WorldWideScience

Sample records for agg dipsacaceae puzzle

  1. AGG Maailmameistrivõistluste eel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    12.-14. juunini toimuvad Torontos Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (AGG) maailmameistrivõistlused Toronto Ülikooli võimlemiskeskuses. Nende võistluste korraldamise raske ülesande on võtnud oma õlule Kanada eestlaste võimlemisklubid Kalev Estienne ja Ritmika vastavalt Evelyn Koobi ja Annely Riga juhtimisel

  2. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule

  3. Puzzling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  4. 2008 CONEXPO-CON/AGG%镜头中的CONEXPO-CON/AGG2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤彪

    2008-01-01

    @@ 于2008年3月11-15日在美国拉斯维加斯会展中心举行的CONEXPO-CON/AGG(建设机械展)和IFPE(动力传动展)圆满闭幕.CONEXPO-CON/AGG有2182家企业参展,展出净面积达21.2万平方米,较上届增长21%;IFPE有469家企业参展,展出净面积达1.2万平方米,较上届增长16%.14.46万人参观展会,其中国际观众2.8万人,占19%,中国、印度、土耳其的观众数量翻倍.

  5. Deductive Puzzling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    To help fifth- through eighth-grade students develop their deductive reasoning skills, the author used a ten-week supplementary curriculum so that students could answer logic questions. The curriculum, a series of lessons built around language-independent logic puzzles, has been used in classrooms of fifth through eighth grades. In most cases,…

  6. Annuitization Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomo Benartzi; Alessandro Previtero; Thaler, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech given in 1985, Franco Modigliani drew attention to the "annuitization puzzle": that annuity contracts, other than pensions through group insurance, are extremely rare. Rational choice theory predicts that households will find annuities attractive at the onset of retirement because they address the risk of outliving one's income, but in fact, relatively few of those facing retirement choose to annuitize a substantial portion of their wealth. There is now a ...

  7. Incomplete Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    15 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of a portion of the south polar residual cap of Mars. The large, relatively flat-lying, puzzle-like pieces in this scene are mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide. Location near: 85.5oS, 76.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  8. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  9. Puzzles, Pastimes, Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperson, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Presents six mathematical problems (with answers) which focus on: (1) chess moves; (2) patterned numbers; (3) quadratics with rational roots; (4) number puzzles; (5) Euclidean geometry; and (6) Carrollian word puzzles. (JN)

  10. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Downie E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle...

  11. Bringing together evolution on serpentine and polyploidy: spatiotemporal history of the diploid-tetraploid complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kolář

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae, a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding

  12. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  13. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downie E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  14. RANCANGAN PUZZLE GAME DELBELDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Usada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Puzzle game merupakan genre game yang paling diminati, demikian juga dengan adventure game. Penelitian ini bertujuan membuat sebuah rancangan game dengan genre puzzle namun menyisipkan adventure di dalamnya. Metodologi yang digunakan adalah metodologi perancangan software berorientasi objek. Perangkat pemodelan yang digunakan adalah use case diagram, state diagrams dan class diagram. Perancangan menghasilkan delapan belas class diagram yang dapat dituangkan dalam bentuk kode bahasa pemrograman berorientasi objek.Kata kunci : puzzle adventure game, delbeldes, game borobudur

  15. Structure of amorphous Ag/Ge/S alloys: experimentally constrained density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, J.; Beuneu, B.; Jones, R. O.; Jóvári, P.; Kaban, I.; Kolář, J.; Voleská, I.; Wágner, T.

    2015-12-01

    Density functional/molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to determine structural and other properties of amorphous Ag/Ge/S and Ge/S alloys. In the former, the calculations have been combined with experimental data (x-ray and neutron diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure). Ag/Ge/As alloys have high ionic conductivity and are among the most promising candidates for future memristor technology. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and large-scale (500 atoms) simulations in Ag/Ge/S, and we compare and contrast the structures of Ge/S and Ag/Ge/S. The calculated electronic structures, vibrational densities of states, ionic mobilities, and cavity distributions of the amorphous materials are discussed and compared with data on crystalline phases where available. The high mobility of Ag in solid state electrolyte applications is related to the presence of cavities and can occur via jumps to a neighbouring vacant site.

  16. A double neutron star merger origin for the cosmological relativistic fading source PTF11agg ?

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, PTF group reported their new discovery source of PTF11agg, a rapidly fading optical transient with a long-lived, scintillating radio counterpart, yet without evidence of a high energy counterpart. Nevertheless, PTF group speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts rather than an orphan afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Besides GRBs, gravitational wave burst (GWB, from double neutron star merger scenario) also have similar power-law behavior broadband EM afterglow emission, only if the post-merger product is a millisecond magnetar rather than a black hole. We find PTF11agg data could be well explained with GWB afterglow model. Implications for NS+NS merger event rate is discussed.

  17. A Disciplined Chemical Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    A puzzle was developed as a resource for teaching intermediate chemistry students where they need to use general intelligence and logic skills. The puzzle involves identification of name, age, subdiscipline of chemistry and position of 6 students around the table by using certain data provided to them.

  18. Tangrams: Puzzles of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Challenging one's brain is the beginning of making great art. Tangrams are a great way to keep students thinking about their latest art project long after leaving the classroom. A tangram is a Chinese puzzle. The earliest known reference to tangrams appears in a Chinese book dated 1813, but the puzzles existed long before that date. The puzzle…

  19. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  20. The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Åstebro, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A review of recent evidence on relative earnings from entrepreneurship versus wage work presents a puzzle: why do individuals become entrepreneurs when entrepreneurs on average apparently earn less than employees? After considering several potential explanations, we empirically analyze one: income...

  1. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  2. 透过CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2008看行业发展八大现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤龙

    2008-01-01

    @@ 正值北美经济出现下滑之时,CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2008是否依然会光芒四射一度为众多业内人士所担心.但是亲临现场才知道CONEXPO-CON/AGG2008就如同一杯香浓的咖啡,需要细心品尝,领悟其中的滋味.

  3. A DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGER ORIGIN FOR THE COSMOLOGICAL RELATIVISTIC FADING SOURCE PTF11agg?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Ding, Xuan [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei, Jian-Yan, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) team recently reported the discovery of a rapidly fading optical transient source, PTF11agg. A long-lived scintillating radio counterpart was identified, but the search for a high-energy counterpart showed negative results. The PTF team speculated that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts. Here we suggest that a neutron star (NS)-NS merger system with a supra-massive magnetar central engine could be a possible source to power such a transient, if our line of sight is not on the jet axis direction of the system. These systems are also top candidates for gravitational wave sources to be detected in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We find that the PTF11agg data could be explained well with such a model, suggesting that at least some gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers may be associated with such a bright electromagnetic counterpart without a γ-ray trigger.

  4. Blurring Out Cosmic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    The Doomsday argument and anthropic reasoning are two puzzling examples of probabilistic confirmation. In both cases, a lack of knowledge apparently yields surprising conclusions. Since they are formulated within a Bayesian framework, they constitute a challenge to Bayesianism. Several attempts, some successful, have been made to avoid these conclusions, but some versions of these arguments cannot be dissolved within the framework of orthodox Bayesianism. I show that adopting an imprecise framework of probabilistic reasoning allows for a more adequate representation of ignorance in Bayesian reasoning and explains away these puzzles.

  5. Games, puzzles, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    The authors show that there are underlying mathematical reasons for why games and puzzles are challenging (and perhaps why they are so much fun). They also show that games and puzzles can serve as powerful models of computation-quite different from the usual models of automata and circuits-offering a new way of thinking about computation. The appendices provide a substantial survey of all known results in the field of game complexity, serving as a reference guide for readers interested in the computational complexity of particular games, or interested in open problems about such complexities.

  6. Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.

  7. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  8. Some puzzles in nucleoastrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some puzzles being anxious to be solved are reviewed, which include cross sections of the nuclear reactions being important for the stellar evolution, the key problems and difficulties in the theory of both type Ia and II supernova, and the problem of interstellar medium 26Al. Some research subjects of nucleoastrophysics are also proposed

  9. Determination of Solid State Solubility of the Components in the Ag-Ge Film System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Minenkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of determination of solid state solubility of the components in the system with an eutectic type of interaction (Ag-Ge by means of measuring the sample electrical resistance during thermal cycling has been shown. Film systems were formed in a vacuum by sequential condensation of components. The solubility curve of germanium in silver, obtained from the study of the samples with silver film thickness of 100 nm, is in good agreement with available literature data. The activation energy of grain-boundary diffusion has been estimated as 0,8 eV.

  10. Puzzles in physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hsiang-Nan Li

    2006-11-01

    I discuss some puzzles observed in exclusive -meson decays, concentrating on the large difference between the direct CP asymmetries in the 0 → ∓± and ± → 0± modes, the large 0 → 00 branching ratio, and the large deviation of the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in the $b → sq\\bar{q}$ penguins from those in the $b → c\\bar{c}s$ trees.

  11. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, M.J. van; Rote, G.; Tel, G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some new geometric puzzles and the complexity of their extension to arbitrary sizes. For gate puzzles and two-layer puzzles we prove NP-completeness of solving them. Not only the solution of puzzles leads to interesting questions, but also puzzle design gives rise to interesting theoretic

  12. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, M.J. van; Rote, G.; Tel, G.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss some new geometric puzzles and the complexity of their extension to arbitrary sizes. For gate puzzles and two-layer puzzles we prove NP-completeness of solving them. Not only the solution of puzzles leads to interesting questions, but also puzzle design gives rise to interesting theoretic

  13. The infinity puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We are living in a Golden Age of Physics. Forty or so years ago, three brilliant, yet little-known scientists - an American, a Dutchman, and an Englishman - made breakthroughs which later inspired the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva: a 27 kilometer-long machine which has already costs ten billion dollars, taken twenty years to build, and now promises to reveal how the universe itself came to be. The Infinity Puzzle is the inside story of those forty years of research, breakthrough, and endeavour. Peter Higgs, Gerard 't Hooft and James Bjorken, were the three scienti

  14. Carex flava agg. (section Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae in Poland: taxonomy, morphological variation, and soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Więcław Helena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedges of Carex flava agg., typical of moist or wet habitats, are difficult to classify because of a lack of clear-cut morphological differences between them and the existence of numerous hybrids. This monograph presents results of research conducted in 2007-2012 in various parts of Poland. The plant material consisted of 1852 living specimens of Carex flava agg., collected from 80 localities, and dried specimens from 26 herbaria and from 7 private collections. The analysis involved 45 morphological characters (34 quantitative and 11 qualitative and 9 soil parameters. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods were used to process the data. The results confirm the taxonomic classification dividing the C. flava group into 4 species: C. flava s.s., C. lepidocarpa, C. demissa, and C. viridula. This classification is based on (i a high observed level of morphological separation of these taxa, resulting mostly from differences in generative characters, i.e. length of the utricle and its beak, and percentage ratio of beak length to total utricle length; (ii integrity of the taxa at the sites where they coexist, although some intermediate forms resulting from hybridization are also present; (iii habitat preferences of the taxa, especially the preference of C. lepidocarpa for calcareous sites and of C. demissa for slightly acidic soils. Thus in Poland the analysed taxa are morphologically well-defined and show clear ecological preferences. Continuous variation of morphological characters was observed among specimens of C. viridula, so it is not justifiable to distinguish its subspecies (sometimes classified even as separate species, described previously in literature. Consequently, the 2 subgroups of C. viridula were treated as local variants (i.e. varieties: var. viridula and var. pulchella, considering their different habitat requirements. Additionally, 5 hybrids were distinguished within C. flava agg.: C. ×alsatica [= C. demissa

  15. Structure and physical properties of RE2AgGe3 (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumanta; Mumbaraddi, Dundappa; Halappa, Pramod; Kalsi, Deepti; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-09-01

    We have synthesized the compounds RE2AgGe3 (RE =Ce, Pr, Nd) by arc melting. The crystal structure obtained from single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction suggests that these compounds crystallize in the α-ThSi2 structure type. The magnetic susceptibility data of Ce2AgGe3 follows Curie-Weiss (CW) law above 25 K without any magnetic ordering down to 2 K. The effective magnetic moment (μeff) was calculated as 2.53 μB/Ce and negative Curie paramagnetic temperature (θp)=-2.4 K hint weak antiferromagnetic coupling among the adjacent spins. Pr2AgGe3 shows a complex magnetic behavior wherein the magnetic susceptibility at field cooled and zero field cooled modes bifurcates at 11.5 K with the latter undergoing a cusp like maxima, probably due to weak ferromagnetic interaction. The θp and μeff obtained are 4 K and 4.33 μB/Pr, respectively. Nd2AgGe3 undergoes multiple magnetic transitions. Temperature dependent resistivity data reveals that three compounds are metallic in nature.

  16. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  17. The Puzzling Ophiuchus Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies or globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way can be pulled apart by tidal forces, leaving behind a trail of stars known as a stellar stream. One such trail, the Ophiuchus stream, has posed a serious dynamical puzzle since its discovery. But a recent study has identified four stars that might help resolve this streams mystery.Conflicting TimescalesThe stellar stream Ophiuchus was discovered around our galaxy in 2014. Based on its length, which appears to be 1.6 kpc, we can calculate the time that has passed since its progenitor was disrupted and the stream was created: ~250 Myr. But the stars within it are ~12 Gyr old, and the stream orbits the galaxy with a period of ~350 Myr.Given these numbers, we can assume that Ophiuchuss progenitor completed many orbits of the Milky Way in its lifetime. So why would it only have been disrupted 250 million years ago?Fanning StreamLed by Branimir Sesar (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), a team of scientists has proposed an idea that might help solve this puzzle. If the Ophiuchus stellar stream is on a chaotic orbit common in triaxial potentials, which the Milky Ways may be then the stream ends can fan out, with stars spreading in position and velocity.The fanned part of the stream, however, would be difficult to detect because of its low surface brightness. As a result, the Ophiuchus stellar stream could actually be longer than originally measured, implying that it was disrupted longer ago than was believed.Search for Fan StarsTo test this idea, Sesar and collaborators performed a search around the ends of the stream, looking for stars thatare of the right type to match the stream,are at the predicted distance of the stream,are located near the stream ends, andhave velocities that match the stream and dont match the background halo stars.Histogram of the heliocentric velocities of the 43 target stars. Six stars have velocities matching the stream velocity. Two of these are located in the main stream; the other

  18. PTF11agg AS THE FIRST EVIDENCE FOR REVERSE SHOCK EMISSION FROM A POST-MERGER MILLISECOND MAGNETAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lingjun; Dai Zigao, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-10

    Based on the stiff equations of state of neutron stars (NS) and the discovery of high-mass NSs, it is highly probable that a NS-NS merger will result in a rapidly rotating massive magnetar. The central magnetar will dissipate its rotational energy to the outflow by injecting Poynting flux, which will become lepton-dominated so that a long-lasting reverse shock (RS) develops. We calculate the emission of the RS as well as the emission of forward shock (FS) and find that, in most cases, the RS emission is stronger than FS emission. It is found that the recently discovered transient, PTF11agg, can be neatly accounted for by the RS emission powered by a millisecond magnetar. Other alternative models have been considered and cannot explain the observed light curves well. We therefore suggest that PTF11agg is the first evidence for RS emission from a post-merger millisecond magnetar.

  19. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration. PMID:26891484

  20. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration.

  1. Imaginary Cubes and Their Puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tsuiki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaginary cubes are three dimensional objects which have square silhouette projections in three orthogonal ways just as a cube has. In this paper, we study imaginary cubes and present assembly puzzles based on them. We show that there are 16 equivalence classes of minimal convex imaginary cubes, among whose representatives are a hexagonal bipyramid imaginary cube and a triangular antiprism imaginary cube. Our main puzzle is to put three of the former and six of the latter pieces into a cube-box with an edge length of twice the size of the original cube. Solutions of this puzzle are based on remarkable properties of these two imaginary cubes, in particular, the possibility of tiling 3D Euclidean space.

  2. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  3. Chemistry of Art and Color Sudoku Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle format was used to teach light science and chemistry terms to students of Chemistry of Art and Color. The puzzles were used to motivate and encourage students to learn chemistry in an easier and in friendly fashion.

  4. ‘Divergence via Abstraction' Practices for Inventing New Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kozo; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Mizumoto, Akinori

    2003-01-01

    To invent new puzzles, we take a systematic approach called divergence via abstraction. Existing popular puzzles called permutation puzzles and cyclic puzzles are abstracted and converted into other media such as graphs, blocks, sounds, and robots, while preserving their logic. We implement puzzle generators on different media and variations of generated puzzles are shown. Merits and demerits of new puzzles are evaluated comparing with the original puzzles. This systematic approach can flexib...

  5. Practical Client Puzzle from Repeated Squaring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptographic puzzles have been proposed by Merkle [15] to relay secret information between parties over an insecure channel. Client puzzles, a type of cryptographic puzzle, have been proposed by Juels and Brainard [8] to defend a server against denial of service attacks. However there is no general

  6. Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    A sudoku puzzle was designed that incorporated lists of chemistry terms like polyatomic ions, organic functional groups or strong nucleophiles that students need to learn. It was found that students enjoyed solving such puzzles and also such puzzles made the boring tasks of memorizing basic chemical terms an exciting one.

  7. Puzzles: A Pathetically Neglected, Commonly Available Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Nancy S.

    1996-01-01

    States that puzzles are an important tool in helping children engage in the problem-solving process. Claims that children are interested in puzzles because they can be active as observers, problem solvers, and learners, with little or no assistance from adults and others. Defines nine characteristics of good puzzle-making situations. (MOK)

  8. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  9. Canadian Open Tennis. Puzzle Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the du Maurier Open, a women's tennis tournament. Explains that tennis becomes an elite sport at the level of the du Maurier Open. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on many of the female tennis stars and provides the across and down clues, a word list, and the answer key. (CMK)

  10. MODELING AND SOLVING SELF-REFERENTIAL PUZZLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Bubalo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The so-called self-referential puzzles are a very interesting kind of logic puzzles,aiming at developing the skill of logical thinking. A self-referential puzzle consists of asequence of questions about the puzzle itself. In this paper, we shall show some selfreferentialpuzzles, demonstrate how to model and solve them as propositional logicproblems, and how to mechanically generate new puzzles. For this, we shall make use ofthe specific advantages of Mozart/Oz system – the finite domain constraint programminglanguage and environment.We shall also show some new puzzles, according to our best knowledge not yet publishedelsewhere. The program in Mozart/Oz using our method generated these puzzles.

  11. Neutron star news and puzzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-08-15

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  12. Neutron Star News and Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-01-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. In this article, I give a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Recent and on-going research on neutron stars in which the group built from scratch by Gerry at Stony Brook has made significant strides are reviewed. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  13. Construction-Paper Puzzle Masterpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Creating an appreciation of art history in her junior-high students has always been one of the author's greatest challenges as an art teacher. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students re-created a famous work of art--piece by piece, like a puzzle or a stained-glass window--out of construction paper. (Contains 1 resource.)

  14. Distribution of Pathogenic Genes aatA, aap, aggR, among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Their Linkage with StbA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A; Mirinargasi, M; Merikhi, N; Sharifi, S H

    2011-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) with E. coli (UPEC) is one of the most common bacterial infections among human beings. In addition to the host predisposing factors, genes are also proposed to have an important role in the occurrence of UTIs. This study investigated the distribution of three pathogenic genes including aggR, aap and aatA among UPEC infected samples and their linkage with stbA, the essential gene for maintaining of pAA plasmid. A total of 244 samples were collected from patients with UTIs through clinical laboratories located in western side of Tehran (Iran) during years 2008-2009. E. coli isolation was performed according to standard laboratory methods. DNAs were extracted from samples using Boiling method, and the presence of aap, aggR, aatA and stbA genes were investigated by PCR. No pathogenic genes (aap, aggR, aatA) were found in 104 out of 244 UPEC samples, while 14 of them were carrying stbA gene. Out of 140 UPEC samples with pathogenic genes, 94 (46.6%) were carrying aap gene, 52 (23%) aggR gene, and 80 (35.4%) aatA gene. A total of 18 samples were also carrying all pathogenic genes together. Moreover, 44 out of 144 samples were carrying stbA gene. The results obtained by this study showed that the aggR, aap and aatA pathogenic genes have different existence patterns in different E. coli strains that infect different organs. Our study also showed that these three plasmid genes in EAEC strains are able to transpose in the genome and change their level of linkage with pAA plasmid essential gene stbA. Meanwhile, this study confirmed that aggR, aap and aatA genes are not specific to only EAEC strains.

  15. How to Solve the Torus Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the following sliding puzzle called torus puzzle. In an m by n board, there are mn pieces numbered from 1 to mn. Initially, the pieces are placed in ascending order. Then they are scrambled by rotating the rows and columns without the player’s knowledge. The objective of the torus puzzle is to rearrange the pieces in ascending order by rotating the rows and columns. We provide a solution to this puzzle. In addition, we provide lower and upper bounds on the number of steps for solving the puzzle. Moreover, we consider a variant of the torus puzzle in which each piece is colored either black or white, and we present a hardness result for solving it.

  16. Solving the Price-Earnings Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2002-01-01

    Accounting and finance professionals have empirically known that in the long run stock prices are roughly proportional to earnings. However, econometric testing could not been able to verify this expected contribution of earnings to stock prices, thus formed the price-earnings (PE) puzzle in the accounting literature. This paper seeks to solve this puzzle by allowing the earnings response coefficient to be a variable instead of a constant, and shows that the PE puzzle turns out to be a phenom...

  17. An alternative explanation of the prize puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Giordani, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple explanation for the frequent appearance of a price puzzle in VARs designed for monetary policy analysis. It suggests that the best method of solving the puzzle implies a close connection between theory and empirics rather than the introduction of a commodity price. It proves that the omission of a measure of output gap (or potential output) spuriously produces a price puzzle (and several other incorrect conclusions) in a wide class of commonly used models. This ca...

  18. Situated Modeling of Epistemic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Ersan, M; Ersan, Murat; Akman, Varol

    1994-01-01

    Situation theory is a mathematical theory of meaning introduced by Jon Barwise and John Perry. It has evoked great theoretical and practical interest and motivated the framework of a few `computational' systems. PROSIT is the pioneering work in this direction. Unfortunately, there is a lack of real-life applications on these systems and this study is a preliminary attempt to remedy this deficiency. Here, we examine how much PROSIT reflects situation-theoretic concepts and solve a group of epistemic puzzles using the constructs provided by this programming language.

  19. The Nominal Share Price Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Weld; Roni Michaely; RICHARD H. THALER; Shlomo Benartzi

    2009-01-01

    The average nominal share prices of common stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange have remained constant at approximately $35 per share since the Great Depression as a result of stock splits. It is surprising that U.S. firms actively maintained constant nominal prices for their shares while general prices in the economy went up more than tenfold. This is especially puzzling given that commissions paid by investors on trading ten $35 shares are about ten times those paid on a single $350...

  20. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  1. Advocacy: AASL Puts the Puzzle Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Sara Kelly

    2007-01-01

    School librarians work with people of all ages, abilities, and personalities; those people are the puzzle pieces that make advocacy for libraries effective. School librarians contribute to and use the resources of their state and national organizations' advocacy efforts. The completed picture of the puzzle is an excellent program with…

  2. The Magnets Puzzle is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete.......In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete....

  3. Have a Book? Make a Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that puzzles, the cornerstone of table-top or manipulative learning areas in early childhood programs, are structured materials, self-correcting toys that help children in a variety of developmental areas. Suggests that handmade puzzles are less expensive and can be tailored for specific concepts, themes, or skill levels. Provides…

  4. Project-A-Puzzle. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Richard D.

    This set of transparency masters of mathematical puzzles has as its intent the development of logical and perceptual skills. The puzzles include patterns, magic squares, and counting problems. Solutions and follow-up suggestions are provided on the back of each page. (MP)

  5. Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    algorithm which exploits the divide and conquer paradigm to reduce the combinatorially complex problem by classifying the puzzle pieces and comparing pieces drawn from the same group. The paper includes a brief preliminary investigation of some image features used in the classification.......In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm...... is used in a general puzzle solving method which is based on a greedy algorithm previously proved successful. We have been able to solve computer generated puzzles of 320 pieces as well as a real puzzle of 54 pieces by exclusively using image information. Additionally, we investigate a new scalable...

  6. Solving the BM Camelopardalis puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Mathias; Busby, Michael R.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1989-01-01

    BM Camelopardalis (=12 Cam) is a chromospherically active binary star with a relatively large orbital eccentricity. Systems with large eccentricities usually rotate pseudosynchronously. However, BM Cam has been a puzzle since its observed rotation rate is virtually equal to its orbital period indicating synchronization. All available photometry data for BM Cam have been collected and analyzed. Two models of modulated ellipticity effect are proposed, one based on equilibrium tidal deformation of the primary star and the other on a dynamical tidal effect. When the starspot variability is removed from the data, the dynamical tidal model was the better approximation to the real physical situation. The analysis indicates that BM Cam is not rotating pseudosynchronously but rotating in virtual synchronism after all.

  7. Impossible folding puzzles and other mathematical paradoxes

    CERN Document Server

    Sarcone, Gianni A

    2014-01-01

    Do all problems have solutions? Is complexity synonymous with difficulty? This original collection of mathematical puzzles and paradoxes proves that things aren't always what they seem! Readers will discover that nothing is as easy or as difficult as it looks and that puzzles can have one, several, or no solutions.The fun-filled puzzles begin with The Tricky Hole, a challenge that involves pushing a large coin through a small hole in a sheet of paper without ripping or making any cuts in the paper. Advance to the Elastic Playing Card, in which it's possible to cut a hole into a playing card bi

  8. Oriental Puzzle Gives Students Graphics Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, David B.; Johnson, Terri

    1985-01-01

    Describes a class assignment in which graphics students use an ancient Chinese puzzle called a tangram. Students arrange the five triangles, one square, and one rhomboid into an animate and an inanimate object. (HTH)

  9. Is There a Swiss Price Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kaufmann; Sarah M. Lein

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the response of consumer prices to a monetary policy shock in Switzerland. We find that there is no evidence of a price puzzle at the aggregate level. This is because our factor-augmented vector autoregression (FAVAR) avoids misspecification by including more information than a traditional VAR. However, the response is still delayed by at least four quarters, partly because there is a price puzzle in some sectors. In particular, rents tend to rise after a monetary policy ...

  10. On the Analysis of Sudoku Puzzles by Computers

    OpenAIRE

    北本, 卓也

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method to analyze Sudoku puzzles by computers. Generally speaking, it is not so difficult to solve Sudoku puzzles by computers, and many programs to solve Sudoku puzzles are avaiable. However, most of the programs use recursion and backtracking, which is significantly different from methods used by a human. Hence, a human-like method to solve a Sudoku puzzle is unknown even if the solution of the puzzle is computed by compute programs. We created a computer program which...

  11. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  12. Isolation, characterization, sequencing and crystal structure of charybdin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Charybdis maritima agg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Gessmann, Renate; Kavelaki, Kalliopi; Christofakis, Emmanuil; Petratos, Kyriacos; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F

    2006-06-01

    A novel, type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein designated charybdin was isolated from bulbs of Charybdis maritima agg. The protein, consisting of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 29 kDa, inhibited translation in rabbit reticulocytes with an IC50 of 27.2 nm. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the bulb was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequence of the protein from dissolved crystals. The complete mature protein sequence was derived by partial DNA sequencing and terminal protein sequencing, and was confirmed by high-resolution crystal structure analysis. The protein contains Val at position 79 instead of the conserved Tyr residue of the ribosome-inactivating proteins known to date. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a natural substitution of a catalytic residue at the active site of a natural ribosome-inactivating protein. This substitution in the active site may be responsible for the relatively low in vitro translation inhibitory effect compared with other ribosome-inactivating proteins. Single crystals were grown in the cold room from PEG6000 solutions. Diffraction data collected to 1.6 A resolution were used to determine the protein structure by the molecular replacement method. The fold of the protein comprises two structural domains: an alpha + beta N-terminal domain (residues 4-190) and a mainly alpha-helical C-terminal domain (residues 191-257). The active site is located in the interface between the two domains and comprises residues Val79, Tyr117, Glu167 and Arg170.

  13. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puzzle is prepared for primary-school students aiming at teaching of energy sources as a supplementary source. In the mean time, the puzzle we prepared reveals the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, the student’s aim is to complete the puzzle by answering the questions respectively. .

  14. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren;

    the "Purchasing Power Parity puzzle". In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis". We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  15. A Discrete Tomography Approach to Japanese Puzzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, K.J.; Kosters, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Discrete Tomography (DT) is concerned with the reconstruction of binary images from their horizontal and vertical projections. In this paper we consider an evolutionary algorithm for computing such reconstructions.We show that the famous Japanese puzzles are a special case of a more general DT probl

  16. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is po

  17. Reinforcing Geometric Properties with Shapedoku Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.; Nickell, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    Shapedoku is a new type of puzzle that combines logic and spatial reasoning with understanding of basic geometric concepts such as slope, parallelism, perpendicularity, and properties of shapes. Shapedoku can be solved by individuals and, as demonstrated here, can form the basis of a review for geometry students as they create their own. In this…

  18. Insights and puzzles in particle physics

    OpenAIRE

    Leutwyler, H.

    2014-01-01

    I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

  19. Insights and Puzzles in Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, H.

    2015-03-01

    I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

  20. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  1. Jigsaw percolation: Can a random graph solve a puzzle?

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; Dey, Partha S; Sivakoff, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new kind of percolation on finite graphs called jigsaw percolation. This model attempts to capture networks of people who innovate by merging ideas and who collaboratively solve problems by piecing together solutions. Each node of a graph (regarded as a person in a social network) has a unique piece of a jigsaw puzzle. Acquainted people with compatible puzzle pieces merge their puzzle pieces. More generally, groups of people with merged puzzle pieces merge if the groups know one another and have a pair of compatible puzzle pieces. The social network solves the puzzle if it eventually merges all the puzzle pieces. For the case of an Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi social network with $n$ vertices and edge probability $p_n$, we define the critical value $p_c(n)$ for an arbitrary connected puzzle graph to be the value of $p_n$ for which the probability of solving the puzzle equals 1/2. We prove that when the puzzle graph is the $n$-cycle, then $p_c(n) = \\Theta(1/\\log n)$. For an arbitrary connected puzzle gra...

  2. Educational Policy Research: Progress, Puzzles, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Murnane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvantaged children. I will make the case that research provides encouraging evidence on several policy approaches. At the same time, the research reveals puzzles that I believe we need to take seriously in thinking about future research to inform the design of the next round of policies. Finally, I suggest some directions for policy research that come from taking seriously puzzles in the evidence.

  3. Anchoring Heuristic and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2015-01-01

    What happens when the anchoring and adjustment heuristic of Tversky and Kahneman (1974) is incorporated in the standard consumption-based capital asset pricing model (CCAPM)? The surprising finding is that it not only resolves the high equity-premium and low risk-free rate puzzles with a low risk-aversion coefficient, but also provides a unified framework for understanding countercyclical equity-premium, excess volatility, size, value, and momentum effects, and abnormal returns and volatiliti...

  4. Can the retirement consumption puzzle be solved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Smith

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses UK panel data to shed further light on the fall in spending at retirement (the retirement-consumption puzzle). It compares the profiles of spending and well-being at retirement for different groups, defined according to whether retirement is voluntary or involuntary. Where retirement is voluntary, food spending and individual well-being are largely smoothed through retirement; where retirement is involuntary, both food spending and well-being fall. This is consistent with the ...

  5. Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan C; Ratliff, Kristin R; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Cannon, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examined the relation between children's early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 min every 4 months (6 times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involving mental transformations of 2-dimensional shapes. Children who were observed playing with puzzles performed better on this task than those who did not, controlling for parent education, income, and overall parent word types. Moreover, among those children who played with puzzles, frequency of puzzle play predicted performance on the spatial transformation task. Although the frequency of puzzle play did not differ for boys and girls, the quality of puzzle play (a composite of puzzle difficulty, parent engagement, and parent spatial language) was higher for boys than for girls. In addition, variation in puzzle play quality predicted performance on the spatial transformation task for girls but not for boys. Implications of these findings as well as future directions for research on the role of puzzle play in the development of spatial skill are discussed. PMID:22040312

  6. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  7. Electrophobic Scalar Boson and Muonic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. We identify two unexplored regions in the coupling constant-mass plane. Potential future experiments and their implications for theories with mass-weighted lepton couplings are discussed.

  8. Electrophobic Scalar Boson and Muonic Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; McKeen, David; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-09-01

    A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. We identify two unexplored regions in the coupling constant-mass plane. Potential future experiments and their implications for theories with mass-weighted lepton couplings are discussed.

  9. The China puzzle: Opportunities for accounting research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh; Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    How can China achieve phenomenal economic growth despite what is considered as "weak" institutions in market-based economies? Xu(2011) provides a framework to understand this puzzle. Specifically, he suggests that China’s institutional framework of Regionally Decentralized Authoritarian regime was likely responsible for the phenomenal economic growth despite what is considered "weak" institutions for market-based economies. While recent accounting research provides insights into the relationship between agency issues, and accounting and control systems in the China context, accounting researchers can use the institutional feature of RDAs to provide insights into the role of accounting and control systems in non-market-based settings.

  10. The B -> pi K Puzzle: 2009 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seungwon; Chiang, Cheng-Wei; London, David

    2009-01-01

    The measurements of B -> pi K decays have been in disagreement with the predictions of the Standard Model (SM) for some time. In this paper, we perform an update of this puzzle using the latest (2008) data. We find that the situation has become far less clear. A fit to the B -> pi K data alone suggests the presence of new physics (NP). Indeed, if one adds a constraint on the weak phase gamma coming from independent measurements -- the SM fit -- one finds that the fit is poor. On the other han...

  11. The corporate bond credit spread puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Jens H. E. Christensen

    2008-01-01

    It is common to view interest on a corporate bond as reflecting the risk-free, longer-term interest rate, such as that on a 10-year Treasury bond, plus a spread related to the credit risk of the corporation issuing the bond. However, empirical analysis of the determinants of corporate bond rates has turned out to be more demanding than it appears on the surface. This has led researchers to talk about a credit spread puzzle. In this Economic Letter we will first detail the evidence for the exi...

  12. Nature's Greatest Puzzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-02-01

    It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.

  13. Crossword Puzzles as Learning Tools in Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…

  14. Enumerating Small Sudoku Puzzles in a First Abstract Algebra Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Crystal; Lorch, John

    2008-01-01

    Two methods are presented for counting small "essentially different" sudoku puzzles using elementary group theory: one method (due to Jarvis and Russell) uses Burnside's counting formula, while the other employs an invariant property of sudoku puzzles. Ideas are included for incorporating this material into an introductory abstract algebra course.…

  15. Accelerating Student Learning of Technology Terms: "The Crossword Puzzle Exercise"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenand, Thomas G.; Dunphy, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors suggest using an alternative teaching methodology to impart knowledge regarding information systems phraseology and vocabulary. Specifically, a series of crossword puzzles or scrabbles are used to present information system (IS) terminology to students in an introductory business information systems course. The puzzle terms and answers…

  16. Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle was designed to teach about amino acids and functional groups to the students of undergraduate organic chemistry students. The puzzles focus on helping the student learn the name, 3-letter code and 1-letter code of common amino acids and functional groups.

  17. Decoding Codewords: Statistical Analysis of a Newspaper Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacock, Susan; Meacock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In recent years English newspapers have started featuring a number of puzzles other than the ubiquitous crossword. Many of the puzzles are of Japanese origin such as Sudoku, Kakuro or Hidato. However, one recent one is very English and is called variously Cross-code, Alphapuzzle or some other name. In this article, it will be known as Codeword.…

  18. Jigsaw Puzzles. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    This booklet examines the educational value of jigsaw puzzles and gives practical suggestions on how to select and make them for use by children ages 1 through 8. It asserts that jigsaw puzzles provide children with the opportunity to develop problem-solving strategies, and discusses a theory of adult-child interaction that encourages the…

  19. The Crossword Puzzle as a Teaching Examination Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Glenda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Animal science students (n=107) answered questions in both crossword puzzle and fill-in-the-blank format; 41 students in another study received either format as weekly review/quizzes. Students answered more questions correctly with crossword puzzles and enjoyed the challenge, although they appeared more willing to attempt answers with the fill-in…

  20. A Puzzle Used to Teach the Cardiac Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Fernanda K.; Moura, Maria J. C. S.; Sanches, Andrea; Costa, Rafaela; Oliveira de Lima, Patricia; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Amaral, Maria E. C.; Zeni, Paula; Gaviao, Kelly Cristina; Montrezor, Luís H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to describe a puzzle developed for use in teaching cardiac physiology classes. The puzzle presents figures of phases of the cardiac cycle and a table with five columns: phases of cardiac cycle, atrial state, ventricular state, state of atrioventricular valves, and pulmonary and aortic valves. Chips are provided…

  1. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papadimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C H; Chao, K T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Lourenco, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C Z

    2011-01-01

    A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing ...

