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Sample records for agents morphological study

  1. Morphological study of polymethyl methacrylate microcapsules filled with self-healing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Hayaty, Mehran; Navarchian, Amir H.

    2017-03-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microcapsules filled with epoxy prepolymer, 3-aminomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexylamine, and pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) as healing agents have been prepared separately through internal phase separation method for self-healing purposes. PMMA with two different molecular weights (M bar1 = 36,000 g/mol and M bar2 = 550,000 g/mol) were used with two types of different emulsifiers (ionic and polymeric) to prepare microcapsules. The morphology of healing agent microcapsules was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that PMMA microcapsules separately filled with epoxy and amine had core-shell morphologies with smooth surfaces. The mercaptan/PMMA particles exhibited core-shell and acorn-shape morphologies. The surface morphology of mercaptan microcapsules changed from holed to plain in different emulsion systems. The spreading coefficient (S) of phases in the prepared emulsion systems were calculated from interfacial tension (σ) and contact angle (θ) measurements. The theoretical equilibrium morphology of PMMA microcapsules was predicted according to spreading coefficient values of phases in emulsion systems. It was also found that the surface morphology of PMMA microcapsules depended strongly on the nature of the core, molecular weight of PMMA, type and concentration of emulsifier.

  2. Effect of two bleaching agents on enamel morphology: a SEM study

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    Ghavam M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching materials are able to change the surface morphology as well as mineral and organic content of tooth structure. Considering that bleaching is done for aesthetic purpose, awareness of the possible effect of these materials on hard tissue is important, because it may affect the restorative treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two bleaching materials, Kimia and Ultradent both containing 35% H2O2, on tooth enamel by SEM. Materials and Methods: Five intact central incisors were cut into three sections vertically and each part was randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, without any bleaching. Group 2, bleached with Kimia 35% H2O2. Group 3, bleached with Ultradent 35% H2O2. Each tooth served as its own control. Then the samples were observed by SEM with 250 and 500 magnifications. Results: In the control group some scratches and small white grains were observed which seems to be the result of mastication trauma and pumice powder. In the other groups, morphologic changes like increased surface roughness, deepening of cracks, rod exposure and presence of new cracks were observed. The two experimental materials did not differ in these regards. Conclusion: It seems that both studied materials have limited destructive effects on tooth enamel which seems to be of no clinical importance.

  3. Comparative Morphological Study of Asphaltenes in Cuban Crude Using N-Pentane and N-Hexane as Precipitating Agent

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    Doramis de la Caridad Vega Torres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The components of petroleum are grouped into four organic classes such as: Saturated, Aromatic,Resins and Asphaltenes. Asphaltenes are compounds with a complex structure and high molecularweight, made up by carbon rings linked to alkyl chains and cycloalkanes in addition to heterocycliccompounds with. Nitrogen, Sulphur, and Oxygen. Their precipitation of compounds is associated withprocess of production, transportation and refining of crude oil. Recent studies have proved that asphalteneprecipitates vary depending on the precipitating agent used. The research objective in this study isdeveloping a comparative morphological evaluation to asphaltene samples in crude oils from Seboruco,Santa Cruz, Cabaña and Pina. The asphalting precipitations were obtained employed ASTMD-6560-00,using n-pentane and n-hexane as precipitation agents. It was characterized through the use of a ScanningElectron Microscope using 20 KV acceleration. Solids made up by overlapping flakes linked toform agglomerates were obtained with n-hexane and solids with a higher porosity were obtained withn-pentane. Such behavior is attributed to the occupied spaces where resins were initially. The quantityof precipitate that was obtained with n-pentane is higher than the one obtained with the use of n-hexane.

  4. FATIGUE LIFE, MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES, AND THERMAL AGING OF RATTAN POWDER-FILLED NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF FILLER LOADING AND A SILANE COUPLING AGENT

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    Hanafi Ismail,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue life, morphological studies, and thermal aging properties of rattan powder-filled natural rubber (NR composites were investigated as a function of filler loading and a silane coupling agent. NR composites were prepared by the incorporation of rattan powder in the range of 0 to 30 phr into a NR matrix with a laboratory size two roll mill. Thermal aging was carried out for 7 and 14 days at a temperature of 70 °C, and tensile testing was performed in order to determine the aging properties. The results indicated that the fatigue life of rattan powder-filled NR composites decreased with increasing rattan powder loading. Tensile strength and elongation at break decreased whilst tensile modulus, stress at 100% elongation (M100, and stress at 300% elongation (M300 increased after aging. Nevertheless, the addition of the silane coupling agent improved both fatigue life and the aging properties of NR composites due to better adhesion between the rubber matrix and the rattan filler which was confirmed by FTIR studies of composites and SEM studies of fatigue fractured surfaces.

  5. Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

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    Hsueh-Chung Liao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaic (OPV promise low cost solar energy and have caused an explosive increase in investigations during the last decade. Control over the 3D morphology of BHJ blend films in various length scales is one of the pillars accounting for the significant advance of OPV performance recently. In this contribution, we focus on the strategy of incorporating an additive into BHJ blend films as a morphological control agent, i.e., ternary blend system. This strategy has shown to be effective in tailoring the morphology of BHJ through different inter- and intra-molecular interactions. We systematically review the morphological observations and associated mechanisms with respect to various kinds of additives, i.e., polymers, small molecules and inorganic nanoparticles. We organize the effects of morphological control (compatibilization, stabilization, etc. and provide general guidelines for rational molecular design for additives toward high efficiency and high stability organic solar cells.

  6. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment). Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11): control, Whiteness Perfect - 10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP), Colgate Platinum - 10% CP, Day White 2Z - 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP), Whiteness Super - 37% CP, Opalescence Quick - 35% CP and Whiteness HP - ...

