrolysis gases and char in an entrained flow bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Suping; Chen, Zhenqi; Ding, Ding

    2015-12-01

    An integrated process (pyrolysis, gas-solid simultaneous gasification and catalytic steam reforming) was utilized to produce hydrogen-rich gas from cotton stalks. The simultaneous conversion of the pyrolysis products (char and pyrolysis gases) was emphatically investigated using an entrained flow bed reactor. More carbon of char is converted into hydrogen-rich gas in the simultaneous conversion process and the carbon conversion is increased from 78.84% to 92.06% compared with the two stages process (pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming). The distribution of tar components is also changed in this process. The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of tar are converted into low-ring compounds or even chain compounds due to the catalysis of char. In addition, the carbon deposition yield over NiO/MgO catalyst in the steam reforming process is approximately 4 times higher without the simultaneous process. The potential H2 yield increases from 47.71 to 78.19g/kg cotton stalks due to the simultaneous conversion process.

  17. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  18. Urban agglomeration and CEO compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; John, Kose; Waisman , Maya

    2012-01-01

    An underlying assumption in the executive compensation literature is that there is a national labor market for CEOs. The urban economics literature, however, documents higher ability among workers in large metropolitans, which results in a real and stable urban wage premium. In this paper, we investigate the link between the spatial clustering of firms in big, central cities (i.e., urban agglomeration) and the level and structure of CEO compensation. Using CEO compensation data for the period...

  19. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

    2001-11-06

    coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the

  20. 煤气化技术工业应用概况及工艺选择(上)%Industrial Application Survey and Process Selection of Coal Gasification Technology (Part I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建兵

    2014-01-01

    煤气化技术是煤化工产业发展的核心技术,我国庞大的煤化工市场促进了煤气化技术的研发和应用。根据国内、外煤气化技术的实际情况,评述了固定层、流化床、气流床煤气化工艺的主流技术路线及其工艺特点和发展概况,介绍了各种煤气化技术在国内的技术研发和产业化现状。%The coal gasification technology is the core technology in the development of coal chemical industry, and the enormous coal chemical market in China promotes the development and application of coal gasification technology.Based on actual situation at home and abroad, it is reviewed of mainstream technical routes and process characteristics of coal gasification technologies, including fixed-bed, fluid-bed and entrained flow bed, and technology research and development and industrialization status of each coal gasification technology in China is presented.

  1. Studies of catalytic coal gasification with steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising processes, belonging to the so-called clean coal technologies, is catalytic coal gasification. The addition of a catalyst results in an increased process rate, in which synthesis gas is obtained. Therefore, the subject of this research was catalytic gasification of low-ranking coal which, due to a high reactivity, meets the requirements for fuels used in the gasification process. Potassium and calcium cations in an amount of 0.85, 1.7 and 3.4% by weight were used as catalytically active substances. Isothermal measurements were performed at 900°C under a pressure of 2 MPa using steam as a gasifying agent. On the basis of kinetic curves, the performance of main gasification products as well as carbon conversion degree were determined. The performed measurements allowed the determination of the type and amount of catalyst that ensure the most efficient gasification process of the coal ‘Piast’ in an atmosphere of steam.

  2. High Performance Gasification with the Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Benny; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars. In the ......Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars....... In the two-stage gasification concept, the pyrolysis and the gasification processes are physical separated. The volatiles from the pyrolysis are partially oxidized, and the hot gases are used as gasification medium to gasify the char. Hot gases from the gasifier and a combustion unit can be used for drying...... a cold gas efficiency exceeding 90% is obtained. In the original design of the two-stage gasification process, the pyrolysis unit consists of a screw conveyor with external heating, and the char unit is a fixed bed gasifier. This design is well proven during more than 1000 hours of testing with various...

  3. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  4. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  5. Influences of seed size and number on agglomeration in synthetic Bayer liquors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; ZHOU Ke-chao; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2006-01-01

    By means of Malvern laser particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy, the influences of seed size and number on agglomeration in Bayer process were investigated. Agglomeration is almost finished in 8 h,seeds, below 5 μm, especially below 2 μm, gather together rapidly and almost disappear in 8 h. In the same supersaturation of aluminate solution and seed size, the smaller the number of seed is, the bigger the degree of agglomeration is. With the same primary number of seed, the agglomeration of larger seed is superior to that of small seed,and the agglomeration does not happen among the coarse seeds. The agglomeration mainly happens among fine particles, and the combinations among the fine particles are unconsolidated.

  6. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  8. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  9. Development of selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) for NH{sub 3} and HCN removal from gasification gas; Selektiivisen katalyyttisen hapetusprosessin (SCO) kehittaeminen kaasutuskaasun NH{sub 3}:n ja HCN:n poistoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Heiskanen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In gasification, reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly NH{sub 3} and HCN) are formed from fuel nitrogen. If the gas containing NH{sub 3} is burned, a high NO{sub x} emission may be formed. The content of nitrogen compounds of the hot gasification gas could be reduced in Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) process. In this process small amounts of reactive oxidisers are injected into the gas in order to convert NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2}. The utilization of SCO process together with low NO{sub x} burners in advanced gasification power stations might offer an alternative for flue gas treatment technologies like SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction). In the earlier research, conditions were found, where oxidizers reacted selectively with ammonia in the gasification gas. Highest ammonia reduction took place in the aluminium oxide bed in the presence of NO and O{sub 2}. The aim of this study is to examine the reaction mechanism in order to be able to further evaluate the development possibilities of this kind process. The effect of composition and the amount of added oxidizer, the content of combustible gas components, space velocity, pressure and temperature will be studied. The experiments are carried out with the laboratory scale high pressure flow reactor of VTT Energy. Kinetic modelling of the experimental results is carried out in co-operation with the combustion chemistry group of Aabo Akademi. The aim of the modelling work is to bring insight to the gas-phase reactions that are important for the SCO-process. (orig.)

  10. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  11. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electric......An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...... with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing...

  12. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M.; Hoelder, D.; Backhaus, C.; Althaus, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  13. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  14. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  15. Utilisation of the energy-independent underground gasification-uvea process for carbamide production; Einsatz des energieautarken Untertagevergasungs-Urea-Prozesses zur Carbamid-Herstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas [Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungszentrum (GFZ) Potsdam (Germany); Schlueter, Ralph [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Geologie und Bohrlochvermessungen; Hamann, Joerg [EPC Industrial Engineering Deutschland GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Islam, Rafiqul [Dhaka Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Azzam, Rafig [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieur- und Hydrogeologie

    2011-08-15

    The worldwide coal resources have an energy supply potential of several hundred years. However, great depths, thin seams and tectonic faults may greatly restrict the utilisation of the coal seams by means of conventional conveyor technologies. With the aim of production of a conveyable synthesis gas underground coal gasification (UCG) offers an environmentally friendly and economically viable possibility of utilisation of previously inaccessible coal deposits. The high-calorific UCG synthesis gas can be used, for example, for the generation of electricity in an integrated gas and steam turbine process (GaS) as well as the production of chemical starting materials. One possibility of product recovery from the UCG synthesis gas is the production of the fertiliser carbamide (CH{sub 6}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The aim of this study is the development of a utilisation concept for coal deposits on the basis of a combined and energy-independent UCG-GaS-urea process. To check the utilisation concept based on an independent electricity supply an economic feasibility study for a selected investigation area in the north of Bangladesh was carried out with consideration of the economic viability and potential of the UCG-GaS-urea process. (orig.)

  16. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  17. Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eugenio [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, c/ Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gancedo, J. Ramon [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gracia, Mercedes, E-mail: rocgracia@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  19. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Mineral and Mineral Process Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Selective flocculation tests were run on three types of coal and three additives in tests on a new hydrophobic agglomeration process using hydrophobic latices. The coals differed widely in surface wettability. The additives were hydrophobic latexes, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant, and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte. The results show that coal wettability is very important in selective flocculation. UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated hydrophobic coal particles only, while the polyelectrolyte flocculated all the coal samples and minerals that were tested. Tests of oil agglomeration using kerosene emulsified with surfactants of various ionic properties show that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated, if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. The hydrophobic latex and emulsified oils also significantly increase filtration rate and reduce filter cake moisture content.

  20. 生物质气化焦油催化裂解脱除过程的建模与优化%MODEL-BUILDING AND OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRICATION PROCESS OF TAR PRODUCED IN GASIFICATION BY USING CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大中; 王卉; 韩璞

    2009-01-01

    Through analysis of factors affecting the catalytic cracking rate of tar produced in the process of biomass gasification,an optimizing model for extrication process of tar produced in rice straw gasifi-cation by using catalytic cracking has been established on the basis of least square supporting vector machine (SVM),and the validation being carried out. On this basis,a parameter optimizing calculation for the extrication process of tar by using catalytic cracking has been made, results show that the said model has better generalization ability and fitting effect, it can efficiently simulate the extrication process of tar produced in biomass gasification by using catalytic cracking.%通过对生物质气化过程中影响焦油催化裂解率因素的分析,依据最小二乘支持向量机建立了稻秆气化焦油催化裂解脱除过程的优化模型,并进行了验证,在此基础上对焦油催化裂解脱除过程做了参数优化计算.结果表明,该模型具有较好的泛化能力和拟合效果,可有效地模拟生物质气化焦油催化裂解脱除过程.

  1. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  2. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW.

  3. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  4. Kinetics of Pyrolysis and Gasification Using Thermogravimetric and Thermovolumetric Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerski Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide gasification process of Miscanthus giganteus biomass was examined using two methods. First an isothermal thermovolumetric method was applied. The measurement was conducted at 950°C and pressure of 0.1 MPa. Based on the continuous analysis of different kinds of gases formed during the gasification process, the thermovolumetric method allowed the determination of yields and composition of the resulting gas as well as the rate constant of CO formation. Then a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method was applied, during which the loss of weight of a sample as a function of temperature was recorded. In the course of the measurement, the temperature was raised from ambient to 950°C and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. As a result, a change in the carbon conversion degree was obtained. Moreover, TGA methods allow distinguishing various stages of the gasification process such as primary pyrolysis, secondary pyrolysis and gasification, and determining kinetic parameters for each stage. The presented methods differs from each other as they are based either on the analysis of changes in the resulting product or on the analysis of changes in the supplied feedstock, but both can be successfully used to the effective examination of kinetics of the gasification process. In addition, an important advantage of both methods is the possibility to carry out the gasification process for different solid fuels as coal, biomass, or solid waste in the atmosphere of a variety of gasification agents.