  2. Solving the puzzle of subhalo spins

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yang; Pearce, Frazer R; Lux, Hanni; Muldrew, Stuart I; Onions, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the spin parameter distribution of subhaloes in two high resolution isolated halo simulations, re- cent work by Onions et al. suggested that typical subhalo spins are consistently lower than the spin distribution found for field haloes. To further examine this puzzle, we have analyzed simulations of a cosmological volume with sufficient resolution to resolve a significant subhalo population. We confirm the result of Onions et al. and show that the typical spin of a subhalo decreases with decreasing mass and increasing proximity to the host halo center. We interpret this as the growing influence of tidal stripping in removing the outer layers, and hence the higher angular momentum particles, of the subhaloes as they move within the host potential. Investigating the redshift dependence of this effect, we find that the typical subhalo spin is smaller with decreasing redshift. This indicates a temporal evolution as expected in the tidal stripping scenario.

  3. Matter-antimatter puzzle: LHCb improves resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, Fermilab’s DØ experiment reported a one percent difference in the properties of matter and antimatter in decays of B mesons (that is, particles containing beauty quarks) to muons. Saturday, at the ICHEP Conference in Melbourne, the LHCb experiment at CERN presents new results, which do not confirm this anomaly and are consistent with the Standard Model predictions. The same experiment has also presented the first evidence of asymmetry arising in other decays of the same family of mesons. The image becomes clearer but the puzzle has not yet been solved.   Inside the LHCb detector. The matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe is a very hot topic in physics. The conundrum arises from the fact that, although objects made of antimatter are not observed in the Universe, theory predicts that matter and antimatter be created equally in particle interactions and in the Big Bang. Only small deviations from this very symmetric behaviour are incorporated in the theory. E...

  4. Puzzle of the $\\Lambda_c$ spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    There is a puzzle in the $\\Lambda_c^+$ family, i.e., one member with $J^P=3/2^+$ is missing in a $L=2$ multiplet which the heavy quark effective theory predicts, and $J^P$'s of $\\Lambda_c(2765)^+$ and $\\Lambda_c(2940)^+$ are unknown. Using a light diquark picture to calculate baryon masses, we study possible assignments of two $\\Lambda_c$'s with unknown $J^P$ and the missing $\\Lambda_c^+$ with $3/2^+$ for $L=2$, and we find the most probable possibility that the peak corresponding to $\\Lambda_c(2880)^+$ actually includes a missing member with spin $3/2^+$ for $L=2$ and that quantum numbers of $\\Lambda_c(2765)^+$ and $\\Lambda_c(2940)^+$ are $2S(1/2^+)$ and $2P(1/2^-)$, respectively.

  5. A Common Solution of Two Cosmic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, which was measured with the large area telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite at energy below 820 GeV, and of the diffuse cosmic background of neutrinos, which was observed at much higher energies with the IceCube detector deep under the south pole ice, are among the current unsolved major cosmic puzzles. Here we show that their properties indicate a common origin: the decay of mesons produced in collisions of cosmic rays accelerated in relativistic jets with matter in/near source. Moreover, their properties are those expected if their common source is the highly relativistic jets that produce the long duration gamma ray bursts in core collapse supernovae of type Ic, which take place mostly in the densest regions of giant molecular clouds in star forming galaxies.

  6. The Eco-Efficiency Premium Puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional investment theory suggests that socially responsible investing (SRI) leads to inferior, rather than superior, portfolio performance. Using Innovest's well-established corporate eco-efficiency scores, we provide evidence supporting the contrary. We compose two equity portfolios that differ in ecoefficiency characteristics and find that our high-ranked portfolio provided substantially higher average returns compared to its low-ranked counterpart over the period 1995-2003. Using a wide range of performance attribution techniques to address common methodological concerns, we show that this performance differential cannot be explained by differences in market sensitivity, investment style, or industry-specific components. We finally investigate whether this ecoefficiency premium puzzle withstands the inclusion of transaction costs scenarios, and evaluate how excess returns can be earned in a practical setting via a best-in-class stock selection strategy. The results remain significant under all levels of transactions costs, thus suggesting that the incremental benefits of SRI can be substantial

  7. Reconstructed structures of nanosized co islands on Ag/Ge(111) mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Sung-Lin; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2008-02-01

    Structural evolution of Co/Ag/Ge(111) at high temperatures was studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3-Ag layer between the substrate Ge( 11) and Co adatoms can avoid the formation of Co-Ge compounds below 800 K. The Co atoms nucleate to form islands where mean square root of 13 x mean square root of 13 or 2 x 2 reconstructions were observed after annealing between 373 K and 737 K. The mean square root of 13 x mean square root of 13 structure with mirror symmetry relative to [-211], [11-2], and [1-21] axes was observed for 1-2 layer Co islands. Co islands with over 2 layers appear 2 x 2 structure. All reconstruction structures of the nano-sized Co islands and substrate Ag/Ge(111) mean square root of 3 x mean square root of 3 surface were analyzed using the atomic hard sphere model. The bright protrusions of these reconstructions all sit in the centers of Ag or Ge trimers, which were predicted to have maximum binding energy.

  8. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  9. Teaching the Blue-Eyed Islanders Puzzle in a Liberal Arts Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The blue-eyed islanders puzzle is an old and challenging logic puzzle. This is a narrative of an experience introducing a variation of this puzzle on the first day of classes in a liberal arts mathematics course for non-majors. I describe an exercise that was used to facilitate the class's understanding of the puzzle.

  10. Rapid detection of aggR gene in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli by TaqMan-MGB fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction%TaqMan-MGB荧光定量聚合酶链反应快速检测肠聚集性大肠埃希菌aggR基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹戈; 黄世旺; 李剑; 卢亦愚; 方叶珍; 倪志敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a TaqMan-MGB fluorescence quantitative PCR method for rapid detection of aggR gene in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC).Methods Primers and probes at final concentrations of 0.16,0.24,0.32,0.40,0.48 and 0.56 μmol/L were selected to detemine the optimal concentration by matrix method.According to EAEC aggR gene sequence in GenBank,the primer and TaqManMGB probe were designed in the conserved region,and fluorescence quantitative PCR system and reaction conditions were also optimized.The specificity,sensitivity and reproducibility of this method were verified.Results Primer and probe at final concentrations of 0.48 μmol/L and 0.24 μmol/L respectively were selected for the method obtaining minimum ct value and maximum △Rn value.The optimal annealing temperature for the reaction system was 59.0 ℃.This method was highly specific for EAEC aggR genetic test and had no crossreaction with enteropathogenic E.coli,enterotoxingenic E.coli,enteroinvasive E.coli,enterohaemorrhagic E.coli,E.coli,Y.enterocolitica,S.paratyphi,S.typhimurium,S.flexneri,S.sonnei,L.monocytogenes,P.aeruginosa,P.mirabilis,B.cereus,S.aureus and V.parahaemolyticus.This method had high sensitivity and good reproducibility,with the detection limit of 6.5 ×100 copies/μL (or 13 copies/reaction system).The whole operation took only 2h.Conclusions The TaqMan-MGB fluorescence quantitative PCR assay is a quick,sensitive and specific method for rapid detection of EAEC cases and emergency diagnosis of food poisoning.%目的 建立特异、灵敏、高效的TaqMan-MGB荧光定量PCR方法用于快速检测肠聚集性大肠埃希菌(EAEC)aggR基因.方法 试验选用0.16、0.24、0.32、0.40、0.48和0.56 μmol/L引物和探针终浓度,采用矩阵法优选引物和探针的最佳浓度.根据GenBank上公布的EAEC特异基因aggR序列,在其保守区域设计引物与TaqMan-MGB探针,并对荧光定量PCR体系与反应条件进行优化,同时验证方法的特异度

  11. Latest Zika Puzzle: How U.S. Patient Infected Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159925.html Latest Zika Puzzle: How U.S. Patient Infected Caregiver Officials say ... MONDAY, July 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The mysterious Zika virus continues to surprise health scientists. On Monday, ...

  12. The Calorie Consumption Puzzle in India: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Deepankar; Basole, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, India has witnessed a paradoxical trend: average per capita calorie intake has declined even as real per capita monthly expenditure has increased over time. Since cross sectional evidence suggests a robust positive relationship between the two variables, the trend emerges as a major puzzle. The main explanations that have been offered in the literature to address the puzzle are: rural impoverishment, relative price changes, decline in calorie needs, diversification...

  13. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....

  14. Climate Change: Geophysical Puzzles and Some Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a complex subject, involving many disciplines of geophysics - from geodynamics and meteorology to solar-terrestrial relationships and solar-planetary dynamics. We will discuss a number of scientific puzzles, many still unanswered: · How much of climate change of the past century is anthropogenic and how much is caused by Nature? · How reliable are temperature data of the atmosphere and of the surface, including sea surface? · How reliable are climate models used to calculate future temperatures? · How good is the evidence for solar forcing of climate? · On a decadal time scale, is natural forcing mainly solar or due to internal oscillations? · Can the 1500-year cycle discovered in ice cores explain the Medieval Warming and Little Ice Age? · Why does sea level rise show no acceleration - and how to account for its observed magnitude? -------------------------------------------------------------------- Much of the presentation is based on the NIPCC report "Nature - Not Human Activity - Rules the Climate" http://www.sepp.org/publications/NIPCC_final.pdf

  15. Heavy quarkonium: progress, puzzles, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, N; Heltsley, B K; Vogt, R; Bodwin, G T; Eichten, E; Frawley, A D; Meyer, A B; Mitchell, R E; Papdimitriou, V; Petreczky, P; Petrov, A A; Robbe, P; Vairo, A; Andronic, A; Arnaldi, R; Artoisenet, P; Bali, G; Bertolin, A; Bettoni, D; Brodzicka, J; Bruno, G E; Caldwell, A; Catmore, J; Chang, C -H; Chao, K -T; Chudakov, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, P; Drutskoy, A; Ellwanger, U; Faccioli, P; Gabareen Mokhtar, A; Garcia i Tormo, X; Hanhart, C; Harris, F A; Kaplan, D M; Klein, S R; Kowalski, H; Lansberg, J -P; Levichev, E; Lombardo, V; Loureno, C; Maltoni, F; Mocsy, A; Mussa, R; Navarra, F S; Negrini, M; Nielsen, M; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Peters, K; Polosa, A D; Qian, W; Qiu, J -W; Rong, G; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Scomparin, E; Senger, P; Simon, F; Stracka, S; Sumino, Y; Voloshin, M; Weiss, C; Wohri, H K; Yuan, C -Z

    2011-02-01

    A golden age for heavy quarkonium physics dawned a decade ago, initiated by the confluence of exciting advances in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and an explosion of related experimental activity. The early years of this period were chronicled in the Quarkonium Working Group (QWG) CERN Yellow Report (YR) in 2004, which presented a comprehensive review of the status of the field at that time and provided specific recommendations for further progress. However, the broad spectrum of subsequent breakthroughs, surprises, and continuing puzzles could only be partially anticipated. Since the release of the YR, the BESII program concluded only to give birth to BESIII; the $B$-factories and CLEO-c flourished; quarkonium production and polarization measurements at HERA, JLab, and the Tevatron matured; and heavy-ion collisions at RHIC have opened a window on the deconfinement regime. All these experiments leave legacies of quality, precision, and unsolved mysteries for quarkonium physics, and therefore beg for continuing investigations. The plethora of newly-found quarkonium-like states unleashed a flood of theoretical investigations into new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules, and tetraquarks. Measurements of the spectroscopy, decays, production, and in-medium behavior of c\\bar{c}, b\\bar{b}, and b\\bar{c} bound states have been shown to validate some theoretical approaches to QCD and highlight lack of quantitative success for others. The intriguing details of quarkonium suppression in heavy-ion collisions that have emerged from RHIC have elevated the importance of separating hot- and cold-nuclear-matter effects in quark-gluon plasma studies. This review systematically addresses all these matters and concludes by prioritizing directions for ongoing and future efforts.

  16. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue, that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  17. The B-->pi K Puzzle and Supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Imbeault, Maxime; Baek, Seungwon; London, David

    2008-01-01

    At present, there are discrepancies between the measurements of several observables in B-->pi K decays and the predictions of the standard model (the ``B-->pi K puzzle''). Although the effect is not yet statistically significant -- it is at the level of $\\gsim 3\\sigma$ -- it does hint at the presence of new physics. In this paper, we explore whether supersymmetry (SUSY) can explain the B-->pi K puzzle. In particular, we consider the SUSY model of Grossman, Neubert and Kagan (GNK). We find tha...

  18. Convex Configurations on Nana-kin-san Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Horiyama, Takashi; Uehara, Ryuhei; Hosoya, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a silhouette puzzle that is recently developed based on the golden ratio. Traditional silhouette puzzles are based on a simple tile. For example, the tangram is based on isosceles right triangles; that is, each of seven pieces is formed by gluing some identical isosceles right triangles. Using the property, we can analyze it by hand, that is, without computer. On the other hand, if each piece has no special property, it is quite hard even using computer since we have to handle ...

  19. The Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates: How to Solve the Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Recent empirical research on the effects of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate fluctuations have encountered the exchange rate puzzle and th e forward discount bias puzzle.The exchange rate puzzle is the tendency of the domestic currency (of non-US G-7 countries) to depreciate against the US dollar following domestic monetary tightening.Forward discount bias puzzle is the failure of empirical research to find results consistent with the requirement that if uncovered interest parity holds...

  20. Teaching Proofs and Algorithms in Discrete Mathematics with Online Visual Logic Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigas, John; Hsin, Wen-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Visual logic puzzles provide a fertile environment for teaching multiple topics in discrete mathematics. Many puzzles can be solved by the repeated application of a small, finite set of strategies. Explicitly reasoning from a strategy to a new puzzle state illustrates theorems, proofs, and logic principles. These provide valuable, concrete…

  1. Baron Munchhausen Redeems Himself: Bounds for a Coin-Weighing Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanova, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a coin-weighing puzzle that appeared in the Moscow Math Olympiad in 1991. We generalize the puzzle by varying the number of participating coins, and deduce an upper bound on the number of weighings needed to solve the puzzle that is noticeably better than the trivial upper bound. In particular, we show that logarithmically-many weighings on a balance suffice.

  2. The Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates : How to Solve the Puzzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Recent empirical research on the effects of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate fluctuations have encountered the exchange rate puzzle and th e forward discount bias puzzle.The exchange rate puzzle is the tendency of the domestic currency (of non-US G-7 countries) to depreciate against the US do

  3. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle: Imperfect Knowledge and Long Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    the "purchasing power parity puzzle." In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis." We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  4. Doing well and doing good: a multi-dimensional puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Forget, Vanina,

    2012-01-01

    Socially responsible firms are expected by European regulators to create shared value for their shareholders, their stakeholders and society. Yet how to generate profits while providing public good is still academically debated. This paper argues that corporate social responsibility encompasses many diversified policies with variant effects on profitability. Which policy most matters economically? As theoretical guidance lacks, this multidimensional puzzle typically encounters model uncertain...

  5. Unraveling "Braid": Puzzle Games and Storytelling in the Imperative Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Luke

    2012-01-01

    "Unraveling Braid" analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow's 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec's 1978 novel "Life A User's Manual," as well as…

  6. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  7. Ambiguity Aversion and Household Portfolio Choice Puzzles: Empirical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWe test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambig

  8. Games and puzzles for English as a second language

    CERN Document Server

    Fremont, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Students can hone their verbal and grammatical skills with this entertaining workbook. Search-a-words, crossword puzzles, anagrams, and other challenges build vocabulary and spelling skills. They also help students understand and identify idioms, irregular past tenses and participles, and other linguistic stumbling blocks. Perfect for individual study or as a course supplement.

  9. On the puzzling distribution of cholesterol in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, H; Schick, M

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of cholesterol between the two leaves of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells presents a conundrum; given cholesterol's known affinity for sphingomyelin, which resides predominantly in the exoplasmic leaf, why is it that experiment finds a majority of the cholesterol in the cytoplasmic leaf? This article reviews a recently proposed solution to this puzzle. PMID:26724709

  10. Tangram Puzzles: Focus on Search Terms, Descriptors, and Subject Headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes the history of tangrams and their use as mathematical puzzles and explains how they can be adapted for library media specialists to use for developing subject headings on a particular topic. An example is given; and 28 resources on tangrams are listed, including books, nonprint materials, and addresses. (LRW)

  11. Update On the Puzzling Boyajian's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Photometric time series for a neighboring star thats 25 NNW of Boyajians Star. No significant long-term dimming is seen which constrains the size of potential material obscuring Boyajians Star. [Wright et al. 2016/Benjamin Montet]Whats causing the mysterious light-curve dips of the so-called alien megastructure star, Boyajians Star? A recent study analyzes a variety of possible explanations to determine which ones are the most plausible.An Unusual Light CurveEarlier this year, astronomer Tabetha Boyajian reported on the unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852. This star, now nicknamed Tabbys Star or Boyajians Star, showsunusual dips on day-long timescales that are too large to be explained by planet transits or similar phenomena.In addition to these short dips in luminosity, recent observations have also indicated that the star has faded by roughly 20% over the past hundred years. What could be causing both the short-term dips in the stars light and the long-term dimming over a century?Could the dimming be caused by an alien megastructure built by an extraterrestrial civilization? The authors find that a spherical structure is very unlikely. [Danielle Futselaar/SETI International]Alien Megastructures? Or Another Explanation?Boyajians Star was vaulted into the media spotlight when astronomer Jason Wright (Pennsylvania State University and University of California, Berkeley) proposed that its unusual light curve could potentially be explained by a surrounding megastructure built by an extraterrestrial civilization.Now Wright is back with co-author Steinn Sigurdsson (Pennsylvania State University). In a new study, Wright and Sigurdsson analyze an extensive list of explanations for the puzzling apparent behavior of Boyajians Star, based on our latest knowledge about this strange object.The Realm of PossibilitiesHere are just a few possible causes of Boyajians Stars dimming, as well as the authors assessment of their plausibility. For the full list, see the authors

  12. Laser Spectroscopy of Muonic Hydrogen and the Puzzling Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Randolf

    2016-09-01

    Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen atoms, μp, has revealed a proton root-mean-square (rms) charge radius rE that is an order of magnitude more accurate than the CODATA world average from elastic electron-proton scattering and precision spectroscopy of regular (electronic) hydrogen. Interestingly, though, the value of rE from μp is 4%, or 7 combined standard deviations smaller than the CODATA value of rE. This discrepancy has been coined "proton radius puzzle". We summarize the experiment and give a brief overview of the theory in muonic hydrogen. Finally we discuss some possible scenarios for the resolution of the "proton radius puzzle".

  13. Validation of Italian rebus puzzles and compound remote associate problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Costantini, Giulio; Bricolo, Emanuela; Perugini, Marco; Beeman, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Rebus puzzles and compound remote associate problems have been successfully used to study problem solving. These problems are physically compact, often can be solved within short time limits, and have unambiguous solutions, and English versions have been normed for solving rates and levels of difficulty. Many studies on problem solving with sudden insight have taken advantage of these features in paradigms that require many quick solutions (e.g., solution priming, visual hemifield presentations, electroencephalography, fMRI, and eyetracking). In order to promote this vein of research in Italy, as well, we created and tested Italian versions of both of these tests. The data collected across three studies yielded a pool of 88 rebus puzzles and 122 compound remote associate problems within a moderate range of difficulty. This article provides both sets of problems with their normative data, for use in future research. PMID:26148823

  14. Four small puzzles that Rosetta doesn't solve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiju Das

    Full Text Available A complete macromolecule modeling package must be able to solve the simplest structure prediction problems. Despite recent successes in high resolution structure modeling and design, the Rosetta software suite fares poorly on small protein and RNA puzzles, some as small as four residues. To illustrate these problems, this manuscript presents Rosetta results for four well-defined test cases: the 20-residue mini-protein Trp cage, an even smaller disulfide-stabilized conotoxin, the reactive loop of a serine protease inhibitor, and a UUCG RNA tetraloop. In contrast to previous Rosetta studies, several lines of evidence indicate that conformational sampling is not the major bottleneck in modeling these small systems. Instead, approximations and omissions in the Rosetta all-atom energy function currently preclude discriminating experimentally observed conformations from de novo models at atomic resolution. These molecular "puzzles" should serve as useful model systems for developers wishing to make foundational improvements to this powerful modeling suite.

  15. The Monotonicity Puzzle: An Experimental Investigation of Incentive Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Brosig

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-monotone incentive structures, which - according to theory - are able to induce optimal behavior, are often regarded as empirically less relevant for labor relationships. We compare the performance of a theoretically optimal non-monotone contract with a monotone one under controlled laboratory conditions. Implementing some features relevant to real-world employment relationships, our paper demonstrates that, in fact, the frequency of income-maximizing decisions made by agents is higher under the monotone contract. Although this observed behavior does not change the superiority of the non-monotone contract for principals, they do not choose this contract type in a significant way. This is what we call the monotonicity puzzle. Detailed investigations of decisions provide a clue for solving the puzzle and a possible explanation for the popularity of monotone contracts.

  16. The unemployment volatility puzzle: the role of the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Relying on the non-negligible role played by the underground economy in the labour market fluctuations, this paper extends the standard matching model à la Mortensen-Pissarides by introducing an underground sector along with an endogenous sector choice for both entrepreneurs and workers. These modifications improve the quantitative properties of the standard matching model, thus providing a possible explanation for the unemployment volatility puzzle.

  17. Early Puzzle Play: A predictor of preschoolers’ spatial transformation skill

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, S.C.; Ratliff, K.R.; Huttenlocher, J.; J. Cannon

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examines the relation between children’s early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 minutes every four months (six times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involvin...

  18. The debasement puzzle: an essay on medieval monetary history

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur J. Rolnick; Velde, Francois R.; Warren E. Weber

    1997-01-01

    This study establishes several facts about medieval monetary debasements: they were followed by unusually large minting volumes and by increased seigniorage; old and new coins circulated concurrently; and, at least some of the time, coins were valued by weight. These facts constitute a puzzle because debasements provide no additional inducements to bring coins to the mint. On theoretical and empirical grounds, the authors reject explanations based on by-tale circulation, nominal contracts, an...

  19. Aggregation is not the solution: The PPP puzzle strikes back

    OpenAIRE

    Gadea, Maria Dolores; Mayoral, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Imbs, Mumtaz, Ravn and Rey (2005, hereinafter IMRR) have argued that much of the purchasing power parity (PPP) puzzle is due to upwardly biased estimates of persistence. According to them, the source of the bias is the existence of heterogeneous price adjustment dynamics at the sectoral level that established time series or panel data methods fail to control for. This paper re-examines this claim in two steps. Firstly, we demonstrate that IMRR's measures of sectoral persistence are ...

  20. May Heavy neutrinos solve underground and cosmic ray puzzles?

    OpenAIRE

    Belotsky, K.; Fargion, D.; Khlopov, M.; Konoplich, R. V.

    2004-01-01

    Primordial Heavy neutrinos of 4th generation might explain different astrophysical puzzles: indeed the simplest 4th neutrino scenario may be still consistent with known 4th neutrino physics, cosmic ray anti-matter and gamma fluxes and signals in underground detectors for a very narrow neutrino mass windows (46-47 GeV). We have analyzed extended Heavy neutrino models related to the clumpiness of neutrino density, new interactions in Heavy neutrino annihilation, neutrino asymmetry, neutrino dec...

  1. Is There Still a B -> pi K Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seungwon; London, David

    2007-01-01

    We perform a fit to the 2006 B -> pi K data and show that there is a disagreement with the standard model. That is, the B -> pi K puzzle is still present. In fact, it has gotten worse than in earlier years. Assuming that one new-physics (NP) operator dominates, we show that a good fit is obtained only when the electroweak penguin amplitude is modified. The NP amplitude must be sizeable, with a large weak phase.

  2. Free Cash Flow, Signaling and the Dividend Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Alan V. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    The work in this paper contributes to two of the most topical issues in the study of corporate financial policy: Free Cash Flow theory and the Dividend providing a new explanation for the dividend puzzle. It is argued that two types of asymmetric information problems are inherent in the relationship between shareholders (as principles) and managers (as the shareholders' agents), and therefore the payment scheme between them will be designed to mitigate these problems. The conflict of interest...

  3. (Un)Expected Retirement and the Consumption Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita Borella; Flavia Coda Moscarola; Mariacristina Rossi

    2011-01-01

    In this work we revisit the retirement consumption puzzle using Italian panel data. As emphasized in the literature, the observed consumption drop might be due to unexpected wealth shocks at retirement, which modify optimal consumption plans. Using an Euler equation approach, we test the impact of unexpected retirement on the consumption patterns of individuals around the age of retirement by using the panel component of the Survey of Household Income and Wealth (SHIW). This data set contains...

  4. The New Information Age & the Stock Market Growth Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Manoj; Kamat, Manasvi

    2007-01-01

    The New Information Age & the Stock Market Growth Puzzle Mr. Manoj Subhash Kamat* Mrs. Manasvi Manoj Kamat** Abstract We investigate the nexus between developments in financial intermediation with the growth in capital market activity and implications for the retail investors in India, over the post-liberalization period ranging 1993-2004. The estimations using unrestricted VAR based on error correction models, both in the short term and the long term models illustrate the shor...

  5. Thermal diffusion: An unsolved puzzle in Soft Matter Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Thermal diffusion: an unsolved puzzle in Soft Matter PhysicsSimone WiegandResearch Center Juelich, ICS – Soft condensed matter, D-52425 Juelich, GermanyE-mail: turns out that a simple non-equilibrium environment created by a temperature gradient can be used to monitor the reaction kinetics of large proteins with small substrate molecules. This is probably caused by a change in the hydration layer of the protein which is influenced by subtle conformations changes indu...

  6. Puzzles, paradoxes, and problem solving an introduction to mathematical thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Reba, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Graphs: Puzzles and Optimization Graphical Representation and Search Greedy Algorithms and Dynamic Programming Shortest Paths, DNA Sequences, and GPS Systems Routing Problems and Optimal Circuits Traveling Salesmen and Optimal Orderings Vertex Colorings and Edge Matchings Logic: Rational Inference and Computer Circuits Inductive and Deductive Arguments Deductive Arguments and Truth-Tables Deductive Arguments and Derivations Deductive Logic and Equivalence Modeling Using Deductive Logic Probability: Predictions and Expectations Probability and Counting Counting and Unordered Outcomes Independen

  7. Particle Filter with State Permutations for Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingwei; Adluru, Nagesh; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2016-01-01

    We deal with an image jigsaw puzzle problem, which is defined as reconstructing an image from a set of square and non-overlapping image patches. It is known that a general instance of this problem is NP-complete, and it is also challenging for humans, since in the considered setting the original image is not given. Recently a graphical model has been proposed to solve this and related problems. The target label probability function is then maximized using loopy belief propagation. We also formulate the problem as maximizing a label probability function and use exactly the same pairwise potentials. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach in the sampling framework of Particle Filter (PF). Usually in the PF framework it is assumed that the observations arrive sequentially, e.g., the observations are naturally ordered by their time stamps in the tracking scenario. Based on this assumption, the posterior density over the corresponding hidden states is estimated. In the jigsaw puzzle problem all observations (puzzle pieces) are given at once without any particular order. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations and extend the PF framework to estimate the posterior density by exploring different orders of observations and selecting the most informative permutations of observations. This significantly broadens the scope of applications of the PF inference. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms the loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, the extended PF inference triples the accuracy of the label assignment compared to that using loopy belief propagation.

  8. PUZZLES – A CREATIVE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF LOGICAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milková, Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Logical thinking of students should be enhanced at all levels of their studies. There are many possibilities how to achieve it. In the paper one possible way within the subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization” dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be presented. These mathematical disciplines are powerful tools for teachers allowing them to develop logical thinking of students, increase their imagination and make them familiar with solutions to various problems. Thanks the knowledge gained within the subjects students should be able to describe various practical situations with the aid of graphs, solve the given problem expressed by the graph, and translate the solution back into the initial situation. Student engagement is crucial for successful education. Practical tasks and puzzles attract students to know more about the explained subject matter and to apply gained knowledge. There are an endless number of enjoyable tasks, puzzles and logic problems in books like “Mathematics is Fun”, in riddles magazines and on the Internet. In the paper, as an inspiration, four puzzles developing logical thinking appropriate to be solved using graph theory and combinatorial optimization will be introduced. On these puzzles of different level of difficulty the students’ ability to find out the appropriate graph-representation of the given task and solve it will be discussed as well. The author of the paper has been prepared with her students various multimedia applications dealing with objects appropriate to subject matter for more than 15 years. In the paper we also discuss a benefit of multimedia applications used as a support of subjects “Discrete Mathematics” and “Discrete Methods and Optimization”.

  9. The Feldstein-Horioka puzzle and transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreska Despina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the existence of the Feldstein and Horioka puzzle in transition countries, divided into three groups of countries: South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. Central to this puzzle is the β coefficient, which measures the relationship between domestic savings and investment. In their seminal paper from 1980 Feldstein and Horioka estimated a value of the β coefficient close to 1, which in their opinion indicates low capital mobility as opposed to the theory and the conventional wisdom of perfect capital mobility. We use annual data for the period 1991-2010 and panel cointegration econometric technique to examine this relationship in three panels of countries (SEE, CEE, and CIS. We find that the puzzle of Feldstein and Horioka exists in all three panels, but the connection between savings and investment is generally lower than 1. As we move towards a panel composed of the larger and richer countries the value of the β coefficient increases. Moreover, the coefficient of adjustment of the disequilibrium between domestic savings and investment is positive in all cases, indicating that any imbalance between savings and investment is not corrected immediately.

  10. Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, David Michael

    2010-07-14

    The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B {yields} K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)

  11. Solving some financial puzzles with prospect theory and mental accounting : a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Hélène Broihanne; Maxime Merli; Patrick Roger

    2008-01-01

    Many financial puzzles have been solved, at least partially, by the introduction of alternative assumptions on the behaviour of investors. Cumulative prospect theory and mental accounting are two such approaches which are used in this paper to analyze some of the most important financial puzzles. We first focus our attention on two anomalies (or considered as such in the standard expected utility model) at the individual level, the disposition effect and the low diversification puzzle. We the...

  12. The Convex Configurations of "Sei Shonagon Chie no Ita" and Other Dissection Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Fox-Epstein, Eli; Uehara, Ryuhei

    2014-01-01

    The tangram and Sei Shonagon Chie no Ita are popular dissection puzzles consisting of seven pieces. Each puzzle can be formed by identifying edges from sixteen identical right isosceles triangles. It is known that the tangram can form 13 convex polygons. We show that Sei Shonagon Chie no Ita can form 16 convex polygons, propose a new puzzle that can form 19, no 7 piece puzzle can form 20, and 11 pieces are necessary and sufficient to form all 20 polygons formable by 16 identical isosceles rig...

  13. ysteries, Puzzles, and Paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo, B. [Department of Physics, University of Milan, (Italy)

    1999-02-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Mysteries, Puzzles, and Paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics Workshop held in Italy, in August 1998. The Workshop was devoted to recent experimental and theoretical advances such as new interference, effects, the quantum eraser, non{minus}disturbing and Schroedinger{minus}cat{minus}like states, experiments, EPR correlations, teleportation, superluminal effects, quantum information and computing, locality and causality, decoherence and measurement theory. Tachyonic information transfer was also discussed. There were 45 papers presented at the conference,out of which 2 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  14. Anisotropic hydrodynamics and the early-thermalization puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is used in 3+1 dimensions to analyze behavior of matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The model predictions for the hadronic transverse-momentum spectra, directed and elliptic flows, and the HBT radii are presented. We show that the effects of the initial anisotropy of pressure may be compensated by appropriate adjustment of the initial energy density. In this way, the final hadronic observables become insensitive to the early stage dynamics and the early thermalization puzzle may be circumvented.

  15. Solving the « Selective Intervention Puzzle »: Some Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Garrouste

    2010-01-01

    In his 1937 paper Coase addresses two problems. The first deals with the nature of the firm and is solved by assuming the existence of transaction costs. Without such costs the market is always the best coordination device. The second is: « why is not all production carried on in one big firm? » (Coase, 1937, p. 340)? This version of the selective intervention puzzle (Williamson, 1995, p. 231) is solved by Coase by comparing, as rightly written by Crémer, the internal and external marginal tr...

  16. The puzzling resilience of transnational organized criminal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuprecht, Christian; Aulthouse, Andrew; Walther, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Why is transnational organized crime so difficult to dismantle? While organized crime networks within states have received some attention, actual transnational operations have not. In this article, we study the transnational drug and gun trafficking operations of the Shower Posse, a violent...... international organized crime syndicate based in Jamaica, whose resilience proves particularly puzzling. We were curious to know whether there is any evidence that international borders have an effect on the structure of illicit networks that cross them. It turns out that transnational drug distribution...

  17. Solving Solar Neutrino Puzzle via LMA MSW Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the existing solar neutrino experiment data and show the allowed regions. The result from SNO's salt phase itself restricts quite a lot the allowed region's area. Reactor neutrinos play an important role in determining oscillation parameters. KamLAND gives decisive conclusion on the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle, in particular, the spectral distortion in the 766.3 Ty KamLAND data gives another new improvement in the constraint of solar MSW-LMA solutions. We confirm that at 99. 73% C.L. the high-LMA solution is excluded.

  18. The Puzzle of Non-proliferation and Disarmament (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since, in 1945, the World was aware of the devastating power of nuclear weapons there have been many initiatives at international level to avoid nuclear weapon proliferation: the foundation of the IAEA, the NPT, the Safeguards Agreements, the Nuclear Weapon Free Zones, the treaties banning nuclear tests or the export control regime of the NSG, among others. This article aims to offer a general picture of all of them as pieces of a puzzle the purpose of which is not to allow gaps to non pacific uses of nuclear energy. (Author)

  19. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  20. Using the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle to Infuse Your Mathematics Classroom with Computer Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…

  1. The Connect-The-Dots Family of Puzzles: Design and Automatic Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, Maarten; Kaiser, Mira; van Kapel, Tim; Klappe, Gerwin; van Kreveld, Marc; Staals, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce several innovative variants on the classic Connect-The-Dots puzzle. We study the underlying geometric principles and investigate methods for the automatic generation of high-quality puzzles from line drawings. Specifically, we introduce three new variants of the classic Co

  2. Two-Dimensional Parson's Puzzles: The Concept, Tools, and First Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola, Petri; Karavirta, Ville

    2011-01-01

    Parson's programming puzzles are a family of code construction assignments where lines of code are given, and the task is to form the solution by sorting and possibly selecting the correct code lines. We introduce a novel family of Parson's puzzles where the lines of code need to be sorted in two dimensions. The vertical dimension is used to order…

  3. Three- and Four-Year-Olds Completing 150-Piece Puzzles? Impossible!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Marlene

    1999-01-01

    Documented strategies preschool children used in completing complex, multipiece puzzles, which included focus on color, design, or shape. Found that all children could benefit and enjoy working on larger puzzles in the classroom and that the activity encouraged social literacy, completing a long-term project, scaffolding, and child development.…

  4. The King and Prisoner Puzzle: A Way of Introducing the Components of Logical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyeong Hah; Lee, Yong Hah; Tanner, Austin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide issues related to student understanding of logical components that arise when solving word problems. We designed a logic problem called the King and Prisoner Puzzle--a linguistically simple, yet logically challenging problem. In this paper, we describe various student solutions to the puzzle and discuss the…

  5. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  6. Strategies and Correlates of Jigsaw Puzzle and Visuospatial Performance by Persons with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N.; Troseth, Georgene L.; Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome exhibit strengths in solving jigsaw puzzles. We compared visuospatial ability and jigsaw puzzle performance and strategies of 26 persons with Prader-Willi syndrome and 26 MA-matched typically developing controls. Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome relied on piece shape. Those in the control group…

  7. The puzzle-feeder as feeding enrichment for common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, C; Vitale, A; Puopolo, M

    2003-04-01

    The use of a puzzle-feeder, as feeding enrichment, was investigated in three families of captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The study was carried out as a simultaneous choice test between two cages: one contained the puzzle-feeder, the other contained the usual food dishes, but otherwise both were arranged similarly. The monkeys were allowed to choose whether to feed from the usual dishes, or from the puzzle-feeder which required more effort. They were observed for two sessions in which they were differently motivated to feed. The enriched cage was always visited first, the marmosets managed to extract food from the puzzle-feeder, and spent more time eating from the puzzle-feeder when less hungry. These data contribute to a wider understanding on the use, and the effects, of feeding enrichments with different captive non-human primates. PMID:12689420

  8. An Empirical Evaluation of Puzzle-Based Learning as an Interest Approach for Teaching Introductory Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence describes an adaptation of puzzle-based learning to teaching an introductory computer programming course. Students from two offerings of the course--with and without the puzzle-based learning--were surveyed over a two-year period. Empirical results show that the synthesis of puzzle-based learning concepts with existing course…

  9. 200 more puzzling physics problems with hints and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gnädig, Péter; Vigh, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Like its predecessor, 200 Puzzling Physics Problems, this book is aimed at strengthening students' grasp of the laws of physics by applying them to situations that are practical, and to problems that yield more easily to intuitive insight than to brute-force methods and complex mathematics. The problems are chosen almost exclusively from classical, non-quantum physics, but are no easier for that. They are intriguingly posed in accessible non-technical language, and require readers to select an appropriate analysis framework and decide which branches of physics are involved. The general level of sophistication needed is that of the exceptional school student, the good undergraduate, or the competent graduate student; some physics professors may find some of the more difficult questions challenging. By contrast, the mathematical demands are relatively minimal, and seldom go beyond elementary calculus. This further book of physics problems is not only instructive and challenging, but also enjoyable.