  7. Cardioplegia using low volumic cardioplegic agents: morphological study in isolated rabbit hearts Cardioplegia utilizando baixo volume de agentes cardioplégicos: estudo morfológico em coração isolado de coelhos

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    Ana Paula Marques Lima-Oliveira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological cardioplegic solution aims to eliminate the consequences of ischemic damage, which results from the misbalance between the offer and consumption of energy during the arrest of the heart beats during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. OBJECTIVES: This research experimentally evaluates the structural and ultrastructural changes in isolated rabbit hearts submitted to arrest protected by a Low Volumetric Cardioplegic Solution (LVCS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study counted with a control group and two experimental groups. In group I the cardiac arrest was obtained by infusion of the LVCS for 2 hours. In group II the experiment was conducted in the same way until the arrest protected by LVCS for 2 hours, and immediately after reperfusion was performed with the Ringer Locke (RL oxygenated solution for 1 hour. In the control group the hearts were perfused with the RL oxygenated solution for 2 hours. After the experiments, 8 samples of the left ventricle were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for histological and ultrastructural analysis. RESULTS: The myocardial cells, the fibroblasts and the endothelial cells which were observed in the experimental groups I and II, presented with marginalization of the heterochromatin, compaction of the nucleolus, change in the morphology of the mitochondria and compaction of the cristae. Also there was an increase of the density of the mitochondrial matrix. This indicates that the nuclear structure as well as the structure of the cytoplasmic organelles were altered when compared to the cells of the control group. CONCLUSION: The structural modifications were due a physiological adaptation of the cell, and not an indication of oncosis or apoptosis, suggesting that the cardioplegic solution used was efficient for the preservation of the cells.INTRODUÇÃO: A solução cardioplégica farmacológica busca eliminar as conseqüências do dano isquêmico, que é o

  8. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-04-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  10. Nature as a network of morphological infocomputational processes for cognitive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a view of nature as a network of infocomputational agents organized in a dynamical hierarchy of levels. It provides a framework for unification of currently disparate understandings of natural, formal, technical, behavioral and social phenomena based on information as a structure, differences in one system that cause the differences in another system, and computation as its dynamics, i.e. physical process of morphological change in the informational structure. We address some of the frequent misunderstandings regarding the natural/morphological computational models and their relationships to physical systems, especially cognitive systems such as living beings. Natural morphological infocomputation as a conceptual framework necessitates generalization of models of computation beyond the traditional Turing machine model presenting symbol manipulation, and requires agent-based concurrent resource-sensitive models of computation in order to be able to cover the whole range of phenomena from physics to cognition. The central role of agency, particularly material vs. cognitive agency is highlighted.

  11. Effects of antistatic agent on the mechanical, morphological and antistatic properties of polypropylene/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposites

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    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP and PP/organo-montmorillonite (OMMT compounds containing antistatic agent (3, 6 and 9 wt% were prepared using co-rotating twin screw extruder followed by injection molding. PP/OMMT composites were prepared by mixing of PP, OMMT and maleated PP (PPgMAH. The mechanical properties of PP blends and PP/OMMT nanocomposites were studied by tensile and impact tests. The effect of antistatic agent (AA on the surface resistivity of PP and PP/OMMT nanocomposites were studied. The morphological properties of PP blends and PP/OMMT nanocomposites were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The intercalation of OMMT silicates layer in PP nanocomposites was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD. The impact strength of PP blends and PP/OMMT nanocomposites did not vary significantly by the addition of antistatic agent. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of PP/OMMT nanocomposites were slightly decreased with the increasing loading of antistatic agents. From FESEM analysis, the dispersion of antistatic agent in the PP matrix can be revealed. In addition, the surface resistivity of PP/OMMT compound was affected by the loading of antistatic agent. XRD results indicated the formation of intercalated nanocomposites for PP/OMMT/AA.

  12. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  13. Study of the ethiological agent of gnathostomosis in Nayarit, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Règagnon, Virginia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis; Akahane, Hiroshige; Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; Koga, Masataka; Messina-Robles, Maud; Alvarez-Guerrero, César

    2002-06-01

    In order to clarify the specific identity of the etiological agent of human gnathostomosis in Nayarit State, Mexico, morphological and molecular studies were conducted on advanced third stage larvae obtained from human and fish tissue. Cathorops fuerthii from Agua Brava lagoons complex, was the only fish species found to be infected among four species surveyed. Morphological variability does not allow specific identification of the larvae. Internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced for six larvae (five from fish, one from human tissue). Low divergence in the sequences of Nayarit larvae and Gnathostoma binucleatum (0.24% or less) indicate that the larvae examined belong to this species.

  14. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NODULAR HIDRADENOMA

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    Pushpa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study conducted in Government Villupuram medical college about morphological features of nodular hidradenoma by reviewing the hispathology slides of five cases in one year period. Analytical study done regarding the gender, age, and sites distribution of tumour and also variation in gross and histopatholgy features. OBJECTIVE : To describe and study the morphological features of Nodular Hidradenoma along with data on gender and age. Study on Sites and morphological features also included. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Retrospective evaluation of histopathological records duri ng the previous year 2013 - 2014 . The study was conducted in Tertiary care Teaching hospital , Government Villupuram Medical College, Villupuram. 5 cases of nodular hidradenoma were identified. Data on gender, age, C linical presentation, gross and microscopic findings with hematoxylin and eosin stains were collected. Histological slides were reviewed.

  15. Morphological studies of some cultivated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, S.

    1966-01-01

    A study was made of those morphological and physical soil properties considered to govern root development.A deep and wide-branched root system was shown only to develop in a soil containing a permanent heterogeneous pore system, formed by biological activity in the profile. Therefore a distinction

  16. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

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    XIA Peng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene, and exploring the injury situation of different heights, different fall ways and postures, to provide a reference for the foren-sic identification of high fall injury. Methods: All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender, age, ground-touching posture, fall height, site and type of the injury. Results: Among 134 high fall cases, 98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6 ±16.9 on average, in which, 10-60 years old group con-sisted of 110 cases (82%. Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73% and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators. Among these cases, head injury was generally serious, followed by chest and abdominal injuries. The morphologic changes depend upon the height, nature, as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground. Conclusion: Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifica-tions of the cause and nature of high fall injuries. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Forensic medicine; Anatomy and histology

  17. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Peng; CHANG Hong-fa; YU Yong-min; DAI Guo-xin; LI Hong-wei; JIANG Qiang-guo; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene,and exploring the injury situation of different heights,different fall ways and postures,to provide a reference for the forensic identification of high fall injury.Methods:All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender,age,ground-touching posture,fall height,site and type of the injury.Results:Among 134 high fall cases,98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6±16.9 on average),in which,10-60 years old group consisted of 110 cases (82%).Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73%) and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators.Among these cases,head injury was generally serious,followed by chest and abdominal injuries.The morphologic changes depend upon the height,nature,as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground.Conclusion:Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifications of the cause and nature of high fall injuries.