  5. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  6. Underground coal gasification. Gasificacion subterranea del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Amor, G.; Obis, A. (ITGE, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-07-01

    In spite of the low price of both oil and gas, underground coal gasification is still an attractive option because of the possibility for exploiting coal which it would be uneconomic to mine by conventional methods. New technology has recently made gasification into a reality and methods have been developed to gasify both deep and superficial inclined seams. Recent tests in nearly level seams in the USA have been successful so that the process has become competitive in spite of current oil prices. 3 figs.

  7. Flashback Analysis in Tangential Swirl Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blowoff limits coupled with low NOx emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front.

  8. 配煤技术在Shell粉煤气化中的应用及优化%THE APPLICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF COAL BLENDING IN SHELL PULVERIZED-COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国祥

    2012-01-01

    The requirement for coal property on Shell pulverized-coal gasification process is simply introduced and the definition and theoretical foundation of Coal blending technology are described.The main reasons for coal blending measure to Shell coal gasification plant are analyzed and concrete procedures of coal blending technology and corresponding cases are discussed in detail and the optimized measures for coal blending are resulted in.%介绍Shell粉煤气化工艺对煤质的要求,阐述配煤技术的定义及理论依据,分析Shell气化采用配煤措施的主要原因,详细论述配煤技术的具体实施步骤及相应案例,得出优化配煤的措施。

  9. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable.

  10. Gasificación con aire en lecho fluidizado de los residuos sólidos del proceso industrial de la naranja//Air gasification in fluidized bed of solid residue the orange industrial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar-Trujillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria procesadora de la naranja genera elevados volúmenes de residuos sólidos. Este residuo se ha utilizado en la alimentación animal y en procesos bioquímicos; pero no se ha aprovechado a través de la gasificación. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el aporte energético por medio del proceso de gasificación, realizándose estudios de los residuos sólidos de naranja, utilizando aire en reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante (variando la temperatura de gasificación, relación estequiométrica y altura del lecho. En el proceso se utilizó un diseño de experimento factorial completo de 2k, valorando la influencia de las variables independientes y sus interacciones en las respuestas, con un grado de significación del 95 %. Se obtuvieron los parámetros para efectuar el proceso de gasificación de los residuos sólidos de naranja, obteniendo un gas de bajo poder calórico, próximo a 5046 kJ/m3N, demostrando sus cualidades para su aprovechamiento energético.Palabras claves: gasificación con aire, lecho fluidizado, residuo de naranja._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe orange industrial process generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used as complement in the animal feeding and biochemical processes; but it has not taken advantage through of the gasification process. The objective of the work was to determine the energy contribution by means ofthe gasification process, were carried out studies of the orange solid residue, using air in reactor of bubbling fluidized bed (varying the gasification temperature, air ratio and bed height. In the process a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, was used, valuing the influence of the independent variables and its interactions in the answers, using a confidence level of 95 %. Were obtained the parameters to make the process of gasification of the orange solid residue, obtaining a gas of lower heating

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC COOKER BURNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Kirick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a complex theoretical and experimental investigations a principally new design of small inertial burner for electric cookers has been developed that significantly out-perform burners of conventional types. 

  12. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, Darton J.; Isaacs, Rex K.; Jamaluddin, A. S. (Jamal); Benson, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Roberto O.; Little, Cody L.; Marty, Seth A.; Imel, K. Parker; Barnes, Jonathon E.; Parker, Chris S.

    2017-03-14

    A burner apparatus for a fired heating system and a method of burner operation. The burner provides stable operation when burning gas fuels having heating values ranging from low to high and accommodates sudden wide changes in the Wobbe value of the fuel delivered to the burner. The burner apparatus includes a plurality of exterior fuel ejectors and has an exterior notch which extends around the burner wall for receiving and combusting a portion of the gas fuel. At least a portion of the hot combustion product gas produced in the exterior notch is delivered through channels formed in the burner wall to the combustion area at the forward end of the burner. As the Wobbe value of the gas fuel decreases, one or more outer series of addition ejectors can be automatically activated as needed to maintain the amount of heat output desired.

  13. Making alcohol fuels for transportation via biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: ilkka.hannula@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project was to examine and identify process configurations that prove most promising for the largescale production of transportation fuels via biomass gasification. Special attention was given to the production of alcohol fuels. Other objectives of the project included: reviewing the status of biomass-to-syngas technology in the US, strengthening of networks between Finland and the US in the area of biomass gasification, deepening VTT's process evaluation know-how in the biomass-to-liquids area, and investigation of availability and gasification properties of selected North American agricultural residues and energy crops.

  14. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  15. Fluidized bed gasification of industrial solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluates the technical feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification of three solid recovered fuels (SRFs), obtained as co-products of a recycling process. The SRFs were pelletized and fed to a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor, operated in gasification and co-gasification mode. The tests were carried out under conditions of thermal and chemical steady state, with a bed of olivine particles and at different values of equivalence ratio. The results provide a complete syngas characterization, in terms of its heating value and composition (including tars, particulates, and acid/basic pollutants) and of the chemical and physical characterization of bed material and entrained fines collected at the cyclone outlet. The feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification process of the different SRFs was evaluated with the support of a material and substance flow analysis, and a feedstock energy analysis. The results confirm the flexibility of fluidized bed reactor, which makes it one of the preferable technologies for the gasification of different kind of wastes, even in co-gasification mode. The fluidized bed gasification process of the tested SRFs appears technically feasible, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration.

  16. Isothermal titration calorimetry as a powerful tool to quantify and better understand agglomeration mechanisms during interaction processes between TiO2 nanoparticles and humic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Loosli, Frédéric; Vitorazi, Letícia; Berret, Jean-François; Stoll, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The association processes between engineered TiO2 nanoparticles and Suwannee River humic acids are investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry and by measuring the exchanged heat during the binding process, allowing the determination of thermodynamic (change in enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy) and reaction (binding affinity constant, reaction stoichiometry) parameters. Our results indicate that strong TiO2–Suwannee River humic acid interactions are entropically and enthalpically ...

  17. Agglomeration in fluidized beds at high temperatures: Mechanisms, detection and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malte Bartels; Weigang Lin; John Nijenhuis; Freek Kapteijn; J. Ruud van Ommen [Delft University of Technology - DelftChemTech, Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    Fluidized-bed conversion of solid fuels is a well-established and widely used technology. Yet, operational problems are encountered in industrial practice. One of the most important problems is the occurrence of agglomeration at high temperature, meaning that bed particles adhere to each other to form larger entities (agglomerates). This process is often not recognized until sudden defluidization and often leads to a costly shutdown of the whole installation. In particular, the thermal conversion of certain biomass fuels, which is becoming increasingly popular, increases the risk of agglomeration. This paper critically reviews the current research status of this topic in terms of agglomeration mechanisms, detection and counteraction strategies. To understand the complex phenomenon of agglomeration in fluidized beds at high temperatures different areas are distinguished viz. hydrodynamics, chemical reaction mechanisms, particle interaction mechanisms and molecular cramming. Special emphasis is given to the detection of agglomeration. The range of detection methods is comprised of fuel ash analysis methods to predict potential agglomeration as well as analysis methods based on (on-line) process measurements, such as pressure and temperature. Finally, different methods to counteract agglomeration phenomena are presented; they comprise operational measures, utilization of additives, alternative bed materials and improved reactor design. 176 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  18. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  19. Eco-spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Rongchao; MIAO Changhong; LI Xuexin; CHEN Deguang

    2007-01-01

    In terms of ecological theory, this paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the mutualism and coevolutionary mechanism between the eco-spatial structure and socio-economic development ofthe urban agglomeration,and maps out optimized modes of the eco-spatial structure of the urban agglomeration. The analysis is a case study of the urban agglomeration on different levels of global, national, provincial and local scales, on the basis of those conclusions are drawn: 1) Within the scope of the urban agglomeration, the cities should be reasonably sized and appropriately densified; the spatial combination of the urban agglomeration ought to be orderly, and its eco-spatial structure ought to be optimized and efficient; the relationship between the economic society and eco-spatial environment ought to be that of mutual benefit and co-evolution. 2) "The mode of corridor group network" is a certain trend evoked from the spatial structure of urban agglomeration. 3) The eco-spatial structure of urban agglomeration under "the mode of corridor group network" can further increase the environmental capacity of urban agglomeration, and is in favor of the harmonious relationship between man and nature.

  20. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    -aromatics in the product gas. There is an indication that the tars are the products of the stepwise destruction of the primary structure of the biomass. Increased temperature favours dissociation of the heavy tar compounds to lighter structures. During gasification a part of the fuel-bound nitrogen (fb-N) converts to ammonia which forms NO{sub x} in the following combustion steps of the product gas. The degree of conversion to ammonia is dependent on the process parameters and generally increases with increasing ER and temperature until a total carbon conversion is achieved. The mechanisms of the release of the fb-N and also the routes to minimise the ammonia in the product gas are discussed. In a gasification plant alkali metals can be the reason beyond problems such as agglomeration of the bed material, deposit formation on cold surfaces and erosion and corrosion of the ceramic and metallic parts. The experimental results show that the type of alkali from the fuel has a crucial importance in causing the alkali-related problems.