  10. A Possible Resolution of the Strange Quark Polarization Puzzle ?

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2011-01-01

    We propose a possible resolution of the strange quark polarization puzzle i.e. of the contradiction between the negative polarized strange quark density obtained from analyses of inclusive DIS data and the positive values obtained from combined analyses of inclusive and semi-inclusive SIDIS data using de Florian et. al. (DSS) fragmentation functions. To this end the results of a new combined NLO QCD analysis of the polarized inclusive and semi-inclusive DIS data, using the Hirai et. al. (HKNS) fragmentation functions, are presented. It is demonstrated that the polarized strange quark density is very sensitive to the kaon fragmentation functions, and if the set of HKNS fragmentation functions is used, the polarized strange quark density from the combined analysis turns out to be negative and well consistent with values obtained from the pure DIS analyses.

  11. Interfacial depinning transitions in disordered media: revisiting an old puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interfaces advancing through random media represent a number of different problems in physics, biology and other disciplines. Here, we study the pinning/depinning transition of the prototypical non-equilibrium interfacial model, i.e. the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation, advancing in a disordered medium. We will separately analyze the cases of positive and negative non-linearity coefficients, which are believed to exhibit qualitatively different behavior: the positive case shows a continuous transition that can be related to directed-percolation-depinning, while in the negative case there is a discontinuous transition and faceted interfaces appear. Some studies have argued from different perspectives that both cases share the same universal behavior. By using a number of computational and scaling techniques we will shed light on this puzzling situation and conclude that the two cases are intrinsically different. (paper)

  12. The B-CP Puzzles in QCD Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hai-Yang

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of QCD factorization (QCDF), power corrections due to penguin annihilation can account for theobserved rates of penguin-dominated two-body decays of $B$ mesons and direct CP asymmetries $A_{CP}(K^-\\pi^+)$, $A_{CP}((K^{*-}\\pi^+)$, $A_{CP}((K^-\\rho^0)$ and $A_{CP}((\\pi^+\\pi^-)$. However, the predicted direct CP-violating effects in QCDF for $B^-\\to K^-\\pi^0,K^-\\eta,\\pi^-\\eta$ and $\\bar B^0\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ are wrong in signs when confronted with experiment. We consider two different types of power correction effects in order to resolve the CP puzzles and rate deficit problems with penguin-dominated two-body decays of $B$ mesons and color-suppressed tree-dominated $\\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $\\rho^0\\pi^0$ modes: penguin annihilation and soft corrections to the color-suppressed tree amplitude.

  13. Induced Hyperon-Nucleon-Nucleon Interactions and the Hyperon Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Roland

    2016-01-01

    We present the first ab initio calculations for $p$-shell hypernuclei including hyperon-nucleon-nucleon (YNN) contributions induced by a Similarity Renormalization Group transformation of the initial hyperon-nucleon interaction. The transformation including the YNN terms conserves the spectrum of the Hamiltonian while drastically improving model-space convergence of the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model, allowing a precise extraction of binding and excitation energies. Results using a hyperon-nucleon interaction at leading order in chiral effective field theory for lower- to mid-$p$-shell hypernuclei show a good reproduction of experimental excitation energies while hyperon binding energies are typically overestimated. The induced YNN contributions are strongly repulsive and we show that they are related to a decoupling of the $\\Sigma$ hyperons from the hypernuclear system, i.e., a suppression of the $\\Lambda$-$\\Sigma$ conversion terms in the Hamiltonian. This is linked to the so-called hyperon puzzle ...

  14. A Jigsaw Puzzle Layer Cake of Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE; http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu) is a European Union (EU) directive that aims to provide a legal framework to share environmental spatial data among public sector organizations across Europe and to facilitate public access to data. To meet these goals, INSPIRE's organization is analogous to a layer cake in which each layer is composed of interlocking pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. The metaphor, although mixed, is apt (see additional supporting information in the online version of this article), and as researchers outside the program, we offer our perspective on how INSPIRE may address challenges raised by the variety of data themes and the wide coverage of collaborators.

  15. Dark Atoms and Puzzles of Dark Matter Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, M Yu

    2014-01-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the Universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro world and particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are the lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter candidates can appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, if they are hidden in elusive "dark atoms". Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms", maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches.

  16. Puzzling positron peaks in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of positron creation in collisions of very heavy ions are depicted. First continuum solutions of the two-centre Dirac equation are presented. Calculated e+-production probabilities are compared with experimental data. The observation of puzzling peak structures in positron spectra is illuminated. Their relationship with the spontaneous positron emission in overcritical fields and, especially, with the hypothesis of a ''new particle creation'' is investigated. The ability of δ-electrons and positrons to carry precise informations on the time-scale of nuclear reactions in deep-inelastic and intermediate-energy collisions is demonstrated. As an outlook we discuss positron production in crossed beams of bare uranium nuclei. (orig.)

  17. The puzzling reliability of the Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Rosenfield, Steven; Dedic, Helena; Dahan, Ariel; Reshef, Orad

    2011-09-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has influenced the development of many research-based pedagogies. However, no data exists on the FCI's internal consistency or test-retest reliability. The FCI was administered twice to one hundred students during the first week of classes in an electricity and magnetism course with no review of mechanics between test administrations. High Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient values, which estimate the average correlation of scores obtained on all possible halves of the test, suggest strong internal consistency. However, 31% of the responses changed from test to retest, suggesting weak reliability for individual questions. A chi-square analysis shows that change in responses was neither consistent nor completely random. The puzzling conclusion is that although individual FCI responses are not reliable, the FCI total score is highly reliable.

  18. New analysis concerning the strange quark polarization puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2014-01-01

    The fact that analyses of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering suggest that the strange quark polarization $\\Delta s(x) + \\Delta \\bar{s}(x)$ is positive in the measured region of Bjorken x, whereas all analyses of inclusive deep inelastic scattering yield significantly negative values of this quantity, is known as the "strange quark polarization puzzle". We have re-analysed the world data on inclusive deep inelastic scattering, including the COMPASS 2010 proton data on the spin asymmetries, and for the first time, the new extremely precise JLab CLAS data on the proton and deuteron spin structure functions. Despite allowing, in our parametrization, for a possible sign change, our results confirm that the inclusive data yield significantly negative values for the strange quark polarization.

  19. Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Hydrogen and the Proton Size Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udem, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Precise determination of transition frequencies of simple atomic systems are required for a number of fundamental applications such as tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the determination of fundamental constants and nuclear charge radii. The sharpest transition in atomic hydrogen occurs between the metastable 2S state and the 1S ground state. Its transition frequency has now been measured with almost 15 digits accuracy using an optical frequency comb and a cesium atomic clock as a reference. A recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen is in significant contradiction to the hydrogen data if QED calculations are assumed to be correct. We hope to contribute to the resolution of this so called `proton size puzzle' by providing additional experimental input from the hydrogen side.

  20. The Jigsaw Puzzle of Digital Preservation — an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sierman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Before the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Foundation CENL, Zagreb, September 24–27, 2008, the author presented a clear overview of the latest developments in digital preservation in a European context. She dealt with organisational aspects, the digital objects themselves, and the effects of international European collaboration. She calls on European organisations such as the Alliance for Permanent Access to sustain the results of temporary projects like PLANETS and thereby bring the pieces of the digital preservation puzzle together. This paper is being published in preparation of the workshop on Curating Research: e-Merging New Roles and Responsibilities in the European Landscape, which is being co-organised by LIBER on 17 April 2009 at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague.

  1. Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Thilagam, A

    2013-01-01

    In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies (> 95 %) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. Such high exciton propagation rates within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observation of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes, even in noisy environmental baths. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to unlocking the links between quantum processes and information protocols, in the hope of finding answers...

  2. The Past, puzzles, and promise of 6-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Marolf, D

    2001-01-01

    The fact that both the D6-brane and the orientifold 6-plane have smooth, horizon-free descriptions in M-theory makes them especially useful in understanding certain aspects of brane physics. We briefly review how this connection has been used to understand a number of effects, several of which are associated with the Hanany-Witten transition. One particular outcome is a "confinement mod 2" effect for zero-branes in the background of a single D8-brane. We also discuss an interesting puzzle associated with flux-expulsion from D6-branes in this context. Finally, we discuss the promise of using a similar M-theoretic description of the orientifold 6-plane to understand the consistency of stringy negative energy objects with the 2nd law of black hole thermodynamics.

  3. 'Super' Japanese site gears up to sole neutrino puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos in 1930 to explain some puzzling features of the radioactive decay of certain atoms, expermentalists have labored hard to detect enough of the elusive particles to determine their properties. It took 26 years to prove that Pauli's particle even exits-a feat for which Frederick Reines of the University of California (UC), Irvine, won the Nobel Prize last month. Soon, however, physicists will be capturing neutrinos in unprecedented numbers in a 50,000-metric-ton tank that will fill with water starting next month. Researchers hope that this colossal waterbath will yield an answer to one of the most pressing questions is cosmology and high-energy physics: Do neutrinos have mass?The $100 million experiment, called Super-Kamiokande, in located in a lead mine west of Tokyo. This article describes the work to be conducted

  4. Diagnosing the Cause of Scientific Standstill, Unravelling the Needham Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎秋; 刘春江

    2007-01-01

    There are diverse opinions about how to solve the Needham Puzzle. Such opinions or schools of thought can be roughly classified into three theories of a) geographical conditions, b) empirical trial and error, and c) private property rights. Although each school of thought makes sense, they all fail to fully uncover the main reason why, in modern history, China lagged behind western countries in the development of science and technology. In our opinion, the correct solution is to draw on historical experiences, integrate all schools of thought, proceed with an emphasis on the definition and protection of property rights, boost government investment in basic scientific research, strengthen government service functionality, actively develop NGOs, and open more widely to the outside world, with a view of pushing forward China’s scientific and technological innovation and accelerating the pace of China’s modernization.

  5. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoble Abhijeet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9 received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6 received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97. The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67. The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15 was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22 for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15 at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  6. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of $2\\,$M$_\\odot$ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transit...

  7. Equity-premium puzzle: evidence from Brazilian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Penha Cysne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses 1992:1-2004:2 quarterly data and two different methods (approximation under lognormality and calibration to evaluate the existence of an equity-premium puzzle in Brazil. In contrast with some previous works in the Brazilian literature, I conclude that the model used by Mehra and Prescott (1985, either with additive or recursive preferences, is not able to satisfactorily rationalize the equity premium observed in the Brazilian data. The second contribution of the paper is calling the attention to the fact that the utility function calculated under the discrete-state approximation may not exist if the data (as it is the case with Brazilian time series implies the existence of states in which high negative rates of consumption growth are attained with relatively high probability. This fact is particularly important when the researcher tries to work with high risk-aversion parameters in order to generate high risk premia.Este trabalho usa dados brasileiros do período 1992:1-2004:2 e dois diferentes métodos (aproximação sob a hipótese de lognormalidade e calibração para avaliar a existência de um "equity-premium puzzle" no Brasil. Em contraste com alguns trabalhos prévios da literatura nacional, conclui-se que o modelo usado por Mehra and Prescott (1985, seja com preferências aditivas ou recursivas, não é capaz de gerar o prêmio de risco observado na economia brasileira. A segunda contribuição do trabalho é chamar a atenção para o fato de que a função utilidade calculada sob a hipótese de aproximação discreta do espaço de estados pode não existir se os dados (como é o caso no Brasil implicarem a existência de estados nos quais taxas altamente negativas de crescimento do consumo são alcançadas com probabilidade demasiado elevadas. Este fato é particularmente importante quando se tenta utilizar parâmetros de aversão ao risco altos o suficiente para gerar o prêmio de risco inerente ao caso brasileiro.

  8. Reading, Writing, and Language: Young Children Solving the Written Language Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    1982-01-01

    Reviews literature defining the characteristics of the complex puzzle children encounter moving from oral language to print. Illustrates that, by reading their own writing, children discover the precise connection between reading, writing, and language. (HTH)

  9. Fibromyalgia: A Puzzling and Painful Condition | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia: A Puzzling and Painful Condition Past Issues / Spring ... or internal organs. Wise Choices: Feeling Better with Fibromyalgia Get enough sleep. Getting the right kind of ...

  10. NICHD Research Networks Help Piece Together the Puzzle of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donating to the NICHD Staff Directory NICHD research networks help piece together the puzzle of polycystic ovary ... identified by researchers in an NICHD-supported research network, the Specialized Cooperative Centers Program in Reproduction and ...

  11. Satisfiability Parsimoniously Reduces to the Tantrix(TM) Rotation Puzzle Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Dorothea

    2007-01-01

    Holzer and Holzer (Discrete Applied Mathematics 144(3):345--358, 2004) proved that the Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is NP-complete. They also showed that for infinite rotation puzzles, this problem becomes undecidable. We study the counting version and the unique version of this problem. We prove that the satisfiability problem parsimoniously reduces to the Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem. In particular, this reduction preserves the uniqueness of the solution, which implies that the unique Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is as hard as the unique satisfiability problem, and so is DP-complete under polynomial-time randomized reductions, where DP is the second level of the boolean hierarchy over NP.

  12. A Play on Words: Using Cognitive Computing as a Basis for AI Solvers in Word Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Thomas; Ellis, Simon; Hendler, James

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we offer a model, drawing inspiration from human cognition and based upon the pipeline developed for IBM's Watson, which solves clues in a type of word puzzle called syllacrostics. We briefly discuss its situation with respect to the greater field of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and how this process and model might be applied to other types of word puzzles. We present an overview of a system that has been developed to solve syllacrostics.

  13. Many hands make hard work, or why agriculture is not a puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés

    2007-01-01

    The shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture, some 10,000 years ago, triggered the first demographic explosion in history. Along with population, working time increased, while food consumption remained at the subsistence level. For that reason, most anthropologists regard the adoption of agriculture as an economical puzzle. I show, using a neoclassical economic model, that there is nothing puzzling about the adoption of agriculture. Agriculture brings four technological changes: an ...

  14. Monetary Policy Shocks in a Small Open Economy: Assessing the 'Puzzles' of Monetary Policy by SVAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ajluni, Jarir

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the effects of monetary policy shocks and its puzzles on a small open economy using quarterly Korean data by applying a theoretically motivated Structural VAR, with the objective of introducing empirical evidence that investigates the magnitude and persistence of monetary policy using impulse response function analysis. There is some evidence on the occurrences of monetary policy puzzles confirming previous outcomes in the literature, results suggest that domestic monetary ...

  15. Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, F.; Lemos, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds.

  16. Hyperon Puzzle, Hadron-Quark Crossover and Massive Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Kota; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars (NSs) are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover" which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2-solarmass can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 times the nuclear matter density and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-q...

  17. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suneesh Kaimala; Suneesh Kaimala; Satish Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin–CD29hiCD49fhiCD24+/modSca-1– cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  18. Solving Square Jigsaw Puzzles Using Dynamic Programming and the Hungarian Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alajlan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To design, implement, and test an algorithm for solving the square jigsaw puzzle problem, which has many applications in image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision such as restoration of archeological artifacts and image descrambling. Approach: The algorithm used the gray level profiles of border pixels for local matching of the puzzle pieces, which was performed using dynamic programming to facilitate non-rigid alignment of pixels of two gray level profiles. Unlike the classical best-first search, the algorithm simultaneously located the neighbors of a puzzle piece during the search using the well-known Hungarian procedure, which is an optimal assignment procedure. To improve the search for a global solution, every puzzle piece was considered as starting piece at various starting locations. Results: Experiments using four well-known images demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach over the classical piece-by-piece matching approach. The performance evaluation was based on a new precision performance measure. For all four test images, the proposed algorithm achieved 100% precision rate for puzzles up to 8×8. Conclusion: The proposed search mechanism based on simultaneous allocation of puzzle pieces using the Hungarian procedure provided better performance than piece-by-piece used in classical methods.

  19. Effect of a puzzle on the process of students' learning about cardiac physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Lais Tono; Miranda, Aline Soares; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using a puzzle to learn about cardiac physiology. Students were divided into control and game groups. In class 1, the control group had a 2-h theoretical class about cardiac physiology, including a detailed description of the phases of the cardiac cycle, whereas the game group had a 50-min theoretical class without the description of the cardiac cycle. In class 2, the control group did an assessment exercise before an activity with the cardiac puzzle and the game group answered questions after the above-mentioned activity. While solving the puzzle, the students had to describe the cardiac cycle by relating the concepts of heart morphology and physiology. To evaluate short-term learning, the number of wrong answers and grades in the assessment exercise were compared between the control and game groups. To evaluate medium-term learning, we compared the grades obtained by students of the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology that formed part of the academic exam. In the assessment exercise, the game group presented a lower number of errors and higher score compared with the control group. In the academic exam, applied after both groups had used the puzzle, there was no difference in the scores obtained by the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology. These results showed a positive effect of the puzzle on students' learning about cardiac physiology compared with those not using the puzzle. PMID:27516391

  20. PENERAPAN JIGSAW PUZZLE COMPETITION DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KONTEKSTUAL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN MINAT DAN HASIL BELAJAR FISIKA SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yulianti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mengatasi kurangnya minat dan hasil belajar fisika siswa dilakukan penelitian melalui kegiatan pembelajaran fisikakontekstual berbantuan jigsaw puzzle competititon. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VII H SMP Negeri 18 Semarang.Penelitian ini telah dilakukan pembelajaran dengan pendekatan kontekstual berbantuan jigsaw puzzle competition. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran kontekstual berbantuan jigsaw puzzle competition mampu meningkatan minat danhasil belajar siswa kelas VII H SMPNegeri 18 Semarang tahun pelajaran 2008/2009 secara signifikan. Agar lebih efektif sebaiknyadikembangkan pembelajaran kontekstual dengan metode lain agar diperoleh peningkatan minat dan hasil belajar Model ini perludiaplikasikan dalam pembelajaran fisika untuk materi yang lain. To overcome the problem of lack of students' interest as well as their achievements a Jigsaw Puzzle Competition in physicscontextual learning process was done. The students from VIIHclass of Junior High School 18 Semarang academic year 2008/2009were chosen as the subjects. The result of this research shows that contextual teaching and learning using Jigsaw PuzzleCompetition approach was not only increase the students' interest but also improve their achievements. In order to get moreeffective result, it is necessary to develop contextual teaching and learning by combining them with other method. Because of thegreat benefit of this model, it is necessary to apply this model to other physics learning concepts.Keywords: Jigsaw Puzzle Competition, contextual, interest;

  1. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M CircleDot can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M CircleDot. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)

  2. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Kota [The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); Hatsuda, Tetsuo [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), Chiba (Japan); Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ{sub 0}), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M {sub CircleDot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ{sub 0} and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M {sub CircleDot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)

  3. Composite Operator Method Analysis of the Underdoped Cuprates Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Avella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopical analysis of the unconventional and puzzling physics of the underdoped cuprates, as carried out lately by means of the composite operator method (COM applied to the 2D Hubbard model, is reviewed and systematized. The 2D Hubbard model has been adopted as it has been considered the minimal model capable of describing the most peculiar features of cuprates held responsible for their anomalous behavior. COM is designed to endorse, since its foundation, the systematic emergence in any SCS of new elementary excitations described by composite operators obeying noncanonical algebras. In this case (underdoped cuprates—2D Hubbard model, the residual interactions—beyond a 2-pole approximation—between the new elementary electronic excitations, dictated by the strong local Coulomb repulsion and well described by the two Hubbard composite operators, have been treated within the noncrossing approximation. Given this recipe and exploiting the few unknowns to enforce the Pauli principle content in the solution, it is possible to qualitatively describe some of the anomalous features of high-Tc cuprate superconductors such as large versus small Fermi surface dichotomy, Fermi surface deconstruction (appearance of Fermi arcs, nodal versus antinodal physics, pseudogap(s, and kinks in the electronic dispersion. The resulting scenario envisages a smooth crossover between an ordinary weakly interacting metal sustaining weak, short-range antiferromagnetic correlations in the overdoped regime to an unconventional poor metal characterized by very strong, long-but-finite-range antiferromagnetic correlations leading to momentum-selective non-Fermi liquid features as well as to the opening of a pseudogap and to the striking differences between the nodal and the antinodal dynamics in the underdoped regime.

  4. The puzzle of immune phenotypes of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf-Rauf, Katja; Anselm, Bettina; Schaub, Bianca

    2016-12-01

    new immunological molecules, the complex puzzle of childhood asthma is still far from being completed. Addressing the current challenges of distinct clinical asthma and wheeze phenotypes, including their stability and underlying endotypes, involves addressing the interplay of innate and adaptive immune regulatory mechanisms in large, interdisciplinary cohorts. PMID:27468754

  5. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  6. Usefulness of Crossword Puzzles in Helping First-Year BVSc Students Learn Veterinary Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina; May, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate terminology is essential for successful communication among health professionals. However, students have traditionally been encouraged to learn terminology by rote memorization and recall, strategies that students try to avoid. The use of crossword puzzles as a learning tool has been evaluated in other education disciplines, but not for terminology related to veterinary science. Hence, the objective of this study was to test whether crossword puzzles might be an effective aid to learning veterinary terminology. Forty-two first-year students enrolled in a Bachelor of Veterinary Science program were randomly divided into two groups and their previous knowledge of veterinary terms tested. One group received a list of 30 terms with their definitions. The other group received the same list plus six specially designed puzzles incorporating these 30 terms. After 50 minutes, both groups completed a post-intervention test and the results were compared statistically. The results showed that the students using the crossword puzzles performed better in the post-intervention test, correctly retaining more terms than the students using only rote learning. In addition, qualitative data, gathered through an electronic survey and focus group discussions, revealed a positive attitude among students toward the use of crossword puzzles. PMID:27111003

  7. Usefulness of Crossword Puzzles in Helping First-Year BVSc Students Learn Veterinary Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina; May, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate terminology is essential for successful communication among health professionals. However, students have traditionally been encouraged to learn terminology by rote memorization and recall, strategies that students try to avoid. The use of crossword puzzles as a learning tool has been evaluated in other education disciplines, but not for terminology related to veterinary science. Hence, the objective of this study was to test whether crossword puzzles might be an effective aid to learning veterinary terminology. Forty-two first-year students enrolled in a Bachelor of Veterinary Science program were randomly divided into two groups and their previous knowledge of veterinary terms tested. One group received a list of 30 terms with their definitions. The other group received the same list plus six specially designed puzzles incorporating these 30 terms. After 50 minutes, both groups completed a post-intervention test and the results were compared statistically. The results showed that the students using the crossword puzzles performed better in the post-intervention test, correctly retaining more terms than the students using only rote learning. In addition, qualitative data, gathered through an electronic survey and focus group discussions, revealed a positive attitude among students toward the use of crossword puzzles.

  8. A MULTISET APPROACH FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN CHARACTERS USING PUZZLE PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlin Deepa R.N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image pattern matching is one of the most widely used techniques in character recognition. A pattern is the description of an object. Although a large number of papers have been reported on handwritten character recognition, it is still a very challenging problem. Recognition of characters is based on pattern classification. In this paper a hybrid approach is proposed using fuzzy technique and multiset comparison to recognize handwritten characters. Fuzzy technique is used to measure the variations in the features of handwritten numerals to form strings of character. Features are selected from the preprocessed image and the feature is labeled using fuzzy logic. Strings of a character are formed from these labeled primitives. Each string is divided into a multiset of puzzle pieces by repeatedly applying a mask which is comprised of all ones. The string is padded with anchors at the beginning and end. The mask is placed over the string, beginning at a certain character, and reading off all characters corresponding to 1 bit in the mask, thus producing one puzzle piece. To divide a string into multiset of puzzle pieces, the mask is applied at all shifts in the string starting at each character. Thus for each prototype character, we associate a multiset of puzzle pieces, which form the database. The multiset of puzzle pieces of an unknown character is constructed and compared with the same in the database, leading to the identification of the unknown character.

  9. MATH PUZZLES, POWERFUL IDEAS, ALGORITHMS AND COMPUTERS IN TEACHING PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Murray-Lasso

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available With the current interest in teaching problem-solving, it is important that the example problems that are presented to students have important educational value. Many mathematical puzzles, while requiring little specific background to be posed and remembered, are paradigms of important practical problems. If the teacher chooses the right puzzles, he/she not only will have motivated the student’s interest, but will also have the opportunity of teaching powerful ideas that can be applied in a multitude of similar problems. Moreover the teacher will also be able to teach the corresponding solution algorithms and the way computers can be used as tools in problem-solving. The article presents these topics through an extensive example based on a well-known, apparently simple, wine-pouring puzzle that is intimately related to the concepts of state, shortest-routes and many management, engineering and industrial problems.

  10. A puzzling aspect of the effect of advance notice on unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addision, John; Blackburn, McKinley L.

    1995-01-01

    Displaced male workers with generous periods of advance notice tend to move directly into reemployment faster than their non-notified counterparts but once unemployed tend to escape from unemployment much more slowly. We examine three potential explanations for this puzzle associated with unemplo...... with unemployment insurance, the endogeneity of notice, and differential search intensity. Of these alternatives, the evidence suggests that it is the additional but less productive search time during the notice interval that creates the appearance of a puzzle.......Displaced male workers with generous periods of advance notice tend to move directly into reemployment faster than their non-notified counterparts but once unemployed tend to escape from unemployment much more slowly. We examine three potential explanations for this puzzle associated...

  11. Using the Tower of Hanoi puzzle to infuse your mathematics classroom with computer science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-07-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. These concepts include, but are not limited to, conditionals, iteration, and recursion. Lessons, such as the one proposed in this article, are easily implementable in mathematics classrooms and extracurricular programmes as they are good candidates for 'drop in' lessons that do not need to fit into any particular place in the typical curriculum sequence. As an example for readers, the author describes how she used the puzzle in her own Number Sense and Logic course during the federally funded Upward Bound Math/Science summer programme for college-intending low-income high school students. The article explains each computer science term with real-life and mathematical examples, applies each term to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle solution, and describes how students connected the terms to their own solutions of the puzzle. It is timely and important to expose mathematics students to computer science concepts. Given the rate at which technology is currently advancing, and our increased dependence on technology in our daily lives, it has become more important than ever for children to be exposed to computer science. Yet, despite the importance of exposing today's children to computer science, many children are not given adequate opportunity to learn computer science in schools. In the United States, for example, most students finish high school without ever taking a computing course. Mathematics lessons, such as the one described in this article, can help to make computer science more accessible to students who may have otherwise had little opportunity to be introduced to these increasingly important concepts.

  12. Does The Price Puzzle Exist in Colombia? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blen Solomon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The price puzzle has been the focus of many studies, however, most of these studies have focused on developed economies and especially on the U.S. Owing to this tendency; we do not know if there is existence of a price puzzle in developing economies. This is an important topic of research as it facilitates the understanding on the different channels of monetary policy. It also helps our understanding regarding monetary policy effectiveness and in the context of the Colombian economy, this is a main issue as the basic long-term target of Colombia’s monetary policy is price stability. This study investigates the existence of the price puzzle for the period 1980:5-2003:12 in Colombia by using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Since the sample period of study is not characterized with a uniform monetary policy regime, following Balke and Emery (1994 we divide our sample period according to existent structural breaks. We test for the price puzzle by dividing our sample into pre-1991 period (before inflation targeting started and during inflation targeting period. We employ impulse response functions as our main tolos to investigate the price puzzle. The impulse response functions show that during both the pre-1991 and post 1991 periods, prices don’t rise in response to positive shocks in short term interest rates. Therefore we conclude that Colombia does not exhibit the price puzzle. In fact, during both periods as well as the whole sample period, prices are not responsive to short-term interest rate shocks. The unresponsiveness of prices to positive interest rate shocks is not expected since we would anticipate prices to decrease due to a positive interest rate shock

  13. Heavy quark dynamics in the QGP: Towards a solution of the RAA and ν2 puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardina F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two key observables related to heavy quarks that have been measured in experiments are the nuclear suppression factor RAA and the elliptic flow ν2. The simultaneous reproduction of these two observables is a puzzle which have challenged all the existing models. We discuss two ingredients responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle: the temperature dependence of the energy loss and the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the scattering between the heavy quarks and the particle of the bulk.

  14. From Spaghetti Bowl to Jigsaw Puzzle? Addressing the Disarray in the World Trade System

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    The rise of mega-regionals such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) suggests that the world trade system is fragmenting to the point it appears more like a jigsaw puzzle than a spaghetti bowl. There are both regional and global jigsaw puzzles to be solved—in that order—to clean up the world trade system. But is this even likely? The difficulties of free trade agreement (FTA) consolidation at the regional level are well known, while...

  15. The B -> pi K Puzzle and its Relation to Rare B and K Decays

    OpenAIRE

    Buras, Andrzej J; Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan; Schwab, Felix

    2003-01-01

    The Standard-Model interpretation of the ratios of charged and neutral B-> pi K rates, R_c and R_n, respectively, points towards a puzzling picture. Since these observables are affected significantly by colour-allowed electroweak (EW) penguins, this ``B -> pi K puzzle'' could be a manifestation of new physics in the EW penguin sector. Performing the analysis in the R_n-R_c plane, which is very suitable for monitoring various effects, we demonstrate that we may, in fact, move straightforwardly...

  16. Cryptographic Puzzles and Game Theory against DoS and DDoS attacks in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we present techniques to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. In the _rst part, we describe client puzzle techniques that are based on the idea of computationally exhausting a malicious user when he attempts to launch an attack....... In the second part we are introducing some basic principles of game theory and we discuss how game theoretical frameworks can protect computer networks. Finally, we show techniques that combine client puzzles with game theory in order to provide DoS and DDoS resilience....

  17. Jigsaw puzzle metasurface for multiple functions: polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Sijia

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate a simple reconfigurable metasurface with multiple functions. Anisotropic tiles are investigated and manufactured as fundamental elements. Then, the tiles are combined in a certain sequence to construct a metasurface. Each of the tiles can be adjusted independently which is like a jigsaw puzzle and the whole metasurface can achieve diverse functions by different layouts. For demonstration purposes, we realize polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion by a jigsaw puzzle metasurface with 6 × 6 pieces of anisotropic tile. Simulated and measured results prove that our method offers a simple and effective strategy for metasurface design. PMID:27409942

  18. An Easy & Fun Way to Teach about How Science "Works": Popularizing Haack's Crossword-Puzzle Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Iglika V.; Lewis, Kayla C.

    2013-01-01

    Science is a complex process, and we must not teach our students overly simplified versions of "the" scientific method. We propose that students can uncover the complex realities of scientific thinking by exploring the similarities and differences between solving the familiar crossword puzzles and scientific "puzzles."…

  19. Having Fun and Accepting Challenges Are Natural Instincts: Jigsaw Puzzles to Challenge Students and Test Their Abilities While Having Fun!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbaugh, Hanna R.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Rodenbaugh, David W.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Because jigsaw puzzles are fun, and challenging, students will endure and discover that persistence and grit are rewarded. Importantly, play and fun have a biological place just like sleep and dreams. Students also feel a sense of accomplishment when they have completed a puzzle. Importantly, the reward of mastering a challenge builds confidence…

  20. Utility of Self-Made Crossword Puzzles as an Active Learning Method to Study Biochemistry in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticone, Sulekha Rao

    2013-01-01

    To incorporate an active learning component in a one-semester biochemistry course, students were asked to create crossword puzzles using key concepts. Student observations on the use of self-made crossword puzzles as an active-learning instructional tool were collected using a 5-point Likert survey at the end of the semester. A majority of the…

  1. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Children's Cooperative Behaviors during a Structured Puzzle Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated…

  2. Gardner's Two Children Problems and Variations: Puzzles with Conditional Probability and Sample Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Wendy; Stacey, Kaye

    2014-01-01

    This article presents "The Two Children Problem," published by Martin Gardner, who wrote a famous and widely-read math puzzle column in the magazine "Scientific American," and a problem presented by puzzler Gary Foshee. This paper explains the paradox of Problems 2 and 3 and many other variations of the theme. Then the authors…

  3. Children with Praderwilli Syndrome Vs. Williams Syndrome: Indirect Effects on Parents during a Jigsaw Puzzle Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, T. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Genetic disorders predispose individuals to exhibit characteristic behaviours, which in turn elicit particular behaviours from others. In response to the strength of Prader?Willi syndrome (PWS) and weakness of Williams syndrome (WS) in visual-spatial tasks such as jigsaw puzzles, parents' behaviours can be affected by their child's…

  4. Parents' Attributions of Their Child's Jigsaw-Puzzle Performance: Comparing Two Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Tran M.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Parents' attributions of the jigsaw-puzzle performance of their child with Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 20) or Williams syndrome (n = 21) were examined. Parents in both groups placed more importance on internal versus external attributions. Parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome exhibited a hedonic bias by attributing their child's success…

  5. The Quark Puzzle: A Novel Approach to Visualizing the Color Symmetries of Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettrust, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple hands-on and visual-method designed to introduce physics students of many age groups to the topic of quarks and their role in forming composite particles (baryons and mesons). A set of puzzle pieces representing individual quarks that fit together in ways consistent with known restrictions of flavor, color, and charge…

  6. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Chen; Dinur, Nir Nevo; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  7. (Mis)perception of Sleep in Insomnia: A Puzzle and a Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not…

  8. New data and an old puzzle : the negative association between schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S Hong; Byrne, Enda M; Hultman, Christina M; Kähler, Anna; Vinkhuyzen, Anna Ae; Ripke, Stephan; Andreassen, Ole A; Frisell, Thomas; Gusev, Alexander; Hu, Xinli; Karlsson, Robert; Mantzioris, Vasilis X; McGrath, John J; Mehta, Divya; Stahl, Eli A; Zhao, Qiongyi; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sullivan, Patrick F; Price, Alkes L; O'Donovan, Michael; Okada, Yukinori; Mowry, Bryan J; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Wray, Naomi R; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M; Cichon, Sven; Cormican, Paul; Curtis, David; Djurovic, Srdjan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Gejman, Pablo V; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Hansen, Thomas F; Ingason, Andrés; Kim, Yunjung; Konte, Bettina; Lee, Phil H; McIntosh, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Morris, Derek W; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Pickard, Benjamin S; Posthuma, Danielle; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Schulze, Thomas G; Silverman, Jeremy M; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Werge, Thomas; Agartz, Ingrid; Amin, Farooq; Azevedo, Maria H; Bass, Nicholas; Black, Donald W; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G; Choudhury, Khalid; Cloninger, Robert C; Corvin, Aiden; Craddock, Nicholas; Daly, Mark J; Datta, Susmita; Donohoe, Gary J; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Fanous, Ayman; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B; Friedl, Marion; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Hamshere, Marian L; Hartmann, Annette M; Holmans, Peter A; Kahn, René S; Keller, Matthew C; Kenny, Elaine; Kirov, George K; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Lawrence, Jacob; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A; Medeiros, Helena; Melle, Ingrid; Milanova, Vihra; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Michael J; Pimm, Jonathan; Purcell, Shaun M; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J; Rossin, Lizzy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Sanders, Alan R; Shi, Jianxin; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Scott Stroup, T; Van Os, Jim; Visscher, Peter M; Wiersma, Durk; Zammit, Stanley; Louis Bridges, S; Choi, Hyon K; Coenen, Marieke Jh; de Vries, Niek; Dieud, Philippe; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Huizinga, Tom Wj; Padyukov, Leonid; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Tak, Paul P; Worthington, Jane; De Jager, Philip L; Denny, Joshua C; Gregersen, Peter K; Klareskog, Lars; Mariette, Xavier; Plenge, Robert M; van Laar, Mart; van Riel, Piet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A long-standing epidemiological puzzle is the reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in those with schizophrenia (SZ) and vice versa. Traditional epidemiological approaches to determine if this negative association is underpinned by genetic factors would test for reduced rates of one

  9. Booklists for the Teaching of Mathematics in Schools: Puzzles, Problems, Games and Mathematical Recreations (Ref: PGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical Association, Leicester (England).

    Presented is a listing of books recommended by the Mathematical Association of the United Kingdom dealing with Puzzles, Problems, Games, and Mathematical Recreations. The following information on each book is provided: author; title; publisher; cost to the nearest pound; categories of use; and a code that indicates if the book in question is out…

  10. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  11. Enhancing the Understanding of Government and Nonprofit Accounting with THE PUZZLE GAME: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Raymond J.; Ostapski, S. Andrew; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Nontraditional teaching aids such as crossword puzzles have been successfully used in the classroom to enhance student learning. Government and nonprofit accounting is a confusing course for students since it has strange terminologies and contradicts the accounting concepts learned in other courses. As such, it is an ideal course for a…

  12. Tangrams: An Ancient Chinese Puzzle. A Conceptual Skill Development Kit for All Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Carol

    A multi-subject approach to using tangram puzzles in the classroom is included along with a short history section and accompanying lessons. These lessons provide an introduction to tangrams; methods for teaching bilingual and English-dominant children concepts and skills through activities that do not require strong English skills; and activities…

  13. Spatial Puzzles and the Assessment of Children's Problem-Solving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Douglas M.; Redden, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Seventy fifth-grade students in Australia were observed as each solved a jigsaw puzzle. Boys obtained higher scores on a measure of cognitive style and took less time to complete the jigsaw task; the two measures were significantly correlated. Uses of tangrams are also discussed. (MNS)

  14. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, David [Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR Dubna, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Alvarez-Castillo, David E. [Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR Dubna, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México (Mexico)

    2016-01-22

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M{sub ⊙} with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram.