  18. Water as an agent for the morphology modification of metal oxalate materials on the nanoscale: from sheets to rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minog; Kim, Yoojin; Kwon, Wonjong; Yoon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to control the shape of metal oxalates, which often used as precursors for metal oxide nanomaterials. However, attempts to use water as a regulator have not been reported. Here in we report systematic studies on related topics: nanosheets, composed of 1-dimensional [M(C2O4)(EG)] (M = Zn or Co) polymeric structure, could be transformed into nanorods by using water as a shape-shifting agent because water can readily substitute EG ligand, leading alternation of inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions. In addition, heat-treatment of these nanomaterials with diverse morphologies resulted in porous metal oxides with high degrees of shape retention.

  19. Molecular and morphological surface analysis: effect of filling pastes and cleaning agents on root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAINEZI, Vanessa Benetello; IWAMOTO, Alexsandra Shizue; MARTIN, Airton Abrahão; SOARES, Luís Eduardo Silva; HOSOYA, Yumiko; PASCON, Fernanda Miori; PUPPIN-RONTANI, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The quality of the dentin root is the most important factor for restoration resin sealing and drives the outcome of endodontic treatment. Objective This study evaluated the effect of different filling pastes and cleaning agents on the root dentin of primary teeth using Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Material and Methods Eighty roots of primary teeth were endodontically prepared and distributed into 4 groups and filled according to the following filling pastes: Control-no filling (CP), Calen®+zinc oxide (CZ), Calcipex II® (CII), Vitapex® (V). After seven days, filling paste groups were distributed to 4 subgroups according to cleaning agents (n=5): Control-no cleaning (C), Ethanol (E), Tergenform® (T), 35% Phosphoric acid (PA). Then, the roots were sectioned and the dentin root sections were internally evaluated by FT-Raman, µ-EDXRF and SEM. Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results Regarding filling pastes, there was no significant difference in organic content. CP provided the lowest calcium values and, calcium/phosphoric ratio (Ca/P), and the highest phosphoric values. For cleaning agents there was no difference in organic content when compared to the C; however, T showed significantly higher calcium and Ca/P than PA. All groups showed similar results for phosphorus. The dentin smear layer was present after use of the cleaning agents, except PA. Conclusion The filling pastes changed the inorganic content, however they did not change the organic content. Cleaning agents did not alter the inorganic and organic content. PA cleaned and opened dentin tubules. PMID:28198982

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON SHAPES OF PTERION

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    Pavan P. Havaldar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pterion is defined as an H-shaped small circular area formed by the junction of four bones: frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid on norma lateralis of the skull, Pterion junction has been used as a common extra-cranial landmark for surgeons in microsurgical and surgical approaches towards important pathologies of this region. Pterion is an important landmark for anterior branch of middle meningeal artery, Broca’s motor speech area to the left, insula, the lateral cerebral fissure, for the pathologies of optic nerve, orbit, sphenoidal ridge and for the anterior circulation aneurysm and tumors, because of its clinical importance we focused our present study on morphology of shape of pterion. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 pterions were examined from 250 adult dry skulls. The present study was undertaken in adult south Indian skulls from different regions of south India, from different medical colleges. We have observed different shapes of pterion like sphenoparietal frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric. Results: The sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. 250 human skulls of known gender (148 male, 102 female were examined on both sides. Four types of pterion were observed – sphenoparietal 72.8%, frontotemporal 16.4%, stellate 8.8% and epipteric 2%. Conclusion: The pterion is points of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. The patterns of formation exhibit population based variations. The sutural morphology of the pterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. These findings may helpful in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.

  1. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the p

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  3. Radiation Chemistry Studies on Chemotherapeutic Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling

    1977-01-01

    Adrenalin has been studied as a model radiation protective agent by means of pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenalin with e–aq and OH were determined : k(e–aq+ adr—NH+2)= 7.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, k(e–aq+ adr—NH)= 2.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, and k...

  4. Superior neuroprotective effects of cerebrolysin in heat stroke following chronic intoxication of Cu or Ag engineered nanoparticles. A comparative study with other neuroprotective agents using biochemical and morphological approaches in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Patnaik, Ranjana; Stan, Adina Dora; Vacaras, Vitalie; Perju-Dumbrav, Laura; Alexandru, Badisor; Buzoianu, Anca; Opincariu, Iulian; Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Sharma, Aruna

    2011-09-01

    effective in inducing neuroprotection in nanoparticles treated heat-exposed animals. These observations are the first to show that cerebrolysin exerts the most superior neuroprotective effects in heat stress as compared to other neuroprotective agents on brain pathology in normal and in nanoparticles treated group. Furthermore, cerebrolysin in double dose was the most effective in inducing neuroprotection in nanoparticles treated heat exposed rats on brain pathology as compared to double doses of other drugs. Taken together, our results show that cerebrolysin has the most superior neuroprotective effects on brain pathology in heat stroke in both normal and nanoparticles treated rats as compared to other contemporary neuroprotective agents, not reported earlier.

  5. Morphological study of the hoof in yak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Ren, X; Yu, S; Cui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

  6. Effects of a marine serine protease inhibitor on viability and morphology of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Nogueira, Natália Pereira; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Paes, Marcia Cristina; da Silva-López, Raquel Elisa

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that serine peptidase activities of Trypanosoma cruzi play crucial roles in parasite dissemination and host cell invasion and therefore their inhibition could affect the progress of Chagas disease. The present study investigates the interference of the Stichodactyla helianthus Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (ShPI-I), a 55-amino acid peptide, in T. cruzi serine peptidase activities, parasite viability, and parasite morphology. The effect of this peptide was also studied in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and it was proved to be a powerful inhibitor of serine proteases activities and the parasite viability. The ultrastructural alterations caused by ShPI-I included vesiculation of the flagellar pocket membrane and the appearance of a cytoplasmic vesicle that resembles an autophagic vacuole. ShPI-I, which showed itself to be an important T. cruzi serine peptidase inhibitor, reduced the parasite viability, in a dose and time dependent manner. The maximum effect of peptide on T. cruzi viability was observed when ShPI-I at 1×10(-5)M was incubated for 24 and 48h which killed completely both metacyclic trypomastigote and epimastigote forms. At 1×10(-6)M ShPI-I, in the same periods of time, reduced parasite viability about 91-95% respectively. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the formation of concentric membranar structures especially in the cytosol, involving organelles and small vesicles. Profiles of endoplasmic reticulum were also detected, surrounding cytosolic vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. These results suggest that serine peptidases are important in T. cruzi physiology since the inhibition of their activity killed parasites in vitro as well as inducing important morphological alterations. Protease inhibitors thus appear to have a potential role as anti-trypanosomatidal agents.