  1. Agglomeration of mesoporous silica by melt and steam granulation. part II: screening of steam granulation process variables using a factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialpando, Monica; Albertini, Beatrice; Passerini, Nadia; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Rombaut, Patrick; Martens, Johan A; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the key process parameters during steam granulation of disordered mesoporous silica material Syloid® 244 FP (244) and to compare two different binders: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K25 and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). Itraconazole (ITZ) was selected as the model compound for the development of an oral dosage form for enhanced release. Six factors: binder content, steam amount, mixing time, impeller speed, spray pause time, and filler content were investigated using a two-level quarter-fraction factorial design of experiment (DOE) for each binder type. As experimental responses, characteristics correlating to both granules and tablets were selected. Granules prepared from PVP resulted in an overall higher bulk density, granule size, increased flow properties, and better compression and compaction behavior. Although granulation with PVP resulted in the most ITZ to extract from the pores during processing, the premature drug release was less than 5%. The results of the DOE indicate that the risk of extracting the drug from the pores during processing is governed both by the process parameters and the binder properties. Centerpoint replicates of granules prepared with HPMC were highly variable.

  2. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  3. Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

    1982-04-01

    The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

  4. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  5. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  6. The formation mechanism of CO{sub 2} and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.J.; Zheng, M.D.; Qiu, J.S.; Zhao, Z.B.; Ma, T.C. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Carbon Research Laboratory

    2006-05-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO{sub 2} with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO{sub 2} yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C2 radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO{sub 2} yield is, which means that the CO{sub 2} formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO{sub 2} conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H{sub 2} reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7 - 68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO{sub 2} and the production of synthesis gas.

  7. The formation mechanism of CO{sub 2} and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xiaojun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Maanshan 243002 (China); Zheng Mingdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Maanshan 243002 (China); Qiu Jieshan [Carbon Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemical, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Zhao Zongbin [Carbon Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemical, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Ma Tengcai [State Key Lab for Material Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-05-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO{sub 2} with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO{sub 2} yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C{sub 2} radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO{sub 2} yield is, which means that the CO{sub 2} formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO{sub 2} conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H{sub 2} reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7-68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO{sub 2} and the production of synthesis gas.

  8. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  9. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  10. Mathematical model for the gasification of coal under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biba, V.; Macak, J.; Kloss, E.; Malecha, J.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model for the the high-pressure gasification of solid fuels in the charged layer is presented which permits the quantitative description of the the static behavior of the generator. Deals with the parameters of reaction kinetics and of the transfer of matter and energy which are necessary for developing the model of a fixed-bed reactor. To obtain a practical model, simplifications are needed which concern the gasification, degasification, and drying processes. They are dealt with individually. For calculating the concentration and temperature profiles for the solid and gas phases along the gasification bed height, a system of differential equations was obtained which was supplemented by some algebraic equations.

  11. Disposal of Soluble Salt Waste from Coal Gasification,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    AD-A090 419 ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ABERO-ETC F/S 13/2 DISPOSAL OF SOLUBLE SALT VBASTE FROM COAL GASIFICATION . 1W JUN 80 C E...use as pipe- line gasjof the Lurgi type will be used as a basis to explain the disposal process. The purpose of the coal gasification plant is to 470 MC...KNIGHT produce methane starting with coal, gasifying it and hydrogenating it. As supplies of low-sulfur coal diminish, coal gasification must operate

  12. Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

    2009-12-15

    Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology.

  13. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental ...

  14. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  15. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  16. Arrangement of burner with sheath tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graat, J.W.; Remie, H.T.; Verhagen, A.M.

    1980-10-02

    This is concerned with an addition to the burner described in patent 28 28 319 in which fluid pulverised fuel and air is burnt in a chamber. The additional patent concerns a sheath tube, which surrounds the chamber and conducts the burnt gases on. The sheath tube has openings for better guidance of the thermal flow.

  17. Characterizing Particle Combustion in a Rijke Burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-29

    Rijke Burner. rp = NU In( I + BT) PgpCpgdp 3.2 Shrinking Core Model -, Levenspiel (1972) outlines the shrinking core model. In this model the particle...M. E., Numerical Methods and Modeling for Chemical Engineers. John Wiley and Sons (1984) Levenspiel , 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering Second

  18. FLARE FLAME INSTABILITY AND BURNER COMBUSTION CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    БОНДАРЕНКО А.В.; В. Э. Волков; Максимов, М. В.

    2014-01-01

    Research of the flare instability development and the laminar-to-turbulent transition for the flares was executed. It was proved that the effects of viscosity and compressibility have the stabilizing influence on the gas flame. The study of the individual flare stability makes the theoretical basis of the fuel burning technology in combustion chambers and for the burner combustion control.

  19. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, 19W Memorial Dr, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Mohapatra, S. [Dynalene Inc., 5250W Coplay Rd, Whitehall, Pennsylvania 18052 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  20. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  1. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphalen, D. [A.D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  2. Control of core index in gasification ammonia synthesis process%对造气、氨合成工段几项工艺指标控制的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文龙; 王杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces control and regulation of core index in gasification ammonia synthesis process at small and medium size synthesis ammonia companies which using coal as raw material. It also introduces key factors in effecting process indexes.%简要介绍了以煤为原料的中小型合成氨厂的造气、氨合成工段几项工艺指标的控制、调节及影响工艺指标的关键因素.

  3. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Dale L.

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  4. PREDICTION OF COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL BIOGAS BURNER USING CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. MADHUSOODAN PILLAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is obtained from anaerobic digestion of biodegradable materials such as agricultural waste, animal waste, and othertype of household solid waste and its main constituents are CH4 and CO2. Effects of the concentration of each species are very important in the biogas combustion. The present study focuses on the effect of inlet velocities of methane and air on the flame temperature in a biogas burner lamp. The model of biogas burner lamp is constructed by using the CFD software GAMBIT and the simulation process was performed by using Fluent Software. The flame temperature obtained is 2172 k when the inlet velocities of methane and air are 0.2m/s and 0.8 m/s respectively. Results of this study will provide valuable data for biogas burner lamp manufacturers.

  5. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    concentration, larger feeder gas flow, and longer residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin had similar gasification behavior except with regard to soot formation. The soot yield was lowest during straw gasification possibly because of its high potassium content. The equilibrium product compositions under...... from straw gasification had quite low content of soot while high contents of volatilizable KCl and K2SO4, and thereby appeared as irregular crystals (> 100 nm). During lignin gasification, the filter sample mainly consisted of soot and nonvolatilizable inorganic matter. The parent wood particles...... the wood soot with respect to both oxidation and CO2 gasification. Besides, the wood soot produced at higher temperature was more reactive than the soot produced at lower temperature. Biomass and coal co-gasification experiments were performed in the same entrained flow reactor. The effect of mixing ratio...

  6. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkikh A.G.; Slyusarskiy K.V.

    2015-01-01

    The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The ...

  7. Study of Metal Agglomeration and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-02

    of agglomerating particles in SL which, in turn, depends on the level of adhesion ( Fadh ) and aerodynamic (Faer) forces, discontinuity of SL and...influences the value of Fadh . On the whole, the FL properties might be determined by the ratio between Tign and the degradation temperature of...drop in Fadh contributes to decreasing the intensity of «inter-pocket» fusion and increasing the agglomerate dispersity. Hence, in spite of the

  8. Engineering models for low-NO{sub x} burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Pedersen, Lars

    1997-08-01

    The present Ph.D. thesis describes a theoretical investigation of NO formation in pulverised coal combustion and an experimental investigation of co-combustion of straw and pulverised coal. The theoretical work has resulted in a simplified mathematical model of a swirling pulverised coal flame able to predict the NO emission and the burnout of coal. In order to simplify the flow pattern of a confined swirling flame, the residence time distribution (RTD) in a swirling pulverised coal flame was determined. This was done by using the solution of a detailed fluid dynamic mathematical model for a 2.2 MW{sub th} and a 12 MW{sub th} pulverised coal flame. From the mathematical solution the RTD was simulated by tracing a number of fluid particles or inert particles. The RTD in the near burner zone was investigated by use of the mathematical model for the 2.2 MW{sub th} and 12 MW{sub th} flame. Results showed that the gas phase in the near burner zone may be approximated as a CSTR and that the mean residence time increased with particle size. In pulverised coal flames, the most important volatile nitrogen component forming NO{sub x} is HCN. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames it is necessary to have an adequate model for HCN oxidation. In order to develop a model for HCN/NH{sub 3}/NO conversion, a systematic reduction of a detailed chemical kinetic model was performed. Based on the simplification of the flow pattern for a swirling flame and the reduced chemistry developed, a chemical engineering model of pulverised coal flame was established. The objectives were to predict the NO emission, the CO emission, and the burnout of char. The effects of co-firing straw and pulverised coal was investigated in a 2.5 MW{sub th} pilot-scale burner and a 250 MW{sub e} utility boiler. In the 2.5 MW{sub th} trial the straw was chopped and fed separately to the burner, whereas in the full-scale experiment the straw was pre-processed as pellets and pulverised with the

  9. Development of New Co-gasification Technology Based on Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yue-hong; WEN Hao; GUO Zhan-cheng; XU Zhi-hong

    2005-01-01

    A new co-gasification technology was proposed. The core of this co-gasification technology is a gasifier capable of being operated on a wide range of fuels and being reconstructed from blast furnace or shaft furnace.Based on this innovative concept, the lab-scale experiment and modeling study were carried out to demonstrate its technical validity and thermodynamic characteristics. The obtained results indicate that co-gasification process can be undertaken under ideal thermodynamic conditions where quasi-equilibrium could be reached without catalysts and Aspen Plus is a useful tool for this process development. Furthermore, potential applications of co-gasification were discussed.

  10. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  11. Progress in the field of underground gasification. Report on the 3rd symposium on underground gasification in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckervordersandforth, C.P. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde)

    1978-06-01

    The underground gasification programme in the USA is described. The individual concepts within the ERDA (linked vertical well process, packed bed concept, long wall generator concept, steeply dipping beds), essentially differentiate from each other in the method in which the natural permeability of the coal is increased. Projects not within ERDA (Texas utilities project (brown coal gasification), Texas AM-project and Alberta Research Council project) arepresented briefly.