  15. Random Tree-Puzzle leads to the Yule-Harding distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Le Sy; Fuehrer, Andrea; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2011-02-01

    Approaches to reconstruct phylogenies abound and are widely used in the study of molecular evolution. Partially through extensive simulations, we are beginning to understand the potential pitfalls as well as the advantages of different methods. However, little work has been done on possible biases introduced by the methods if the input data are random and do not carry any phylogenetic signal. Although Tree-Puzzle (Strimmer K, von Haeseler A. 1996. Quartet puzzling: a quartet maximum-likelihood method for reconstructing tree topologies. Mol Biol Evol. 13:964-969; Schmidt HA, Strimmer K, Vingron M, von Haeseler A. 2002. Tree-Puzzle: maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using quartets and parallel computing. Bioinformatics 18:502-504) has become common in phylogenetics, the resulting distribution of labeled unrooted bifurcating trees when data do not carry any phylogenetic signal has not been investigated. Our note shows that the distribution converges to the well-known Yule-Harding distribution. However, the bias of the Yule-Harding distribution will be diminished by a tiny amount of phylogenetic information. maximum likelihood, phylogenetic reconstruction, Tree-Puzzle, tree distribution, Yule-Harding distribution.

  16. On the Puzzle of Long and Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lang; Dai, Zi-Gao; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Wei, Da-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a brief review of our recent studies on the long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected Swift, in an effort to understand the puzzle of classifying GRBs. We consider that it is still an appealing conjecture that both long and short GRBs are drawn from the same parent sample by observational biases.

  17. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, David

    2016-01-01

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of $2\\,$M$_\\odot$ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which resul...

  18. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.

    2016-01-01

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M⊙ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram.

  19. Precedents, Patterns and Puzzles: Feminist Reflections on the First Women Lawyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Mossman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper initially examines the historical precedents established by some of the first women who entered the “gentleman’s profession” of law in different jurisdictions, as well as the biographical patterns that shaped some women’s ambitions to enter the legal professions. The paper then uses feminist methods and theories to interpret “puzzles that remain unsolved” about early women lawyers, focusing especially on two issues. One puzzle is the repeated claims on the part of many of these early women lawyers that they were “lawyers”, and not “women lawyers”, even as they experienced exclusionary practices and discrimination on the part of male lawyers and judges—a puzzle that suggests how professional culture required women lawyers to conform to existing patterns in order to succeed. A second puzzle relates to the public voices of early women lawyers, which tended to suppress disappointments, difficulties and discriminatory practices. In this context, feminist theories suggest a need to be attentive to the “silences” in women’s stories, including the stories of the lives of early women lawyers. Moreover, these insights may have continuing relevance for contemporary women lawyers because it is at least arguable that, while there have been changes in women’s experiences, there has been very little transformation in their work status in relation to men.

  20. Neutrino oscillations in magnetized media and implications for the pulsar velocity puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, D

    1998-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the general techniques used to determine neutrino potentials in a magnetized medium I will discuss MSW resonant oscillations of active and sterile neutrinos in such environment. Using my results I will reconsider the viability of a solution of the pulsar velocity puzzle based on such a kind of neutrino oscillations.

  1. Geoscience Data Puzzles: Developing Students' Ability to Make Meaning from Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Turrin, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of geoscience expertise is the ability to extract insights from observational earth data. Where an expert might see trends, patterns, processes, and candidate causal relationships, a novice could look at the same data representation and see dots, wiggles and blotches of color. The problem is compounded when the student was not personally involved in collecting the data or samples and thus has no experiential knowledge of the Earth setting that the data represent. In other words, the problem is especially severe when students tap into the vast archives of professionally-collected data that the geoscience community has worked so hard to make available for instructional use over the internet. Moreover, most high school and middle school teachers did not themselves learn Earth Science through analyzing data, and they may lack skills and/or confidence needed to scaffold students through the process of learning to interpret realistically-complex data sets. We have developed “Geoscience Data Puzzles” with the paired goals of (a) helping students learn about the earth from data, and (b) helping teachers learn to teach with data. Geoscience Data Puzzles are data-using activities that purposefully present a low barrier-to-entry for teachers and a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses authentic geoscience data, but the data are carefully pre-selected in order to illuminate a fundamental Earth process within tractable snippets of data. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" moments, when the connection between data and process comes clear in a rewarding burst of insight. Every Puzzle is accompanied by a Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) guide, which explicates the chain of reasoning by which the puzzle-solver can use the evidence provided by the data to construct scientific claims. Four types of reasoning are stressed: spatial reasoning, in which students make inferences from observations about location, orientation, shape

  2. The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unexplained large discrepancy of the proton charge radius measurements with muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and determinations from elastic electron scattering and Lamb shift in regular hydrogen of seven standard deviations is known as the proton radius puzzle. Suggested solutions of the puzzle range from possible errors in the experiments through unexpectedly large hadronic physics effects to new physics beyond the Standard Model. A new approach to verify the radius discrepancy in a systematic manner will be pursued with the Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI. The experiment aims to compare elastic cross sections, the proton elastic form factors, and the extracted proton charge radius with scattering of electrons and muons of either charge and under identical conditions. The difference in the observed radius will be probed with a high precision to verify the discrepancy. An overview of the experiment and the current status will be presented.

  3. Puzzling electron behavior analogous to the Braess paradox in a mesoscopic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Sébastien; Faniel, Sébastien; Martins, Frederico; Pala, Marco; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wallart, Xavier; Huant, Serge; Sellier, Hermann; Bayot, Vincent; Hackens, Benoit

    A counterintuitive behavior analogous to the Braess paradox is encountered in a two-terminal mesoscopic network patterned in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES). Decreasing locally the electron density of one channel in the network paradoxically leads to an increased network conductance. Our scanning gate microscopy experiments reveals this puzzling conductance variation, thanks to tip-induced localized modifications of electron flow throughout the network's channels at low temperature, in the ballistic and coherent regime of transport. We compare the amplitude of the measured anomalous conductance variation with conductance changes induced by other mechanisms at play in the mesoscopic network, such as interference phenomena between different paths, and Coulomb blockade due to disorder-induced localized states. The robustness of this puzzling behavior is inspected by varying the global 2DES density, magnetic field and temperature. S.T. acknowledges support from the Belgian FRS-FNRS (FRIA).

  4. Puzzling electron behavior analogous to the Braess paradox in a mesoscopic networ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Sébastien; Faniel, Sébastien; Martins, Frederico; Pala, Marco; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wallart, Xavier; Huant, Serge; Sellier, Hermann; Bayot, Vincent; Hackens, Benoit

    A counterintuitive behavior analogous to the Braess paradox is encountered in a two-terminal mesoscopic network patterned in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES). Decreasing locally the electron density of one channel in the network paradoxically leads to an increased network conductance. Our scanning gate microscopy experiments reveals this puzzling conductance variation, thanks to tip-induced localized modifications of electron flow throughout the network's channels at low temperature, in the ballistic and coherent regime of transport. We compare the amplitude of the measured anomalous conductance variation with conductance changes induced by other mechanisms at play in the mesoscopic network, such as interference phenomena between different paths, and Coulomb blockade due to disorder-induced localized states. The robustness of this puzzling behavior is inspected by varying the global 2DES density, magnetic field and temperature S.T. acknowledges support from the Belgian FRS-FNRS (FRIA).

  5. A Hierarchical Interface Design of a Puzzle Game for Elementary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A basic instinct of humans for perfect completion usually drives us happy. Basically, humans purchase a certain complete match for scattered facts. The satisfaction of completing the scattered pieces gives us great pleasure. Thus many people put in their time and effort in the puzzle, and they gain strong satisfaction. The paper solves the importance of the general effects of a puzzle in building the edu-game design. Legacy online education has following problems. First, educational effects became weaker than original text education since the physical guide for the study is absent. Second, students can lose interests in study since there are no interactions or dynamics like the real education atmosphere. An on-line game isgrowing up very fast through characters of the interactive computing and internet environment. In addition, an edu-game combining the advantages of the game and the education increase gradually. The paper proposes an edu-game system for providing knowledge through the hierarchical structure. The system differs from existing ones that combine a game and an on-line education. There are three different goals as follows. First, the paper proposes three levels of knowledge hierarchies. The method enables users to understand more easy and systematic and interesting education. Second, the graphic interface of a puzzle type is able to contact more conveniently and it provides beauties and functionalities. Third, among them, specifically the knowledge hierarchy is not forced to users and the method also can study in detail and users can enjoy systematically e-education by using the general type of a puzzle game.

  6. Role of Nitric Oxide in Glioblastoma Therapy: Another Step to Resolve the Terrible Puzzle ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, R; Fontanella, M; Agnoletti, A; Panciani, P P; Spena, G; Crobeddu, E; Pilloni, G; Tardivo, V; Lanotte, M; Zenga, F; Ducati, A; Garbossa, D

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme, the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, remains incurable despite of the advent of modern surgical and medical treatments. This poor prognosis depends by the recurrence after surgery and intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nitric oxide is a small molecule that plays a key roles in glioma pathophysiology. Many researches showing that NO is involved in induction of apoptosis, radiosensitization and chemosensitization. Therefore, NO role, if clarified, may improve the knowledge about this unsolved puzzle called GBM.

  7. Less of a puzzle: a new look at the forward forex market

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Maurice J.; Moore, Michael J

    1999-01-01

    The two-country monetary model is extended to include a consumption externality with habit persistence. This is set within a limited participation framework. The model is simulated using the artificial economy methodology. The 'puzzles' in the forward market are re-examined. The model is able to account for (a) the low volatility of the forward discount (b) the higher volatility of expected forward speculative profits (c) the even higher volatility of spot rate changes (d) the persistence in ...

  8. Testing the validity of the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle: New evidence from structural breaks for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Ekrem; Ahmet KOSEOGLU; Ali Gokhan YUCEL

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the validity of Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle using time series data covering the period of 1960-2014 for Turkey. In order to test this relationship, the recently proposed multiple-break cointegration test of Maki (2012) was employed. After detecting the existence of a cointegration between domestic saving by allowing for endogenous structural breaks, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) estimati...

  9. A Characterization of Achievable Patterns of the MN—Puzzle Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红青

    1990-01-01

    One important MN-puzzle problem is to find a sequcence of up-down and ight-left movements of the empty-cell so that a goal-pattern can be achieved from a given initial-pattern.The second problem is to characterize the totality of the goal-pattrn from a given initial-pattern.The third problem is finding the fewest movements to achieve it.In this paper,these problems will be completely solved.

  10. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  11. The Long Slow Death of the HBT Puzzle, Proceedings for QM 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, Scott

    2009-01-01

    At the onset of the RHIC era femtoscopic source sizes inferred from two-particle correlations at RHIC defied description with hydrodynamic models. This failure, which became known as the HBT puzzle, now appears to be solved. The source of the discrepancy appears to be a conspiracy of several factors, each of which contributed to making the evolution of RHIC collisions more explosive. These included pre-equilibrium flow, using a stiffer equation of state and adding viscosity.

  12. Notes on Operator Equations of Supercurrent Multiplets and the Anomaly Puzzle in Supersymmetric Field Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Komargodski and Seiberg have proposed a new type of supercurrent multiplet which contains the energy-momentum tensor and the supersymmetry current consistently. In this paper we study quantum properties of the supercurrent in renormalizable field theories. We point out that the new supercurrent gives a quite simple resolution to the classic problem, called the anomaly puzzle, that the Adler-Bardeen theorem applied to an R-symmetry current is inconsistent with all order corrections t...

  13. An Analysis of Closed-end Fund Puzzle for Emerging Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Dragota

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the closed-end fund puzzle for an emerging capital market, respectively the Romanian one. Comparatively to more developed markets, as long as small markets are often very illiquid, it has to be used some specific valuation techniques in order to estimate the market values for closed-end funds. Also, one problem is this estimation can be made only in some (punctual moments.

  14. The puzzle of Virtual Learning Environments: “what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE?”

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Avgoustos TSINAKOS

    2004-01-01

    The puzzle of Virtual Learning Environments: what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Dr. Avgoustos TSINAKOS BSc, MSc, AGDDE (T), MDE, PhD University of Macedonia, Dept. of Applied Informatics, GREECE ABSTRACT This study attempts to acknowledge the most useful, operative and educational important features that should be present in a VLE. The study aims to become a pre-decision manual in order to guide all those people, academic or not, who puzzle with the ident...

  15. Padrão dos fluxos de capitais: teoria, evidência e puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Oliveira Damasceno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho desenvolve uma análise teórica e empírica sobre o padrão de longo prazo dos fluxos de capitais. Com uma amostra de 105 países e dados para o período 1980-2004, a metodologia econométrica abrange modelos para cross-section e para dados em painel. Os resultados apresentados sugerem: i incoerência entre as previsões do modelo neoclássico e o padrão observado dos fluxos de capitais, o que caracteriza o puzzle ; ii no âmbito da abordagem convencional, as explicações para o puzzle são diferenças de fundamentos entre países e imperfeições no mercado financeiro; iii não há evidências de que diferenças entre os países relativas ao ambiente institucional, estoque de capital humano, integração financeira, política macroeconòmica e desenvolvimento financeiro expliquem o puzzle. Considerando os resultados apresentados, esboça-se uma explicação alternativa de inspiração heterodoxa para o padrão dos fluxos de capitais.

  16. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls. PMID:27046584

  17. A Novel Hybrid Flower Pollination Algorithm with Chaotic Harmony Search for Solving Sudoku Puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel-Raouf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flower Pollination algorithm (FPA is a new nature-inspired algorithm, based on the characteristics of flowering plants.In this paper, a new hybrid optimization method called improved Flower Pollination Algorithm with Chaotic Harmony Search (FPCHS is proposed. The method combines the standard Flower Pollination algorithm (FPA with the chaotic Harmony Search (HS algorithm to improve the searching accuracy. The FPCHS algorithm is used to solve Sudoku puzzles. Numerical results show that the FPCHS is accurate and efficient in comparison with standard Harmony Search, (HS algorithm.

  18. An Investigation Of The Effect Of Puzzles On Preschoolers’ Developmental Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Neriman Aral; Figen Gürsoy; Münevver Can-Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of puzzles on preschoolers’ developmental areas. Two classes were chosen randomly among all the classes at an elementary school: one class (with 14 children) as the control group and one as the experimental group (again with 14 children). The data was collected by means of a ‘Demographic Information Form’ and a ‘Preschool Developmental Evaluation Form’ that measures children´s developmental characteristics. Since the children’s scores in ‘Pr...

  19. A Game Architecture for Emergent Story-Puzzles in a Persistent World

    OpenAIRE

    Peinado, Federico

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a semi-emergent architecture for graphic adventures. The proposed architecture is able to create new significant story-puzzles on the fly, combining preauthored material in a coherent and emergent way. As a test-bed of this architecture we use a simple detective game inspired on the famous boardgame Cluedo. INTRODUCTION There are a lot of adventure games in the market and some of them try to tell a re-playable story that change and become slightly different f...

  20. The Resolution of an Entropy Puzzle for 4D non-BPS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Lodato, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    We show the equality between macroscopic and microscopic black hole entropy for a class of four dimensional non-supersymmetric black holes in ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity theory, up to the first subleading order in their charges. This solves a long standing entropy puzzle for this class of black holes. The macroscopic entropy has been computed in the presence of a newly derived higher-derivative supersymmetric invariant of \\cite{{Butter:2013lta}}, connected to the five dimensional supersymmetric Weyl squared Lagrangian. Microscopically, the crucial role in obtaining the equivalence is played by the anomalous gauge gravitational Chern-Simons term.

  1. A 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhijian; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    Zee-type models with Majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, a particularly simple solution is found to the solar neutrino problem, which besides nu(sub 17) predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino nu(sub light) = nu(sub e) + nu(sub mu)(sup c) with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10(exp -11)(mu)(sub B) through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  2. 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, Eugeni Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanović, Goran; Tao, Zhijian

    1993-01-01

    Zee-type models with majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, we find a particularly simple solution to the solar neutrino problem, which besides ν17 predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino νlight = νe + νcμ with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10 -11μB through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  3. Does random tree puzzle produce Yule-Harding trees in the many-taxon limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sha; Steel, Mike

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that a random tree puzzle (RTP) process leads to a Yule-Harding (YH) distribution, when the number of taxa becomes large. In this study, we formalize this conjecture, and we prove that the two tree distributions converge for two particular properties, which suggests that the conjecture may be true. However, we present statistical evidence that, while the two distributions are close, the RTP appears to converge on a different distribution than does the YH. By way of contrast, in the concluding section we show that the maximum parsimony method applied to random two-state data leads a very different (PDA, or uniform) distribution on trees.

  4. High-energy cosmic rays: Puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino telescopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Waxman

    2004-02-01

    The existence of cosmic rays of energies exceeding 1020 eV is one of the mysteries of high-energy astrophysics. The spectrum and the high energy to which it extends rule out almost all suggested source models. The challenges posed by observations to models for the origin of high-energy cosmic rays are reviewed, and the implications of recent new experimental results are discussed. Large area high-energy cosmic ray detectors and large volume high-energy neutrino detectors currently under construction may resolve the high-energy cosmic ray puzzle, and shed light on the identity and physics of the most powerful accelerators in the Universe.

  5. Understanding the proton spin ''puzzle'' with a new ''minimal'' quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the spin structure of the nucleon in an extended Jaffe-Lipkin quark model. In addition to the conventional 3q structure, different (3q)(Q anti Q) admixtures in the nucleon wave function are also taken into account. The contributions to the nucleon spin from various components of the nucleon wave function are discussed. The effect due to the Melosh-Wigner rotation is also studied. It is shown that the Jaffe-Lipkin term is only important when antiquarks are negatively polarized. We arrive at a new ''minimal'' quark model, which is close to the naive quark model, in order to understand the proton spin ''puzzle''. (orig.)

  6. Engaging Students in a Large Lecture: An Experiment using Sudoku Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Brophy, Caroline; Hahn, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an in-class experiment that is easy to implement with large groups of students. The experiment takes approximately 15-20 minutes to run and involves each student completing one of four types of Sudoku puzzles and recording the time it takes to completion. The resulting data set can be used as a teaching tool at an introductory level right through to an advanced level of statistics. Basic methods for describing and displaying data as well as the intric...

  7. High energy cosmic-rays: puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2004-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays of energies exceeding 10^20 eV is one of the mysteries of high energy astrophysics. The spectrum and the high energy to which it extends rule out almost all suggested source models. The challenges posed by observations to models for the origin of high energy cosmic rays are reviewed, and the implications of recent new experimental results are discussed. Large area high energy cosmic ray detectors and large volume high energy neutrino detectors currently under construction may resolve the high energy cosmic ray puzzle, and shed light on the identity and physics of the most powerful accelerators in the universe.

  8. Bubble puzzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    With their ubiquitous occurrence in a multitude of fluid systems, bubbles occupy an important place in contemporary science and technology. One can readily cite several examples: the production and transport of oil, in which bubbles are purposely injected to help lift heavy oil to the surface; energ

  9. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...

  10. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb collaboration reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such an unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) was different it that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry”...

  11. Puzzling antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the absence of antimatter in the Universe has tantalised particle physicists and cosmologists: while the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, we do not observe any primordial antimatter today. Where has it gone? The LHC experiments have the potential to unveil natural processes that could hold the key to solving this paradox.   Every time that matter is created from pure energy, equal amounts of particles and antiparticles are generated. Conversely, when matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate and produce light. Antimatter is produced routinely when cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere, and the annihilations of matter and antimatter are observed during physics experiments in particle accelerators. If the Universe contained antimatter regions, we would be able to observe intense fluxes of photons at the boundaries of the matter/antimatter regions. “Experiments measuring the diffuse gamma-ray background in the Universe would be able...

  12. Simultaneous explanation of the RK and R(D(⁎ puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several hints of lepton flavor non-universality. The LHCb Collaboration has measured RK≡B(B+→K+μ+μ−/B(B+→K+e+e−, and the BaBar Collaboration has measured R(D(⁎≡B(B¯→D(⁎+τ−ν¯τ/B(B¯→D(⁎+ℓ−ν¯ℓ (ℓ=e,μ. In all cases, the experimental results differ from the standard model predictions by 2–3σ. Recently, an explanation of the RK puzzle was proposed in which new physics (NP generates a neutral-current operator involving only third-generation particles. Now, assuming the scale of NP is much larger than the weak scale, this NP operator must be made invariant under the full SU(3C×SU(2L×U(1Y gauge group. In this Letter, we note that, when this is done, a new charged-current operator can appear, and this can explain the R(D(⁎ puzzle. A more precise measurement of the double ratio R(D/R(D⁎ can rule out this model.

  13. Eta Carinae: A Box of Puzzles...Some Solved, Others Await

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In the l840's, Eta Carinae brightened to rival Sirius, then faded. Today we see a marginally naked-eye binary with an expanding, very dusty bipolar Homunculus. The energetics of the ejected mass (>l2 to 40 solar masses at 500-700 km/s plus outer bullets/strings up to 3000 km/s} approach that of a supernova. Extragalactic SN surveys detect near-supernovae thought to be like the Great Eruption of the 1840's. Eta Carinae presents an abundance of puzzles: rich in N, but 1/100th the solar C and O abundances; Ti, V, Sr, Sc persist in atomic states.... yet an abundance of molecules and dust exists in the Homunculus. How did molecules and dust form with low C and O? A near supernova occurred in the l840m, yet both binary companions, with total mass > 120 solar masses, survive in a very eccentric orbit. What is the near future of this system: a GRB? a SN? or just two WR stars that ultimately become two SNs? These and other puzzles will be presented

  14. A Hybrid alldifferent-Tabu Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Paredes, Fernando; Norero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The Sudoku problem is a well-known logic-based puzzle of combinatorial number-placement. It consists in filling a n(2) × n(2) grid, composed of n columns, n rows, and n subgrids, each one containing distinct integers from 1 to n(2). Such a puzzle belongs to the NP-complete collection of problems, to which there exist diverse exact and approximate methods able to solve it. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid algorithm that smartly combines a classic tabu search procedure with the alldifferent global constraint from the constraint programming world. The alldifferent constraint is known to be efficient for domain filtering in the presence of constraints that must be pairwise different, which are exactly the kind of constraints that Sudokus own. This ability clearly alleviates the work of the tabu search, resulting in a faster and more robust approach for solving Sudokus. We illustrate interesting experimental results where our proposed algorithm outperforms the best results previously reported by hybrids and approximate methods. PMID:26078751

  15. An Investigation Of The Effect Of Puzzles On Preschoolers’ Developmental Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Aral

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of puzzles on preschoolers’ developmental areas. Two classes were chosen randomly among all the classes at an elementary school: one class (with 14 children as the control group and one as the experimental group (again with 14 children. The data was collected by means of a ‘Demographic Information Form’ and a ‘Preschool Developmental Evaluation Form’ that measures children´s developmental characteristics. Since the children’s scores in ‘Preschool Developmental Evaluation Form’ did not show normal distribution, Mann-Whitney U Test was used to analyze the data. We could not find any significant difference between the pretest and posttest mean scores in both groups. However, the experimental group’s post-test mean scores were found to be higher than mean posttest scores of children in the control group. These results suggest that puzzles as instructional materials can be effective in supporting children’s developmental areas.

  16. Toward a solution to the RAA and v2 puzzle for heavy quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The heavy quarks constitute a unique probe of the quark–gluon plasma properties. A puzzling relation between the nuclear modification factor RAA(pT and the elliptic flow v2(pT has been observed both at RHIC and LHC energies. Predicting correctly both observables has been a challenge to all existing models, especially for D mesons. We discuss how the temperature dependence of the heavy quark drag coefficient is responsible for a large part of such a puzzle. In particular, we have considered four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag and diffusion coefficients propagating through a quark gluon plasma (QGP. All the four different models are set to reproduce the same RAA(pT observed in experiments at RHIC and LHC energy. We point out that for the same RAA(pT one can generate 2–3 times more v2 depending on the temperature dependence of the heavy quark drag coefficient. A non-decreasing drag coefficient as T→Tc is a major ingredient for a simultaneous description of RAA(pT and v2(pT.

  17. “很”之谜的探究%A Study of the Mandarin Hen Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨稼辉

    2014-01-01

    “很”之谜主要有三种观点:类型转换算子说,“POS”说,以及形容词缺乏[+V]特征说。基于三个新的相关语言事实:谓语不完句现象亦体现于动词短语作谓语时;形容词作谓语的不完句现象亦见于非层级形容词;“很”的完句效应只能体现在类指句中。“很”之谜应当归因于类指句的特殊属性。%There are three major studies of the Mandarin Hen puzzle so far which are Hen as a type-shifter, Hen as POS, and adjectives' lacking of verb. Three ignored facts pointed out by this study are incompleteness of predicates also exhibits in verbal predicates, incompleteness of adjectival predicates also exhibits in non-scalar adjectives, and completion effect of Hen only exhibit in generic sentences. Based on these facts, the Mandarin Hen puzzle should be attributed to properties of generic sentences.

  18. Solving the Solar Neutrino Puzzle with KamLAND and Solar Data

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouvêa, A; Gouv\\^ea, Andr\\'e de

    2001-01-01

    We study what will be learnt about the solar neutrino puzzle and solar neutrino oscillations once the data from the KamLAND reactor neutrino experiment (soon to become available) are combined with those from the current solar neutrino experiments. We find that, in agreement with previous estimates, if the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle falls on the LMA region, KamLAND should be able to ``pin-point'' the right solution with unprecedented accuracy after a few years of data taking. Furthermore, the light side ($\\theta\\pi/4$) at the 95% confidence level (CL) for most of the LMA region allowed by the current data at the 99% CL, while the addition of the KamLAND data need not improve our ability to limit a sterile component in ``solar'' oscillations. If KamLAND does not see an oscillation signal, the solar data would point to the LOW/VAC regions, while the SMA region would still lurk at the two sigma CL, meaning we would probably have to wait for Borexino data in order to finally piece the solar neutrino puz...

  19. Immature stages and phylogenetic importance of Astrapaeus, a rove beetle genus of puzzling systematic position (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylinini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietrykowska-Tudruj, E.; Staniec, B.; Wojas, T.; Alexey, A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time eggs, larvae and pupae obtained by rearing are described for Astrapaeus, a monotypic West Palearctic rove beetle genus of a puzzling phylogenetic position within the megadiverse tribe Staphylinini. Morphology of the immature stages of Astrapaeus ulmi is compared to that of other m

  20. An Effective Method of Introducing the Periodic Table as a Crossword Puzzle at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joag, Sushama D.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method to introduce the modern periodic table of elements at the high school level as a game of solving a crossword puzzle is presented here. A survey to test the effectiveness of this new method relative to the conventional method, involving use of a wall-mounted chart of the periodic table, was conducted on a convenience sample. This…

  1. The price puzzle revisited: can the cost channel explain a rise in inflation after a monetary policy shock?

    OpenAIRE

    Henzel, Steffen; Hülsewig, Oliver; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershäuser, Timo

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores whether the cost channel solves the price puzzle. We set-up a New Keynesian DSGE model and estimate it for the euro area by adopting a minimum distance approach. Our findings suggest that - under certain parameter restrictions which are not rejected by the data - the cost channel helps to generate an initial rise of inflation after a monetary contraction.

  2. The Price Puzzle Revisited : Can the Cost Channel explain a Rise in Inflation after a Monetary Shock?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Eric; Hülsewig, Oliver; Henzel, Steffen; Wollmershäuser, Timo

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores whether the cost channel solves the price puzzle. We set-up a New Keynesian DSGE model and estimate it for the euro area by adopting a minimum distance approach. Our findings suggest that - under certain parameter restrictions which are not rejected by the data - the cost channel helps to generate an initial rise of inflation after a monetary contraction.

  3. Simon`s Puzzle: Heuristics in the Process of Making Political Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wajzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse one of the most fascinating paradoxes of mass politics. Based on the data from the studies of neurobiologists, neurologists, social psychology, cognitive and evolution studies we answer the question specified in literature as the Simon’s puzzle: How is it possible that citizens have their opinions about politics, if they know so little about it? We began our analysis from the criticism of the economic rationality approach. To do this, we referred to the Allais paradox, cognitive dissonance theory, Ellsberg paradox, the concept of bounded rationality, conjunction fallacy and prospect theory. Next, we described the evolutionary processes shaping the minds of Homo sapiens and characterised cognitive mechanisms, thanks to which people can make political choices, especially in view of the shortage of time and information. The following heuristics are referred to herein: affect, recognition, judgment and imitation.

  4. Peelle's pertinent puzzle using the Monte Carlo technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burr, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We try to understand the long-standing problem of the Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) using the Monte Carlo technique. We allow the probability density functions to be any kind of form to assume the impact of distribution, and obtain the least-squares solution directly from numerical simulations. We found that the standard least squares method gives the correct answer if a weighting function is properly provided. Results from numerical simulations show that the correct answer of PPP is 1.1 {+-} 0.25 if the common error is multiplicative. The thought-provoking answer of 0.88 is also correct, if the common error is additive, and if the error is proportional to the measured values. The least squares method correctly gives us the most probable case, where the additive component has a negative value. Finally, the standard method fails for PPP due to a distorted (non Gaussian) joint distribution.

  5. Completing the nuclear reaction puzzle of the nucleosynthesis of 92Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Tveten, G M; Schwengner, R; Naqvi, F; Larsen, A C; Eriksen, T K; Garrote, F L Bello; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Campo, L Crespo; Guttormsen, M; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Hagen, T W; Hadynska-Klek, K; Klintefjord, M; Meyer, B S; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Rose, S J; Sahin, E; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest questions for modern physics to address is how elements heavier than iron are created in extreme, astrophysical environments. A particularly challenging part of that question is the creation of the so-called p-nuclei, which are believed to be mainly produced in some types of supernovae. The lack of needed nuclear data presents an obstacle in nailing down the precise site and astrophysical conditions. In this work, we present for the first time measurements on the nuclear level density and average strength function of $^{92}$Mo. State-of-the-art p-process calculations systematically underestimate the observed solar abundance of this isotope. Our data provide stringent constraints on the $^{91}$Nb$(p,{\\gamma})^{92}$Mo reaction rate, which is the last unmeasured reaction in the nucleosynthesis puzzle of $^{92}$Mo. Based on our results, we conclude that the $^{92}$Mo abundance anomaly is not due to the nuclear physics input to astrophysical model calculations.

  6. Completing the nuclear reaction puzzle of the nucleosynthesis of 92Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, G. M.; Spyrou, A.; Schwengner, R.; Naqvi, F.; Larsen, A. C.; Eriksen, T. K.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Meyer, B. S.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest questions for modern physics to address is how elements heavier than iron are created in extreme astrophysical environments. A particularly challenging part of that question is the creation of the so-called p -nuclei, which are believed to be mainly produced in some types of supernovae. The lack of needed nuclear data presents an obstacle in nailing down the precise site and astrophysical conditions. In this work, we present for the first time measurements on the nuclear level density and average γ strength function of 92Mo. State-of-the-art p -process calculations systematically underestimate the observed solar abundance of this isotope. Our data provide stringent constraints on the 91Nb(p ,γ )92Mo reaction rate, which is the last unmeasured reaction in the nucleosynthesis puzzle of 92Mo. Based on our results, we conclude that the 92Mo abundance anomaly is not due to the nuclear physics input to astrophysical model calculations.

  7. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo.

  8. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.

  9. On the puzzling feature of the silence of precursory electromagnetic emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Eftaxias, K; Chelidze, T

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that fracture induced MHz-kHz electromagnetic (EM) emissions, which emerge from a few days up to a few hours before the main seismic shock occurrence, in accordance with the laboratory experiments, permit a real time monitoring of damage process of last stages of earthquake preparation process, as it is happens at the laboratory scale. Despite fairly abundant evidence, EM precursors have not been adequately accepted as credible physical quantities. These negative views are enhanced by the fact that certain "puzzling features" are consistently observed in candidate pre-seismic EM emissions. More precisely, EM silence in all frequency bands appears before the main seismic shock occurrence, as well as during the aftershock period. Actually, the view that "acceptance of 'precursive' EM signals without convincing co-seismic signals should not be expected" seems to be reasonable. In this work we focus on this point. We examine whether the aforementioned features of EM silence are really puzzli...

  10. Box-Cox transformation for resolving Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle in curve fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporating the Box-Cox transformation into a least-squares method is presented as one of resolutions of an anomaly known as Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle. The transformation is a strategy to make non-normal distribution data resemble normal data. A procedure is proposed: transform the measured raw data with an optimized Box-Cox transformation parameter, fit the transformed data using a usual curve fitting method, then inverse-transform the fitted results to final estimates. The generalized least-squares method utilized in GMA is adopted as the curve fitting tool for the test of proposed procedure. In the procedure, covariance matrices are correspondingly transformed and inverse-transformed with the aid of error propagation law. In addition to a sensible answer to the Peelle's problem itself, the procedure resulted in reasonable estimates of 6Li(n,t) cross sections in several to 800 keV energy region. Meanwhile, comparisons of the present procedure with that of Chiba and Smith show that both procedures yield estimates so close each other for the sample evaluation on 6Li(n,t) above as well as for the Peelle's problem. Two procedures, however, are conceptually very different and further discussions would be needed for a consensus on this issue of resolving the Puzzle. It is also pointed out that the transformation is applicable not only to a least-squares method but also to other parameter estimation method such as a usual Bayesian approach formulated with an assumption of normality of the probability density function. (author)

  11. Desain Pembelajaran Bangun Datar Menggunakan Fable “Dog Catches Cat” And Puzzle Tangram Di Kelas II SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnani Lisnani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa dalam pengenalan dan pengelompokkan bangun datar melalui fable “dog catches cat”, puzzle tangram, dan kreasi origami. Metode yang digunakan adalah design research terdiri dari tiga tahap, yaitu: preliminary, design experiment (pilot experiment dan teaching experiment, dan analysis retrospective.  Penelitian ini mengembangkan hasil pembelajaran tentang bangun datar melalui serangkaian aktivitas, prosedur, dan strategi bagi siswa dalam menemukan kemampuan berpikir kreatif melalui Pendekatan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI melalui konteks tangram melalui fable “dog catches cat”. Puzzle tangram, dan kreasi origami menjadi starting point materi pengenalan dan pengelompokkan bangun datar. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa learning trajectory pada masing-masing aktivitas yaitu: 1 Aktivitas 1, siswa mengenal berbagai bentuk bangun datar melalui penggunaan fable. 2 Aktivitas 2, siswa mampu menyebutkan dan mengelompokkan berbagai bangun datar melalui puzzle tangram. 3 Aktivitas 3, membentuk dan mengelompokkan bangun datar dan terbentuk suatu kreasi baru berupa kucing, anjing, dan lainnya.The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical creative thinking abilities and grouping students in the introduction of a flat wake through the fable “dog catches paint " , tangram puzzles, and origami creations. The method used is the research design consists of three stages: preliminary, design of experiments (pilot experiments and teaching experiments, and a retrospective analysis. This study develops learning outcomes on a flat wake through a series of activities, procedures, and strategies for students in finding creative thinking abilities through Realistic Mathematics Education Approach Indonesia (PMRI through tangram context through fable “dog catches the paint “. Tangram puzzles, and origami creations become the starting point and the

  12. Biophysical Puzzles Concerning Magnetite-Based Magnetoreception in the Common Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Kobayashi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    A recent report demonstrating magnetotactic behavior in the nematode worm, C. elegans, presents two intriguing biophysical puzzles. Vidal-Gadea et al. (2015, DOI: 10.7554/eLife.07493) show that wild-type, well-fed populations from both Hemispheres migrate upwards when their soil environment is moist and wet, and downward when starved. Their data show that inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field reverses the migration direction, indicating that it is a magnetically polar (not axial) response. Also, the angle of magnetic migration varies with the inclination angle of the local geomagnetic field at the native site, minimizing travel time. This ancestral magnetic migration direction persists even when strains are taken to different areas. We note that only a single-domain ferromagnetic magnetoreceptor (e.g, magnetite) is capable of producing a polar magnetotactic response, and in support there is one report of magnetosomes in C. elegans (Cranfield et al., 2004;DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2004.0209). However, the polarity of a magnetosome is determined at the time it grows across the SPM/SD threshold, and the magnetic orientation will lock-in randomly unless biased by the strong field of adjacent magnetosomes. Hence, the persistence of a North or South seeking direction preference within these populations demands that stable magnetosome chains of fixed polarity must be transmitted from parents, to the eggs, to the larvae, and then to the new adults. This is similar to the non-genetic inheritance process by which populations of magnetotactic bacteria can maintain North- or South-seeking swimming preference. Furthermore, for a magnetotactic organism to maintain a consistent angle from the magnetic axis is not enough to make it go vertical; it would go in a cone. For them to go vertical as reported (or to deviate at their natal magnetic inclination) demands that they must have a separate gravity sensor with which to measure the inclination angle relative to the

  13. Two approaches towards the flavour puzzle. Dynamical minimal flavour violation and warped extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Michaela E.