  7. Transparent tooth model: A study of root canal morphology using different reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complexity of root canal morphology has fascinated the imaginations of many. Several techniques have been tried in the past to view the three-dimensional anatomy of the pulp canal system with varied success. It has been hypothesized in the present study that a combination of decalcifying agent and clearing agent can be used to prepare transparent tooth model. Aims: The aim of the present study was to access the efficacy of two decalcifying agent (formic acid and nitric acid and two clearing agents (methyl salicylate and eugenol to prepare transparent tooth model. Materials and Methods: The study material included 80 freshly extracted teeth both maxillary and mandibular. After decalcifying and clearing of the specimen, they were graded for transparency and haziness criteria. Results: The results of the present study indicated that methyl salicylate when used as a clearing agent showed better transparency, lower level of haziness and good root canal morphology. On the other hand samples cleared by eugenol showed good root canal morphology but lesser transparency and higher degree of haziness and yellowing of samples, more so when used in combination with nitric acid. Conclusion: It was concluded by the present study that combination of nitric acid when used with methyl salicylate proved to be the best combination for the preparation of the transparent tooth model.

  8. Morphological analysis of glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber posts and bonding to self or dual-cured resin luting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Oro Spazzin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF, carbon (CF and glass/carbon (G/CF fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. RESULTS: GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p0.05, but higher than that of G/CF (p0.05 were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. CONCLUSION: The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.

  9. Effects of different cryoprotective agents on ram sperm morphology and DNAintegrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Z; Zik, B; Ustuner, B; Sagirkaya, H; Ozguden, C G

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of glycerol, 1,2 propanediol, sucrose, and trehalose on post-thaw motility, morphology, and genome integrity of Awassi ram semen. Ejaculates of thick consistency with rapid wave motion (>+++) and >70% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in 0% cryoprotectant, 6% glycerol, 6% 1,2 propanediol, 62.5 mM sucrose or 62.5 mM trehalose using a two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25-ml straws. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility, defective acrosomes (FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC PSA)), DNA integrity (acridine orange staining (AO)) and apoptotic activity (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and Caspase-3 activity) at four time points: after dilution with extender A, after cooling to 5 degrees C, after equilibration and post-thaw. Freezing and thawing procedures (cooling at 5 degrees C, dilution, equilibration, and thawing) had negative effects on motility (P<0.001), acrosome integrity (P<0.001), and DNA integrity as determined by AO (P<0.001) and TUNEL (P<0.001) assays. There were positive correlations between sperm with defective acrosomes and apoptotic (AO- and TUNEL-positive) spermatozoa. In contrast, a significant negative correlation was found between sperm motility and defective acrosomes and AO- and TUNEL positivity (P<0.01). The cryopreservation process acts as an apoptotic inducer in ram semen; all cryoprotectants used in the present study allowed apoptosis to some extent, with negative effects on sperm morphology and DNA integrity. The glycerol group performed better than the propanediol, sucrose, trehalose, and control groups in terms of post-thaw sperm motility but not DNA integrity.

  10. Morphology and optical properties of aluminum oxide formed into oxalic electrolyte with addition surface active agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarkin, B.; Stsiapanau, A.; Zhilinski, V.; Chernik, A.; Bezborodov, V.; Kozak, G.; Danilovich, S.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the results of investigations of porous films of alumina, formed into oxalic electrolyte with addition surface active agents, in particular, ordering structure, roughness of a surface, the optical transparency of the electrolyte concentration and surface active agents. Also discusses the features of the formation of porous films of temperature and IR radiation.

  11. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology Efeitos de agentes clareadores à base de peróxidos na microdureza, rugosidade e morfologia superficial do esmalte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco Pinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment. Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11: control, Whiteness Perfect - 10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP, Colgate Platinum - 10% CP, Day White 2Z - 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP, Whiteness Super - 37% CP, Opalescence Quick - 35% CP and Whiteness HP - 35% HP. Bleaching agents were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The control group remained not treated and stored in artificial saliva. Microhardness testing was performed with a Knoop indentor and surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Morphologic observations were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%, and revealed a significant decrease in microhardness values and a significant increase in surface roughness post-bleaching. Changes in enamel morphology after bleaching were observed under SEM. It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rugosidade, microdureza e morfologia superficial do esmalte dental humano tratado com seis agentes clareadores (antes e depois do tratamento. Amostras de esmalte dental humano foram obtidas de terceiros molares e aleatoriamente distribuídas em sete grupos (n = 11: controle, Whiteness Perfect - peróxido de carbamida a 10% (PC 10%, Colgate Platinum - PC 10%, Day White 2Z - peróxido de hidrogênio a 7,5% (PH 7,5%, Whiteness Super - PC 37%, Opalescence Quick - PC 35% e Whiteness HP - PH 35%. Os agentes clareadores foram aplicados de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento e armazenado em saliva artificial. O teste de microdureza foi realizado

  12. EFFECT OF SILANE COUPLING AGENT ON THE MECHANICAL, THERMAL PROPERTIES AND MORPHOLOGY OF TREMOLITE/PA1010 COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-li Liu; Ye Han; Ge Gao; Zhi-ying Li; Feng-qi Liu

    2008-01-01

    Tremolite, a kind of inorganic filler, was modified with a silane coupling agent γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (MPS) in ethanol/ammonia solution. The graft of MPS on tremolite was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR and thermogramitric analysis (TGA) measurements. In addition, contact angle analysis showed that particle surface property was changed from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity after the modification. Modified tremolite and pure tremolite were blended respectively with PA1010 (polydecamethylene esbacamide) and the mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Results revealed that MPS had a remarkable influence on the mechanical properties of the composites due to the improvement of interfacial adhesion between filler and matrix. Tensile strength and notched Izod impact strength of MPS-modified tremolite composites were improved simultaneously compared to those with pure tremolite. Composites with MPS modified tremolite exhibited a much higher thermal stability than the samples with pure tremolite confirmed by TGA. The morphologies of the composites were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that better dispersion of MPS modified tremolite in matrix was obtained.