  12. Advanced monitoring of industrial burners based on fluctuating flame signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Sanz; J. Ballester; R. Hernandez; L.M. Cerecedo [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Fluid Mechanics Group/LITEC

    2008-06-15

    The present work explores the potential of pressure and radiation sensors for the advanced monitoring/control of industrial flames. These instruments are rugged, non-intrusive and non-expensive and might be used in routine plant operation to obtain direct information from the flame. However, further research is needed to assess the existence of relationships among their outputs and operating conditions as well as to define suitable methods for signal processing. Those aspects have been addressed by means of a thorough experimental programme in a model industrial burner. Parametric analysis of flame signals recorded for a broad range of operating conditions revealed that they varied widely with the actual combustion state. In order to perform a systematic study, different correlation techniques were tried. Multiple regression methods provided some insight into mutual influences among different variables, although only in case of linear dependences. Artificial neural networks have been used as a more versatile type of algorithms, suitable for complex functional forms between input and output variables. Remarkably good results were obtained when NOx emissions or some burner settings were estimated from selected features of the flame signals, supporting their applicability for the development of advanced diagnostic methods in combustion processes. 40 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Underground gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.

    1986-11-01

    A brief history is given of research in Czechoslovakia, which took 3 main factors into account: environmental protection, geological situation and need to produce gas for use both within the plant and elsewhere. In order to assess economic viability, model studies were performed on following mines: Podlesice (North Bohemia), Vatovce (South Slovakia), Syrenov (East Moravia), Zukovsky Hrbet (Ostrava-Karvina), Stonovska (Ostrava-Karvina) and Merkur (North Bohemia). Figures given in tabular form show that underground gasification at these sites would be cheaper than importing natural gas. Problems are discussed associated with underground gasification and it is concluded that research must be conducted into drilling techniques, drill design, methods of cutting through coal seam between shafts, underground generator design, methods of gasifying several seams with one shaft and methods of dealing with residual pillars.

  14. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner. Phase 1, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Duret, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The RSB was first developed for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery steamers which fire with a single 60 MMBtu/hr burner; the California Energy Commission and Chevron USA were involved in the burner development. The burner has also since found applications in refinery and chemical plant process heaters. All Phase I goals were successfully met: the RSB achieved sub-9 ppM NOx and sub-50 ppM CO emissions using high excess air, external flue gas recirculation (FGR), and fuel staging in the 3 MMBtu/hr laboratory watertube boiler. In a test in a 50,000 lb/hr oil field steamer with fuel staging, it consistently achieved sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 10 ppM NOx. With high CO{sub 2} casing gas in this steamer, simulating external FGR, sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 5 ppM NOx were achieved. Burner material cost was reduced by 25% on a per Btu basis by increasing the effective surface firing rate at the burner; further reductions will occur in Phase II. The market for 30 ppM and 9 ppM low NOx burners has been identified as package boilers in the 50,000 to 250,000 lb/hr size range (the 30 ppM is for retrofit, the 9 ppM for the new boiler market). Alzeta and Babcock & Wilcox have teamed to sell both boiler retrofits and new boilers; they have identified boiler designs which use the compact flame shape of the RSB and can increase steam capacity while maintaining the same boiler footprint. Alzeta, Chevron, and B & W have teamed to identify sites to demonstrate the RSB in Phases II and III. In Phase II, the RSB will be demonstrated in a 100,000 lb/hr industrial watertube boiler.

  16. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  17. H sub 2 S removal from fuel gas during coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Work on the desulfurization reactions in the literature has not sufficiently addressed the reaction conditions in the context of coal gasification processes and the kinetics of the sulfidation reaction at the gasification conditions. This study, which was jointly funded by the Gas Research institute and the State of Illinois Center for Research on sulfur in Coal (CRSC), was undertaken to obtain comprehensive experimental data on the sulfidation reactions at gasification conditions to determine the kinetics of this gas/solid reaction.

  18. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  19. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. (Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi`s CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Industrial thermal oxidation with an innovative burner management system; Industrielle thermische Nachverbrennung mit innovativem Brenner-Managementsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnoss, T. [Siemens Building Technologies HVAC Product GmbH, Rastatt (Germany); Pilz, R. [Control and Heating-Systems, Felsberg-Gensungen (Switzerland); Saenger, P. [Siemens Building Technologies HVAC Product GmbH, Frankfurt am Main(Germany)

    2006-06-15

    In view of rising energy costs and the emission limits stipulated by the latest 'TA-Luft' (Technical Directive: Prevention of Air Pollution) and 'BImSchV' (Federal Immission Control Ordinance in force in Germany), industrial thermal oxidation plants must be either completely replaced or a new burner system must be installed to ensure compliance with the latest environmental standards that demand restriction of pollutant emissions. Replacement of the original burner control system by a state-of-the-art burner management system improves not only the combustion process and the flue gas quality but also saves energy and thus costs through the use of a thermal incinerator. One of the key features of a thermal oxidation plant is a new technology used for controlling and monitoring the burner. The following article examines the innovative LMV5.. burner management system which offers a host of functions, such as burner control, electronic fuel / air ratio control, valve proving and load control - components which, previously, had to be separately assembled and electrically interconnected. (orig.)

  2. Effect of heating style on gasification process of pilot scale bubble fluidized bed%升温方式对中试鼓泡流化床气化过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓伟; 刘建坤; 王贵路; 李明鹤; 郑磊; 叶仁文; 张大雷

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the heat process characteristics of pilot scale bubbing fluidized bed, by using the self heating pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor of 50 kg/h in capacity, with sawdust as raw material, the experimental study on air gasification were conducted. At present, the externally heating for the fluidized bed startup was widely used in bench scale experiment. It had the advantages of rapidly raising of temperature, accurate control, etc., but the equipment was complex and difficult for maintenance, and was higher energy cost, especially, the externally heating was quite different with that for practical utilization. It is not helpful for find out the reaction characteristics so that the guiding for practical utilization was weakened. For solving the problem, using the pilot scale fluidized bed reactor as experimental device which is self heated, continuously fed and operated, air gasification experiment study on 3 temperature raising modes were conducted. Three temperature raising modes, which were sawdust combustion heating, sawdust/charcoal mixture combustion heating and charcoal combustion heating, were adopted respectively. The influence of different temperature raising ways on gasification temperature, tar content, the minimum fluidization velocity and gas quality in the process of gasification has been studied. The results showed that the heating effect of charcoal combustion was more ideal, and its heat value of charcoal was up to 32 MJ/kg, thus the heat released was much larger than that of sawdust. It provided more heat for bed heating process. In the preheating process, the warming up process was faster in the first hour, along with the increase of bed height, the heat storage in the bed material was also increased, and the heating rate was steady. It took 2.5 h for the gasification reactor to reach the reaction temperature. Due to the complexity for adding bed material and charcoal in the reactor, the optimization on the feeding device

  3. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude

  4. APPLICATION OF SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE MICROMERITIC PROPERTIES AND DISSOLUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF NABUMETONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of Nabumetone, 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphalenyl-2-butanone water insoluble anti-inflammatory drug by spherical agglomeration technique using a solvent change method consisting of acetone, water and dichloromethane as solvent, non solvent and bridging liquid respectively. The hydrophilic polymers like poly vinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP and sodium alginate were used in the agglomeration process. Infrared (I.R spectroscopic studies, Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used for characterization of pure drug and its agglomerates. The I.R spectroscopy revealed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymers, also indicated that no chemical changes in the crystallized agglomerates .The agglomerates exhibited significantly improved solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties (angle of repose, Carr’s index, bulk density, tapped density. Hausner’s ratio compared with pure drug Nabumetone. The aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of the drug from spherical agglomerates was significantly (p < 0.05 increased (nearly two times. SEM studies revealed that the agglomerates possess a good spherical shape. The study revealed that Micromeritic Properties, Solubility and Invitro drug release rate is increased with increase in PVP concentration from 0.25% to 1% as compared to sodium alginate.

  5. Arrangement of burners for nearly stochiometric combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graat, J.W.; Remie, H.T.; Verhagen, A.M.

    1980-10-02

    This is concerned with an improvement of the burners described in patent 28 28 319, where a fluid fuel which can be ground into powder and air are taken together. In order to produce correct ignition with nearly stochiometric composition of the mixture, it is proposed that a heatable body, preferably a wire spiral or ignition spiral should be used. Various variants of the shape of the heating body are discussed.

  6. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  7. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  8. Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A. [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Building, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

  9. 钙元素对褐煤热解和气化过程中产物的影响%Influence of Calcium on Pyrolysis and Gasification of Lignite Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 戴永东

    2013-01-01

    The influence of calcium on pyrolysis and gasification of lignite, discuss its influence on the product distribution of the tar yield, gas product and volatile, and the play in the process of catalysis. The results show that, in the process of pyrolysis, calcium will decrease the yield of tar, improve the char yield; in the gasification process, calcium can improve the reaction of activated semi-coke, accelerate the reaction speed. Make CO2 and CH4 decreased yield, yield of H2 and CO was improved.%综述了钙元素对褐煤热解及气化影响,讨论其对产物中焦油产率、气体产物和挥发分的分布影响,以及其在过程中发挥的催化作用。结果表明,在热解过程中,钙元素会降低焦油产率,提高半焦产率;在气化过程中,钙元素能提高半焦的反应活性,加快反应速度。使CO2和CH4产率降低,H2和CO产率得到了提升。

  10. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  11. Diffusion and reaction in microbead agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Träuble, Markus; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-04-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy has been used to analyze the flux of p-aminonophenol (PAP) produced by agglomerates of polymeric microbeads modified with galactosidase as a model system for the bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays. With the use of mixtures of enzyme-modified and bare beads in defined ratio, agglomerates with different saturation levels of the enzyme modification were produced. The PAP flux depends on the intrinsic kinetics of the galactosidase, the local availability of the substrate p-aminophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PAPG), and the external mass transport conditions in the surrounding of the agglomerate and the internal mass transport within the bead agglomerate. The internal mass transport is influenced by the diffusional shielding of the modified beads by unmodified beads. SECM in combination with optical microscopy was used to determine experimentally the external flux. These data are in quantitative agreement with boundary element simulation considering the SECM microelectrode as an interacting probe and treating the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzyme as nonlinear boundary conditions with two independent concentration variables [PAP] and [PAPG]. The PAPG concentration at the surface of the bead agglomerate was taken as a boundary condition for the analysis of the internal mass transport condition as a function of the enzyme saturation in the bead agglomerate. The results of this analysis are represented as PAP flux per contributing modified bead and the flux from freely suspended galactosidase-modified beads. These numbers are compared to the same number from the SECM experiments. It is shown that depending on the enzyme saturation level a different situation can arise where either beads located at the outer surface of the agglomerate dominate the contribution to the measured external flux or where the contribution of buried beads cannot be neglected for explaining the measured external flux.