    2010-08-16

    The minimal-flavour-violating (MFV) hypothesis considers the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa matrices as the only source of flavour violation. In this work, we promote their entries to dynamical scalar spurion fields, using an effective field theory approach, such that the maximal flavour symmetry (FS) of the SM gauge sector is formally restored at high energy scales. The non-vanishing vacuum expectation values of the spurions induce a sequence of FS breaking and generate the observed hierarchy in the SM quark masses and mixings. The fact that there exists no explanation for it in the SM is known as the flavour puzzle. Gauging the non-abelian subgroup of the spontaneously broken FS, we interpret the associated Goldstone bosons as the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the corresponding massive gauge bosons. Integrating out the heavy Higgs modes in the Yukawa spurions leads directly to flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. The coefficients of the effective four-quark operators, resulting from the exchange of heavy flavoured gauge bosons, strictly follow the MFV principle. On the other hand, the Goldstone bosons associated with the global abelian symmetry group behave as weakly coupled axions which can be used to solve the strong CP problem within a modified Peccei-Quinn formalism. Models with a warped fifth dimension contain five-dimensional (5D) fermion bulk mass matrices in addition to their 5D Yukawa matrices, which thus represent an additional source of flavour violation beyond MFV. They can address the flavour puzzle since their eigenvalues allow for a different localisation of the fermion zero mode profiles along the extra dimension which leads to a hierarchy in the effective four-dimensional (4D) Yukawa matrices. At the same time, the fermion splitting introduces non-universal fermion couplings to Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson modes, inducing tree-level FCNCs. Within a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc model) we carefully work

  14. Set selection dynamical system neural networks with partial memories, with applications to Sudoku and KenKen puzzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, B; Clement, G; Kunze, H

    2015-08-01

    After reviewing set selection and memory model dynamical system neural networks, we introduce a neural network model that combines set selection with partial memories (stored memories on subsets of states in the network). We establish that feasible equilibria with all states equal to ± 1 correspond to answers to a particular set theoretic problem. We show that KenKen puzzles can be formulated as a particular case of this set theoretic problem and use the neural network model to solve them; in addition, we use a similar approach to solve Sudoku. We illustrate the approach in examples. As a heuristic experiment, we use online or print resources to identify the difficulty of the puzzles and compare these difficulties to the number of iterations used by the appropriate neural network solver, finding a strong relationship. PMID:25984696

  15. Desain Pembelajaran Bangun Datar Menggunakan Fable “Dog Catches Cat” And Puzzle Tangram Di Kelas II SD

    OpenAIRE

    Lisnani Lisnani; R. Ilma; Somakim Somakim

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa dalam pengenalan dan pengelompokkan bangun datar melalui fable “dog catches cat”, puzzle tangram, dan kreasi origami. Metode yang digunakan adalah design research terdiri dari tiga tahap, yaitu: preliminary, design experiment (pilot experiment dan teaching experiment), dan analysis retrospective.  Penelitian ini mengembangkan hasil pembelajaran tentang bangun datar melalui serangkaian aktivitas, prosedur, da...

  16. [What type of welfare policy promotes health?: the puzzling interrelation of economic and health inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrelmann, K; Richter, M; Rathmann, K

    2011-06-01

    In all highly developed countries, the overall health status of the population has significantly improved within the past 30 years. The most important reason for this is the increase in economic prosperity. Economic wealth, however, today is much more unequally distributed than it was 3 decades ago. Countries with relatively small disparities in the availability of material resources between socioeconomic groups, such as the Scandinavian countries, have better health outcomes on the population level. Health inequalities, however, have also reached a higher level than 30 years ago. As of today, we do not have convincing explanations for the interrelation of economic and health inequality. This paper gives an overview of existing research on a comparative basis. The research results are ambivalent. They show the puzzling result that the Scandinavian countries with their highly distributive welfare policy manage to achieve the comparatively highest level of economic, but not health, equity. Based on these results, we develop proposals for future research approaches. A central assumption is that in rich societies no longer only material, but more and more immaterial determinants are crucial for the formation of health inequality. The promotion of "salutogenic" self-management capabilities in socially disadvantaged groups is considered to be the central element in effective intervention strategies.

  17. Geneva University - Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 12 May 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle Dr Aldo Antogninia , CREMA Collaboration, Max Planck Institute, Germany At the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland, we have measured several 2S-2P transition frequencies in muonic hydrogen (µp) and deuterium (µd) by means of laser spectroscopy. This results in an order of magnitude improvement on the rms charge radius values of the proton and the deuteron. Additionally the Zemach radii and the deuteron polarizability are also inferred. The new proton radius value is deduced with a relative accuracy of 0.1% but strongly disagrees from CODATA. The origin of this discrepancy is not yet known. It may come from theo...

  18. Resolution of the MACHO-LMC-5 Puzzle: The Jerk-Parallax Microlens Degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, A

    2004-01-01

    By extending the constant-acceleration analysis of Smith, Mao & Paczynski (2003) to include jerk, I show that microlens parallax measurements are subject to a four-fold discrete degeneracy. The new degeneracy is characterized by a projected velocity \\tilde v_j=-(3/4)\\csc\\beta(\\cos^2\\psi\\sin^2\\beta+\\sin^2\\psi)^{3/2}v_{earth}, where \\beta is the ecliptic latitude, \\psi is the phase of the Earth's orbit relative to opposition at the time of the event maximum, and v_{earth}=30 km/s is the speed of the Earth. The degeneracy becomes important when the lens projected velocity \\tilde v is of order \\tilde v_j. For events toward the LMC, \\tilde v_j \\~ (3/4)v_{earth}, so this degeneracy is important primarily for lenses in the Milky Way disk. In particular, it solves the puzzle of MACHO-LMC-5, whose microlens parallax measurement had yielded mass and distance determinations for the lens that were inconsistent with photometric estimates. Toward the Galactic bulge, \\tilde v_j ranges from ~0.2 km/s at the equinoxes to ...

  19. Micro and regular saccades across the lifespan during a visual search of "Where's Waldo" puzzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Nicholas L; Trimberger, Jane; Hitzeman, Steve; Redick, Bryan; Beckerman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that different aspects of visual-motor control mature at different rates and aging is associated with declines in both sensory and motor function, little is known about the relationship between microsaccades and either development or aging. Using a sample of 343 individuals ranging in age from 4 to 66 and a task that has been shown to elicit a high frequency of microsaccades (solving Where's Waldo puzzles), we explored microsaccade frequency and kinematics (main sequence curves) as a function of age. Taking advantage of the large size of our dataset (183,893 saccades), we also address (a) the saccade amplitude limit at which video eye trackers are able to accurately measure microsaccades and (b) the degree and consistency of saccade kinematics at varying amplitudes and directions. Using a modification of the Engbert-Mergenthaler saccade detector, we found that even the smallest amplitude movements (0.25-0.5°) demonstrate basic saccade kinematics. With regard to development and aging, both microsaccade and regular saccade frequency exhibited a very small increase across the life span. Visual search ability, as per many other aspects of visual performance, exhibited a U-shaped function over the lifespan. Finally, both large horizontal and moderate vertical directional biases were detected for all saccade sizes. PMID:26049037

  20. The Variance of Solar Wind Magnetic Fluctuations: Solutions and Further Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dependence of the variance directions of the magnetic field in the solar wind as a function of scale, radial distance, and Alfvenicity. The study resolves the question of why different studies have arrived at widely differing values for the maximum to minimum power (approximately equal to 3:1 up to approximately equal to 20:1). This is due to the decreasing anisotropy with increasing time interval chosen for the variance, and is a direct result of the "spherical polarization" of the waves which follows from the near constancy of |B|. The reason for the magnitude preserving evolution is still unresolved. Moreover, while the long-known tendency for the minimum variance to lie along the mean field also follows from this view (as shown by Barnes many years ago), there is no theory for why the minimum variance follows the field direction as the Parker angle changes. We show that this turning is quite generally true in Alfvenic regions over a wide range of heliocentric distances. The fact that nonAlfvenic regions, while still showing strong power anisotropies, tend to have a much broader range of angles between the minimum variance and the mean field makes it unlikely that the cause of the variance turning is to be found in a turbulence mechanism. There are no obvious alternative mechanisms, leaving us with another intriguing puzzle.

  1. Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekessy, Sarah A; Allnutt, T R; Premoli, A C; Lara, A; Ennos, R A; Burgman, M A; Cortes, M; Newton, A C

    2002-04-01

    Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle), a southern South American tree species of exceptional cultural and economic importance, is of conservation concern owing to extensive historical clearance and current human pressures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterise genetic heterogeneity within and among 13 populations of this species from throughout its natural range. Extensive genetic variability was detected and partitioned by analysis of molecular variance, with the majority of variation existing within populations (87.2%), but significant differentiation was recorded among populations (12.8%). Estimates of Shannon's genetic diversity and percent polymorphism were relatively high for all populations and provide no evidence for a major reduction in genetic diversity from historical events, such as glaciation. All pairwise genetic distance values derived from analysis of molecular variance (Phi(ST)) were significant when individual pairs of populations were compared. Although populations are geographically divided into Chilean Coastal, Chilean Andes and Argentinean regions, this grouping explained only 1.77% of the total variation. Within Andean groups there was evidence of a trend of genetic distance with increasing latitude, and clustering of populations across the Andes, suggesting postglacial migration routes from multiple refugia. Implications of these results for the conservation and use of the genetic resource of this species are discussed. PMID:11920130

  2. Silver Blaze Puzzle in 1/Nc Expansions of Cold and Dense QCD Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi

    2014-01-01

    We consider quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with Nc colors and Nf quark flavors at finite quark chemical potential mu_q or isospin chemical potential mu_I. We specifically address the nature of the ``Silver Blaze'' behavior in the framework of 1/Nc expansion. Starting with the QCD partition function, we implement Veneziano's Nf/Nc expansion to identify the density onset. We find the baryon mass M_B and the pion mass m_pi appearing from different order of Veneziano's expansion. We argue that the confining properties are responsible for the Silver Blaze in the region of m_pi/2 < mu_q < M_B/Nc. We point out, however, that Veneziano's expansion brings about a puzzling subtlety along the same line as the baryon problem in finite-density quenched simulations. We emphasize that the large-Nc limit can allow for the physical ordering of M_B and m_pi thanks to the similarity to the quenched approximation, while the unphysical ghost quarks contaminate the baryon sector if Nc is finite. We also discuss the ``orientifo...

  3. Orbital Wall Reconstruction with Two-Piece Puzzle 3D Printed Implants: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y; Büttner, Michael; Vercruysse, Herman; Wauters, Lauri; Beerens, Maikel

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for secondary reconstruction of traumatic orbital wall defects using titanium implants that act as three-dimensional (3D) puzzle pieces. We present three cases of large defect reconstruction using implants produced by Xilloc Medical B.V. (Maastricht, the Netherlands) with a 3D printer manufactured by LayerWise (3D Systems; Heverlee, Belgium), and designed using the biomedical engineering software programs ProPlan and 3-Matic (Materialise, Heverlee, Belgium). The smaller size of the implants allowed sequential implantation for the reconstruction of extensive two-wall defects via a limited transconjunctival incision. The precise fit of the implants with regard to the surrounding ledges and each other was confirmed by intraoperative 3D imaging (Mobile C-arm Systems B.V. Pulsera, Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, the Netherlands). The patients showed near-complete restoration of orbital volume and ocular motility. However, challenges remain, including traumatic fat atrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26889349

  4. Solving the 56Ni puzzle of magnetar-powered broad-lined type Ic supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Xu, Dong; Wang, Shan-Qin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Broad-lined type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are of great importance because their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) holds the key to deciphering the central engine of LGRBs, which refrains from being unveiled despite decades of investigation. Among the two popularly hypothesized types of central engine, i.e., black holes and strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars), there is mounting evidence that the central engine of GRB-associated SNe (GRB-SNe) is rapidly rotating magnetars. Theoretical analysis also suggests that magnetars could be the central engine of SNe Ic-BL. What puzzled the researchers is the fact that light curve modeling indicates that as much as 0.2-0.5 solar mass of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion of the SNe Ic-BL, which is unfortunately in direct conflict with current state-of-the-art understanding of magnetar-powered 56Ni synthesis. Here we propose a dynamic model of magnetar-powered SNe to take into account the acceleration of the ejecta by the magnetar, a...

  5. Physics and financial economics (1776–2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics—from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the ‘Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis’ to reconcile the pervasive presence of ‘noise traders’ with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets. (key issues reviews)

  6. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics--from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the 'Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis' to reconcile the pervasive presence of 'noise traders' with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  7. Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekessy, Sarah A; Allnutt, T R; Premoli, A C; Lara, A; Ennos, R A; Burgman, M A; Cortes, M; Newton, A C

    2002-04-01

    Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle), a southern South American tree species of exceptional cultural and economic importance, is of conservation concern owing to extensive historical clearance and current human pressures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterise genetic heterogeneity within and among 13 populations of this species from throughout its natural range. Extensive genetic variability was detected and partitioned by analysis of molecular variance, with the majority of variation existing within populations (87.2%), but significant differentiation was recorded among populations (12.8%). Estimates of Shannon's genetic diversity and percent polymorphism were relatively high for all populations and provide no evidence for a major reduction in genetic diversity from historical events, such as glaciation. All pairwise genetic distance values derived from analysis of molecular variance (Phi(ST)) were significant when individual pairs of populations were compared. Although populations are geographically divided into Chilean Coastal, Chilean Andes and Argentinean regions, this grouping explained only 1.77% of the total variation. Within Andean groups there was evidence of a trend of genetic distance with increasing latitude, and clustering of populations across the Andes, suggesting postglacial migration routes from multiple refugia. Implications of these results for the conservation and use of the genetic resource of this species are discussed.

  8. Hyperon puzzle and the RMF model with scaled hadron masses and coupling constants

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E; Voskresensky, D N

    2015-01-01

    The equation of state of cold baryonic matter is studied within a relativistic mean-field model with hadron masses and coupling constants depending on a scalar field. We demonstrate that if the effective nucleon mass stops to decrease with a density increase at densities $n>n_*>n_0$, where $n_0$ is the nuclear saturation density, the equation of state stiffens for these densities and the limiting neutron star mass increases. The stabilization of the nucleon mass can be realised if in the equation of motion for the scalar mean-field there appear a term sharply varying in a narrow vicinity of the field value corresponding to the density $n_*$. We show several possible realizations of this mechanism getting sufficiently stiff equations of state. The appearance of hyperons in dense neutron star interiors is accounted for. The obtained equations of state remain sufficiently stiff if the reduction of the $\\phi$ meson mass is incorporated. Thereby, the hyperon puzzle can be resolved.

  9. The placebo puzzle: examining the discordant space between biomedical science and illness/healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Shawn; Cibulka, Nancy J; Palmer, Janice L; Lorenz, Rebecca A; SmithBattle, Lee

    2013-03-01

    The placebo response presents an enigma to biomedical science: how can 'inert' or 'sham' procedures reduce symptoms and produce physiological changes that are comparable to prescribed treatments? In this study, we examine this puzzle by explicating the discordant space between the prevailing biomedical paradigm, which focuses on a technical understanding of diagnosis and treatment, and a broader understanding of illness and healing as relational and embodied. Although biomedical achievements are impressive, the knowledge resulting from this paradigm is limited by its ontological and epistemological assumptions. When the body and world are objectified, illness meanings, therapeutic relationships, and healing practices are dismissed or distorted. In spite of a robust critique of the tenets of biomedicine for guiding practice, the biomedical paradigm retains a tenacious hold on evidence-based medicine and nursing, downplaying our clinical understanding of the sentient body, patients' life-worlds, and illness and healing. In reality, skilled nurses rely on multiple forms of knowledge in providing high-quality care to particular patients. Clinically wise nurses integrate their experience and knowledge of patients' priorities, fears, and illness trajectories along with biomedical findings to make astute judgments and promote health and healing.

  10. Gravity does not exist a puzzle for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Icke, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Every scientific fact begins as an opinion about the unknown—a theory—that becomes fact as evidence piles up to support it. But what if two theories exist that correspond perfectly to observed phenomena and they cannot be reconciled with each other? Can theory become fact? Such is the dilemma in contemporary physics. In seeking to understand the mechanisms of the universe, physicists have arrived at two conflicting theories: one explains the mystery of gravity through a precise model of space and time, and the other explains the mystery of matter via the behavior of quantum particles. Each theory reigns in its own domain. But 13.8 billion years ago, when the universe first came into being, gravity and matter belonged to a single realm. Can these theories be united, and if so, what facts will be revealed? This, contends Vincent Icke, is the central puzzle facing physics in our century. Combining Icke’s expertise with a robust argument and intellectual playfulness, Gravity Does Not Exist makes a notorious...

  11. The Puzzling Origin of the Acquaintance between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Hamilton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have puzzled over the origin of the relationship between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch. That the two shared a cordial professional relationship in 1759 is not surprising, but it is unclear how and when Birch obtained the poem "The Dream, an ode by Miss Ramsey of 15" (ca. 1744-45 for his manuscript collection. Possibly Edward Cave, publisher of The Gentleman’s Magazine, or other professional associates such as Samuel Johnson or Samuel Richardson supplied it. But archival evidence indicates that Lady Isabella Finch, Lennox’s earliest patroness, was in contact with Birch in 1749, raising the question of whether she could have given Birch the poem. However, a different type of connection between Lennox and Birch is suggested by Lennox’s first novel, The Life of Harriot Stuart, written by Herself (1750, which mentions William Chillingworth, Isaac Barrow, and John Tillotson as theological influences. Lennox may have known of these three seventeenth-century divines through Birch’s biographical work on them.

  12. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics—from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the ‘Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis’ to reconcile the pervasive presence of ‘noise traders’ with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  13. Learning and Memory Processes Following Cochlear Implantation:The Missing Piece of the Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Pisoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, there is no question that cochlear implants work and often work very well in quiet listening conditions for many profoundly deaf children and adults. The speech and language outcomes data published over the last two decades document quite extensively the clinically significant benefits of cochlear implants. Although there now is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of cochlear implants as a medical intervention for profound hearing loss in both children and adults, there still remain a number of challenging unresolved clinical and theoretical issues that deal with the effectiveness of cochlear implants in individual patients that have not yet been successfully resolved. In this paper, we review recent findings on learning and memory, two central topics in the field of cognition that have been seriously neglected in research on cochlear implants. Our research findings on sequence learning, memory and organization processes, and retrieval strategies used in verbal learning and memory of categorized word lists suggests that basic domain-general learning abilities may be the missing piece of the puzzle in terms of understanding the cognitive factors that underlie the enormous individual differences and variability routinely observed in speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation.

  14. The grand unified link between the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and the generation puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential ingredients of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism are shown to be dictated by a proper choice of a grand unification scheme. The presence of U(1)sub(PQ) gives rise to the possibility that the same physics which resolves the strong CP-violation problem may decode the generation puzzle with no extra cost. Multigenerational signatures of the invisible axion scenario, such as the canonical fermion mass matrix, are discussed. The uniqueness and the special values of the quantized PQ-assignments, namely 1,-3,5-7,... for successive generations, acquire an automatic explanation once the idea of ''horizontal compositeness'' is invoked. A characteristic feature then is that the muon appears to have a less complicated structure than the electron. Furthermore, U(1)sub(PQ) chooses SO(10) to be its only tenable gauge symmetry partner, and at the same time crucially restricts the associated Higgs system. All this finally results in a consistent fermion mass hierarchy with log m, to the crudest estimation, varying linearly with respect to the generation index. (author)

  15. Simultaneous Explanation of the $R_K$ and $R_{D^{(*)}}$ Puzzles: a Model Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Guévin, Jean-Pascal; London, David; Watanabe, Ryoutaro

    2016-01-01

    $R_K$ and $R_{D^{(*)}}$ are two $B$-decay measurements that presently exhibit discrepancies with the SM. Recently, using an effective field theory approach, it was demonstrated that a new-physics model can simultaneously explain both the $R_K$ and $R_{D^{(*)}}$ puzzles. There are two UV completions that can give rise to the effective Lagrangian: (i) $VB$: a vector boson that transforms as an $SU(2)_L$ triplet, as in the SM, (ii) $U_1$: an $SU(2)_L$-singlet vector leptoquark. In this paper, we show that, in fact, $VB$ and $U_1$ can be distinguished experimentally. $VB$ also contributes to $\\tau \\to 3\\mu$, while $U_1$ does not. $VB$ predicts $1.9 \\times 10^{-10} \\le {\\cal B}(\\tau^-\\to\\mu^-\\mu^+\\mu^-) \\le 2.1 \\times 10^{-8}$, which should be measurable at Belle II (and perhaps LHCb). $\\tau \\to 3\\mu$ is therefore a smoking-gun signal of $VB$. For $U_1$, there are several observables that may point to this model. Perhaps the most interesting is the lepton-flavor-violating decay $\\Upsilon(3S) \\to \\mu \\tau$, which h...

  16. From polarisation to practice: puzzles and insights on integrated approaches from public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffardi, Anne L

    2014-01-01

    Much of the debate in the global health literature about vertical and horizontal programmatic approaches, between narrowly targeted interventions and those providing broader system-wide support, has taken place at the global level. Based on a comparative case study of international donors in the health sector in Peru that varied in their vertical-horizontal orientation, this article examines the extent to which health care practitioners and national policy-makers perceive and attempt to reconcile the tension between these approaches. Informants readily identified advantages and disadvantages of both approaches, but did not perceive a marked vertical-horizontal division, suggesting that tensions appear to be less pronounced in practice than academic debates suggest. A clear consensus did not emerge, and although more people spoke of a mixed approached, they too puzzled over how best to balance trade-offs. In practice, there were examples of more integrated approaches, targeted aspects of horizontal programmes and system-strengthening elements of vertical programmes; however, they were not explicitly identified as such. Practitioner perspectives reinforced the diverse and dynamic nature of disease, both epidemics and country profiles, and suggest that focusing on periods of transition and points of integration may be a fruitful path forward. PMID:24992263

  17. Revisit of the neutron/proton ratio puzzle in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Hai-Yun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An; Ma, Yu-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating a newly improved isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction in the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model IBUU11, we have investigated relative effects of the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ and the neutron-proton effective mass splitting $m^*_n-m^*_p$ on the neutron/proton ratio of free nucleons and those in light clusters. It is found that the $m^*_n-m^*_p$ has a relatively stronger effect than the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ and the assumption of $m^*_n\\leq m^*_p$ leads to a higher neutron/proton ratio. Moreover, this finding is independent of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections used. However, results of our calculations using the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ and $m^*_n-m^*_p$ both within their current uncertainty ranges are all too low compared to the recent NSCL/MSU double neutron/proton ratio data from central $^{124}$Sn+$^{124}$Sn and $^{112}$Sn+$^{112}$Sn collisions at 50 and 120 MeV/u, thus calling for new mechanisms to explain the puzzlingly high n...

  18. The origin of the strong soft excess and puzzling iron line complex in Mkn 841

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, P O; Matt, G; Maraschi, L; Malzac, J; Mouchet, M; Boisson, C; Longinotti, A; Nandra, K; Ferrando, P; Henri, G

    2006-01-01

    Mkn 841 has been observed during 3 different periods (January 2001, January 2005 and July 2005) by XMM-Newton for a total cumulated exposure time of ~108 ks. We present in this paper a broad band spectral analysis of the complete EPIC-pn data sets. These observations confirm the presence of the strong soft excess and complex iron line profile known to be present in this source since a long time. They also reveal their extreme and puzzling spectral and temporal behaviors. Indeed, the 0.5-2 keV soft X-ray flux decreases by a factor 3 between 2001 and 2005 and the line shape appears to be a mixed of broad and narrow components, both variable but on differen timescales. The broad-band 0.5-10 keV spectra are well described by a model including a primary power law continuum, a blurred photoionized reflection and a narrow iron line, the blurred reflection fitting self-consistently the soft excess and the broad line component. The origin and nature of the narrow component is unclear.

  19. Marriage \\`a-la-MOND: Baryonic dark matter in galaxy clusters and the cooling flow puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2007-01-01

    I start with a brief introduction to MOND phenomenology and its possible roots in cosmology--a notion that may turn out to be the most far reaching aspect of MOND. Next I discuss the implications of MOND for the dark matter (DM) doctrine: MOND's successes imply that baryons determine everything. For DM this would mean that the puny tail of leftover baryons in galaxies wags the hefty DM dog. This has to occur in many intricate ways, and despite the haphazard construction history of galaxies--a very tall order. I then concentrate on galaxy clusters in light of MOND, which still requires some yet undetected cluster dark matter, presumably in some baryonic form (CBDM). This CBDM might contribute to the heating of the x-ray emitting gas and thus alleviate the cooling-flow puzzle. MOND, qua theory of dynamics, does not directly enter the microphysics of the gas; however, it does force a new outlook on the role of DM in shaping the cluster gasdynamics: MOND tells us that the cluster DM is not cold dark matter, is no...

  20. Learning and Memory Processes Following Cochlear Implantation: The Missing Piece of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G; Chandramouli, Suyog H; Conway, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    At the present time, there is no question that cochlear implants (CIs) work and often work very well in quiet listening conditions for many profoundly deaf children and adults. The speech and language outcomes data published over the last two decades document quite extensively the clinically significant benefits of CIs. Although there now is a large body of evidence supporting the "efficacy" of CIs as a medical intervention for profound hearing loss in both children and adults, there still remain a number of challenging unresolved clinical and theoretical issues that deal with the "effectiveness" of CIs in individual patients that have not yet been successfully resolved. In this paper, we review recent findings on learning and memory, two central topics in the field of cognition that have been seriously neglected in research on CIs. Our research findings on sequence learning, memory and organization processes, and retrieval strategies used in verbal learning and memory of categorized word lists suggests that basic domain-general learning abilities may be the missing piece of the puzzle in terms of understanding the cognitive factors that underlie the enormous individual differences and variability routinely observed in speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation. PMID:27092098

  1. Low-voltage puzzle-like fractal microelectromechanial system variable capacitor suppressing pull-in

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-10-01

    This Letter introduces an electrostatically actuated fractal MEMS variable capacitor that, by utilising the substrate, extends the tuning range (TR) beyond the theoretical limit of 1.5 as dictated by the pull-in phenomenon. The backbone concept behind the fractal varactor is to create a suspended movable plate possessing a specific fractal geometry, and to simultaneously create a bottom fixed plate complementary in shape to the top plate. Thus, when the top plate is actuated, it moves towards the bottom plate and fills the void present within the bottom plate without touching it akin to how puzzle pieces are assembled. Further, a reasonable horizontal separation is maintained between both the plates to avoid shorting. The electrostatic forces come from the capacitance formed between the top plate and bottom plate, and from the capacitance formed between the top plate and the doped substrate. The variable capacitor was fabricated in the PolyMUMPS process and provided a TR of 4.1 at 6 V, and its resonant frequency was in excess of 40 GHz.

  2. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics--from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the 'Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis' to reconcile the pervasive presence of 'noise traders' with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets. PMID:24875470

  3. Design and Realization of Puzzle Game Generator%拼图游戏生成器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史月美; 王宏武

    2013-01-01

    拼图游戏生成器可选择本地图片、游戏难度,自动生成简单却具有丰富趣味性的智力游戏。讨论分析了拼图游戏生成器的实现难点,运用八数码问题的算法来实现拼图的移动,通过Swing来实现图片的上载等功能。拼图游戏生成器跟传统拼图游戏相比,具有一定的灵活性、耐玩性。%Puzzle game generator can select local image and the difficulty to generate simple but rich fun puzzle game. Through the analysis of the difficulties in implementation of jigsaw puzzle builder, we realize the puzzle mobile by using eight digital problem algorithms, and upload image by using Swing tool. Compared with the traditional puzzle games, puzzle games generator has certain flexibility and playfulness.

  4. Identifying sediment discontinuities and solving dating puzzles using monitoring and palaeolimnological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuhui; Sayer, Carl D.; Bennion, Helen; Maberly, Stephen C.; Yang, Handong; Battarbee, Richard W.

    2016-05-01

    Palaeolimnological studies should ideally be based upon continuous, undisturbed sediment sequences with reliable chronologies. However for some lake cores, these conditions are not met and palaeolimnologists are often faced with dating puzzles caused by sediment disturbances in the past. This study chooses Esthwaite Water from England to illustrate how to identify sedimentation discontinuities in lake cores and how chronologies can be established for imperfect cores by correlation of key sediment signatures in parallel core records and with long-term monitoring data (1945-2003). Replicated short cores (ESTH1, ESTH7, and ESTH8) were collected and subjected to loss-on-ignition, radiometric dating (210Pb, 137Cs, and 14C), particle size, trace metal, and fossil diatom analysis. Both a slumping and a hiatus event were detected in ESTH7 based on comparisons made between the cores and the long-term diatom data. Ordination analysis suggested that the slumped material in ESTH7 originated from sediment deposited around 1805-1880 AD. Further, it was inferred that the hiatus resulted in a loss of sediment deposited from 1870 to 1970 AD. Given the existence of three superior 14C dates in ESTH7, ESTH1 and ESTH7 were temporally correlated by multiple palaeolimnological proxies for age-depth model development. High variability in sedimentation rates was evident, but good agreement across the various palaeolimnological proxies indicated coherence in sediment processes within the coring area. Differences in sedimentation rates most likely resulted from the natural morphology of the lake basin. Our study suggests that caution is required in selecting suitable coring sites for palaeolimnological studies of small, relatively deep lakes and that proximity to steep slopes should be avoided wherever possible. Nevertheless, in some cases, comparisons between a range of contemporary and palaeolimnological records can be employed to diagnose sediment disturbances and establish a chronology.

  5. The puzzling Hg family revisited: a comprehensive study based on density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ambrosch-Draxl

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   We review theoretical investigations of high-temperature superconductors which have been performed by density functional theory. The main subject of our study is the Hg-based family of the superconducting cuprates, which demonstrates unusual and still puzzling properties. We show that the first-principles approach is able to describe the effects of chemical doping and pressure on the structural properties, the band structure, the ion charges, and the chemical bonds. We report on the origin of the optimal doping and present results on the inhomegeneity of the charge distribution and the concomitant splitting of the electronic bands and their contributions to the density of states. Due to their individual energy dependence, the role of the intrinsic inhomogeneities for superconductivity strongly depends on the energy and character of the quasiparticle mediating the Cooper pairing. The evolution of the electric field gradients with doping is analyzed and compared to nuclear resonance experiments. The calculated results can explain the origin of doping-induced effects observed either by local or macroscopic experimental probes. From a systematic study of the density of states by varying the doping concentration as well as applying pressure up to 15 GPa, and comparison with the measured critical temperatures, the coupling constant of the quasiparticle has been estimated to be of the order of one. Moreover, we show how density functional theory allows for the calculation of vibrational properties and phonon Raman scattering in the high-Tc cuprates. All results are quantitatively compared to experiment, and have revealed very good agreement.

  6. Lifetime of (e+e-) puzzle's composite particle: No valid limits yet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent articles assert that the increasingly precise null results of Bhabha scattering imply ''model-independent'' increasing lower bounds upon the lifetime of any neutral particle whose decay is hypothesized to yield the sharp lines of the GSI ''(e+e-) puzzle.'' We discuss here reasons why such conclusions must be considered as artifacts of the assumptions made in the analysis, and not as valid scientific deductions from the data alone. Furthermore, we show that when such data are combined with additional assumptions sufficient to allow an inference about the lifetime, then the conclusion is inevitably dependent explicitly or implicitly upon the model assumed for the particle decay. In addition, we discuss why the limits asserted upon the lifetime of such a particle from the high precision agreement for ge-2 between experiment and theoretical quantum electrodynamics apply only to an elementary particle, but not to a composite particle, and especially not to a leptonic composite. In the end, no valid limits upon the composite particle lifetime seems to exist at present. We also consider, in the context of the general partial width data problem, the additional experimental data which could suffice to sustain a purely empirical limit upon the lifetime, and observe that all of the present data are consistent with a composite particle with a significant amplitude in the four lepton (e+e+e-e-) ''quadronium'' sector. Finally, it is shown that recent preliminary Bhabha inelastic (e+e+γ) data, if confirmed, would imply the crude but genuinely empirical upper bound upon the resonance lifetime of about τmax∼2x10-11 sec≥τ

  7. Does the diffusion dark matter-dark energy interaction model solve cosmological puzzles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Marek; Stachowski, Aleksander

    2016-08-01

    We study dynamics of cosmological models with diffusion effects modeling dark matter and dark energy interactions. We show the simple model with diffusion between the cosmological constant sector and dark matter, where the canonical scaling law of dark matter (ρd m ,0a-3(t )) is modified by an additive ɛ (t )=γ t a-3(t ) to the form ρd m=ρd m ,0a-3(t )+ɛ (t ). We reduced this model to the autonomous dynamical system and investigate it using dynamical system methods. This system possesses a two-dimensional invariant submanifold on which the dark matter-dark energy (DM-DE) interaction can be analyzed on the phase plane. The state variables are density parameter for matter (dark and visible) and parameter δ characterizing the rate of growth of energy transfer between the dark sectors. A corresponding dynamical system belongs to a general class of jungle type of cosmologies represented by coupled cosmological models in a Lotka-Volterra framework. We demonstrate that the de Sitter solution is a global attractor for all trajectories in the phase space and there are two repellers: the Einstein-de Sitter universe and the de Sitter universe state dominating by the diffusion effects. We distinguish in the phase space trajectories, which become in good agreement with the data. They should intersect a rectangle with sides of Ωm ,0∈[0.2724 ,0.3624 ] , δ ∈[0.0000 ,0.0364 ] at the 95% CL. Our model could solve some of the puzzles of the Λ CDM model, such as the coincidence and fine-tuning problems. In the context of the coincidence problem, our model can explain the present ratio of ρm to ρd e, which is equal 0.457 6-0.0831+0.1109 at a 2 σ confidence level.

  8. Solving the 56Ni Puzzle of Magnetar-powered Broad-lined Type IC Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Han, Yan-Hui; Xu, Dong; Wang, Shan-Qin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are of great importance because their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) holds the key to deciphering the central engine of LGRBs, which refrains from being unveiled despite decades of investigation. Among the two popularly hypothesized types of central engine, i.e., black holes and strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars), there is mounting evidence that the central engine of GRB-associated SNe (GRB-SNe) is rapidly rotating magnetars. Theoretical analysis also suggests that magnetars could be the central engine of SNe Ic-BL. What puzzled the researchers is the fact that light-curve modeling indicates that as much as 0.2{--}0.5 {M}ȯ of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion of the SNe Ic-BL, which is unfortunately in direct conflict with current state-of-the-art understanding of magnetar-powered 56Ni synthesis. Here we propose a dynamic model of magnetar-powered SNe to take into account the acceleration of the ejecta by the magnetar, as well as the thermalization of the injected energy. Assuming that the SN kinetic energy comes exclusively from the magnetar acceleration, we find that although a major fraction of the rotational energy of the magnetar is to accelerate the SN ejecta, a tiny fraction of this energy deposited as thermal energy of the ejecta is enough to reduce the needed 56Ni to 0.06 M ⊙ for both SN 1997ef and SN 2007ru. We therefore suggest that magnetars could power SNe Ic-BL in aspects both of energetics and of 56Ni synthesis.

  9. Marriage à-la-MOND: Baryonic dark matter in galaxy clusters and the cooling flow puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2008-05-01

    I start with a brief introduction to MOND phenomenology and its possible roots in cosmology—a notion that may turn out to be the most far reaching aspect of MOND. Next I discuss the implications of MOND for the dark matter (DM) doctrine: MOND's successes imply that baryons determine everything. For DM this would mean that the puny tail of leftover baryons in galaxies wags the hefty DM dog. This has to occur in many intricate ways, and despite the haphazard construction history of galaxies—a very tall order. I then concentrate on galaxy clusters in light of MOND, which still requires some yet undetected cluster dark matter, presumably in some baryonic form (CBDM). This CBDM might contribute to the heating of the X-ray emitting gas and thus alleviate the cooling flow puzzle. MOND, qua theory of dynamics, does not directly enter the microphysics of the gas; however, it does force a new outlook on the role of DM in shaping the cluster gas dynamics: MOND tells us that the cluster DM is not cold dark matter, is not so abundant, and is not expected in galaxies; it is thus not subject to constraints on baryonic DM in galaxies. The mass in CBDM required in a whole cluster is, typically, similar to that in hot gas, but is rather more centrally concentrated, totally dominating the core. The CBDM contribution to the baryon budget in the universe is thus small. Its properties, deduced for isolated clusters, are consistent with the observations of the "bullet cluster". Its kinetic energy reservoir is much larger than that of the hot gas in the core, and would suffice to keep the gas hot for many cooling times. Heating can be effected in various ways depending on the exact nature of the CBDM, from very massive black holes to cool, compact gas clouds.