  13. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-02-09

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies.

  14. Catechin tuned magnetism of Gd-doped orthovanadate through morphology as T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairapperumal, Tamilmani; Saraswathy, Ariya; Ramapurath, Jayasree S.; Kalarical Janardhanan, Sreeram; Balachandran Unni, Nair

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4. Based on these postulations, this work explores the use of gadolinium doped t-LaVO4 as an MRI contrast agent. From literature, gadolinium oxide is a good T1 contrast agent. Through this work, using catechin as a template for the synthesis of Gd doped t-LaVO4, we demonstrate the possible use as a T1 contrast agent. Interestingly, as the catechin concentration changes, morphology changes from nanorods to square nanoplates and spheres. In this process, a switch from T1 to T2 contrast agent was also observed. Under optimal concentration of catechin, with a rod shaped Gd doped t-LaVO4 an r2/r1 value of 21.30 was observed. Similarly, with a spherical shape had an r2/r1 value of 1.48 was observed. PMID:27752038

  15. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  16. Controlling the morphology of TiO{sub 2} nano crystals with different capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, D. G.; Rodriguez, M.; Jardiel, T.

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides direct evidence to support the role of capping agents in controlling the evolution of TiO{sub 2} seeds into nano crystals with a specific shape. Starting with Ti(OBut){sub 4} and using oleid acid, oleylamine, dioleamide, 11-aminoundecanoic acid, arginine, trifluroacetic acid or HF as capping agents, mainly TiO{sub 2} truncated octahedrons enclosed by {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets were obtained. We could also selectively obtain square, rods and rounded rhombic-shaped nanoparticles by growing of {0 1 0} facets by adding oleic acid and oleylamine in ratio 6:4, respectively, while all other parameters were kept the same. This research not only offers new insights into the role played by a capping agent in shape-controlled synthesis but also provides, a versatile approach to controlling the shape of metal oxide nano crystals. (Author)

  17. Morphology of Silica-Reinforced Natural Rubber: Effect of Silane Coupling Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    A good dispersion of silica in a rubber vulcanizate is important as it influences the filler-to-rubber interaction and consequently the final properties. This article presents an investigation into the morphology of silica-reinforced natural rubber (NR) in the presence and absence of a silane coupli

  18. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  19. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  20. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: Stability and cytocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ornelas da Silva, Paulo Roberto [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Gouvêa dos Santos, Raquel [Laboratório de Radiobiologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CNEN/CDTN, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG){sub 1000}, and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. - Highlights: • BNNTs were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents. • Hydrophilic molecules do not alter the biocompatibility profile of BNNTs. • No significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations in ROS could be observed.

  1. Pore morphology study of silica aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, D.W.; Anderson, J.; Haereid, S.; Smith, D.M. [UNM/NSF Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beaucage, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Silica aerogels have numerous properties which suggest applications such as ultra high efficiency thermal insulation. These properties relate directly to the aerogel`s pore size distribution. The micro and meso pore size ranges can be investigated by normal small angle x-ray scattering and possibly, nitrogen adsorption. However, the measurement of larger pores (> 250 {angstrom}) is more difficult. Due to their limited mechanical strength, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen condensation can disrupt the gel structure and electron microscopy provides only limited large scale structure information. The use of small angle light scattering techniques seems to have promise, the only hurdle is that aerogels exhibit significant multiple scattering. This can be avoided if one observes the gels in the wet stage since the structure of the aerogel should be very similar to the wet gel (as the result of supercritical drying). Thus, if one can match the refractive index, the morphology can be probed. The combination of certain alcoholic solvents fit this index matching criteria. Preliminary results for the gel network (micron range) and primary particle structure (manometer) are reported by using small angle light scattering and ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The effects on structure over the length scale range of <1 nm to >5 {mu}m under different conditions (precursors, pH, etc.) are presented. The change in structure of an aerogel during isostatic compaction to 228 MPa (to simulate drying from wetting solvents) are also discussed.

  2. Morphology-Controlled Synthesis Of SrTiO3 Nanocube By Capping Agent-Assisted Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Eka Putri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of SrTiO3 nanocubes have been carried out by solvothermal process using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as capping agent to control the particles morphology. The condition of the synthesis was obtained at 160 ºC for 24 hours with molar ratio of SrTiO3 and capping agent was 1 : 1. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern shows that SrTiO3 adopts a perovskite structure with a higher intensity of 110 at 2q:32.33º and the crystallite size calculated from FWHM was found to be 41 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrum shows a shift in particular absorption band attributed the interaction between SrTiO3 particles surface and the head group of CTAB molecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM image shows the cubic-like particles of SrTiO3, this indicatesthat CTAB successfully functions as capping agent on the synthesis of SrTiO3.

  3. Morphological-developmental properties as an agent forming spatial structure of Adonis vernalis (L. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregated and group-aggregated spatial structure of two Adonis vernalis (L. populations in xerothermic grasslands are presented. It has been found that different disturbances (grazing, fire, which affect each population, modify morphological properties and developmental potential of individuals. This is followed by differentation in spatial and age structure of both populations. Comparative analysis of above- and below-ground plant organs of Adonis vernalis has enabled to present hierarchical spatial structure of aggregations and clumps as a result of modular structure of individuals and populations.

  4. Study of the Preparation, Characterization, and Sizing Performance of Modified Collagen Surface Sizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a surface sizing agent for paper was prepared by the emulsion polymerization method, in which the collagen extracted from leather shavings was modified. The product was characterized using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-ray detector (EDX, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Corrugated papers were used as models. The synergy between modified collagen sizing emulsion and two commercial synthetic sizing agents was studied. Finally, the morphology of the papers before and after being treated was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that the sizing agent could be prepared using collagen as a raw material, which not only can alleviate a pollution problem in the leather industry, but also provide a novel alternative sizing agent for the paper industry, providing considerable economic, social, and environmental benefits to both industries.