  12. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

    2003-06-01

    A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

  14. Role of Solvents in Improvement of Dissolution Rate of Drugs: Crystal Habit and Crystal Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is often used for manufacturing drug substances. Advances of crystallization have achieved control over drug identity and purity, but control over the physical form remains poor. This review discusses the influence of solvents used in crystallization process on crystal habit and agglomeration of crystals with potential implication for dissolution. According to literature it has been known that habit modification of crystals by use of proper solvents may enhance the dissolution properties by changing the size, number and the nature of crystal faces exposed to the dissolution medium. Also, the faster dissolution rate of drug from the agglomerates of crystals compared with the single crystals may be related to porous structure of the agglomerates and consequently their better wettability. It is concluded from this review that in-depth understanding of role of the solvents in crystallization process can be applied to engineering of crystal habit or crystal agglomeration, and predictably dissolution improvement in poorly soluble drugs.

  15. Light-Induced Agglomeration and Diffusion of Different Particles with Optical Tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-Cong; SUN Xiu-Dong; LIU Hong-Peng; ZHANG Jian-Long

    2010-01-01

    @@ The dynamic process of light-induced agglomeration of carbon nanotubes(CNTs),C60 and Escherichia coli(E.coli)in aqueous solutions is demonstrated using an optical tweezers system.Based on the results,the diameter of the agglomerated region and the agglomeration rate increase with the increasing laser power.After the saturation-stable period,CNTs diffuse completely,C60 dusters only diffuse partially,and E.coli never diffuses in the agglomeration region.Theoretical analyses show that the molecular polarization and thermal diffusion of particles play crucial roles in the diffusion process.The results indicate the possibility of using light to aggregate and sort nanoparticles.

  16. Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1991-06-01

    The major purpose of this project was to finding catalysts which will permit steam gasification of carbonaceous material at reasonable rates and at lower temperatures than currently practiced. This quarter, experiments with steam gasification of graphite were performed. Catalysts studied were potassium, calcium, and nickel oxides. Reaction kinetics are discussed. 28 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. AGGLOMERATION AND RADIATION EFFECT OF THE PULL OF URBANIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jin-li

    2003-01-01

    In order to explore the train of thought for China's urbanizing development and coordinated rural eco-nomic development, and to find good ways of solving rural problems through urbanization, this paper absorbs the push-and-pull forces theory and the systematic dynamic theory in the traditional population migration theories, views urbanization as a dynamic system, makes research on the push-and-pull mechanism of urbanization. The pull ingpower of urbanization is analyzed according to two aspects, the agglomeration effect and the radiation effect of cities. The agglomeration effect provides continuous propelling force for urbanization, and the radiation effect furtheraccelerates the urbanization process by pushing forward the development of rural economy. Of course, the slow de-velopment of urbanization can result in the hindrance to rural economic development.

  18. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  19. Calculation of the fixed bed coal gasification regimes by the use of thermodynamic model with macrokinetic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoi, I. G.; Keiko, A. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.; Shamanskii, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss an equilibrium model of a fixed-bed solid fuel gasification process that takes into account macrokinetic constraints imposed on the rates of heterophase processes and allows the pyrolysis and gasification processes to be described in a fairly simple manner with the use of thermal analysis data. The results of calculations are compared with the measured parameters characterizing the Azeisk coal steam-air gasification process that were obtained in experiments on a laboratory setup.

  20. Considerations Based on Reaction Rate on Char Gasification Behavior in Two-stage Gasifier for Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Miki; Nishiyama, Akio; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ito, Yusuke; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planned a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the appropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. We considered the results by calculating reaction rates of representative reactions on char gasification part and found that water gas reaction is dominant in the reduction area and its behavior gives important information to decide the adequate length of the char layer.

  1. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer-Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification - Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Cheali, Peam; Narataruksa, Phavanee

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from...... a base case process model coupled with techno-economic evaluation for the FT synthesis. In particular, the FT process configurations are designed and assessed using current kinetic laboratory data by our research group for modeling specific reactions in PFR reactor. The calculation of equipment sizing...

  2. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Xu; Shixin Wang; Yi Zhou; Litao Wang; Wenliang Liu

    2016-01-01

    On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020)” (NNUP). NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive sugg...

  3. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  4. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  5. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  6. Compression Behaviour of Porous Dust Agglomerates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The early planetesimal growth proceeds through a sequence of sticking collisions of dust agglomerates. Very uncertain is still the relative velocity regime in which growth rather than destruction can take place. The outcome of a collision depends on the bulk properties of the porous dust agglomerates. Continuum models of dust agglomerates require a set of material parameters that are often difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. Here, we aim at determining those parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our goal is to improveon the existing model that describe the interaction of individual monomers. We use a molecular dynamics approach featuring a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. The model includes normal forces, rolling, twisting and sliding between the dust grains. We present a new treatment of wall-particle interaction that allows us to perform customized simulations that directly correspond to laboratory experiments. We find that the existing i...

  7. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  8. Agglomeration Evolution of Nano-Particles Aluminium in Normal Incident Shock Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zheng-Xin; WU Jing-He; HU Dong; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Agglomeration behaviour of nano-particle aluminium (nano-Al) in normal incident shock waves is investigated by our devised shock tube technology. The morphology, particle size, agglomeration process of nano-Al studied in normal incident shock waves are comprehensible evaluated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The above-mentioned techniques show that the high strength and temperature of incident shock wave give a chance for activity of nano-Al in the reactions and decrease the agglomeration, and the morphology of agglomeration is affected by the temperature of nano-Al reaction region. The dynamic temperature of reaction region determined by the intensity ratio of two AlO bands is 2602K, which is closer to nano-Al actual reacted temperature than the determined temperature of ordinary methods (i.e. six channel instantaneous optical pyrometer; plank black body radiation law, etc.)

  9. Study on Agglomeration and Densification Behaviors of Gadolinium-Doped Ceria Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By synthesizing reactive powders via a self-sustaining combustion synthesis, the glycine-nitrate process, the gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) with the chemical formula Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 was prepared. The resultant powders were dispersed with the terpineol as the dispersant through different methods such as ball milling and high-shear dispersing. Coagulation factor (CF) was used to mark the degree of agglomeration on the nano-scale GDC in this work. The effect of agglomeration on the densification behavior at different sintering temperatures was investigated. The studies indicated that agglomeration retarded the densification at the sintering stage. The powders with better dispersion exhibited a higher sintered density at the same temperature. After effective dispersion treatment, GDC could be fully densified at the sintering temperature of 1300 ℃. The densification temperature was significantly lower than those reported previously. The high sintering kinetics of the ceramics was obtained based on the agglomeration control.

  10. 多喷嘴对置式水煤浆气化炉内固体颗粒微观特性研究%Microscopic characteristics of solid pa rticle s in op posed multi-burner gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利军; 龚岩; 郭庆华; 于广锁

    2014-01-01

    气化炉内固体颗粒微观结构特性对气流床气化过程中熔渣、粗渣和细渣的形成具有重要影响。基于多喷嘴对置式水煤浆气化实验,对典型工况(O/C原子比为1.0)下气化炉轴向不同位置的固体颗粒进行取样,利用氮气等温吸附法和扫描电子显微镜对颗粒孔隙结构和微观形态进行研究。结果表明,气化炉内固体颗粒典型形态为不规则多孔状和规则球状,喷嘴平面有少量致密性不规则颗粒和中空颗粒。从喷嘴平面沿气化炉轴向向下,随着气化反应的进行,颗粒表面愈加粗糙,孔隙结构愈加发达。颗粒吸附曲线属于II型等温线,迟滞回线属于H3型回线,表明颗粒具有大量裂缝形孔和较连续的完整孔系统。比表面积和孔容积均随着与喷嘴平面距离的增加而增大,而平均孔径逐渐减小,在喷嘴平面附近变化幅度较大。孔结构以孔径小于10 nm的孔为主,随着气化反应的进行颗粒中小于10 nm 的孔逐渐增多,而大于10 nm的孔分布状态变化不大。%The microscopic characteristics of solid particles have important influence on the forma tion fo fluid slag, cora se slag and fine slag during entrained-flow gasification process.Based on the bench-scale opposed multi-burner ( OMB) gasifei r, solid particles were sampled at different aix al distances along the gasifier chameb r under typci al oep rating oc nditino s (oxygen na d carbon atomic ratio at 1.0).The microscopic characteristics of solid particles were studied by using N2 adsorption-deos rption and scanning electron microscopy (S EM ) methods.The results show that the solid particles are comprised mainly of porous irregular particle and spherical particle, and few solid particles generated at burner plane perform as dense irregular and hollow shape.As the gasification reaction proceeds along the axis of gasifier, the surface strucut re of particles becomes rougher, and the

  11. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  12. Technology of Gasification of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Bayanov, I. M.; Tonkonog, M. I.; Mubarakshin, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    A flow diagram of gasification of a cryogenic liquid, which is based on the utilization of the liquid's internal energy to obtain a vapor phase, has been presented. The limiting steam fractions of the two-phase flow in a gasifier have been evaluated as applied to the problems of gasification of methane. Consideration has been given to the conditions of phase separation in the field of mass forces. A numerical scheme of solution of a system of gasdynamic equations for the two-phase flow in a cylindrical coordinate system in a three-dimensional formulation has been implemented. The results of numerical modeling of the conditions of precipitation of particles with a diameter of 2 to 10 μm from a swirling dispersed flow have been presented; the role of the particle size in the dynamics of the process of phase separation has been established.