  10. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  11. Rechtsmissbrauch durch „AGG-Hopping“ / Steffen Krieger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krieger, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu otsusest, mis puudutab töökohale kandideerija staatust eesmärgiga esitada kahju hüvitamise nõudeid kui teda ei valita tööle ja sellise teguviisi käsitlemist õiguse kuritarvitamisena. Vt. ka lk. 699-700

  12. RNA-Puzzles Round II: assessment of RNA structure prediction programs applied to three large RNA structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhichao; Adamiak, Ryszard W.; Blanchet, Marc-Frédérick; Boniecki, Michal; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Chen, Shi-Jie; Cheng, Clarence; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Chou, Fang-Chieh; Cordero, Pablo; Cruz, José Almeida; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Das, Rhiju; Ding, Feng; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Kladwang, Wipapat; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lach, Grzegorz; Magnus, Marcin; Major, François; Mann, Thomas H.; Masquida, Benoît; Matelska, Dorota; Meyer, Mélanie; Peselis, Alla; Popenda, Mariusz; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Serganov, Alexander; Stasiewicz, Juliusz; Szachniuk, Marta; Tandon, Arpit; Tian, Siqi; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Yi; Xu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jinwei; Zhao, Peinan; Zok, Tomasz; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a report of a second round of RNA-Puzzles, a collective and blind experiment in three-dimensional (3D) RNA structure prediction. Three puzzles, Puzzles 5, 6, and 10, represented sequences of three large RNA structures with limited or no homology with previously solved RNA molecules. A lariat-capping ribozyme, as well as riboswitches complexed to adenosylcobalamin and tRNA, were predicted by seven groups using RNAComposer, ModeRNA/SimRNA, Vfold, Rosetta, DMD, MC-Fold, 3dRNA, and AMBER refinement. Some groups derived models using data from state-of-the-art chemical-mapping methods (SHAPE, DMS, CMCT, and mutate-and-map). The comparisons between the predictions and the three subsequently released crystallographic structures, solved at diffraction resolutions of 2.5–3.2 Å, were carried out automatically using various sets of quality indicators. The comparisons clearly demonstrate the state of present-day de novo prediction abilities as well as the limitations of these state-of-the-art methods. All of the best prediction models have similar topologies to the native structures, which suggests that computational methods for RNA structure prediction can already provide useful structural information for biological problems. However, the prediction accuracy for non-Watson–Crick interactions, key to proper folding of RNAs, is low and some predicted models had high Clash Scores. These two difficulties point to some of the continuing bottlenecks in RNA structure prediction. All submitted models are available for download at http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rnapuzzles/. PMID:25883046

  13. Lower ionosphere large positive and negative ions are still puzzling: A potential role in ion induced aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by greatly improved possibilities in future rocket borne high mass resolution ion mass spectrometry, previous pioneering rocket borne ion-mass spectrometer measurements, made by our MPIK-Heidelberg research group in the lower ionosphere, are revisited and reanalyzed. Here the focus is placed upon puzzling observations of lower ionosphere large positive and large negative ions. These have a role in lower ionosphere free electron removal. They also have a potential role in lower ionosphere aerosol and eventually even cloud formation. Measurements and model simulations are presented.

  14. Unresolved puzzles in the x-ray emission produced by charge exchange measured on electron beam ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge exchange recombination, the transfer of one or more electrons from an atomic or molecular system to a positive ion, is a common phenomenon affecting laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Controlled studies of this process in electron beam ion traps during the past one and a half decades have produced multiple observations that are difficult to explain with available spectral models. Some of the most recent observations are so puzzling that they bring in doubt the existence of a coherent predictive capability for line formation by charge exchange, making investigations of charge exchange a fertile ground for continued measurements and theoretical development.

  15. Unresolved puzzles in the x-ray emission produced by charge exchange measured on electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Clementson, J. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F. S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Schweikhard, L. [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2013-04-19

    Charge exchange recombination, the transfer of one or more electrons from an atomic or molecular system to a positive ion, is a common phenomenon affecting laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Controlled studies of this process in electron beam ion traps during the past one and a half decades have produced multiple observations that are difficult to explain with available spectral models. Some of the most recent observations are so puzzling that they bring in doubt the existence of a coherent predictive capability for line formation by charge exchange, making investigations of charge exchange a fertile ground for continued measurements and theoretical development.

  16. The Puzzle of HCN in Comets: Is it both a Product and a Primary Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Gibb, Erika L.; Magee-Sauer, Karen; Paganini, Lucas; Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen cyanide has long been regarded as a primary volatile in comets, stemming from its presence in dense molecular cloud cores and its supposed storage in the cometary nucleus. Here, we examine the observational evidence for and against that hypothesis, and argue that HCN may also result from near-nucleus chemical reactions in the coma. The distinction (product vs. primary species) is important for multiple reasons: 1. HCN is often used as a proxy for water when the dominant species (H2O) is not available for simultaneous measurement, as at radio wavelengths. 2. HCN is one of the few volatile carriers of nitrogen accessible to remote sensing. If HCN is mainly a product species, its precursor becomes the more important metric for compiling a taxonomic classification based on nitrogen chemistry. 3. The stereoisomer HNC is now confirmed as a product species. Could reaction of a primary precursor (X-CN) with a hydrocarbon co-produce both HNC and HCN? 4. The production rate for CN greatly exceeds that of HCN in some comets, demonstrating the presence of another (more important) precursor of CN. Several puzzling lines of evidence raise issues about the origin of HCN: a. The production rates of HCN measured through rotational (radio) and vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy agree in some comets - in others the infrared rate exceeds the radio rate substantially. b. With its strong dipole moment and H-bonding character, HCN should be linked more strongly in the nuclear ice to other molecules with similar properties (H2O, CH3OH), but instead its spatial release in some comets seems strongly coupled to volatiles that lack a dipole moment and thus do not form H-bonds (methane, ethane). c. The nucleus-centered rotational temperatures measured for H2O and other species (C2H6, CH3OH) usually agree within error, but those for HCN are often slightly smaller. d. In comet ISON, ALMA maps of HCN and the dust continuum show a slight displacement 80 km) in the centroids. We will

  17. Can Word Puzzles be Tailored to Improve Different Dimensions of Verbal Fluency? A Report of an Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mike; Spillane, Katie; Cully, James; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; Moret-Tatay, Carmen

    2016-08-17

    Verbal fluency is commonly used as a proxy measure of executive functioning, as it involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Previous research has demonstrated that crosswords can be a useful means of improving verbal fluency, results consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis; the form of verbal fluency affected has, however, differed across studies. The present study sought to assess the extent to which it was possible to target phonemic (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) separately through word puzzles designed to focus on semantic/thematic and structural clues respectively. Fifty-three university students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: semantic/thematic, structural, or a daily diary control group. They were assessed on PVF and SVF at baseline, and immediately following a four-week intervention. Age, sex, and depression scores were controlled for. A 2 × 3 mixed ANCOVA showed that the structural group improved significantly more in PVF during the intervention period than did the semantic/thematic or control groups, with the improvement linked to improved switching performance. The effect size was large. No significant difference in improvement in SVF emerged, although the effect size was moderate. The findings support the notion that it is possible to improve specific forms of verbal fluency through tailored brief word-puzzle interventions. PMID:27224052

  18. The Three-Color and Two-Color Tantrix(TM) Rotation Puzzle Problems are NP-Complete via Parsimonious Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Dorothea

    2007-01-01

    Holzer and Holzer (Discrete Applied Mathematics 144(3):345--358, 2004) proved the Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem with four colors NP-complete. Baumeister and Rothe (MCU 2007) modified their construction to achieve a parsimonious reduction from satisfiability to this problem. Since parsimonious reductions preserve the number of solutions, it follows that the unique version of the four-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is DP-complete under randomized reductions. In this paper, we study the three-color and the two-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem. Restricting the number of allowed colors to three (respectively, to two) reduces the set of available Tantrix(TM) tiles from 56 to 14 (respectively, to 8). We prove that both the three-color and the two-color Tantrix(TM) rotation puzzle problem is NP-complete, which answers a question raised by Holzer and Holzer in the affirmative. Since both these reductions are parsimonious, it follows that both the unique three-color and the unique two-color Ta...

  19. Double-Pionic Fusion of Nuclear Systems and the ''ABC'' Effect: Approaching a Puzzle by Exclusive and Kinematically Complete Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the ππ invariant mass spectrum, first observed by Abashian, Booth, and Crowe--is well known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Here we report on the first exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction pn→dπ0π0 at beam energies of 1.03 and 1.35 GeV. The measurements, which have been carried out at CELSIUS-WASA, reveal the ABC effect to be a (ππ)I=L=0 channel phenomenon associated with both a resonancelike energy dependence in the integral cross section and the formation of a ΔΔ system in the intermediate state. A corresponding simple s-channel resonance ansatz provides a surprisingly good description of the data

  20. A note on the puzzling spindown behavior of the Galactic center magnetar SGR J1745-2900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao

    2015-09-01

    SGR J1745-2900 is a magnetar near the Galactic center. X-ray observations of this source found a decreasing X-ray luminosity accompanied by an enhanced spindown rate. This negative correlation between X-ray luminosity and spindown rate is hard to understand. The wind braking model of magnetars is employed to explain this puzzling spindown behavior. During the release of magnetic energy of magnetars, a system of particles may be generated. Some of these particles remain trapped in the magnetosphere and may contribute to the X-ray luminosity. The rest of the particles can flow out and take away the rotational energy of the central neutron star. A smaller polar cap angle will cause the decrease of X-ray luminosity and enhanced spindown rate of SGR J1745-2900. This magnetar is shortly expected to have a maximum spindown rate.

  1. The puzzle of half-integral quanta in the application of the adiabatic hypothesis to rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Anthony; Pérez, Enric

    2016-05-01

    We present and discuss an interesting and puzzling problem Ehrenfest found in his first application of the adiabatic hypothesis, in 1913. It arose when trying to extend Planck's quantization of the energy of harmonic oscillators to a rotating dipole within the frame of the old quantum theory. Such an extension seemed to lead unavoidably to half-integral values for the rotational angular momentum of a system (in units of ℏ). We present the problem in its original form along with the (few) responses we have found to Ehrenfest's treatment. After giving a brief account of the classical and quantum adiabatic theorem, we also describe how Quantum Mechanics provides an explanation for this difficulty.

  2. Face Puzzle – Two new video-based tasks for measuring explicit and implicit aspects of facial emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit eKliemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing others’ emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge.Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably measure implicit and explicit processing aspects comprising basic and complex emotions in facial expressions. We developed two video-based tasks with similar answer formats to assess performance in respective facial emotion recognition processes: Face Puzzle, implicit and explicit. To assess the tasks’ sensitivity to atypical social cognition and to infer interrelationship patterns between explicit and implicit processes in typical and atypical development, we included healthy adults (NT, n= 24 and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 24.Item analyses yielded good reliability of the new tasks. Group-specific results indicated sensitivity to subtle social impairments in high-functioning ASD. Correlation analyses with established implicit and explicit socio-cognitive measures were further in favor of the tasks’ external validity. Between group comparisons provide first hints of differential relations between implicit and explicit aspects of facial emotion recognition processes in healthy compared to ASD participants. In addition, an increased magnitude of between group differences in the implicit task was found for a speed-accuracy composite measure. The new Face Puzzle tool thus provides two new tasks to separately assess explicit and implicit social functioning, for instance, to measure subtle impairments as well as potential improvements due to social

  3. Face puzzle-two new video-based tasks for measuring explicit and implicit aspects of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemann, Dorit; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Bölte, Sven; Heekeren, Hauke R; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing others' emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge. Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably measure implicit and explicit processing aspects comprising basic and complex emotions in facial expressions. We developed two video-based tasks with similar answer formats to assess performance in respective facial emotion recognition processes: Face Puzzle, implicit and explicit. To assess the tasks' sensitivity to atypical social cognition and to infer interrelationship patterns between explicit and implicit processes in typical and atypical development, we included healthy adults (NT, n = 24) and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 24). Item analyses yielded good reliability of the new tasks. Group-specific results indicated sensitivity to subtle social impairments in high-functioning ASD. Correlation analyses with established implicit and explicit socio-cognitive measures were further in favor of the tasks' external validity. Between group comparisons provide first hints of differential relations between implicit and explicit aspects of facial emotion recognition processes in healthy compared to ASD participants. In addition, an increased magnitude of between group differences in the implicit task was found for a speed-accuracy composite measure. The new Face Puzzle tool thus provides two new tasks to separately assess explicit and implicit social functioning, for instance, to measure subtle impairments as well as potential improvements due to social cognitive

  4. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    kilometres with a set of remote-sensing instruments. As the spacecraft moves around the nucleus at a very leisurely walking pace, other onboard instruments will analyse the dust and vapours, which will emanate from Comet Wirtanen with ever-increasing vigour as the Sun's rays warm it. Rosetta will drop a lander on to the comet's surface, for close inspection of its physical condition and chemical composition. The lander is a venture led by Germany, France and Italy, with participation from Austria, Finland, Hungary, Poland and the UK. As a box packed with scientific instruments and standing on three legs, the lander will be capable of anchoring itself to one spot and drilling into the surface. It may also be able to hop like a flea to visit another part of the nucleus. A combination of solar energy and electric batteries will enable operations to last for several months. "The combination of Rosetta in orbit around the comet and the lander on its surface is very powerful from a scientific point of view," says Gerhard Schwehm, ESA's project scientist for Rosetta. "We shall watch Comet Wirtanen brewing up like a volcano as it feels the heat of the Sun. In place of hazy impressions of the nucleus of a comet half hidden by its dust clouds, we shall see all the details with unprecedented clarity." Unanswered questions During and after the 1986 appearance of Halley's Comet, comet science made great progress. More recent comets have revealed important secrets to ESA's Infrared Space Observatory and to other space telescopes examining them at wavelengths unobservable from the Earth. Yet basic questions about comets remain unanswered. Just as the Rosetta Stone was the key that unlocked the meaning of Egyptian hieroglyphs, so the Rosetta spacecraft is intended to decipher the meaning of comets and their role in the origin and history of the Solar System. Here are a few of the main puzzles. * What does a comet weigh? Guesses about the density of cometary material vary widely, and only an

  5. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  6. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Weber, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  7. Oil puzzle in Chinese stock market%中国股票市场的石油效应之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董坤; 谢海滨; 汪寿阳

    2012-01-01

    本文对股票市场是否具有可预测性进行探讨,通过石油价格的变动,进而预测上海证券交易所综合指数(SSEC)的收益率.检验结果显示,自2003年后,上证综指收益率存在显著的石油效应,这种中国所特有的石油效应之谜,既不能用有效市场假说来解释,也无法被信息反应不足假说所解释.%This paper reinvestigates the predictability of equity market index return of Chinese Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite index (SSEC) using the changes in oil prices. We find a significant oil effect on the predictability of SSEC returns after the year 2003. The effect can neither be explained by the efficient market hypothesis nor be explained by the information under-reaction hypothesis, which presents a Chinese oil puzzle.

  8. A Puzzle-Based Genetic Algorithm with Block Mining and Recombination Heuristic for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Chann Chang; Wei-Hsiu Huang; Zhen-Zhen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this research,we introduce a new heuristic approach using the concept of ant colony optimization (ACO)to extract patterns from the chromosomes generated by previous generations for solving the generalized traveling salesman problem.The proposed heuristic is composed of two phases.In the first phase the ACO technique is adopted to establish an archive consisting of a set of non-overlapping blocks and of a set of remaining cities (nodes) to be visited.The second phase is a block recombination phase where the set of blocks and the rest of cities are combined to form an artificial chromosome.The generated artificial chromosomes (ACs) will then be injected into a standard genetic algorithm (SGA) to speed up the convergence.The proposed method is called "Puzzle-Based Genetic Algorithm" or "p-ACGA".We demonstrate that p-ACGA performs very well on all TSPLIB problems,which have been solved to optimality by other researchers.The proposed approach can prevent the early convergence of the genetic algorithm (GA) and lead the algorithm to explore and exploit the search space by taking advantage of the artificial chromosomes.

  9. The puzzle of the 1996 Bárdarbunga, Iceland, earthquake: no volumetric component in the source mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Dreger, Douglas S.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Julian, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    A volcanic earthquake with Mw 5.6 occurred beneath the Bárdarbunga caldera in Iceland on 29 September 1996. This earthquake is one of a decade-long sequence of  events at Bárdarbunga with non-double-couple mechanisms in the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Fortunately, it was recorded well by the regional-scale Iceland Hotspot Project seismic experiment. We investigated the event with a complete moment tensor inversion method using regional long-period seismic waveforms and a composite structural model. The moment tensor inversion using data from stations of the Iceland Hotspot Project yields a non-double-couple solution with a 67% vertically oriented compensated linear vector dipole component, a 32% double-couple component, and a statistically insignificant (2%) volumetric (isotropic) contraction. This indicates the absence of a net volumetric component, which is puzzling in the case of a large volcanic earthquake that apparently is not explained by shear slip on a planar fault. A possible volcanic mechanism that can produce an earthquake without a volumetric component involves two offset sources with similar but opposite volume changes. We show that although such a model cannot be ruled out, the circumstances under which it could happen are rare.

  10. Event-by-Event Hydrodynamics +Jet Energy Loss: A Solution to the RA A⊗v2 Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Betz, Barbara; Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2016-06-01

    High pT>10 GeV elliptic flow, which is experimentally measured via the correlation between soft and hard hadrons, receives competing contributions from event-by-event fluctuations of the low-pT elliptic flow and event-plane angle fluctuations in the soft sector. In this Letter, a proper account of these event-by-event fluctuations in the soft sector, modeled via viscous hydrodynamics, is combined with a jet-energy-loss model to reveal that the positive contribution from low-pT v2 fluctuations overwhelms the negative contributions from event-plane fluctuations. This leads to an enhancement of high-pT>10 GeV elliptic flow in comparison to previous calculations and provides a natural solution to the decade-long high-pT RA A⊗v2 puzzle. We also present the first theoretical calculation of high-pT v3, which is shown to be compatible with current LHC data. Furthermore, we discuss how short-wavelength jet-medium physics can be deconvoluted from the physics of soft, bulk event-by-event flow observables using event-shape engineering techniques.

  11. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xingxing; Fan, Jing; Jiang, Zhuxi; Basso, Barbara; Sala, Francesco; Spada, Alberto; Grassi, Fabrizio; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.63-0.65) in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  12. Black hole quasi-normal modes: the "electrons" of quantum gravity? Implications for the black hole information puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified and refined. Such a correspondence permits to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semi-classical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the "electron" which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies "triggered" by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles represent the energy "shells" of the "gravitational hydrogen atom". Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this "Bohr-like BH model" obeys to a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. ...

  13. Event-by-Event Hydrodynamics+Jet Energy Loss: A Solution to the R_{AA}⊗v_{2} Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Betz, Barbara; Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2016-06-24

    High p_{T}>10  GeV elliptic flow, which is experimentally measured via the correlation between soft and hard hadrons, receives competing contributions from event-by-event fluctuations of the low-p_{T} elliptic flow and event-plane angle fluctuations in the soft sector. In this Letter, a proper account of these event-by-event fluctuations in the soft sector, modeled via viscous hydrodynamics, is combined with a jet-energy-loss model to reveal that the positive contribution from low-p_{T} v_{2} fluctuations overwhelms the negative contributions from event-plane fluctuations. This leads to an enhancement of high-p_{T}>10  GeV elliptic flow in comparison to previous calculations and provides a natural solution to the decade-long high-p_{T} R_{AA}⊗v_{2} puzzle. We also present the first theoretical calculation of high-p_{T} v_{3}, which is shown to be compatible with current LHC data. Furthermore, we discuss how short-wavelength jet-medium physics can be deconvoluted from the physics of soft, bulk event-by-event flow observables using event-shape engineering techniques. PMID:27391718

  14. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Cai

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  15. Large-scale impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders on monkey puzzle forest regeneration, native seed predators and their ecological interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Tella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most ecosystems of the world are being increasingly invaded by a variety of alien species. However, little is known about the combined ecological impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders. We assessed the impact of a community of exotic mammals (five domestic and four wild on forests of monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana, a globally endangered tree restricted to ca 400 km2 on the slopes of the Andes in Chile and Argentina. Seeds of monkey puzzles provide food during winter to a small community of native mice and Austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus. We recorded the number of uneaten seeds and the number of young seedlings at the end of winter under 516 female monkey puzzle trees located across the species’ distribution, and identified the signals of native and exotic species that visited the under-canopy of each tree. Moreover, we studied the diet and foraging behavior of Austral parakeets to explore the potential indirect effects of exotic mammals through the disruption of a key ecosystem service (seed dispersal supposedly provided by parakeets. All but one tree were visited by at least one seed predator species. Austral parakeets and mice predated seeds from 85% and at least 45% of the trees, respectively, and both the number of remaining seeds and seedlings were significantly larger when only parakeets or mice predated seeds than when exotic mammals also visited the trees. At least 90% of trees were visited by one or more exotic species, and the number of seeds and seedlings dropped drastically when at least two and four exotic species visited the tree, respectively. Austral parakeets mostly foraged on monkey puzzle trees during the winter period and dispersed their seeds in most feeding instances once seeds fell to the ground. The proliferation of exotic mammals may reduce the populations of native seed-predators in the long-term as well as the regeneration of monkey puzzle forests, directly through a reduction of seed availability

  16. 基于"挖洞"思想的数独游戏生成算法%Sudoku Puzzles Generating:From Easy to Evil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛源海; 蒋彪彬; 李永卓

    2009-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle becomes worldwide popular among many players in different intellectual levels. The task is to devise an algorithm that creates Sudoku puzzles in varying level of difficulty. With the analysis of the game rules, we first define the difficulty level from four aspects as: total given cells, distribution of given cells and complexity of enumerating search. By the guidance from the definition of difficulty level, the algorithm for generating puzzles is developed with the "dig-hole" strategy on a valid grid. Thus, the algorithm developed in two steps: to create a valid grid by Las Vegas algorithm, and then to generating puzzles by erasing some digits using five operators : · Determine a sequence of digging holes according to the desirable difficulty level, · Set two restrictions to guide the distribution of given cells, · Judge whether a puzzle being dug out has a unique solution by a solver built using Depth-First Search, · Add pruning technique to avoid digging an invalid cell, and · Perform propagating at a dug-out puzzle to raise the diversity of the output puzzle. Using our developed algorithm, we generate Sudoku puzzles in any five difficulty levels.The difficulty level of output puzzles can be adjusted by a desirable difficulty value input by players. The complexity of the algorithms in space and time is analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms. Our main contributions in exploring the "dig-hole" strategy are summarized as following three works: to do a massive research on the sequence of digging holes and how it affects the algorithm to create a evil-level puzzle with minimal given cells, to invent a skill for judging the solution's uniqueness of a puzzle being dug out by the reduction to absurdity, and to reduce the computational time by avoiding backtracking to an explored cell and refilling an empty cell.%设计一个算法用以生成各种难度等级的数独题,通过对游戏规则的分析,首先从以下三个方面

  17. APRENDER JUGANDO CON "TEJIDOS PRECOLOMBINOS" MEDIANTE ROMPECABEZAS VIRTUALES LEARN BY PLAYING WITH "PRE-COLUMBIAN TEXTILES" THROUGH VIRTUAL PUZZLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aracena Pizarro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un ambiente multimedia de rompecabezas sobre tejidos precolombinos de gran complejidad ornamental, expuestos en el Museo Arqueológico San Miguel de Azapa, Arica-Chile. El rompecabezas permite interaccionar de manera más entretenida y didáctica, con el objetivo de que la facilidad del uso del software permita aprender jugando, observando los intrincados símbolos y signos precolombinos que de otra manera pasan desapercibidos por no formar parte del ideario de los estudiantes actuales. El software se evaluó con alumnos de enseñanza básica y media de establecimientos educacionales de la ciudad, con el objetivo de complementar sus estudios a las asignaturas de historia que contienen temática prehispánica. Esta representación educacional fue implementada con herramienta Flash multimedia, con el propósito de estimular la parte creativa de los estudiantes y de abrir un mundo de juegos complementarios referentes al mismo tema, con la filosofía de aprender jugando.This paper presents a multimedia environment puzzle about Pre-Columbian textiles exhibiting ornamental complexities, found in the Archeological Museum San Miguel de Azapa, Arica-Chile. The software allow for an enjoyable and didactic interactive way of learning by playing, giving the users the opportunity of identifying intricate pre-Columbian symbols and signals, that otherwise would be unnoticed. The software was tested with schoolboys of ages 12 to 16 years old, from schools in Arica, with the purpose of complementing their studies in History courses containing Pre-hispanic topics. This educational software was implemented with Multimedia Flash Tool, so as to stimulate the creativity of the students, opening a world of complementary games with the philosophy of "learning by playing".

  18. 基于IOS平台的拼图游戏开发%Development of Jigsaw Puzzle Game Based on IOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳华; 崔亚楠

    2016-01-01

    Games based on IOS platform are more and more popular. The author designed a mobile iOS platform game software-Jigsaw Puzzle.The software based on the cross-platform engine-cocos2d-x and developed by c++ lan-guage mainly realized basic functions of the game such as image cutting ,sliding effect , game logic and physical effect, and supported to get pictures from the phone camera or gallery for cutting ,or to change images or sound settings by shaking the phone. Finally, by installing, debugging, and a passable test, we successfully released the game to the APP store.%基于iOS平台的游戏日益受到青睐,本文开发了一款iOS平台下的手机游戏软件——益智拼图。该游戏采用跨平台引擎-cocos2d-x以及C++语言进行开发的,主要实现了拼图游戏的切割图片、滑动效果、游戏逻辑、物理效果等基本功能,且支持从手机照相或图片库获取图片进行切割,摇一摇更换图片以及音效设置等特色功能。最后,通过对游戏进行安装、调试,通过了性能测试,成功发布了游戏。

  19. The Infinity Puzzle - The story of the Higgs Boson:From QED to the LHC via Higgs and the Gang of Six

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Rutherford and Bohr discovered the nuclear atom 100 years ago. Roughly 50 years ago a theory of this basic structure of matter was inspired by the work of Peter Higgs and others. In July 2012 the discovery "beyond reasonable doubt" of Higgs's boson, and the experimental proof of the theory, was announced and speculations about Nobel prizes mushroomed. The Economist said of Frank Close's book, The Infinity Puzzle (OUP,2012): "The Nobel Committee would be well advised to read Mr Close’s book before making their decision." This pedagogic talk reviews the ideas and the history, and assesses how the credits should be shared. The conclusions may not be what you anticipate

  20. Status of the B -> pi K puzzle and its relation to B_s -> phi pi and B_s -> phi rho decays

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Lars; Vernazza, Leonardo(Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino & INFN — Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino, Italy)

    2012-01-01

    Some discrepancies between theory and experiment in the B -> pi K decays suggest the possibility of a new physics contribution with the structure of an electroweak penguin amplitude. If such a scenario is realised in nature, the branching ratios of the decays B_s -> phi pi and B_s -> phi rho can be enhanced by about one order of magnitude. We review and update the current status of the B -> pi K puzzle and its implications for the decays B_s -> phi pi and B_s -> phi rho.

  1. El puzzle de grupos: una alternativa a la exposición magistral para el aprendizaje activo de técnicas experimentales con herbicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Brusco, Marta I.; Miguel A. Fernández; Zingaretti, Osvaldo; Sosa, J; García, Fernando D.

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta la implementación y evaluación de una experiencia educativa basada en la técnica del “puzzle de grupos”, como una alternativa a la exposición magistral. La finalidad de la actividad fue favorecer el aprendizaje activo, mediante la aplicación de contenidos conceptuales a una situación concreta, en sustitución de la recepción pasiva por parte de los estudiantes de información trasmitida por el docente. El tema fue “Técnicas experimentales con herbicidas”, dentro de un curso de Terap...

  2. The Language Teaching Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Child, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    This portfolio is a compilation of beliefs about effective foreign language (FL) teaching. The core of this portfolio is a teaching philosophy, in which theories, such as comprehensible input, teacher and student roles, and activities are explained. The teaching philosophy is accompanied by a reflection of the authors teaching observed from a video. Following the teaching philosophy and personal teaching reflection are three artifacts centered on language, culture, and literacy. The language ...

  3. Forex Reserve Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China faces pressure of preserving the value of its $3 trillion foreign exchange reserves While already under pressure to revalue its currency,the yuan,against the U.S.dollar,China also faces the challenge of stifling vast losses to its foreign exchange reserve,mostly denominated in U.S.dollars.These losses to foreign exchange

  4. Striking Oil: Another Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Driesprong (Gerben); B. Jacobsen (Ben); B. Maat (Benjamin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe find that changes in oil prices strongly predict future stock market returns in many countries in the world. In our thirty year sample of monthly data for developed stock markets, we find statistically significant predictability in 12 out of the 18 countries and in a world market inde

  5. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, politicians and health care providers have strived to create a coherent health care system across primary and secondary health care systems in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care and lack ...

  6. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  7. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    of coherence in treatment and patient pathways. The aim of our study is to explore the role of health care providers in furthering coherence. Our ambition is to identify areas for improvement or change of collaborative practice between health care providers in municipalities, hospitals and general practice...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  8. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  9. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care...... to an acute care ward to discharge and later in meetings with healthcare providers in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations were conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Research design An explorative design based...... on an interactionistic approach was used. As a consequence, the focus of data collection is the production of meaning happening between human beings in social interaction in the field of cross-sectorial collaboration. Research questions The research questions reflect the interactionistic approach as they concentrate...

  10. The Share Price Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A. Dyl

    2006-01-01

    We document substantial variation in the prices of common stocks in U.S. markets due to firms selecting particular price ranges for their shares. Cross-sectional evidence indicates that variables consistent with Merton's model of capital market equilibrium explain roughly two-thirds of this variation in share prices. In addition, measures of trading range and share price appreciation predict stock splits, and the "investor base" of firms that split their stock increases compared to other firm...

  11. The PPP Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    ) is shown to be a powerful organizing principle allowing us to structure the data in long-run, medium-run, and short-run behavior. Its main advantage is the ability to associate persistent movements away from fundamental benchmark values in one variable/relation with similar persistent movements somewhere...... else in the economy...

  12. Puzzles of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Balcerowicz, Leszek; Rzonca, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Looking at the economic growth of seemingly similar countries one can find striking differences. Why has Australia gotten so much ahead of New Zealand, in spite of the latter being held up as a paragon of free market reform? How is it possible that Austria, with its persistently oversized state enterprise sector, has managed to (nearly) catch up with Switzerland? How can we account for the...

  13. The Malignant Protein Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    When most people hear the words malignant and brain, cancer immediately comes to mind. But our authors argue that proteins can be malignant too, and can spread harmfully through the brain in neurodegenerative diseases that include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, CTE, and ALS. Studying how proteins such as PrP, amyloid beta, tau, and others aggregate and spread, and kill brain cells, represents a crucial new frontier in neuroscience. PMID:27408676

  14. Pebble Puzzle Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 In the quest to determine if a pebble was jamming the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, scientists and engineers examined this up-close, approximate true-color image of the tool. The picture was taken by the rover's panoramic camera, using filters centered at 601, 535, and 482 nanometers, at 12:47 local solar time on sol 200 (August 16, 2004). Colored spots have been drawn on this image corresponding to regions where panoramic camera reflectance spectra were acquired (see chart in Figure 1). Those regions are: the grinding wheel heads (yellow); the rock abrasion tool magnets (green); the supposed pebble (red); a sunlit portion of the aluminum rock abrasion tool housing (purple); and a shadowed portion of the rock abrasion tool housing (brown). These spectra demonstrated that the composition of the supposed pebble was clearly different from that of the sunlit and shadowed portions of the rock abrasion tool, while similar to that of the dust-coated rock abrasion tool magnets and grinding heads. This led the team to conclude that the object disabling the rock abrasion tool was indeed a martian pebble.

  15. Two gold return puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Gueorgui I.

    2013-01-01

    Since the dismantling of the Bretton Woods system, gold has delivered average return comparable to the average return delivered by the aggregate US stock market. This suggests that none of the growth and technological improvement gains accrued to the financiers. In the context of modern asset pricing models, say the CAPM model or the Fama-French three factor model, gold is a risk free asset, as it has no covariation with the risk factors. The large average gold return is a Jensen's alpha not ...

  16. The Tradable Shares Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A huge number of restricted shares were made tradable in March in the mainland stock market,testing the capability of the fragile capital market Ping An of China has been made the main scapegoat of this year s stock market plunge.A month after its refinancing plan announcement- equivalent to recreating a new Ping An- its 3.12 billion restricted shares were made tradable on March 3,accounting for almost

  17. The Format Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    been supplemented by an official cadastral name database as well as a database of medieval settlement names. And in order to obtain some consistency, new information categories such as name generics have been added, geo-coding from the cadastral database has been applied to the names from the printed......The first volume in the printed place-name series Danmarks Stednavne (Place-names of Denmark) was published in 1922 – 12 years after the establishment of Stednavneudvalget (the Place-Name Commission) in 1910. In 2013 volume 26 is due to be published, and still only about 2/3 of the area of Denmark...... is covered by the printed edition. In light of this, establishing a comprehensive web-database of Danish place-names in 3 years seems an almost cocky ambition. The web-database now published at www.danmarksstednavne.dk obviously draws heavily on the printed edition – which has been digitalised through...

  18. Recreational Math: Puzzle Me!

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Smarandache

    2011-01-01

    Input/Output Machine. Each table below represents a different rule. Look for input/output patterns to fill in the missing words, letter, or numbers. Then state each rule. [*Means the rule cannot be applied to this input.

  19. X-ray illumination of globular cluster puzzles. [globular cluster X ray sources as clues to Milky Way Galaxy age and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, A. P.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in the Galaxy, and provide, in this connection, important clues for determining the age and process of formation of the Galaxy. The present investigation is concerned with puzzles relating to the X-ray emission of globular clusters, taking into account questions regarding the location of X-ray emitting clusters (XEGC) unusually near the galactic plane and/or galactic center. An adopted model is discussed for the nature, formation, and lifetime of X-ray sources in globular clusters. An analysis of the available data is conducted in connection with a search for correlations between binary formation time scales, central relaxation times, galactic locations, and X-ray emission. The positive correlation found between distance from galactic center and two-body binary formation time for globular clusters, explanations for this correlation, and the hypothesis that X-ray sources in globular clusters require binary star systems provide a possible explanation of the considered puzzles.

  20. Jigsaw puzzle of tourism destination image and its evaluation index%旅游目的地形象“拼图”及测评方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋峰

    2014-01-01

    根据格式塔心理学理论,借用拼图和七巧板概念进一步阐释旅游目的地形象定义、维度和属性,构建旅游目的地形象拼图过程模型,提出可用于对比研究目的地形象的测评指标体系,并以中国国际旅游形象为例进行实证分析。结果表明:(1)目的地形象是人们对自己大脑中获得的有关旅游目的地各种信息“零片”进行“拼图”的结果。(2)“拼图”过程是导致目的地形象具有复杂性、多样性和动态性的根本原因,也是目的地形象策划和形象营销能产生市场劝说作用的依据所在。(3)目的地形象可划分为旅游吸引物、基础设施、休闲和娱乐、环境和地方氛围等5个维度,每个维度包含不同的属性。(4)旅游者了解的目的地形象维度越完整、每个维度的属性越丰富,其对目的地的形象拼图结果越接近目的地实际情况。(5)目的地形象形成过程包括零片阶段、拼图阶段、情感评价和意动等四个阶段及自发拼图形成原生形象、自觉拼图形成认知形象和修正拼图形成整体形象3个渐进过程。(6)目的地形象可用 D m、L a、H 、E 和 D 等指标定量测评。%For more in-depth understanding of tourism destination image (TDI),according to Gestalt psychology theory,jigsaw puzzle and tangram concepts were borrowed to further explain the definition of the concept of tourism destination image,its dimensions and properties,and a tourism destination image puzzles process model that can be used to comparative study of TDI was built.Furthermore,a case study of the China international tourism image was analyzed.The main conclusions are as follow:(1)TDI is the “puzzle result”of information fragment that people getting form multiple channels about a tourism destination,not just an individual′s overall perception or total set of impressions of a destination.(2)The “puzzle process”leads to

  1. The puzzles in $B\\to \\pi\\pi$ and $ \\pi K$ decays: possible implications for R-parity violating supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Y D; Yang, Ya-Dong; Wang, Rumin

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that certain data of $B \\to \\pi\\pi,~\\pi K$ decays are inconsistent with the standard model expectations. We try to explain the puzzles in context of R-parity violating suppersymmetry. By employing the QCD factorization approach, we study these decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. We show that R-parity violating can resolve the discrepancies in both $B \\to \\pi\\pi$ and $B \\to \\pi K$, and find some parameter spaces satisfying all these requirements including the CP averaged branching ratios and the direct CP asymmetries. Furthermore, we have derived stringent bounds on relevant R-parity violating couplings from the latest experimental data, the most of these constraints are stronger than the existing bounds.

  2. Puzzle Game Design and Implementation Base on Authorware%基于Authorware益智游戏的设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬

    2011-01-01

    Authorware是一套功能强大的多媒体编辑软件,它基于图标以流程为结构的制作环境,集成效率高,是多媒体作品或游戏开发的良好平台.介绍通过Authorware使用其图标与函数来设计完成益智游戏的开发过程.%Authorware is a powerful multimedia editing software, based on icons to processes for the structure of the production environment, integrated high efficiency, is a multimedia work, or a good platform for game development. Using its icon and Authorware functions to design a complete puzzle game development process is described.