  5. Porosity of Concrete - Morphological Study of Model Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study has developed a comprehensive methodological framework for characterizing geometrical and morphological aspects of pore space in cementitious materials and explored its application to actual cement pastes and model concretes for the purpose of predicting mechanical and transport propertie

  6. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  7. Influence of Nucleating Agent on Foam Morphology of PVC Coating Products%成核剂对PVC涂覆制品泡孔形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志坤; 金建范; 杨红梅

    2012-01-01

    选择不同拓扑结构的无机成核剂纳米二氧化硅和有机蒙脱土,研究其对PVC增塑糊涂覆发泡制品泡孔形态、结构的影响.通过扫描电子显微镜( SEM)观察样品泡孔形态,采用图像分析手段计算泡孔直径、发泡倍率及泡孔密度,以探明成核剂对泡孔形态结构的影响规律及机制.结果表明:与大多数聚合物熔融体系物理发泡不同,球型纳米二氧化硅对偶氮二甲酰胺(AC发泡剂)主导下的PVC增塑糊涂覆工艺化学发泡过程影响不明显,而插层、团聚分散于PVC增塑糊发泡体系中的有机蒙脱土会增加涂覆制品的泡孔直径,并降低发泡倍率及泡孔密度.%Choosing two kinds of inorganic nucleating agent nano-silicon dioxide ( nano-SiO 2 ) and organic montmorillonite (OMMT) with different topologies structure, their effects on cell morphology and structure of foam products prepared by PVC coating was studied. Cell morphology can be observed by using SEM, and cell diameter, foaming ratio and cell density can be calculated by using image analysis means. The effect of nucleating agent on the mechanisms and rules of the cell morphology were researched. It can be found from the results that differing from physical blowing agent with most polymer melting system, spherical nano-SiO 2 had little effect on foam processing under the auspices of azodicarbonamide ( AC blowing agent) in PVC coating. However, OMMT, which was intercalated and aggregated in PVC foaming system, increased the cell diameter, and decreased expansion ratio and cell density.

  8. Removal of heavy metal ions by biogenic hydroxyapatite: Morphology influence and mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Guan, Xiaomei; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Chen, Jun; Long, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    Based on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) with different morphologies, such as nanorod-like, flower-like and sphere-like assembled HA nanorods, a new strategy has been developed for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+. The dependence of removal efficiency on the morphology and the suspended concentration of trapping agent, the removal time and selectivity were evaluated and discussed. The experimental results proved that the removal capacity of flower-like assembled HA nanorods (NAFL-HA) was the best, and the maximum removal ratio for Pb2+ ion was 99.97%. The mechanism of Pb2+ removal was studied in detail, noting that some metal ions were completely incorporated into hydroxyapatitie to produce Pb-HA. It reveals that the metal ions capture by HA is mainly controlled by sample surface adsorption and co-precipitation, which are directly controlled by sample morphology.

  9. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Stevanović1, Branimir Kovačević2, Jana Petković3, Metka Filipič3, Dragan Uskoković11Institute of Technical Sciences of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, SloveniaAbstract: Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly- α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA, a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, poly-α, γ, L-glutamic, green synthesis, morphology, cytotoxicity

  10. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Kovačević, Branimir; Petković, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22131829

  11. Influence of corn flour as pore forming agent on porous ceramic material based mullite: Morphology and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala-Landeros J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous material was processed by the mixing, molding and pressing the ceramic material, afterward burnout and sintering; through the forming porous, using corn flour at different concentration (10, 15 and 20 wt.% as a pore forming agent; in order to determinate the influence of porous on the mechanical, morphological and structural properties. The effect of the volume fraction of corn flour in the mullite matrix, at various sintering temperature from 1100, 1200, 1300 and 1500°C were tested by Diffraction X ray, showing changes in crystalline phases of mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2, as result of sintered temperatures. Presence of talcum powder in formula, also cause the formation of the cordierite and cristobalite crystalline phases, giving stability and adhesion to the structure of ceramic material. When sintering at temperatures between 1300 to 1500°C, and it was used the concentration of corn flour 15-20 wt.% as forming agent porous, it was found the better mechanical properties. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the presence of open porosity and anisotropy.

  12. Morphological study of the dove spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, T; Shimizu, K; Nakai, M

    1992-09-01

    The spleen and vascular resin cast from doves were observed by a light and a scanning electron microscope for the purpose of studying the histological structure and the mode of the splenic blood microcirculation. The trabeculae of the dove spleen were poorly developed and the white and red pulps could not be distinguished from each other as is also the case of the chicken spleen. The luminal surface of the sinus was covered by continuous endothelial cells that had nuclear protrusion into the lumen. The blood cells passed to the sinus via the small gap of the luminal surface of the sinus. Irregular resin masses that connected the terminal portion of the artery with the venous sinus were observed. The direct connection between the arterial terminalis and venous sinus could not be recognized. When the resin was injected retrograde to blood flow from the vein, the sinus ended blindly.

  13. Morphological study of some Euphorbia taxa in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MEHDI TALEBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Talebi SM, Noori M, Davijani SS. 2016. Morphological study of some Euphorbia taxa in Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 103-110. Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae has nearly 2000 species and great morphological diversity present between its members. For this reason, species of this genus are classified into different infrageneric ranks. In the present study, morphological characteristics of fifteen taxa of this genus were examined in Iran. Thirty one qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics from the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied taxa were examined. ANOVA test showed significant variations for all of studied quantitative features. PCA-biplot of the studied traits confirmed that some of them were very useful for identification of the treated taxa. In addition, the obtained results did not confirm species classifications in sections/subsections according to Flora Iranica as well as Flora of Turkey and proved high morphological variations between these species; therefore traditional classification of species in subsection must be changed and our results confirmed previous molecular studies.