  13. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  14. AGGLOMERATIONS BENEFITS OF THE CULTURE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Ludwiczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to find another interpretation of culture, an economic one as a significant local asset development conducive to the formation of agglomeration benefits through the mechanism of the presence of the creative class. The paper presented below provides a framework for thinking about this matter on the basis of economics. The article is a research hypothesis, yet nowhere formulated. Therefore, further empirical re-search is needed, particularly in relation to the villages of average size, indicating how culture is one factor contributing to the formation of the benefits of agglomeration.

  15. Design of Agglomerated Crystals of Ibuprofen During Crystallization: Influence of Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIbuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting, and dissolution due to its poor solubility, hydrophobicity, and tendency to stick to surface. Because of the bad compaction behavior ibuprofen has to be granulated usually before tableting. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. Materials and Methods Crystallization of ibuprofen was carried out using the quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method in presence of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Tween 80. The particles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD and were evaluated for particle size, flowability, drug release and tableting behavior. ResultsIbuprofen particles obtained in the presence of surfactants consisted of numerous plate- shaped crystals which had agglomerated together as near spherical shape. The obtained agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as tableting behavior than untreated drug crystals. The agglomerates size and size distribution was largely controlled by surfactant concentration, but there was no significant influence found on the tableting properties. The dissolution tests showed that the agglomerates obtained in presence of SLS exhibited enhanced dissolution rate while the agglomerates made in the presence of Tween 80 had no significant impact on dissolution rate of ibuprofen in comparison to untreated sample. The XRPD and DSC results showed that during the agglomeration process, ibuprofen did not undergo any polymorphic changes.Conclusion The study highlights the influence of surfactants on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

  16. CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ala Qubbaj

    2001-12-30

    The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism

  17. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  18. Gasification for fuel production in large and small scale polygeneration plants; Foergasning foer braensleproduktion i stor- och smaaskaliga energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Jennie; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    This report investigates the possibility of integrating biofuel production through gasification with an existing energy production system. Previous work within Vaermeforsk (report 904, 1012) has concluded that gasification for motor fuel production as a part of a polygeneration plant seems promising when looking at the energy efficiency. However, comparable data between different types of integration, energy plants and fuels was found to be needed in order to get a better understanding of how a gasifier would affect an energy system. The systems studied are the heat- and power production of a bigger city (Goeteborg) and a medium sized city (Eskilstuna), and a pulp mill (Soedra Cell Vaeroe). The latter already runs a commercial gasifier for burner gas production, where the gas is used in the lime kiln. The different types of polygeneration plants have been studied by setting up and evaluating mass- and energy balances for each system. The fuel products that are looked upon in this project are DME, methane, methanol and burner gas. The burner gas is used on site. The case studies have been evaluated based on energy efficiency for fuel production, electricity and district heating. The efficiency is foremost calculated for the higher heating value. In the case of the boiler integrated gasifier in Eskilstuna, the efficiencies have been calculated on the marginal fuel. We have also let the district heating remain unchanged

  19. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  20. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water – a thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, Jan A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The therm

  1. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water - A thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The therm

  2. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

  3. Evaluation of Catalytic Effects in Gasification of Biomass at Intermediate Temperature and Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, P.; Rossum, van G.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes and examines an alternative thermo-chemical process for biomethane production from lignocellulosic biomass, termed self-gasification. Self-gasification of biomass is envisaged to utilize a high-pressure steam gasifier (30−80 bar) at temperatures of 600−900 °C and to use the alkal

  4. Catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin into aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas over Rh supported on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Chunze; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-10-01

    Efficient catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin were conducted over a versatile supported catalyst Rh/La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2 to give high-value aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas. The removal of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most prevalent reaction, and importantly, almost no phenols, undesired char and saturating the aromatic ring were detected. Meanwhile, the feedstock and solvent both played key roles in H2 generation that contributed to the hydrodeoxygenation of liquid components and made the whole catalytic process out of H2 supply. Reusability tests of catalyst indicated that the crystalline phase transition and agglomeration of support, the loss of noble metal Rh and carbon deposition were the possible reasons for its deactivation in supercritical ethanol. Comparing with water, methanol and isopropanol system, ethanol was the only effective solvent for the depolymerization process.

  5. Furnaces with multiple flameless combustion burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis three different combustion systems, equipped with either a single or multiple flameless combustion burner(s), are discussed. All these setups were investigated both experimentally and numerically, i.e., using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Flameless combustion is a com

  6. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  7. Macroscopic flame structure in a premixed-spray burner. 1st Report. formation and disappearance processes of droplet clusters and two-stage flame structure; Yokongo funmu kaen no kyoshiteki nensho kyodo. 1. Yuteki cluster no keisei shoshitsu katei to niju kaen kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, S.; Saito, H.; Akamatsu, F.; Katsuki, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-08-25

    In an attempt to elucidate formation and disappearance processes of droplet clusters in spray flames, simultaneous measurements consisting of laser tomography and flame chemiluminescence detection are applied to a premixed-spay burner. The smart combination of measurements provides time-series data-set serving for better understanding of spray flames, which essentially contains inhomogeneity in space and time. It is revealed that referential flame propagation through a premixed-spray stream plays a significant role in creating droplet clusters and that droplet clusters formed in this manner evanesces from their outer boundaries. Those observation confirms that the premixed-spray flame comprises both premixed-mode flame in upstream region and diffusion-mode flame in downstream region, respectively, i.e, two-stage flame structure previously reported for spray flames stabilized in either counter or stagnation flows. (author)

  8. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  9. Peat gasification and new alternatives of electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantaus, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Electricity, chemicals and liquid fuels can be produced from peat by gasification. If the product gas is used in a gas turbine, the efficiency of electricity production is higher in a combined gasification-gas turbine plant than in a conventional condensation power plant. If the gas is first led to chemical conversion and the unreacted gas is then burnt in a gas turbine, for example, octane boosters for liquid fuels and electricity can be produced in the same plant. Experimental knowhow of gasification and new syntheses have been critically evaluated in a work carried out at the Laboratory of Fuel Processing Technology of VTT. Concepts have been developed for processes, and then the actual techno-economic evaluations have been carried out. THe gasification-gas turbine plant may in the future offer a competitive alternative to the present energy production methods. Combined process alternatives based on gasification are fairly attractive also with regard to environmental protection. The feasibility of the production of chemicals and liquid fuel blend components is hihgly dependent on the prices of other raw materials.

  10. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  11. Cell agglomeration in the wells of a 24-well plate using acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashina, Yuta; Takemura, Kenjiro; Friend, James

    2017-02-28

    Cell agglomeration is essential both to the success of drug testing and to the development of tissue engineering. Here, a MHz-order acoustic wave is used to generate acoustic streaming in the wells of a 24-well plate to drive particle and cell agglomeration. Acoustic streaming is known to manipulate particles in microfluidic devices, and even provide concentration in sessile droplets, but concentration of particles or cells in individual wells has never been shown, principally due to the drag present along the periphery of the fluid in such a well. The agglomeration time for a range of particle sizes suggests that shear-induced migration plays an important role in the agglomeration process. Particles with a diameter of 45 μm agglomerated into a suspended pellet under exposure to 2.134 MHz acoustic waves at 1.5 W in 30 s. Additionally, BT-474 cells also agglomerated as adherent masses at the center bottom of the wells of tissue-culture treated 24-well plates. By switching to low cell binding 24-well plates, the BT-474 cells formed suspended agglomerations that appeared to be spheroids, fully fifteen times larger than any cell agglomerates without the acoustic streaming. In either case, the viability and proliferation of the cells were maintained despite acoustic irradiation and streaming. Intermittent excitation was effective in avoiding temperature excursions, consuming only 75 mW per well on average, presenting a convenient means to form fully three-dimensional cellular masses potentially useful for tissue, cancer, and drug research.

  12. Industrial Agglomeration of Agro-food Processing Industry:Empirical Analysis Based on Data about 17 Segment Industries%我国农副食品加工业的产业集聚——基于17个四位数行业数据的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 曾光

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the spatial concentration index,namely EG coefficient,and the concentration ratio index,to estimate the agglomeration degree of 17 segment industries along to agro-food processing industry during 2003-2009.Then it studies the agglomeration of agro-food processing industry from the aspects of the trend of industrial agglomeration,spatial distribution,the feature of industrial agro-food processing industry and the spatial distribution of raw materials.The results show as follows:during 2003-2009,the concentration degree of agro-food processing industry takes on a declining trend,which is mainly affected by raw material;there exists larger difference in concentration degree of different industries,which is caused by natural environment and geographical location.%采用衡量空间集聚程度的EG指数,并结合产业集中度指数,测算了2003—2009年我国农副食品加工业的17个细分行业的集聚程度,并从产业集聚程度的变动趋势、产业集聚特征、原料主产区的空间分布等方面进行分析。结果表明:在考察期间,我国农副食品加工业的行业集聚程度呈下降态势,行业集中程度主要受原料产地的影响;不同细分行业的集中程度存在较大差异,这是由自然环境和地理位置不同造成的。

  13. Discussion about Influence of Coal Gasification Process on Explosiveness from Tail Gas of Urea Plant%煤气化工艺对尿素装置尾气爆炸性影响的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐霖; 孙喜; 杨志国; 程忠振; 夏炎华; 余志文

    2014-01-01

    Author has introduced the origin of combusible component of process gas from urea plant , has analyzed the explosion reason of the ( CH4+C2H6) -N2 mixing system,has discussed the influence of aerospace furnace,BGL, SHELL gasification process on tail gas explosion of urea plant, has presented the appropriate solution scheme.%介绍了尿素装置工艺气体可燃组分来源,分析了( CH4+C2 H6)-N2混合体系的爆炸性原因,探讨了航天炉、BGL、SHELL气化工艺对尿素装置尾气爆炸性影响,提出了相应的解决方案。

  14. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  15. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  16. Laser-induced agglomeration of gold nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A.; Shcherbina, M.E. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, P.G., E-mail: qzzzma@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, N.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser irradiation of dense gold nanoparticles colloidal solution can result in their agglomeration. • Gas bubbles in-phase pulsation induced by laser radiation accounts for nanoparticles agglomeration. • Time evolution of the size distribution function proceeds in activation mode. • The electrostatic-like model of nanoparticles agglomeration is in good correspondence with the experimental data. - Abstract: Dynamics of gold nanoparticles (NPs) ensemble in dense aqueous solution under exposure to picosecond laser radiation is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Properties of NPs are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and size-measuring disk centrifuge. Theoretical investigation of NPs ensemble behavior is based on the analytical model taking into account collisions and agglomeration of particles. It is shown that in case of dense NPs colloidal solutions (above 10{sup 14} particles per milliliter) the process of laser fragmentation typical for nanosecond laser exposure turns into laser-induced agglomeration which leads to formation of the particles with larger sizes. It is shown that there is a critical concentration of NPs: at higher concentrations agglomeration rate increases tremendously. The results of mathematical simulation are in compliance with experimental data.