  3. 人民币低估之谜:一个投入产出分析%The RMB Undervaluation Puzzle: An Input-Output Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐翔

    2012-01-01

    The "RMB undervaluation puzzle" refers to two related facts: 1 ) that the RMB real exchange rate has been depreciating along with China' s strong economic growth; 2) that most Western researchers agree that the RMB is seriously undervalued in recent years. We propose that this puzzle is mainly caused by an inter-regional race to the bottom in China, which reduces average input usage and labor cost, thus seriously depressing the general price and wage level through three types of "price multiplier effects". We extend the standard input-output model to simulate the price-level effect of racing to the bottom in two key sectors (road transportation and coal mining) , using actual input-output data. The results show that, quantitatively, our model can fully explain the "RMB undervaluation puzzle". The implication is that in order for the RMB real exchange rate to reach and remain at a proper level, inter-regional race to the bottom in China must be effectively tackled, which entails a radica| overhaul of China' s economic system and the transition of its development model.%所谓“人民币低估之谜”,包含两方面事实:一是人民币实际汇率随经济增长而持续贬值,二是西方学界普遍认为人民币实际汇率近年来存在大幅度低估。本文认为,中国日益恶化的地区间竞次,导致各部门单位产出的中间投入和工资成本不断下降,进而通过三种价格乘数效应严重压低了中国的物价和工资水平,是产生“人民币低估之谜”的主要原因。本文对标准的投入产出模型加以拓展,以两个在中国存在严重“竞次”现象的部门(公路货运业和煤炭开采业)作为案例,利用投入产出表来模拟竞次的价格水平效应。模拟结果显示,竞次可以充分解释“人民币低估之谜”。本文表明,要使人民币实际汇率达到并维持在合理水平,必须对中国的地区间竞次加以有效治理,这要求中国经

  4. “信念之谜”与合理性的不确定性%"Puzzle about Belief" and Indeterminacy of Rationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈常燊

    2012-01-01

    对“信念之谜”的解答依赖于去引号原则和信念融贯性原则,而去引号原则受到主体信念之审慎性和真诚性的双重约束,可能出现的不审慎或不真诚的信念态度与不融贯的信念相结合,会导致“信念之谜”的难解。如果说主体信念受到合理性的信念融贯性原则约束,那么信念语境中的语句意义和信念指示词的指称会出现多重的不确定性,融贯性原则的这种不确定导致了合理性的不确定性。然而,可以运用维特根斯坦的“遵守规则悖论”和戴维森的合理性概念,对合理性的这种不确定性进行反向约束,从而保证合理性在某种程度上的确定性。%It depends on "principle of disquotation" and "principle of coherence" to resolve the "puzzle about belief", while " principle of disquotation" is constrained by prudence and sincerity of belief, and the possible imprudence or insincerity combining with incoherent belief would make the "puzzle about belief" confusing. If the subject's belief is constrained by principle of coherence of rationality, then the meaning of sentences and reference of belief-referring words in the context of belief would be faced with multiple uncer- tainties, and the uncertainty of " principle of coherence " will cause the indeterminacy of rationality. However, we can use Wittgenstein's "rule-following paradox" and Davidsonian rationality, providing reverse constraints for these indeterminacies, thus ensuring the determinacy of rationality in some degree.

  5. 解决大学生性心理困拢的有效方法——认知疗法%The Effective Method to Solve Sex Psychology Puzzle of College Students——Cognitive Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨漠

    2001-01-01

    By inquiring into the characters and the causes of the sexpsychology puzzle of the college students,this paper considers that it is more suitable to apply the cognitive therapy for the purpose of solving the sex psychology puzzle of the college students.%通过对大学生性心理困扰的特点和原因的探讨,指出由于认知疗法具有简便易行、偏重于认知、教育式的方式等特点,因此,更适宜在解决大学生性心理困扰中应用,并能取得满意的疗效。

  6. bar{B}_{d,s} → D^{*}_{d,s} V and bar{B}_{d,s}^* → D_{d,s} V decays in QCD factorization and possible puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qin; Chen, Ling-Xin; Zhang, Yun-Yun; Sun, Jun-Feng; Yang, Yue-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the rapid development of heavy-flavor experiments, phenomenological studies of nonleptonic bar{B}_{d,s} → D^{*}_{d,s} V and bar{B}_{d,s}^* → D_{d,s} V (V=ρ ,K^*) decays are performed within the framework of QCD factorization. Relative to the previous work, the QCD corrections to the transverse amplitudes are evaluated at next-to-leading order. The theoretical predictions of the observables are updated. For the measured bar{B}_{d,s} → D^{*}_{d,s} V decays, the tensions between theoretical results and experimental measurements, i.e. the "R_{ds}V puzzle" and "D^{*} V (or R_{V/ℓ bar{ν }_ℓ }) puzzle", are presented after detailed analyses. For the bar{B}_{d,s}^* → D_{d,s} V decays, they have relatively large branching fractions of the order ≳ O(10^{-9}) and are in the scope of Belle-II and LHCb experiments. Moreover, they also provide a way to crosscheck the possible puzzles mentioned above through the similar ratios R_{ds}^' V} and R_{V/ℓ bar{ν }_ℓ }^' }. More refined experimental measurements and theoretical efforts are required to confirm or refute such two anomalies.

  7. Quasi-Normal Modes: The “Electrons” of Black Holes as “Gravitational Atoms”? Implications for the Black Hole Information Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Corda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some recent important results on black hole (BH quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs are reviewed, clarified, and refined. Such a correspondence permits one to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semiclassical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semiclassical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the “electron” which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies, “triggered” by emissions (Hawking radiation and absorption of particles, represent the energy “shells” of the “gravitational hydrogen atom.” Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this “Bohr-like BH model” obeys a time dependent Schrödinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Thus, information comes out in BH evaporation in agreement with the assumption by ’t Hooft that Schröedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. We also show that, in addition, our approach solves the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox.

  8. Investigation for the puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements in the ultra metal-poor star: CS 30322-023

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, W Y; Ma, K; Zhang, L

    2007-01-01

    The s-enhanced and very metal-poor star CS 30322-023 shows a puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements, i.e. several neutron-capture elements such as Ba, Pb etc. show enhancement, but other neutron-capture elements such as Sr, Eu etc. exhibit deficient with respect to iron. The study to this sample star could make people gain a better understanding of s- and r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Using a parametric model, we find that the abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements could be best explained by a star that was polluted by an AGB star and the CS 30322-023 binary system formed in a molecular cloud which had never been polluted by r-process material. The lack of r-process material also indicates that the AGB companion cannot have undergone a type-1.5 supernova, and thus must have had an initial mass below 4.0M$_\\odot$, while the strong N overabundance and the absence of a strong C overabundance indicate that the companion's initial mass was larger than 2.0M$_\\odot$. Th...

  9. Quasi-Normal Modes: The “Electrons” of Black Holes as “Gravitational Atoms”? Implications for the Black Hole Information Puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified, and refined. Such a correspondence permits one to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semiclassical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semiclassical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the “electron” which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies, “triggered” by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles, represent the energy “shells” of the “gravitational hydrogen atom.” Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this “Bohr-like BH model” obeys a time dependent Schrödinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Thus, information comes out in BH evaporation in agreement with the assumption by ’t Hooft that Schröedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. We also show that, in addition, our approach solves the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox

  10. Multicomponent Molecular Puzzles for Photofunction Design: Emission Color Variation in Lewis Acid-Base Pair Crystals Coupled with Guest-to-Host Charge Transfer Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Simple yet ubiquitous multimolecular assembly systems with color-tunable emissions are realized by cooperative electron donor-acceptor interactions, such as the boron-nitrogen (B-N) dative bond as a Lewis acid-base pair and charge transfer (CT) interactions. These are ternary-component systems consisting of a naphthalenediimide derivative (NDI), tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFB), and aromatic molecules (guest) with an NDI:TPFB:guest ratio of 1:2:2. The crystal shows guest-dependent color-tunable emissions such as deep blue to orange when a guest molecule of benzene is replaced with other π-conjugated systems. A good correlation between the emission wavelength and ionization potential of the guest and electronic structure calculations indicated that the emission is due to the CT transition from the guest to the NDI. The present study suggests that a rational solution of multcomponent molecular puzzles would be useful for obtaining novel photofunctional solid-state systems. PMID:26211567

  11. Coping Strategies for the Puzzles in Poverty Identification of College Students%大学生贫困认定中的困惑及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青林

    2011-01-01

    做好高校学生的贫困补助工作十分重要,它体现了国家对经济困难家庭的关爱,体现一种社会公平。但是高校学生的贫困认定是一项十分模糊的工作,有许多令人困惑的东西。文章从大学生贫困认定的标准、贫困认定中的隐私保护、贫困认定中的诚信问题三个方面进行探讨,希望能为大学生贫困认定工作提供借鉴。%The poverty identification of college students is animportant job.It reflects the social justice and the care and helpof our state to the poverty families.However,the poverty identification of college students is a very obscure work.And thereare many confusing things.This paper discusses three puzzling problems in the poverty identification of collegestudents,that is,the standards of poverty recognized,the privacy protec-tion and the credibility of the poverty students.It could prov-ide a means to the poverty identification of college students.

  12. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction) efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices

  13. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, J.; Kozicki, M. N.; Yannopoulos, S. N.; Greer, A. L.

    2015-07-01

    Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent "memory" effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved "memorized" during writing and erasing cycles. The "memorized" pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction) efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  14. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orava

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  15. Long term puzzles of the CH and CD energetics and related phenomena revisited; solutions sought through REMPI-photofragmentations of bromomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafliðason, Arnar; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2016-01-21

    Ever since the pioneering work by Herzberg and Johns in 1969 (The Astrophysical Journal, 1969, 158, 399) the spectral assignment and the energetics of the fundamental molecular fragment CH, in the region of 63 000-65 000 cm(-1) (7.81-8.06 eV), have remained a puzzle to a large extent. The dissociation of bromoform and deuterated bromoform following two-photon resonance excitations to molecular Rydberg states forms the fragment species CH* and CD* in the excited state A(2)Δ(v' =0) as well as carbon and bromine atoms in the ground and first excited states, C/C* and Br/Br*. Further (1r + 1i)REMPI of CH* and CD* resonance excites the fragments to the energy region of concern, whereas the atom fragments were identified by further (2r + 1i)REMPI. Analysis based on spectral simulations, isotope shifts and comparison with other data allowed spectral identifications, assignments and partial characterization of four highly excited bound states for each of the molecular fragments (CH**/CD**); including the (3)(2)Π valence state and the (4)(2)Π Rydberg state, for the first time. Perturbations, shown as line-shifts, line-intensity and/or line-width alterations, due to the level-to-level state interactions between the bound states and predissociations by a repulsive state are recognized. Recording of C(+) signals in REMPI of several bromomethanes for a one-photon energy of about 40 333 cm(-1) allows the clarification of a mystery concerning a broad C(+) band frequently observed. This work, presented, demonstrates the usefulness of molecular REMPI for fragment analysis. PMID:26674135

  16. Unraveling a 146 years old taxonomic puzzle: validation of Malabar snakehead, species-status and its relevance for channid systematics and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Benziger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Malabar snakehead Channa diplogramma is one of the most enigmatic and least understood species within the family Channidae, which comprise one of the most important groups of freshwater food fish in tropical Asia. Since its description from peninsular India in 1865, it has remained a taxonomic puzzle with many researchers questioning its validity, based on its striking similarity with the South East Asian C. micropeltes. In this study, we assessed the identity of the Malabar snakehead, C. diplogramma, using morphological and molecular genetic analyses, and also evaluated its phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary biogeography. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The morphometric and meristic analysis provided conclusive evidence to separate C. diplogramma and C. micropeltes as two distinct species. Number of caudal fin rays, lateral line scales, scales below lateral line; total vertebrae, pre-anal length and body depth were the most prominent characters that can be used to differentiate both the species. Channa diplogramma also shows several ontogenic color phases during its life history, which is shared with C. micropeltes. Finally, the genetic distance between both species for the partial mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI sequences is also well above the intra-specific genetic distances of any other channid species compared in this study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current distribution of C. diplogramma and C. micropeltes is best explained by vicariance. The significant variation in the key taxonomic characters and the results of the molecular marker analysis points towards an allopatric speciation event or vicariant divergence from a common ancestor, which molecular data suggests to have occurred as early as 21.76 million years ago. The resurrection of C. diplogramma from the synonymy of C. micropeltes has hence been confirmed 146 years after its initial description and 134 years after it was synonymised, establishing it is

  17. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy: unmet needs in solving the puzzle(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Donald F; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a significant medical problem. The 2nd Halifax International Epilepsy Conference & Retreat identified crucial needs, which if successfully addressed, will aid in paving the way to improved lives for people with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. These are needs: (1) for an evidence-based and dynamic definition of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (2) for a comprehensive description of the natural history of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (3) for a comprehensive description of the complications and comorbidities of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (4) for a rigorous delineation of the epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (5) for clinically meaningful diagnostic and prognostic physiologically based electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers; (6) for clinically meaningful diagnostic and prognostic anatomically based (MRI Imaging) biomarkers; (7) for biomolecular/biochemical mechanistic understanding of etiopathogenesis for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (8) for representative animal models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (9) for new and effective drugs or other novel treatments for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; and (10) to promote continuing research and research funding targeting pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  18. Relationship between Millitary College Students' Puzzles of Intercourse and Familial Function,Coping Style%军校大学生人际关系困扰与家庭功能和应对方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海民; 康喜兵; 李俊丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between puzzles of intercourse and familial function, coping style of military college students. Methods A total of 765 military freshmen were investigated with the Diagnostic Measurement of Intercourse Vexation,Family Assessment Device and Coping Styles. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to analyze the data and explore the relationship between puzzles of intercourse and familial function,coping styles. Result The relevance ratio of puzzles of intercourse was 31. 8%,there were positive correlation between familial function and coping styles(P<0. 001);Communication ,emotional response and total function entered the regression equation, these factors had certain forecast function to the intercourse vexation(P<0. 05).Conclusion The state of the intercourse is not good,familial function and coping style can affect military college students' puzzles of intercourse.%目的 了解军校大学生的人际关系困扰状况及其与家庭功能和应对方式的相关.方法 选取石家庄市某军校765名一年级大学生为研究对象,使用McMaster家庭功能评定量表(FAD)、人际关系综合诊断量表和应对方式量表进行调查,通过相关分析和回归分析,探讨人际关系困扰与家庭功能和应对方式的相关性.结果 军校大学生人际困扰总检出率为31.80%;家庭功能和应对方式各因子和人际关系困扰均呈显著相关;Logistic回归分析显示,沟通、情感反应和总的功能以及应对方式的6个因子均进入回归方程.结论 军校大学生人际关系状况不容乐观,家庭功能和应对方式对人际因子状况有显著影响,要加强军校心理教育与人际关系主题辅导.

  19. The Evolutionary Puzzle of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Jean Aubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution’s first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent—Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a “suicidal” feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory.

  20. Passatempos de papel = Crossword Puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio estuda os quebra-cabeças – charadas, enigmas, logogrifos e mais – presentes em publicações periódicas do século XIX e começo do século XX. Estabelece, também, uma relação com autores e textos da prolífica tradição ibérica barroca ou tardo-barroca: Afonso de Alcalá e Herrera, José Joaquim Bordalo, Antonio Vieira, Manuel de Figueiredo, etc. Por último, o texto apresenta em detalhe quebra-cabeças de duas significativas publicações: Novo Almanach de Lembranças Luso-Brazileiro para o Anno de 1891 (1890 e Almanach Litterario e Charadistico para 1881 (1880

  1. Oki-Doku: Number Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Cristina; Novak, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) emphasize the Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP) that describe processes and proficiencies included in the NCTM Process Standards (NCTM 2000) and in the Strands for Mathematical Proficiency (NRC 2001). The development of these mathematical practices should happen in…

  2. Periodical plane puzzles with numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Rezende, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Consider a periodical (in two independent directions) tiling of the plane with polygons (faces). In this article we shall only give examples using squares, regular hexagons, equilateral triangles and parallelograms ("unions" of two equilateral triangles). We shall call some "multiple" of the fundamental region "the board". We naturally identify pairs of corresponding edges of the the board. Figures 9 and 19-29, in this article, show different boards. The "border" of the board is represented by a yellow thick line, unless part of it or all of it is the edge of a face. The board is tiled by a finite number of polygons. Construct polygonal plates in the same number, shape and size as the polygons of the board. Adjacent to each side of each plate draw a number, or two numbers, like it is shown in Figures 1 and 18-29. Figure 1 shows the obvious possibility of having plates with simple drawings, coloured drawings, etc. Now the game is to put the plates over the board polygons in such a way that the numbers near eac...

  3. Pieces to the Motivation Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lacey

    1984-01-01

    Students enter music classes for various reasons. Teachers must study the group in order to understand the attitudes and motivations of students. Advises the teacher to emphasize the intrinsic rewards of learning and to set individual strategies of positive reinforcement and negative punishment. (CS)

  4. Three Puzzles from Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Haxton, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    I discuss three open problems in astrophysics where nuclear physics can make important contributions: the solar abundance problem, dark matter particle detection, and the origin of the r-process elements.

  5. The puzzle of social preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandts, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief overview of the experimental economics literature on social preferences. In numerous experiments, economically incentivized subjects are willing to sacrifice part of their material earnings to compensate the kind behavior of others, or will be willing to reciprocate at a non-negligible cost, or even pay a positive price for punishing the behavior of selfish individuals. All these actions are labeled as social in economics because there is no apparent way to reconcile them with any reasonable form of pure self-interest. We focus on social dilemma games and want to communicate two main messages. First, research in experimental economics has produced abundant evidence that illustrates the social components of people’s preferences. Second, social sanctions of different types play an important role in facilitating cooperative behavior.

    Presentamos un breve panorama de la literatura en economía experimental sobre preferencias sociales. En numerosos experimentos, participantes con incentivos económicos están dispuestos a sacrificar parte de sus ingresos materiales para compensar el comportamiento amable de otros o a pagar un precio positivo para castigar el comportamiento de individuos egoístas. En economía todas estas acciones reciben el calificativo de sociales, porque no hay una manera clara de reconciliarlas con alguna forma razonable de egoísmo puro. Nos centramos en juegos de dilemas sociales y queremos transmitir dos mensajes. Primero, la investigación en economía experimental ha producido abundante evidencia que ilustra los componentes sociales de las preferencias de las personas. Segundo, sanciones sociales de diferentes tipos desempeñan un papel importante a la hora de facilitar el comportamiento cooperativo.

  6. The puzzle of monogamous marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Joseph; Boyd, Robert; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    The anthropological record indicates that approximately 85 per cent of human societies have permitted men to have more than one wife (polygynous marriage), and both empirical and evolutionary considerations suggest that large absolute differences in wealth should favour more polygynous marriages. Yet, monogamous marriage has spread across Europe, and more recently across the globe, even as absolute wealth differences have expanded. Here, we develop and explore the hypothesis that the norms and institutions that compose the modern package of monogamous marriage have been favoured by cultural evolution because of their group-beneficial effects-promoting success in inter-group competition. In suppressing intrasexual competition and reducing the size of the pool of unmarried men, normative monogamy reduces crime rates, including rape, murder, assault, robbery and fraud, as well as decreasing personal abuses. By assuaging the competition for younger brides, normative monogamy decreases (i) the spousal age gap, (ii) fertility, and (iii) gender inequality. By shifting male efforts from seeking wives to paternal investment, normative monogamy increases savings, child investment and economic productivity. By increasing the relatedness within households, normative monogamy reduces intra-household conflict, leading to lower rates of child neglect, abuse, accidental death and homicide. These predictions are tested using converging lines of evidence from across the human sciences.

  7. A Puzzle About Stalnaker's Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Dietz, Richard

    2011-01-01

    According to Stalnaker's Hypothesis, the probability of an indicative conditional, Pr(phi -> psi), equals the probability of the consequent conditional on its antecedent, Pr(phi -> psi). While the hypothesis is generally taken to have been conclusively refuted by Lewis' and others' triviality argume

  8. Chlorophyll d: the puzzle resolved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophyll a (Chl a) has always been regarded as the sole chlorophyll with a role in photochemical conversion in oxygen-evolving phototrophs, whereas chlorophyll d (Chl d), discovered in small quantities in red algae in 1943, was often regarded as an artefact of isolation. Now, as a result...... of discoveries over the past year, it has become clear that Chl d is the major chlorophyll of a free-living and widely distributed cyanobacterium that lives in light environments depleted in visible light and enhanced in infrared radiation. Moreover, Chl d not only has a light-harvesting role but might also...... replace Chl a in the special pair of chlorophylls in both reactions centers of photosynthesis. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Aug...

  9. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births/woman by the age of 45. Muslim countries tend to have larger families. Contraceptive use is low in the region, with the exception of Turkey and Egypt and among urban and educated populations. More than 40% of the population is under 15 years of age. The region is about 50% Arabic (140 million). Educational status has increased, particularly for men; the lowest literacy rates for women are in Yemen and Egypt. The largest countries are Iran, Turkey, and Egypt.

  10. A Puzzle in Elementary Ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    1983-01-01

    Provides an answer to the question of why it is easy to miss when shooting uphill or downhill. Experimental results indicate that when shooting uphill or downhill, sight should not be adjusted to actual distance but to distance multiplied by the cosine of the inclination angle. (JN)

  11. The Exchange Rate Exposure Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Söhnke M.; Bodnar, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Based on basic financial models and reports in the business press, exchange rate movements are generally believed to affect the value of nonfinancial firms. In contrast, the empirical research on nonfinancial firms typically produces fewer significant exposures estimates than researchers ex-pect, independent of the sample studied and the methodology used, giving rise to a situation known as “the exposure puzzle”. This paper provides a survey of the existing research on the exposure phenomenon...

  12. Understanding South Africa's Economic Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...

  13. Reviewing the Puzzle of CLIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou Georgiou, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) has become a well-known term for foreign language teachers and language researchers. A little more than a decade ago, it was a term unheard of in most staff rooms or professional conferences. This paper seeks to define CLIL and to look into the reasons that have propelled it to widespread adoption.…

  14. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Pozio E.; Tamburrini A.; De La Rosa G

    2001-01-01

    In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat con...

  15. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2 sigmas. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a s...

  16. “七巧板原理”在包装设计思维中的应用%Application of "Jigsaw Puzzles Principle" in Packaging Design Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和钰

    2011-01-01

    "Jigsaw puzzle theory" is an application and innovation of modeling thinking ways, according to different design ideas, forming various image through combination of plates. In the packaging design thinking importing jigsaw puzzles principle, make the designer accurately find packaging design method and reasonable design program, and more efficient remix the visual elements plate of dynamic design in packaging design. It can enrich design thinking imagination, make the design thinking form diffusion, and create think more effective creation opportunity, optimization design.%“七巧板原理”是模型化思维方式的一种应用与创新,是按照不同的构想设计,通过多种形式的板块组合形成各种形象。在包装设计思维中导入七巧板原理,使设计师准确地寻找到包装设计方法和合理的设计程序,更加有效地将包装设计中的视觉元素板块重新组合,进行动态设计。可以极大丰富设计思维的想象力,使设计思维形成扩散思考,创造更多更有效的创作机会,优化设计。

  17. Reviews Equipment: BioLite Camp Stove Game: Burnout Paradise Equipment: 850 Universal interface and Capstone software Equipment: xllogger Book: Science Magic Tricks and Puzzles Equipment: Spinthariscope Equipment: DC Power Supply HY5002 Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND BioLite CampStove Robust and multifaceted stove illuminates physics concepts 850 Universal interface and Capstone software Powerful data-acquisition system offers many options for student experiments and demonstrations xllogger Obtaining results is far from an uphill struggle with this easy-to-use datalogger Science Magic Tricks and Puzzles Small but perfectly formed and inexpensive book packed with 'magic-of-science' demonstrations Spinthariscope Kit for older students to have the memorable experience of 'seeing' radioactivity WORTH A LOOK DC Power Supply HY5002 Solid and effective, but noisy and lacks portability HANDLE WITH CARE Burnout Paradise Car computer game may be quick off the mark, but goes nowhere fast when it comes to lab use WEB WATCH 'Live' tube map and free apps would be a useful addition to school physics, but maths-questions website of no more use than a textbook

  18. $\\bar{B}_{d,s} \\to D^{*}_{d,s} V$ and $\\bar{B}_{d,s}^* \\to D_{d,s} V$ decays with QCD Factorization and Possible Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Qin; Zhang, Yun-Yun; Sun, Jun-Feng; Yang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the rapid development of heavy-flavor experiments, phenomenological studies of nonleptonic $\\bar{B}_{d,s} \\to D^{*}_{d,s} V$ and $\\bar{B}_{d,s}^* \\to D_{d,s} V$~($V=\\rho\\,,K^*$) decays are performed within the framework of QCD Factorization. Relative to previous works, the QCD corrections to the transverse amplitudes are evaluated at next-to-leading order. The theoretical predictions of the observables are updated. For the measured $\\bar{B}_{d,s} \\to D^{*}_{d,s} V$ decays, two tensions between theoretical results and experimental measurements, {\\it i.e.} "$R_{ds}^{V}$ puzzle" and "$D^{*} V$~(or $R_{V/\\ell\\bar{\

  19. FIAs (Foliation Intersection/Inflection Axes) Preserved in Porphyroblasts,the DNA of Deformation: A Solution to the Puzzle of Deformation and Metamorphism in the Colorado, Rocky Mountains, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAH Afroz Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    FIAs have been used extensively for more than a decade to unravel deformation and metamorphic puzzles. Orogenic processes developing early during the history or orogenesis challenge scientists because compositional layering in rocks always reactivates where multiple deformations have occurred, leaving little evidence of the history of foliation development preserved in the matrix. The foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, USA contain a succession of four FIA sets (trends) that would not have been distinguishable if porphyroblasts had not grown during the multiple deformation events that affected these rocks or if they had rotated as these events took place. They reveal that both the partitioning of deformation and the location of isograds changed significantly as the deformation proceeded.

  20. Insulin/receptor binding: the last piece of the puzzle? What recent progress on the structure of the insulin/receptor complex tells us (or not) about negative cooperativity and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyts, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Progress in solving the structure of insulin bound to its receptor has been slow and stepwise, but a milestone has now been reached with a refined structure of a complex of insulin with a "microreceptor" that contains the primary binding site. The insulin receptor is a dimeric allosteric enzyme that belongs to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The insulin binding process is complex and exhibits negative cooperativity. Biochemical evidence suggested that insulin, through two distinct binding sites, crosslinks two receptor sites located on each α subunit. The structure of the unliganded receptor ectodomain showed a symmetrical folded-over conformation with an antiparallel disposition. Further work resolved the detailed structure of receptor site 1, both without and with insulin. Recently, a missing piece in the puzzle was added: the C-terminal portion of insulin's B-chain known to be critical for binding and negative cooperativity. Here I discuss these findings and their implications.

  1. The AGG codon is translated slowly in E. coli even at very low expression levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonekamp, Fons; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1988-01-01

    in an artificial leader peptide gene in front of the pyrE attenuator where the frequency of transcription termination is regulated by the degree of coupling between transcription and translation. Transcription of the operon is initiated from the lac-promoter dependent on the concentration of the lac-operon inducer...

  2. Performance of Children With Developmental Dyslexia on Two Skill Learning Tasks-Serial Reaction Time and Tower of Hanoi Puzzle: A Test of the Specific Procedural Learning Difficulties Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Lowe, Michal; Goldfus, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Among the various theories proposed to explain developmental dyslexia (DD), the theory of specific procedural learning difficulties has gained certain support and is the framework for the current research. This theory claims that an inability to achieve skill automaticity explains the difficulties experienced by individuals with DD. Previous research on automaticity and DD has exhibited methodological issues such as a failure to test a range of skills. The current study broadens previous findings by delineating various reading skills correlated with several aspects of skill acquisition. Furthermore, the study utilizes two nonverbal tasks that reflect distinct types of skills: Serial Reaction Time (SRT) and the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle (TOHP). A total of 53 children aged 11 to 13 participated in the study, of whom 23 were children with DD and 30 were controls. Participants completed a test battery that consisted of reading tests, the SRT, and the TOHP. Results show no differences in learning rate between individuals with or without DD, although individuals with DD performed both tasks at a slower rate. Correlations were identified between a number of reading measures and measures of skill acquisition, expressed primarily in individuals with DD. Implications are examined in the discussion. PMID:24153401

  3. Stock Market Volatility Puzzle ,and Market Sentiment in Chinese A-share Stock Markets%我国A股市场中的波动性之谜与市场情绪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪荣; 吴卫星; 周业安

    2012-01-01

    本文使用Campbell和Shiller(1988)基于对数线性RVF的VAR非线性Wald检验方法对我国A股1994—2009期间的数据进行实证研究,结果表明样本期间我国A股股价相对其基础价值表现出“过度波动”的迹象,无论是常数超额收益率模型还是V-CAPM模型都无法对此进行解释。通过进一步定义市场情绪指数来分析这种“波动性之谜”现象的原因,结果发现市场情绪和股市“过度波动”之间存在相互作用机制,市场情绪能够对股价波动提供额外的解释。%In this paper, we analyze whether the Chinese A share stock markets exhibit excess volatility by employing the VAR methodology based on log-linear RVF of Campbell&Shiller (1988). According to our result, relative to the intrinsic value implied by dividends, Chinese A share stock markets always exhibit excessive volatility for the period of 1994 to 2009. It is difficult to explain the stock market volatility puzzle of China's stock market, no matter we run constant excess return model or V-CAPM model. We try to explain the reasons by studying the stock market sentiment index, and find evidence of an interaction mechanism between investor sentiment and excess volatility. And one more meaningful result is that adding the stock market sentiment index to our model can provide extra explanatory power for the excess volatility of the stock market.

  4. Investor sentiment, disagreement and IPO puzzle in China’ s stock market%投资者情绪、意见分歧与中国股市IPO之谜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞红海; 李心丹; 耿子扬

    2015-01-01

    中国股票市场IPO首日回报高、长期回报低的现象十分突出,传统理性金融理论难以对这两者同时加以解释。文章基于行为金融理论,从二级市场个体投资者情绪与意见分歧相结合的角度,利用账户交易数据中的投资者IPO首日净买入构建情绪指标对上述现象进行研究,结果表明IPO首日投资者情绪和意见分歧均对IPO首日回报有显著为正的解释力,尤其是当意见分歧严重时,投资者情绪的影响更大,同时首日投资者情绪对IPO长期超额回报有显著为负的影响,但意见分歧却对长期回报没有影响。文章的研究从二级市场个体投资者非理性偏好角度揭示了中国股市“IPO之谜”产生的根源。%The phenomena of high initial IPO returns and poor long-term returns are popular in China ’ s stock market , and the traditional rational financial theory is unable to explain such phenomena at the same time .In this paper , based on the behavioral financial theory , from the perspective of investor sentiment and disagree-ment, we construct a buy-sell imbalance(BSI) index, using initial IPO from the investors’ trading data, to represent investor sentiment to study these IPO phenomena in China .We find that investors ’ sentiment and disagreement both have significant positive impacts on the initial returns , and when the disagreement is big , the impact of sentiment is more serious .Meanwhile , sentiment has significant positive impact on the long-term abnormal return, but disagreement has no such impact .This paper provides explanations to the IPO puzzle in China ’ s stock market from the perspective of individual investors ’ irrational biases .

  5. Jigsaw Puzzle:A Study on the narrative in the Film A Touch of Sin by Jia Zhangke%拼图游戏:论贾樟柯《天注定》电影叙事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟颖

    2015-01-01

    A Touch of Sin,a work from Mr. JIA Zhangke,reflected people from the bottom of the society resorted to violent resistance after being humiliated in a society where the gap between the rich and the poor became increasingly widen. On the same time it naturally reveals various problems ravaging in today’s fast-developing world,namely,the mentality distortion,uneasy souls and wrecked dignity of the ordinary civilians. The purpose of this study is to analyze the narration method of this film for It differs from others due to four inde-pendent non-fiction stories in the film. This could be seen as a breakthrough compared with other traditional narration method. Through a-nalysis this style a conclusion could be drawn about what jigsaw -puzzle-style narration is like to be and how it affects the film.%贾樟柯的《天注定》是一部反映在贫富差距拉大的社会中,底层人物尊严被践踏而最终暴力反抗的作品,它不动声色地向观众展示了在如今高速发展的社会中出现的种种问题,底层小人物的人性扭曲、灵魂找不到安放,自尊心在现实的压力下一次次受到冲击。本文主要是通过电影叙事结构方面来进行分析,这部影片在叙事结构安排上打破了传统的叙事安排,而是纪实性地讲述了四个相对封闭性的小故事。由此分析出影片特有的拼图式叙事结构以及这种独特的叙事结构和纪实性的叙事风格所达到的效果。

  6. 从桑代克迷笼实验视角论高校教师角色定位%On College Teachers’Role Orientation from the Perspective of Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有为

    2015-01-01

    作为高等教育传播文化与培养人才主要群体的高校教师,其角色定位需要从教师讲授为中心转变为启发学生为中心。从美国著名心理学家桑代克的迷笼实验入手,根据实验反映联结理论中的“准备律”“效果律”和“练习律”三原则,将学习者的学习行为规律运用于高校教学实践环节,着重探讨高校教师作为学习者学习动机的启发者和激励者,学习目标确立者,课堂学习激励者,以及学习效果强化者和评价者的“六者”角色定位。%As college teachers,they play the major roles in the dissemination of culture and training talents in higher education.Classroom teaching should be student-centered instead of being teacher-centered.Based on the experiment of American psychologist Thorndike’s Puzzle Box and the three principles of“The Law of Readiness”,“The Law of Effect”and “The Law of Exercise”in Thorn-dike’s theory of Connectionism,this essay was intended for applying the learner’s behavior learning rules to practical college teaching.In addition,it mainly dealt with teacher’s six roles:the inspira-tion and the stimulator of learning motivation,the founder of learning objectives,the stimulator of classroom learning,the enhancer and the evaluator of learning effects.

  7. New data and an old puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S Hong; Byrne, Enda M; Hultman, Christina M;

    2015-01-01

    as a proxy for environmental immune challenge and estimated the genetic correlation between winter-born and non-winter born SZ to be significantly less than 1 for coding/regulatory region SNPs (0.56, s.e. 0.14, P  = 0.00090). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with epidemiological observations...

  8. Mercury concentration in coal - unraveling the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toole-O`Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Surveys COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1} for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting `cleaned` mercury values are very close to mercury in `as-shipped` coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction factor for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-cleaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for cleanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Drinking in snakes: resolving a biomechanical puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundall, David; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Constantino, Joseph; Deufel, Alexandra; Grapski, Douglas; Kley, Nathan J

    2012-03-01

    Snakes have long been thought to drink with a two-phase buccal-pump mechanism, but observations that some snakes can drink without sealing the margins of their mouths suggest that buccal pumping may not be the only drinking mechanism used by snakes. Here, we report that some snakes appear to drink using sponge-like qualities of specific regions of the oropharyngeal and esophageal mucosa and sponge-compressing functions of certain muscles and bones of the head. The resulting mechanism allows them to transport water upward against the effects of gravity using movements much slower than those of many other vertebrates. To arrive at this model, drinking was examined in three snake species using synchronized ciné and electromyographic recordings of muscle activity and in a fourth species using synchronized video and pressure recordings. Functional data were correlated with a variety of anatomical features to test specific predictions of the buccal-pump model. The anatomical data suggest explanations for the lack of conformity between a buccal-pump model of drinking and the performance of the drinking apparatus in many species. Electromyographic data show that many muscles with major functions in feeding play minor roles in drinking and, conversely, some muscles with minor roles in feeding play major roles in drinking. Mouth sealing by either the tongue or mental scale, previously considered critical to drinking in snakes, is incidental to drinking performance in some species. The sponge mechanism of drinking may represent a macrostomatan exaptation of mucosal folds, the evolution of which was driven primarily by the demands of feeding.

  10. Macroeconomic Perspectives on the Equity Premium Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zenhorst (Jorn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSuppose you were born on January 1, 1983. A few months later, your parents, wanting to set aside some money for your 18th birthday, were at a crossroads. They could either invest money in risk-free Dutch government bonds or in the newly created AEX index, investing in companies’ shares.

  11. Cosmic ray physics underground: some puzzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been carried out since 1961 at depths of 750 to 8400 hg/cm2 in the Kolar Gold Mines and the general features of atmospheric muons and neutrinos have been studied. However, there are some problems which are incompletely understood and some of the events observed suggest the existence of new phenomena caused by unknown particles or processes. We point out some problems observed at these great depths which are relevant to the prompt muons in hadronic collisions; the increase of average transverse momentum in the very high energy region, muon bundles, Kolar events, large electromagnetic cascades, and so on

  12. The Puzzling Spectrum of HD 94509

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, C R; Hubrig, S

    2015-01-01

    The spectral features of HD 94509 are highly unusual, adding an extreme to the zoo of Be and shell stars. The shell dominates the spectrum, showing lines typical for spectral types mid-A to early-F, while the presence of a late/mid B-type central star is indicated by photospheric hydrogen line wings and helium lines. Numerous metallic absorption lines have broad wings but taper to narrow cores. They cannot be fit by Voigt profiles. We aim to describe and illustrate unusual spectral features of this star, and make rough calculations to estimate physical conditions and abundances in the shell. Furthermore, the central star is characterized. We assume mean conditions for the shell. An electron density estimate is made from the Inglis-Teller formula. Excitation temperatures and column densities for Fe I and Fe II are derived from curves of growth. The neutral H column density is estimated from high Paschen members. The column densities are compared with calculations made with the photoionization code Cloudy. Atmo...