  14. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON FORAMEN OVALE

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    Magi Murugan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: Foramen ovalee is an important foramen of the middle cranial fossa. Foramen ovalee is situated in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, posterior to the foramen rotundum and lateral to the lingula and posterior end of the carotid groove. Through the foramen ovale the mandibular nerve, accessory meningeal artery and lesser petrossal nerve are passing through it. The shape of foramen ovale is ovale in shape as compare to other foramina of the skull, its shape and size is quite variable. Meterials and Methods: A total 250 skulls were used for this study. The skulls were collected with I MBBS student from different medical colleges in south India. Skulls in poor conditions or skulls with partly damaged surroundings of the foramen ovalee were not considered. Maximum length and width of foramen ovalee was measured. Variation in right and left side and sex difference in length and width were calculated, the variations in shape also recorded. Results: The mean value of length of left foramen ovale is 8.5+1.32mm and right was 8.9+1.67mm. In female it was 8.7+1.67mm and male was 8.4+1.71mm. The mean value of width of left foramen ovale is 3.7+1.03mm and right was 3.9+0.98mm. In female it was 3.8+0.92mm and male was 3.7+1.02mm.The shape of foramen ovale was ovale in 69% of skulls, almond in 29% of skulls and round was 2% of skulls. Conclusion: The present study conclude that there is significant difference between sizes of right and left side foramen ovale and found that between male and female foramen ovale sizes also not shown any significance difference. Foramen ovale has practical significance to both neurosurgical and functional cranial neuroanatomy as it provides transcutaneous approaches to the skull base especially in cases of trigeminal neuralgia, as the Gasserion ganglion can be approached through it.

  15. Profound morphological changes in the erythrocytes and fibrin networks of patients with hemochromatosis or with hyperferritinemia, and their normalization by iron chelators and other agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheresia Pretorius

    Full Text Available It is well-known that individuals with increased iron levels are more prone to thrombotic diseases, mainly due to the presence of unliganded iron, and thereby the increased production of hydroxyl radicals. It is also known that erythrocytes (RBCs may play an important role during thrombotic events. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to assess whether RBCs had an altered morphology in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH, as well as some who displayed hyperferritinemia (HF. Using scanning electron microscopy, we also assessed means by which the RBC and fibrin morphology might be normalized. An important objective was to test the hypothesis that the altered RBC morphology was due to the presence of excess unliganded iron by removing it through chelation. Very striking differences were observed, in that the erythrocytes from HH and HF individuals were distorted and had a much greater axial ratio compared to that accompanying the discoid appearance seen in the normal samples. The response to thrombin, and the appearance of a platelet-rich plasma smear, were also markedly different. These differences could largely be reversed by the iron chelator desferal and to some degree by the iron chelator clioquinol, or by the free radical trapping agents salicylate or selenite (that may themselves also be iron chelators. These findings are consistent with the view that the aberrant morphology of the HH and HF erythrocytes is caused, at least in part, by unliganded ('free' iron, whether derived directly via raised ferritin levels or otherwise, and that lowering it or affecting the consequences of its action may be of therapeutic benefit. The findings also bear on the question of the extent to which accepting blood donations from HH individuals may be desirable or otherwise.

  16. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  17. Study on scattering properties of tissues with hyperosmotic chemical agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Optical properties of biological tissue are variable due to the changes of micro-structures and scattering constituents after hyperosmotic chemical agents permeates into tissue. The changes of optical properties of biological tissue are due to the refractive indices matching between the scatterers with high refractive index and the ground substances, which reduce scattering of tissue. The main reasons are that permeated semipermeable chemical agents with higher refractive index than the ground substances of tissuemakes the refractive index of ground substances of tissue higher by the enhancement of the permeated concentration. We studied on the collimated transmittance changes of light penetrating biological tissue after the hyperosmotic chemical agents administrates with different concentration.

  18. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  19. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  20. Preclinical Studies of a Kidney Safe Iodinated Contrast Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Elizabeth S.; Rowe, Vernon D.; Biswas, Sangita; Mosher, Gerold; Insisienmay, Lovella; Ozias, Marlies K.; Gralinski, Michael R.; Hunter, John; Barnett, James S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Contrast‐induced acute kidney injury (CI‐AKI) is a serious complication of the use of iodinated contrast agents. This problem is particularly acute in interventional neurology and interventional cardiology, probably due to the intra‐arterial route of injection, high contrast volumes, and preexisting risk factors of these patients. In an attempt to develop a contrast agent that is less damaging to the kidneys, we have studied the effects of adding a small amount...

  1. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  2. Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous FAU/γ-Al2O3 Composites with Different Morphologies via Directing Agent Induced Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jia; Zhao Tianbo; Li Zunfeng; Zong Baoning; Du Zexue; Zeng Jianli

    2016-01-01

    Zeolite FAU composites with a macro/meso-microporous hierarchical structure were hydrothermally synthesized using macro-mesoporous γ-Al2O3 monolith as the substrate by means of the liquid crystallization directing agent (LCDA) induced method. No template was needed throughout the synthesis processes. The structure and porosity of zeolite composites were analyzed by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results showed that the supported zeolite composites with varied zeolitic crystalline phases and different morphologies can be obtained by adjusting the crystallization parameters, such as the crystallization temperature, the composition and the alkalinity of the precursor solution. The presence of LCDA was defined as a determinant for synthesizing the zeolite composites. The mechanisms for formation of the hierarchically porous FAU zeolite composites in the LCDA induced synthesis process were discussed. The resulting monolithic zeolite with a trimodal-porous hierarchical structure shows potential applicability where facile diffusion is required.

  3. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  4. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories.

  5. Carbohydrate-directed synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: effect of the structure of carbohydrates and reducing agents on the size and morphology of the composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervani, Zameer; Yamamoto, Yasushi

    2011-04-01

    A monosaccharide (β-D-glucose) and polysaccharide (soluble starch) were used as structure directing and subsequently stabilizing agents for the synthesis of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires of silver and gold. Homogeneous monodispersed Ag(0) nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of 15 nm diameter were obtained when 10(-4)M AgNO(3) precursor salt was reduced in starch (1 wt%)-water gel by 1 wt% β-D-glucose. For a second preparation the effect of reducing agents on the synthesis of Au(0) metallic nanoparticles (Au NPs) of 2 × 10(-4)M concentration prepared in a β-D-glucose (0.03 M)-water dispersion was studied first in detail. Different equivalent amounts of NaBH(4) and a number of pH values were evaluated for the reduction of the Au salt HAuCl(4)·3H(2)O to obtain Au NPs. The type and the amount of reducing agent, as well as the pH of the solution was shown to affect the size and morphology of the NPs. NaBH(4) (4 equiv) produced the smallest (5.3 nm (σ 0.7)) metallic particles compared to larger particles (10.0 nm (σ 1.4)) when the salt was reduced by 1 equiv of NaBH(4). Addition of excess NaBH(4) caused the NPs to settle out as a precipitate forming a mesh or wire structure rather than monodispersed particles. Low pH (pH 6) resulted in incomplete reduction, while at pH 8 the salt was completely reduced. When the salt was reduced by NaOH at pH 8, the particles were larger (14.2 nm) and less homogeneous (σ 2.8) compared to those from NaBH(4) reduction.