  17. Gasification processes study of biomass and industrial wastes integrated to a type IGCC cogeneration system. Scientific report PE 5-1, 2003 - BIOCOGAZ; Etude des procedes de gazeification de la biomasse et de residus industriels integres a un systeme de co-generation de type IGCC. Rapport scientifique PE 5-1, 2003 - BIOCOGAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Most, J.M. [Poitiers Univ., Lab. de Combustion et Detonique (LCD) UPR 9028, 86 (France); Lede, J. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 (France)

    2004-07-01

    The exploratory program objective was to define the characteristics of a thermochemical process of pyrolysis-gasification of the biomass or wastes, which can be connected to a direct energy generation application (gas turbines, boilers, engines). This document presents the program methodology. (A.L.B.)

  18. Bipolar charged aerosol agglomeration and collection by a two zone agglomerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In older to collect fine particles more efficiently, a new-type electrostatic agglomerator with two sones was developed. The distinguishing feature of this electrostatic agglomerator is that the particles are bipolarly charged and coagulated in the same alternating electric field simultaneously. The silica flour with 2 μm mass median diameter and the smoke from burning wood powder were used as test aerosol. The comparison experimental results have shown that when the mean electric field is 4 kV/cm the collection efficiency of the new electrostatic agglomerator was 98.2% for silica flour and 67.4% for wood powder smoke. Under the same experimental condition, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator with three zones was 97.4% for collecting silica flour and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator was 56.3% for wood powder smoke.

  19. Efficient industrial burner control of a flexible burner management system; Effiziente industrielle Brennertechnik durch Einsatz flexibler Feuerungsautomaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Saenger, Peter [Siemens AG, Rastatt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Compactness and flexibility of a burner control system is a very important issue. With a few types a wide range in different industrial applications should be covered. This paper presents different applications of a new burner control system: heating of cooling lines in glass industry, steam generation and air heating for a pistachio roastery and in grain dryers. (orig.)

  20. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    of different fuels on syngas products was investigated at 1400 °C with steam addition. The yields of residual particulates (char and/or soot) decreased with increasing straw fraction during straw/wood co-gasification and with increasing biomass fraction (straw or wood) during biomass/coal co......, char-gas and soot-gas reactions, detailed gas-phase reactions, and mass and heat transfer. The model could reasonable predict the yields of syngas products obtained in the biomass gasification experiments. Moreover, the simulation results suggest that the soot can be completely converted and thereby......The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented...

  1. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  2. New projects for CCGTs with coal gasification (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovskii, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW.

  3. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotyrba Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  4. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  5. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-01

    The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  6. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  7. Water migration mechanisms in amorphous powder material and related agglomeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzetti, S.; Voogt, J.A.; Oliver, L.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The agglomeration phenomenon of amorphous particulate material is a major problem in the food industry. Currently, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is used as a fundamental parameter to describe and control agglomeration. Models are available that describe the kinetics of the agglomeration proc

  8. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, 781 039, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H{sub 2} and CO in the producer gas, H{sub 2}/CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application. (author)

  9. 恩德粉煤气化装置空喷塔改造工艺计算%Process Calculation of Reformation for Empty Spray Tower in Ende Pulverized Coal Gasification Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜天夫

    2012-01-01

    Author has introduced the technical reformation scheme for the empty scrubber in Ende pulverized coal gasification plant and its process de- sign calculation principle ; the running effect indicates after reformation that the outlet temperature of water can be reduced from 60℃to 48℃, the con- tinuously running time of the empty scrubber is increased from less than 60 days to 100 days.%介绍了恩德粉煤气化装置空心洗涤塔的技术改造方案及其工艺设计计算过程;改造后的运行效果表明,出水温度由60℃降低到48℃,空心洗涤塔连续运行时间由不到60天增加到100天。

  10. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat-Wise, Inc., Ridge, NY (United States); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  11. Investigation of coalescence kinetics of microcristalline cellulose in fluidised bed spray agglomeration: experimental studies and modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peglow

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a model for fluidized bed spray agglomeration is presented. To describe the processes of heat and mass transfer, a physical based model is derived. The model takes evaporation process from the wetted particles as well as the effects of transfer phenomena between suspension gas and bypass gas into account. The change of particle size distribution during agglomeration, modeled by population balances, is linked to the heat and mass transfer model. A new technique is derived to extract agglomeration and nucleation rates from experimental data. Comparisons of experiments and simulations are presented.

  12. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  13. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  14. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  15. Thermodynamics Analysis of Refinery Sludge Gasification in Adiabatic Updraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER. It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9–55.5%, 43.7–72.4%, and 42.5–50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values.

  16. Thermodynamics analysis of refinery sludge gasification in adiabatic updraft gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9-55.5%, 43.7-72.4%, and 42.5-50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values.

  17. 考虑焦油的生物质气化过程热力学模型%Research on thermodynamic mathematical model of biomass gasification process with tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫桂焕; 许敏; 许崇庆; 肖琦; 孙荣峰

    2013-01-01

      在生物质气化过程中焦油是不利产物,由于焦油成分的复杂性,传统生物质气化热力学模型均未考虑焦油。为了研究操作运行条件对燃气成分、焦油等影响,本文引入焦油模型化合物,考虑系统散热和碳不完全转化等因素影响,基于物质平衡、能量平衡和化学反应平衡建立了考虑焦油的生物质气化过程热力学模型。使用Newton-Raphson方法对模型进行了求解。利用文献数据验证了模型的有效性。最后,利用所建模型计算了空气预热温度、空气当量比、水蒸汽添加率等操作条件对燃气成分、焦油含量等指标的影响。结果表明,空气预热温度提高,焦油含量下降,气体热值提高;空气当量比从0.2提高到0.3,焦油含量降低,燃气中有效成分减少;水蒸汽添加率从0增加到10%,焦油含量下降,气化效率提高。研究结果可为生物质能低焦清洁利用提供参考。%Tar is a kind of very harmful product during the biomass gasification process, and it is not considered in the conventional thermodynamic mathematical model because of its components complexity. In order to research the effect of operation condition on ingredients and tar content of the fuel gas, a thermodynamic mathematical model of biomass gasification process with tar was developed based on material balance, energy balance and chemical equilibrium, taking the influences of system heat loss and carbon partial conversion into account. It is well known that the number of identified tar components is more than 100, and the components of quality ratio more than 5%are benzene, toluene, phenol, dimethylbenzene, phenylethylene, naphthalene, and so on. According to the quality equal principle of the main tar components, tar was indicated as the imaginary material C6H6.2O0.2 in the thermodynamic mathematical model. The chemical reactions selected in the model were from the deoxidization process as

  18. Evaluation of supercritical water gasification and biomethanation for wet biomass utilization in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Two wet biomass gasification processes, supercritical water gasification and biomethanation, were evaluated from energy, environmental, and economic aspects. Gasification of 1 dry-t/d of water hyacinth was taken as a model case. Assumptions were made that system should be energetically independent, that no environmentally harmful material should be released, and that carbon dioxide should be removed from the product gas. Energy efficiency, carbon dioxide payback time, and price of the product gas were chosen as indices for energy, environmental, and economic evaluations, respectively. Under the conditions assumed here, supercritical water gasifications is evaluated to be more advantageous over biomethanation, but the cost of the product gas is still 1.86 times more expensive than city gas in Tokyo. To improve efficiency of supercritical water gasification, improvement of heat exchanger efficiency is effective. Utilization of fermentation sludge will make biomethanation much more advantageous. (Author)

  19. Effect of combined slow pyrolysis and steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse on hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Prakash; Narayanan, Sheeba [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    The present work aims at improving the generation of H2 from sugarcane bagasse in steam gasification process by incorporating slow pyrolysis technique. As a bench scale study, slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse is performed at various pyrolysis temperature (350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 .deg. C) and feed particle size (90process (slow pyrolysis of biomass followed by steam gasification of char), first slow pyrolysis is carried out at the effective conditions (pyrolysis temperature and particle size) of char generation (determined from bench scale study) and steam gasification is at varying gasification temperature (600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 .deg. C) and steam to biomass (S/B) ratio (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) to determine the effective conditions of H{sub 2} generation. The effect of temperature and S/B on gas product composition and overall product gas volume was also investigated. At effective conditions (gasification temperature and S/B) of H2 generation, individual slow pyrolysis and steam gasification were also experimented to evaluate the performance of combined process. The effective condition of H{sub 2} generation in combined process was found to be 800 .deg. C (gasification temperature) and 5 (S/B), respectively. The combined process produced 35.90% and 23.60% more gas volume (overall) than slow pyrolysis and steam gasification process, respectively. With respect to H{sub 2} composition, the combined process generated 72.37% more than slow pyrolysis and 17.91% more than steam gasification process.