  13. Understanding the puzzling effects of technology shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Wang; Yi Wen

    2007-01-01

    The research led by Gali (AER 1999) and Basu et al. (AER 2006) raises two important questions regarding the validity of the RBC theory: (i) How important are technology shocks in explaining the business cycle? (ii) Do impulse responses to technology shocks found in the data reject the assumption of flexible prices? This paper argues that the conditional impulse responses of the U.S. economy to technology shocks are not grounds to reject the notion that technology shocks are the main driving f...

  14. THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available „Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others do so?” (Solow, 1987 – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one „mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?

  15. Traders, Courts and the Home Bias Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Turrini, Alessandro; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the ‘home bias puzzle’ in international trade may be associated with the mere presence of national borders (McCallum (1995)). In this Paper we provide a theoretical framework to explain why borders may matter so much for trade. Our argument is that even between perfectly integrated and similar countries the legal system differs, so that legal costs are higher when business is done abroad. Using a matching model of trade, we show that the home bias is associated with...

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic puzzles in the protoplanetary nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Eugene H.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) magnetization of meteorites; (2) the possible origin of a nebular magnetic field; (3) the possibility of magnetic flares; (4) external manifestations; (5) dynamical effects of the magnetic fields; and (6) the problem of ionization.

  17. Moving pieces in a venomic puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Dutra, Alexandre A A; León, Ileana R;

    2013-01-01

    Besides being a public health problem, scorpion venoms have a potential biotechnological application since they contain peptides that may be used as drug leads and/or to reveal novel pharmacological targets. A comprehensive Tityus serrulatus venom proteome study with emphasis on the phosphoproteo...

  18. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology. PMID:27157637

  19. Solving the RAA ⊗ υ 2 puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2016-08-01

    For the past ten years RAA(p T ), the nuclear modification factor that encodes the suppression of high pT particles due to energy loss within the medium was fairly well described by many theoretical models. However, the same models systematically underpredicted the high pT elliptic flow, υ2, which is experimentally measured as the correlation between soft and hard hadrons. All previous calculations neglected the effect of event-by-event fluctuations of an expanding viscous hydrodynamical background as well as the soft-hard flow harmonic correlations in the experimentally measured υ2. In this talk I show how event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics (computed using the v-USPhydro code) coupled to an energy loss model (BBMG) is able to simultaneously describe soft physics observables as well as the high-pT RAA and υ2. Suggestions for future more differential calculations at the LHC run2 are made to explore soft-hard flow correlations.

  20. Nanosprings, Another Piece of the Nanotechnology Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, David

    2003-11-01

    Nanotechnology is being touted as the next significant advancement in science and technology. The proposed applications for nanotechnology range from biological sensors to nanorobotics, to name a few. In order to take nanotechnology from the realm of science fiction to reality we need determine what is possible, as dictated by the laws of physics, and what is not. Often times when approaching a new problem we have a tendency to over complicate the problem. Therefore, when developing nanomachines we should start simple. An excellent place to start is with toys. Toys are designed to perform complex functions using the simplest of designs. If we dictate that our toy performs a function or action then energy will be needed, as well as a means for storing energy. The simplest mechanism that satisfies these two requirements is a spring. In this presentation a summary of the efforts to develop nanosprings, springs that are on the order of tens of nanometers, will be presented.

  1. Solve Your Scheduling Puzzle without a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Steve

    1982-01-01

    The small Lone Star school district in Otis (Colorado) developed a year-long process for creating its master course schedule. The scheduling process includes a needs assessment, a curriculum scheduling committee of teachers and students, a trial run of the schedule, and board approval of the master schedule. (RW)

  2. Educational Policy Research: Progress, Puzzles, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Murnane

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvant...

  3. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  4. The governance of problems: puzzling, powering, participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysis usually gives more attention to problem solving than problem finding and there is a real threat of mismatch between problem perceptions by citizens and problem definition by their elected and appointed policy makers. Contemporary democracies need to develop a better governance of pro

  5. A possible explanation of the CP puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtamyshev, Georgij [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1996-03-01

    The problem of mirror-reflection symmetry (MRS) and time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in our world is discussed. The opinion is expressed, that well-known experiments on parity violation and CP-violation can be treated as signals of some new, yet unknown, level of matter. An hypothesis, which can be used as a base for some future model or theory is formulated. In the framework of this hypothesis, experiments will demonstrate parity violation or CP-violation do not contradict MRS or TRS conservation. (author). 14 refs.

  6. A Puzzled DME Industry In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over the recent years,the DME industry in China has gained higher speed,something like a blowout.However,it needs time to foster the market and there are some problems with the industry itself. These were among the topics at the Third International Conference on DME & Fifth Asian DME Conference held recently in Shanghai.

  7. Policy Puzzles with Roma Employment in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Mýtna Kureková

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the implementation of mainstream employment policies in Slovakia with respect to Roma. It highlights positive and negative practices in application, revealing diversity in on-the-ground implementation of different measures as well as institutional deficiencies in the provision of public employment services. By gathering experiences from the stakeholders involved in the implementation, as well as from Roma participants, the paper differs from top-down approaches to analysin...

  8. New Sellafield study poses a puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years ago, an epidemiological study rocked the nuclear industry by suggesting a link between exposure to radiation among men and leukemia in their children. The study, by the late British epidemiologist Martin Gardner, focused on workers at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in northwest England and had profound implications for the nuclear industry: If a causal link between exposure and cancer could be proven, occupational exposure limits to radiation would have to be tightened and British Nuclear Fuels, the operator of Sellafield, might be open to litigation from the affected children and their relatives. A new study by Britain's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) found only fragile evidence that long-term cumulative exposure to radiation by fathers before conception of their children was linked to an increased risk of the child developing leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. But in Seascale, 3 kilometers south of Sellafield, the rate of leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma among children whose fathers worked in Sellafield and lived in Seascale when they were born was about 14 times the national average. The findings remain uncertain as to cause of the cancers

  9. The Chinese Puzzle of Low Profit Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2004-01-01

    There are too many tea varieties, factories, and styles of packaging and too few registered trademarks and known domestic and international brands. No brand name means no market, let alone reputation or consumer loyalty. Beneath the superficially prosperous Chinese tea industry there lurks a nagging insecurity over its dearth of brand names.

  10. Assembling puzzles / Emil Urbel ; intervjueerinud Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urbel, Emil, 1959-

    2010-01-01

    Arhitekt Emil Urbeli projekteeritud minimalistlikest eramutest Nõmmel ja Miidurannas, Aaviku elamurajoonist, Esku tänava ridaelamutest Tallinnas, SEB pangahoonest Tartus. Elukeskkonnale esitatavate nõudmiste muutumisest viimastel aastakümnetel. Arhitekti tööprotsessist, koostööst arendajate ja ehitajatega

  11. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Morcillo, María [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Taylor, Nicholas M. I. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gruene, Tim [Georg-August-University, Tammannstrasse 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Legrand, Pierre [SOLEIL Synchrotron, L’Orme de Merisiers, Saint Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rashid, Umar J. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruiz, Federico M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fernández-Tornero, Carlos, E-mail: cftornero@cib.csic.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    Details of the RNA polymerase I crystal structure determination provide a framework for solution of the structures of other multi-subunit complexes. Simple crystallographic experiments are described to extract relevant biological information such as the location of the enzyme active site. Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution.

  12. The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M T; Strömland, K.; Gillberg, C; M. Johansson; Nilsson, E W

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Möbius sequence (Möbius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the si...

  13. Counselor Trainee Effectiveness: More Puzzle Pieces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Larry C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study continues the search for meaningful relationships between counselor trainee characteristics and effectiveness. Self-disclosure, dogmatism, locus of control, Machiavellianism, academic aptitude, and sex of counselor trainees were investigated for relationships to effectiveness during practicum or internship. (Author)

  14. Resolution to the B -> pi K puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hsiang-nan; Mishima, Satoshi; Sanda, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the important next-to-leading-order contributions to the B -> pi K, pi pi decays from the vertex corrections, the quark loops, and the magnetic penguins in the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the latter two reduce the leading-order penguin amplitudes by about 10%, and modify only the B -> pi K branching ratios. The main effect of the vertex corrections is to increase the small color-suppressed tree amplitude by a factor of 3, which then resolves the large difference b...

  15. World History Plays, Puzzles and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration"; (5) "Fall of the…

  16. The CO/Pt(111) Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEIBELMAN,PETER J.; HAMMER,B.; NORSHOV,J.K.; WAGNER,F.; SCHEFFLER,M.; STUMPF,R.; DUMESIC,J.; WATWE,R.

    2000-07-12

    Notwithstanding half a dozen theoretical publications, well-converged density-functional calculations, whether based on a local or generalized-gradient exchange-correlation potential, whether all-electron or employing pseudopotentials underestimate CO's preference for low-coordination binding sites on Pt(111) and vicinals to it. For example, they imply that CO should prefer hollow- to atop-site adsorption on Pt(111), in apparent contradiction to a host of low temperature experimental studies.

  17. Bequest Motives and the Annuity Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Lee M. Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    Few retirees annuitize any wealth, a fact that has so far defied explanation within the standard framework of forward-looking, expected utility-maximizing agents. Bequest motives seem a natural explanation. Yet the prevailing view is that people with plausible bequest motives should annuitize part of their wealth, and thus that bequest motives cannot explain why most people do not annuitize any wealth. I show, however, that people with plausible bequest motives are likely to be better off not...

  18. THE SCHULHOF FAMILY: SOLVING THE AGE PUZZLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Krugly, Yurij N. [Institute of Astronomy of Kharkiv National University, Sumska Str. 35, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili [Kharadze Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, K. Cholokoshvili Av. 3/5, Tbilisi 0162, Georgia (United States); Molotov, Igor E. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS, Miusskaya 4, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Pray, Donald [Sugarloaf Mountain Observatory, South Deerfield, MA 01373 (United States); Husárik, Marek [Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-059 60 Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia); Pollock, Joseph T. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Appalachian State University, 525 Rivers St, Boone, NC 28608 (United States); Nesvorný, David, E-mail: vokrouhl@cesnet.cz [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  19. The Jigsaw Puzzle of Scalar Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Boglione, M

    2004-01-01

    This is a brief overview of light scalar meson spectroscopy, addressing longstanding problems, recent developments and future perspectives. In particular, a new comprehensive data analysis is introduced which will help to unravel the structure of the f_0(980).

  20. The puzzles of dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2010-06-01

    Positive results of dark matter searches in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA experiments, being put together with negative results of other groups, imply nontrivial particle physics solutions for cosmological dark matter. Stable particles with charge -2 bind with primordial helium in O-helium ``atoms'' (OHe), representing a specific Warmer than Cold nuclear-interacting form of dark matter. Slowed down in the terrestrial matter, OHe is elusive for direct methods of underground Dark matter detection like those used in CDMS experiment, but its reactions with nuclei can lead to annual variations of energy release in the interval of energy 2-6 keV in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA experiments. Schrodinger equation for system of nucleus and OHe is considered and reduced to an equation of relative motion in a spherically symmetrical potential well, formed by the Yukawa tail of nuclear scalar isoscalar attraction potential, acting on He beyond the nucleus, and dipole Coulomb repulsion between the nucleus and OHe at distances from the nuclear surface, smaller than the size of OHe. The values of coupling strength and mass of meson, mediating scalar isoscalar nuclear potential, are rather uncertain. Within these uncertainties we find a narrow window of these parameters, at which the sodium and/or iodine nuclei have a few keV binding energy with OHe. The concentration of OHe in the matter of underground detectors is adjusted to the incoming flux of cosmic O-helium at the timescale less than few minutes. Therefore the rate of radiative capture of Na and/or I by OHe should experience annual modulations. Transitions to more energetic levels of Na+OHe (I+OHe) system imply tunneling through dipole Coulomb barrier that leads to suppression of annual modulation of events with MeV-tens MeV energy release in the correspondence with the results of DAMA experiments. The proposed explanation inevitably leads to prediction of abundance of anomalous Na (and/or I) corresponding to the signal, observed by DAMA. At nuclear parameters, reproducing DAMA results, the energy release predicted for detectors with chemical content other than NaI differ in the most cases from the one in DAMA detector. In particular, it is shown that in the case of CDMS the energy of OHe-germanium bound state is beyond the range of 2-6 keV and its formation should not lead to ionization in the energy interval of DAMA signal.

  1. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spitaleri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective “screening” potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. In this letter we show that instead of an atomic physics solution of the “electron screening puzzle”, the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.

  2. Military Burden and the Democracy Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Rota, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Kantian thought had advanced the idea that wars and military expenditure should decrease as long as democracy widens across the World. Historical evidence seems to invalidate this wisdom because frequency of wars is ncreasing over time and a large amount of public resources is still being committed to military spending. This paper contributes to explain this point by considering the effect of polity regimes on the military spending during the period 1880-1938. Indeed, before World War ...

  3. The Schulhof Family: Solving the Age Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Molotov, Igor E.; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David

    2016-03-01

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  4. Visual Neuroscience: The Puzzle of Perceptual Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Bremmer, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Our world appears stable, although our eyes constantly shift its image across the retina. What brain mechanisms allow for this perceptual stability? A recent study has brought us a step closer to answering this millennial question. PMID:26954439

  5. The Eco-Efficiency Premium Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Derwall (Jeroen); N.K. Günster (Nadja); R. Bauer (Rob); C.G. Koedijk (Kees)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThere exists a widespread consensus among mainstream academics and investors that socially responsible investing (SRI) leads to inferior, rather than superior, portfolio performance. Using Innovest’s well-established corporate ecoefficiency scores, we provide evidence to the contrary. We

  6. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  8. Intraosseous disc prolapse: A diagnostic puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasnis Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Schmorl′s node or intraosseous disc prolapse is herniation of the nucleus pulposus material through the vertebral end plates. Presence of Schmorl′s nodes as end plate lesions following trauma, tumours and osteoporosis further complicates diagnosis. The present study was done to understand diagnosis and approach to management of symptomatic Schmorl′s nodes. Methods : During a period of three years we came across 14 patients who presented with severe back pain. Conventional radiographs, CT Scans and MRI showed the presence of end plate lesions with varied radiological appearance. The first group, comprising of seven patients had lytic lesions without any sclerosis on only one side of the intervertebral disc as seen on the CT scan. The second group comprising of five patients had sclerotic lesions with new bone formation associated with disc space reduction. The two patients in the third group showed a combined lytic and sclerotic lesion without any soft tissue changes. MRI of eleven patients revealed hypointense lesion on T 1 and T 2 weighted images with surrounding zone of hyper intensity on T 2 weighted images. The remaining three patients, did not have this hyper intense zone on T 2 weighted images . In five patients multiple Schmorl′s nodes were observed. Diagnosis of symptomatic Schmorl′s nodes was mainly done by exclusion. All patients were given rest and anti-inflammatory drugs followed by exercises. Results : The first two groups of patients responded to the treatment and had complete relief of symptoms but both the patients in third group had persistent symptoms. MRI repeated after eight weeks showed an enhancing lesion with prevertebral soft tissue. A transpedicular core biopsy proved the lesion to be tuberculosis in one patient. Anti Koch′s therapy was promptly started and follow up study showed resolution of the lesions. At the end of the study period all the patients were asymptomatic and returned to their active profession. Conclusion : The difficulty in diagnosis is attributed to the fact that every person with Schmorl′s node is not symptomatic. For accurate diagnosis it is necessary to have high index of suspicion, close follow up and exclusion of other associated conditions. In case of poor response to conservative treatment an alternative diagnosis has to be considered and if required it should be proved or disproved by a biopsy of the lesion (percutaneous or open.

  9. Back pain: A puzzle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahle, Imad S; Hamam, Mohamed S; Masrouha, Karim Z; Afeiche, Nadim E; Abdelnoor, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    Back pain in children is underdiagnosed and increases incidence in adolescence. A systematic approach can diagnose the most common causes: trauma, structural deformities, inflammatory diseases, infection and malignancy. PMID:27535879

  10. New pieces of the Trichinella puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than 9 different species and 3 additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentia...

  11. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology.

  12. Nursing education: current themes, puzzles and paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Christine A

    2007-01-01

    It would be tempting to declare that transformation of nursing education in the current context of faculty shortages and other scarce resources as Mission Impossible. But I believe that the opposite is true. It is my sense that the rapid changes in healthcare, the shifting population needs and the acute nursing shortage have catalyzed fundamental change, perhaps the most profound in the 50 year history of WIN. The first steps of that transformation are becoming increasingly apparent as nursing faculty begin to challenge their long-standing, taken-for-granted assumptions; as they set aside differences and their internecine warfare of the entry-into-practice debates; as they begin stronger and deeper collaborations with their clinical partners. We won't see the evidence of these changes in the literature for a while, because they are just getting started. There's not a lot to report yet. Here are some examples of the changes afoot: The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education has resulted from unprecedented collaboration between community college and university faculty, with an eye to develop a standard, competency-based curriculum to prepare the "new" nurse, and to improve access to a seamless baccalaureate curriculum. The first students were enrolled in nursing courses in fall, 2006 on 8 campuses--the four campuses of OHSU and 4 community colleges, with additional community college campuses admitting students in '07 and '08. In this curriculum, fundamentals of nursing have been redefined as evidence-based practice, culturally sensitive and relationship-centered care, leadership and clinical judgment, with these concepts and others introduced early and spiraled throughout the curriculum. Through a 2-year faculty development program, faculty leaders in the OCNE partner programs have taken to heart the many lessons about learning, intentionally attending to content selection that will help reduce the volume while focusing on the most prevalent. Instructional approaches have been tremendously changed, with an emphasis on case-based instruction, integrating distance delivery technologies, and using simulation, drawing on best practices in the development of these approaches (Billings, et al., 2001; Issenberg, et al .2005; Jeffries, 2005). OCNE leaders obtained funding from Kaiser Permanente Northwest to begin the long, collaborative, consensus building process to transform clinical education. Evaluation has and will continue to be an integral part of this work, with an eye to adding to our collective knowledge of best practices in nursing education. We see evidence of similar efforts, mostly state or regional, in order to build on prior alliances, acknowledge geographic particularities, and respond to local needs in many other parts of the country, from Hawaii to New Jersey, Texas to Montana. The nursing shortage has been a primary catalyst. It has captured the interest of potential funders, individual donors, foundations to the Federal government. The keys are collaboration and a collective voice for nursing, a willingness to work through long-standing and divisive issues, and most importantly, a moral commitment to the populations we serve.

  13. Iran irritates and puzzles the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author analyses political and economic situation in the Iran. Iran is endangered by economic sanctions and military attacks on nuclear facilities, the president threatens by retributive military attacks. Situation in Iran is compared with Iraq. Perspectives of application of political and economic embargo against Iran are discussed. USA and co-adjuster would probably meet the Russian or Chinese veto. On the international markets or on the bilateral level the good volition to disable to Iran the sale of its oil and natural gas would by scarcely expected. Iran exports from 2.5 to 3 million barrels of oil daily. It is impossible to substitute Iran essentially. The country is the fourth biggest exporter of oil in the world and has the second biggest stocks of oil after Saudi Arabia. Iran is endangered by the fact that big question mark will stay to hang above nuclear program. The part of uranium is imported from African countries like Gabon and Niger through France and the sanctions of UN would stop this import. Iran has its own uranium fields, even which belongs to the largest in the world. However, Iran cannot exploit them effectively without help of western companies. Nuclear program, which is supported by big hope and sources from the country, probably collide with unexpected barriers. Even if UN Safety Council would not confirmed anti-Iran sanctions, the seven states that produce nuclear technologies would stop their sale to Iran. It would freeze its civilian and military nuclear program from a few years or some decades

  14. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  15. Solving the puzzle of "red" Sirius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceragioli, R. C.

    The present paper is the second of two published in this journal concerning the problem of whether Sirius has changed its intrinsic colour from reddish to bluish white since Antiquity. The fundamental question to be answered is this: why did the ancients - and in particular Ptolemy - sometimes refer to Sirius as "reddish" when it cannot have been intrinsically different from its present bluish white colour? The author anticipates the answer by saying that ancient assessments of Sirius's reddishness depended on the varying appearances that the Dog-star shows near the horizon, where it sometimes appears reddish because of atmospheric scattering and the scintillation of its light. At higher altitudes in a calm sky, Sirius must have shown its intrinsic bluish white colour.

  16. The puzzling entanglement of Schroedinger's wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the conceptual difficulties met by the quantum formalism is presented. The main attempts to overcome these difficulties are considered and their limitations are pointed out. A recent proposal based on the assumption of the occurrence of a specific type of wave function collapse is discussed and its consequences for the above-mentioned problems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs

  17. Black Hole Remnants and the Information Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T; Strominger, A

    1993-01-01

    Magnetically charged dilatonic black holes have a perturbatively infinite ground state degeneracy associated with an infinite volume throat region of the geometry. A simple argument based on causality is given that these states do not have a description as ordinary massive particles in a low-energy effective field theory. Pair production of magnetic black holes in a weak magnetic field is estimated in a weakly-coupled semiclassical expansion about an instanton and found to be finite, despite the infinite degeneracy of states. This suggests that these states may store the information apparently lost in black hole scattering processes.

  18. The puzzle of Mt. Etna 2015 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe Giovanni; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavo', Flavio; Currenti, Gilda; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; La Spina, Alessandro; Palano, Mimmo; Napoli, Rosalba; Sciotto, Mariangela; Spampinato, Letizia

    2016-04-01

    During 2015, Mt. Etna volcano activity consisted of a sequence of seismic and volcanic events indicative of a complex cause-effect relationship between volcanism and tectonics. Here we analyze in details all these events in order to figure out a possible and reliable causative mechanism able to explain the measured evidences by exploiting an extensive and multi-parametric dataset, including geochemical, volcanological, magnetic, seismic, and geodetic data. The integration of the different parameters allowed us to observe a long-lasting inflation episode abruptly interrupted by two vigorous short-term deflations and an intense dynamics of the northern sector of the volcano unstable flank. This last feature was characterized by two seismic swarms (Mmax = 3.6) occurring along the central sector of the Pernicana Fault and aseismic slip with intense deformation affecting the north-eastern edge of the unstable flank. This is not the first time in which the interaction between volcanism and tectonics has been observed at Mt. Etna although poorly constrained. In our case, the used multidisciplinary approach suggested us that in 2015 the eruptive activity was mainly triggered by the tectonic framework of the volcano unstable flank.

  19. Rare Disasters and Credit Market Puzzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Du, Du; Elkamhi, Redouane

    to the real economy and not to bond prices can simultaneously explain several key empirical regularities in credit markets. Our model captures the empirical level and volatility of credit spreads, generates a flexible credit risk term structure, and provides a good fit to a century of observed spreads...

  20. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puz...

  1. Cooperative Learning in the College ESL Speaking Class--Taking the Technique of Jigsaw Puzzles to Overcome Reticence as an example%大学英语口语课堂的破冰行动--以拼图式合作学习模式为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严娟

    2015-01-01

    沉默、被动是二语课堂的一种常见现象。在合作学习理论视角下,将拼图式合作学习模式融入传统的英语口语课堂,探索促进师生互动的方法;消除英语课堂,特别是口语课堂里教与学的被动局面,打破沉默,是提高英语教与学效能的有效途径之一。%The phenomenon of reticence in the ESL classroom is quite familiar to ESL teachers. The purpose of this study is to explore whether the technique of jigsaw puzzles, one of Cooperative Learning Modes improves performance by encouraging active participation, reducing anxiety, and providing mutual support.

  2. On Puzzles and Non-Puzzles in B -> pi pi, pi K Decays

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan; Schwab, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we have seen interesting progress in the exploration of CP violation in B^0_d -> pi^+ pi^-: the measurements of mixing-induced CP violation by the BaBar and Belle collaborations are now in good agreement with each other, whereas the picture of direct CP violation is still unclear. Using the branching ratio and direct CP asymmetry of B^0_d -> pi^- K^+, this situation can be clarified. We predict A_CP^dir(B_d -> pi^+ pi^-) = -0.24+-0.04, which favours the BaBar result, and extract gam...

  3. 新闻媒体关于中国奥运“金牌迷局”舆论引导的应有认识与作为%The Study on Media Guidance of Public Opinion on China's Olympic Gold Medal Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐

    2012-01-01

    The Olympic Games will be held in London several months later,and the Youth Olympic Games is being undertaken its preparatory work in Nanjing smoothly.At the special moment,our Chinese news media should take the issue of Gold Medal Puzzle of Chinese Olympic Games into sincere consideration,and analyzes its reason from several perspectives,such as the system for sports games,the function of media and the establishment of medals.Only in this way can the media take its responsibility to create a sound atmosphere for the development of human beings' Olympic cause.%在伦敦奥运会即将召开、南京"青奥会"积极筹备之际,新闻媒体应当注意审视中国奥运"金牌迷局"的事实,从体育体制、媒体功用、奖牌设置等方面进行分析引导,以促使人类奥林匹克事业的健康发展。

  4. 我国创新人才培养与思维方式转型进路--从李约瑟难题到钱学森之问%Education of Innovative Talents and Strategy of Thinking Mode Transition:From Joseph Needham Puzzle to Qian Xuesen’ s Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何孟杰

    2016-01-01

    李约瑟难题与钱学森之问的核心都是创新人才培养问题。而思维方式是创新人才的核心要素,中国传统思维方式重类比、模糊与整体,西方思维方式重演绎、精确与分析;二者的差异是中国近现代科技发展和创新人才培养落后的一个重要原因。因此解决创新人才培养问题的一个关键是变革思维方式,变革的当务之急为融会中西思维方式,长期展望则需占领认知科学高地。%Joseph Needham Puzzle and Qian Xuesen ’ s Question are mainly concerned about the education of innovative talents, and the mode of thinking has played a key role in both questions. The mode of thinking in the West attaches importance to logical deduction, accuracy, mechanical and analysis, while the traditional mode of thinking in China pays more attention to analogy, fuzziness and the organic integrity. The history of science and technology shows that these differences can be described as one of the main reasons for the backwardness in education of creative talents in modern China. The key to solving the problem in innovative talents education is to transform the mode of thinking, for which we must take two steps. The first step is to popularize the thinking tools that are absorbed from the best of China and West, and the other one is to strategically stay in the forefront research field of thinking.

  5. Solving Enterprise Applications Performance Puzzles Queuing Models to the Rescue

    CERN Document Server

    Grinshpan, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    A groundbreaking scientific approach to solving enterprise applications performance problems Enterprise applications are the information backbone of today's corporations, supporting vital business functions such as operational management, supply chain maintenance, customer relationship administration, business intelligence, accounting, procurement logistics, and more. Acceptable performance of enterprise applications is critical for a company's day-to-day operations as well as for its profitability. Unfortunately, troubleshooting poorly performing enterprise applications has traditionally

  6. CMS completes major part of 3-D puzzle

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The assembly of CMS in the giant SX5 surface building at Cessy has reached an important turning point. The magnet return yoke - whose red 'wheels' and 'disks' dominate the scene within the building - is completely assembled, including the central part that supports the huge outer shell of the solenoid vacuum tank. Now the focus is shifting towards installing the coil and sub-detectors within this structure..

  7. The puzzle of chloroplast vesicle transport – involvement of GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazzad eKarim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cytosol of plant cells vesicle transport occurs via secretory pathways among the endoplasmic reticulum (ER network, Golgi bodies, secretory granules, endosome and plasma membrane. Three systems transfer lipids, proteins and other important molecules through aqueous spaces to membrane-enclosed compartments, via vesicles that bud from donor membranes, being coated and uncoated before tethered and fused with acceptor membranes. In addition, molecular, biochemical and ultrastructural evidence indicates presence of a vesicle transport system in chloroplasts. Little is known about the protein components of this system. However, as chloroplasts harbour the photosynthetic apparatus that ultimately supports most organisms on the planet, close attention to their pathways is warranted. This may also reveal novel diversification and/or distinct solutions to the problems posed by the targeted intra-cellular trafficking of important molecules. To date two homologues to well-known yeast cytosolic vesicle transport proteins, CPSAR1 and CPRabA5e, have been shown to have roles in chloroplast vesicle transport, both being GTPases. Bioinformatic data indicate that several homologues of cytosolic vesicle transport system components are putatively chloroplast-localized and in addition other proteins have been implicated to participate in chloroplast vesicle transport, including vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1 (VIPP1, thylakoid formation 1 (THF1, snowy cotyledon 2/cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis factor (SCO2/CYO1, curvature thylakoid 1 (CURT1 proteins, and a dynamin like GTPase FZO-like (FZL protein. Several putative potential cargo proteins have also been identified, including building blocks of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we discuss details of the largely unknown putative chloroplast vesicle transport system, focusing on GTPase-related components.

  8. Dengue disease diagnosis: A puzzle to be solved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Castellanos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infection caused by dengue virus and is the most important arthropod transmitted viral disease in the world, causing near 100 million cases and 50 000 fatalities each year. Health authorities believe that these numbers will grow in coming years. In Colombia, almost 600 municipalities are in regions with Aedes aegypti circulation, and the presence of four dengue serotypes has been demonstrated. Despite the increasing knowledge about disease pathogenesis and the dengue virus, some technical or scientific difficulties with diagnosing dengue remain, negatively affecting both public health surveillance and the appropriate attention to patients in health settings and hospitals. This paper reviews the principles and developments of the current diagnostic techniques for dengue, pointing out the difficulties with making accurate dengue diagnoses and case confirmations in public health and specialized laboratories. The principles and limitations of MAC-ELISA, IgG serology, viral NS1 detection and viral isolation by cell culture are presented. In addition, the review of immunochromatography techniques (rapid diagnostic tests that have been put forward to help the point-of-care diagnosis is proposed. This paper is intended to bring forward some points of view about the issues related to dengue diagnosis and contribute to improve the discussion surrounding the strategies and techniques needed for reducing the impact of the disease and favoring its control.

  9. Dengue disease diagnosis: A puzzle to be solved

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Eduardo Castellanos; Carolina Coronel-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an infection caused by dengue virus and is the most important arthropod transmitted viral disease in the world, causing near 100 million cases and 50 000 fatalities each year. Health authorities believe that these numbers will grow in coming years. In Colombia, almost 600 municipalities are in regions with Aedes aegypti circulation, and the presence of four dengue serotypes has been demonstrated. Despite the increasing knowledge about disease pathogenesis and the dengue virus, some ...

  10. Multimarket linkages, buyer power, and the productivity puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Noriaki; Zhao, Laixun

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between firms' productivity improvement and the volume of exports, and shows that it can be sometimes negative. Specifically, we simultaneously take into account intermediate retailers (i.e., vertically) and multimarket linkages (i.e., horizontally). We find that an improvement of the manufacturing productivity affects the bargained wholesale prices in opposite directions in asymmetric markets, causing retailers to make corresponding changes that look surp...

  11. One more piece of KGB puzzle put in place

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu parlamendi erikomisjon leidis, et KGB reservi arvatud isikute staatus erineb teistest organisatsiooni töötajate ja salaagentide omast. Komisjon jõudis järeldusele, et Antanas Valionise ja Arvydas Pociuse kunagine kuulumine KGB reservi ei kujuta endast ohtu Leedu rahvuslikule julgeolekule.

  12. An instrumental puzzle: the modular integration of AOLI

    CERN Document Server

    López, Roberto L; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Valdivia, Juan J F; Puga, Marta; Oscoz, Alejandro; Rebolo, Rafael; Mackay, Craig; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis Fernando; Rodríguez-Ramos, José M; King, David; Labadie, Lucas; Muthusubramanian, Balaji; Rodríguez-Coira, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager, AOLI, is an instrument developed to deliver the highest spatial resolution ever obtained in the visible, 20 mas, from ground-based telescopes. In AOLI a new philosophy of instrumental prototyping has been applied, based on the modularization of the subsystems. This modular concept offers maximum flexibility regarding the instrument, telescope or the addition of future developments.

  13. On the puzzle of space weathering alteration of basaltic asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; Lazzarin, M; Magrin, S

    2010-01-01

    The majority of basaltic asteroids are found in the inner main belt, although a few have also been observed in the outer main belt and near-Earth space. These asteroids -referred to as V-types- have surface compositions that resemble that of the 530km sized asteroid Vesta. Besides the compositional similarity, dynamical evidence also links many V-type asteroids to Vesta. Moreover, Vesta is one of the few asteroids to have been identified as source of specific classes of meteorites, the howardite, eucrite, diogenite achondrites (HEDs). Despite the general consensus on the outlined scenario, several questions remain unresolved. In particular, it is not clear if the observed spectral diversity among Vesta, V-types and HEDs is due to space weathering, as is thought to be the case for S-type asteroids. In this paper, SDSS photometry is used to address the question of whether the spectral diversity among candidate V-types and HEDs can be explained by space weathering. We show that visible spectral slopes of V-types...

  14. Pull or Push? Octopuses Solve a Puzzle Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jonas N.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1). This required the octopuses to perform both pull and release or push actions. After reaching criterion the animals advanced to the next stage of the test, which would be a different consistent orientation of the object (level 2) at the start of the trial, an opaque barrier (level 3) or a random orientation of the object (level 4). All octopuses were successful in reaching criterion in all levels of the task. At the onset of each new level the performance of the animals dropped, shown as an increase in working times. However, they adapted quickly so that overall working times were not significantly different between levels. Our findings indicate that octopuses show behavioral flexibility by quickly adapting to a change in a task. This can be compared to tests in other species where subjects had to conduct actions comprised of a set of motor actions that cannot be understood by a simple learning rule alone. PMID:27003439

  15. Prions, amyloids, and RNA: Pieces of a puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Anton A; Antonets, Kirill S; Bondarev, Stanislav A; Inge-Vechtomov, Sergey G; Derkatch, Irina L

    2016-05-01

    Amyloids are protein aggregates consisting of fibrils rich in β-sheets. Growth of amyloid fibrils occurs by the addition of protein molecules to the tip of an aggregate with a concurrent change of a conformation. Thus, amyloids are self-propagating protein conformations. In certain cases these conformations are transmissible / infectious; they are known as prions. Initially, amyloids were discovered as pathological extracellular deposits occurring in different tissues and organs. To date, amyloids and prions have been associated with over 30 incurable diseases in humans and animals. However, a number of recent studies demonstrate that amyloids are also functionally involved in a variety of biological processes, from biofilm formation by bacteria, to long-term memory in animals. Interestingly, amyloid-forming proteins are highly overrepresented among cellular factors engaged in all stages of mRNA life cycle: from transcription and translation, to storage and degradation. Here we review rapidly accumulating data on functional and pathogenic amyloids associated with mRNA processing, and discuss possible significance of prion and amyloid networks in the modulation of key cellular functions. PMID:27248002

  16. What makes you clever the puzzle of intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, Derek

    2014-01-01

    From Black Holes and Big Bangs to the Higgs boson and the infinitesimal building blocks of all matter, modern science has been spectacularly successful, with one glaring exception - intelligence. Intelligence still remains as one of the greatest mysteries in science. How do you chat so effortlessly? How do you remember, and why do you forget? From a basis of ten maxims What Makes You Clever explains the difficulties as well as the persuasive and persistent over-estimations of progress in Artificial Intelligence. Computers have transformed our lives, and will continue to do so for many years to come. But ever since the Turing Test proposed in 1950 up to IBM's Deep Blue computer that won the second six-game match against world champion Garry Kasparov, the science of artificial intelligence has struggled to make progress. The reader's expertise is engaged to probe human language, machine learning, neural computing, holistic systems and emergent phenomenon. What Makes You Clever reveals the difficulties that s...

  17. Health cost risk : A potential solution to the annuity puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Nijman, Theo; Werker, Bas

    2016-01-01

    We find that health cost risk lowers optimal annuity demand at retirement. If medical expenses can be sizeable early in retirement, full annuitisation at retirement is no longer optimal because agents do not have enough time to build a liquid wealth buffer. Furthermore, large deviations from optimal

  18. Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete...

  19. Testing competing explanations for the inverse productivity puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Junqueira Assunção; Luiz Henrique Braido

    2005-01-01

    We use plot-level data from ICRISAT to assess competing explanations for an old empirical regularity - the inverse relationship between land productivity and farm size. The presence of farmers who simultaneously crop multiple plots with di¤erent sizes is used to test (and reject) explanations based on household heterogeneity. The panel nature of the data is explored to test (and refuse) explanations based on plot fixed characteristics. We are then left with explanations based on time-varying ...

  20. Downward-Sloping Term Structure of Lease Rates: A Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Seko, Miki; Sumita, Kazuto; Yoshida, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    A model of the term structure of lease rates in a frictionless economy is developed and its predictions are compared with data on residential leases in Japan. The model shows that the initial lease rate for a cancellable lease must be set higher than that for a non-cancellable lease because the former rate will be repeatedly adjusted downward when the market rent decreases. More importantly, the term structure of lease rates is always upward-sloping for cancellable leases. Empirical findings ...