  20. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. There are, for example, important differences in reactor configurations and methods of supplying heat for gasification. Moreover, because these processes require high temperatures and some require high pressures, temperature-resistant alloys and new pressure vessels must be developed to obtain reliable performance. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu and to low-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  1. Energetic evaluation of low potential biomass gasifier coupled with a burner of the produced gas for generation of heat; Avaliacao energetica de um gaseificador de biomassa de baixa potencia, associado a um combustor do gas produzido, para geracao de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (FAV/UNB), DF (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria], email: samuelmartin@unb.nr; Silva, Jadir Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Machado, Cassio Silva; Zanatta, Fabio Luis; Galvarro, Svetlana F.S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the search of alternatives for sustainable socio-economic development, this study had the objective of evaluating the energetic performance of a concurrent flow biomass gasifier associated with a burner for the gas produced which was of low potential for air heating using a renewable energy source (substituting non-renewable). In this system 4 tests were performed using eucalyptus chips (tests 1 and 2) and logs (tests 3 and 4) as fuel, for the two fan motor frequencies of 60 and 50 hertz. Temperature in the combustion chamber was monitored, along with fuel consumption and other variables. In the tests, the average exhaust air temperature was maintained between 92.7 and 100.4 deg C, and the reduction in the motor frequency from 60 to 50 Hz caused an increase in the duration of the tests. The system presented the best energetic performance when utilizing a frequency of 60 Hz for both fuel types. However, the results of energy efficiency varied very little when comparing tests performed at the same fan frequency. Thus, the gasification process was little affected by variation in the physical characteristics of the tested fuels, and it was recommended that the equipment operate with a frequency of 60 Hz. (author)

  2. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  3. Labor market pooling and occupational agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd M.; Jaison R. Abel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-foundations of occupational agglomeration in U.S. metropolitan areas, with an emphasis on labor market pooling. Controlling for a wide range of occupational attributes, including proxies for the use of specialized machinery and for the importance of knowledge spillovers, we find that jobs characterized by a unique knowledge base exhibit higher levels of geographic concentration than do occupations with generic knowledge requirements. Further, by analyzing co-aggl...

  4. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  5. Intensification of heat transfer by changing the burner nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DzurÅák, Róbert; Kizek, Ján; Jablonský, Gustáv

    2016-06-01

    Thermal aggregates are using burner which burns combustible mixture with an oxidizing agent, by adjustment of the burner nozzle we can achieve better conditions of combustion to intensify heat transfer at furnace space. The aim of the present paper was using a computer program Ansys Workbench to create a computer simulation which analyzes the impact of the nozzle on the shape of a flame thereby intensifies heat transfer in rotary drum furnaces and radiation heat transfer from the flue gas into the furnace space. Article contains analysis of the geometry of the burner for achieving temperature field in a rotary drum furnace using oxy-combustion and the practical results of computer simulations

  6. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  7. Firing in fluid beds and burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.; Lans, R. van der; Storm Pedersen, L.; Philbert Nielsen, H.; Aslaug Hansen, L.; Lin, W.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-02-01

    An investigation of the effect of co-firing straw and pulverized coal was performed. Based on experiments from pilot-scale and full-scale it was concluded that a higher fraction of straw in the fuel feedstock mixture results in lower NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The lower NO emission was mainly due to the higher volatile content of the straw, which leads to lower stoichiometry in the gas phase and in subsequent suppression of NO{sub x} formation. This conclusion is consistent with experimental and modeling results for pure coal combustion. The effect of coal quality on NO emissions has been investigated with three coals of different characteristics in three furnaces: in the Funen power station, unit 7 (FVO7), the Midtkraft Studstrup power station, unit 4 (MKS4), and the Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd (MBEL) test-rig. The MBEL test-rig was able to reproduce qualitatively the emissions from the MKS4 plant, and quantitatively the emissions from the FVO7 plant. The better agreement between the MBEL test-rig and FVO7 is presumed to be related to the existence of a large primary zone with a relatively low stoichiometry, diminishing the influence of near burner air and fuel mixing rate on the NO emissions. An engineering model has been developed for the prediction of NO emissions and burnout from pulverized fuel combustion in swirl burners. A simplified model for reduction of N{sub 2}O in CFBC has been developed, and simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from a 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler. (EG) EFP-94. 108 refs.

  8. Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of coal/biomass blend chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Yang, Haiping; Sun, Lushi; Su, Sheng; Wang, Baowen; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo

    2014-11-01

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA) was applied to different chars produced from lignite (LN), sawdust (SD) and their blends at the different mass ratios in order to investigate their thermal reactivity under steam atmosphere. Through TGA analysis, it was determined that the most prominent interaction between sawdust and lignite occurred at the mass ratio of sawdust/lignite as 1:4, but with further dose of more sawdust into its blends with lignite, the positive interaction deteriorated due to the agglomeration and deactivation of the alkali mineral involved in sawdust at high steam gasification temperature. Through systematic comparison, it could be observed that the random pore model was the most suitable among the three gas-solid reaction models adopted in this research. Finally, rational kinetic parameters were reached from these gas-solid reaction models, which provided a basis for design and operation of the realistic system of co-gasification of lignite and sawdust in this research.

  9. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  10. 产业转移加速进程中中国制造业集聚度再测算与演进%Measure and Evolution of China's Manufacturing Industry Agglomeration Degrees in the Process of Accelerating Industrial Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华蓉; 贺胜兵

    2015-01-01

    Industry transfer catalyzes the evolving trend of spatial agglomeration degree of China's manufacturing industry , We measure the degree of manufacturing industry agglomeration based on industrial concentration and spatial Gini coeffi‐cient since the 2008 financial crisis .According to the survey results ,We need to further promote the coastal industry main‐ly transfer to the central and western regions ,and realize gradient transfer to ASEAN countries .Both the eastern coastal areas and the central and western regions can attract high‐tech industries by virtue of their own advantages ,and actively implant the global value chain system ,Coastal areas developing high‐tech industries need to attent the excessive concentra‐tion and overcapacity problem .%产业转移催化了中国制造业空间集聚的演变趋势。利用行业集中度指标和空间基尼系数指标测算了2008年金融危机以来中国制造业的集聚程度,根据测算结果,需要进一步诱导和推进沿海产业向中西部地区转移,同时实现中国与东盟各国产业梯度转移,东部沿海地区和中西部地区均可凭借自身优势吸引高新技术产业入驻,并积极嵌入全球价值链体系,沿海地区发展高技术产业要注意过度集聚和产能过剩问题。

  11. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  12. Factors influencing particle agglomeration during solid-state sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Shao-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) is used to study the factors affecting agglomeration in three-dimensional copper particle systems during solid-state sintering.A new parameter is proposed to characterize agglomeration.The effects of a series of factors are studied,including particle size,size distribution,inter-particle tangential viscosity,temperature,initial density and initial distribution of particles on agglomeration.We find that the systems with smaller particles,broader particle size distribution,smaller viscosity,higher sintering temperature and smaller initial density have stronger particle agglomeration and different distributions of particles induce different agglomerations.This study should be very useful for understanding the phenomenon of agglomeration and the micro-structural evolution during sintering and guiding sintering routes to avoid detrimental agglomeration.

  13. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  14. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  15. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  16. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... for syngas production. Experiments have shown that CBS can be successfully processed and gasified in the entrained flow reactor to produce syngas with almost no tar content and low residual carbon formation. High reactor temperature and steam/carbon ratio is favourable for H2 production. At 1400 °C...

  17. Gasification and effect of gasifying temperature on syngas quality and tar generation: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion, erosion and plugging of the downstream equipments by tar and ash particle and, low energy content of syngas are the main problems of biomass gasification process. This paper attempts to review the findings of literature on the effect of temperature on syngas quality, and in alleviating the tar and ash problems in the gasification process. The review of literature indicates that as the gasification temperature increases, concentration of the resulting H2 and carbon conversion efficiency increase, the amount of tar in the syngas decreases. For the same condition, CH4 and CO concentration do not show consistent trend when the feedstock and gasification process varies. These necessitate the need for conducting an experiment for a particular gasification process and feedstock to understand fully the benefits of controlling the gasification temperature. This paper also tries to propose a method to improve the syngas quality and to reduce the tar amount by using preheated air and superheated steam as a gasifying media for oil palm fronds (OPF) gasification.

  18. Simulation of Steam Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor with Energy Self-Sufficient Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaree Suwatthikul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomass gasification process is widely accepted as a popular technology to produce fuel for the application in gas turbines and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Chemical reactions of this process can be separated into three reaction zones: pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction. In this study, sensitivity analysis with respect to three input parameters (gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, and steam-to-biomass ratio has been carried out to achieve energy self-sufficient conditions in a steam gasification process under the criteria that the carbon conversion efficiency must be more than 70%, and carbon dioxide gas is lower than 20%. Simulation models of the steam gasification process have been carried out by ASPEN Plus and validated with both experimental data and simulation results from Nikoo & Mahinpey (2008. Gasification temperature of 911 °C, equivalence ratio of 0.18, and a steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.78, are considered as an optimal operation point to achieve energy self-sufficient condition. This operating point gives the maximum of carbon conversion efficiency at 91.03%, and carbon dioxide gas at 15.18 volumetric percentages. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA is included to compare the environmental performance of conventional and energy self-sufficient gasification for steam biomass gasification.

  19. Study of a ceramic burner for shaftless stoves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-qin Dai; Suo-yi Huang; Shao-hua Li; Ke Liu

    2009-01-01

    A multi-burner-port annular flameless ceramic burner (MAFCB) of the shaftless stove for blast furnaces was designed.The characteristics of pressure drop, homogeneousness of the flows at burner ports, and distribution of the flows in the chambers and joint were studied by cold model experiments.This type of ceramic burner was successfully applied in 6# blast furnace at Liuzhou Iron & Steel Co.Ltd.(LISC) and this practice proved that it could be used in the hot blast stove and other stoves with a higher effi-ciency and a higher steadiness of hot blast temperature at 1200℃.With the combustion of blast furnace gas alone, the thermal effi- ciency was up to 78.95%, saving energy remarkably.

  20. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, A J; Shapiro, N L

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to stud