  6. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; London, J.E.; Drake, G.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for mice and rats receiving Sylgard 184 curing agent were greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Sylgard 184 curing agent was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in guinea pigs did not show the resin to be deleterious.

  7. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia E. Lensink

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual language control (BLC is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an ERP study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch and L2 (English. Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

  8. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  9. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  10. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Arulmozhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead oxide (PbO nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Photoluminescence (PL Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  11. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Alberto Salazar Moncada; Jaime Calle-Osorno; Freddy Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata ( Symphyla : Scutigerellidae ) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae . The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific lev...

  12. Experimental models used for the study of antihepatotoxic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2012-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo liver models have been developed in the past years to study the hepatoprotective agents. These systems measure the ability of the test drug to prevent or cure liver toxicity (induced by various hepatotoxins) in experimental animals. In in vitro models fresh hepatocytes are treated with hepatotoxin and the effect of the test drug on the same is evaluated. In in vivo models, a toxic dose or repeated doses of a known hepatotoxin are administered to induce liver damage in experimental animals. The test substance is administered along with, prior to and/or after the toxin treatment. Various chemical agents normally used to induce hepatotoxicty in experimental animals for the evaluation of hepatoprotective agents include carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, Acrylamide, adriamycin, alcohol, antitubercular drugs etc. The present article explains the mechanism of action of various hepatotoxic chemical/drugs, their dosage and route of administration.

  13. Extraction and Study of Bacteriophages, Used against Agents of Potato Soft Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda D. Davitashvili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of specific bacteriophages and their complex mixtures against bacterial diseases is very effective. As for causative agent of potato soft rot Erwinia carotovora, specific phages (25 phages in total were extracted from diseased potato, soil and sewage. The study of their biological properties showed the diversity of phages in terms of lytic action, virion plaque and morphology, as well as in relation to different environmental factors. Phages showed explicit antibacterial activity in vitro in liquid and solid media, as well as during model tests of potato tubers artificial inoculation.

  14. AFM STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE OF Zn ELECTRODEPOSIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Fan; W.H. Tian; M. Kurosaki

    2003-01-01

    Nano-sized growth of zinc electrodeposit on the ferrite substrate has been studied by means of in situ scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) and atomic force micoscopy (AFM). It is found that the morphology of zinc electrodeposit varies from initial about 30nm granular crystals to layered platelet crystals with increasing deposition time by using in situ STM. With AFM, the results show that the platelet crystals ave hexagonal in shape and the hexagonal platelet crystals form steps perpendicular to the growth direction by side-by-side stacking along the (0001), surface. The mechanism of morphological change is discussed in details. It is proposed that these steps grow laterally as a result of the embedment of zinc ion clusters.

  15. Morphologic study of microcirculation in acromegaly by capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, F; Maffei, P; Martini, C; De Carlo, E; Fais, C; Todesco, S; Sicolo, N

    1999-09-01

    Although wide range investigations on the heart and great vessels have been reported in acromegaly, the field of microcirculation is still largely vacant. The nailfold is a window through which we can observe in vivo the vascular bed. This study investigates through nailfold capillaroscopy the morphology of cutaneous microcirculation in acromegaly in relationship with the usual hormonal parameters of disease activity. Twenty-five acromegalic patients and 26 normal subjects, age and sex matched, were studied. A subgroup of acromegalics (8 patients) was considered in stable remission, and the remaining 17 had active disease. Capillaroscopy was performed in each subject by in vivo computer aided stereomicroscopy (magnification, x400). The following morphological parameters were calculated: the number of tortuous loops, meandering capillaries, and capillaries per millimeter; avascular areas; visibility of subpapillary plexus; the capillary length; and intercapillary distance. We were unable to perform the exam in 4 of 25 patients because visibility was poor. The capillary number and length were significantly reduced in acromegalics compared to controls [8.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 10.3 +/- 1.2 no./mm (P = 0.0010) and 174 +/- 49 vs. 255 +/- 24 microm (P acromegaly, morphological alterations also affect the peripheral microcirculation, which seems to be influenced by the activity of the disease. We believe that nailfold capillaroscopy may represent an additional useful tool in the follow-up of acromegalic patients.

  16. Morphological and Biological Study of Sanguisorba Officinalis Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Sanguisorba officinalis seed material quality, put into various containers (paper, plastic, fabric, glass, in the different temperature conditions, light and dark grown. The morphology, biology of Sanguisorba officinalis seeds was described and experiments on cryopreservation were made. Basing on the study, we recommend to store Sanguisorba officinalis seed material within 3 months at a temperature of +4˚С in glass container, use plastic container for cryopreservation and to defreeze seeds by double boiling.

  17. Correlation of upper lip morphology to smile: A photographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine different components of a smile in subjects with class I occlusion and to formulate a comprehensive photographic analysis of a smile. This study was designed to find a correlation between upper lip elevation and retraction with upper lip morphology during smiling among male and female groups. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram and standardized frontal photographs were taken at rest and smiling. Results: A significant sexual dimorphism was apparent in several of the parameters studied. Middle portion of lower border of upper lip (MUL′-MUL rose significantly higher by 0.91 mm in the male group than in the female group, during smiling (P = 0.003. Decrease in vermillion display (VE-VE′ was significantly higher in the male group than the in female group by 0.668 mm (P = 0.021. Conclusion: This comprehensive study of lip mobility, when applied to a larger population can enable us to further evaluate the correlation between lip morphology and mobility.

  18. Influence of size scale and morphology on antibacterial properties of ZnO powders hydrothemally synthesized using different surface stabilizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, A; Dimitrijević, S; Uskoković, D

    2013-02-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles represent a new class of important materials that are increasingly being developed for use in research and health-related applications. Although the antibacterial activity and efficiency of bulk zinc oxide were investigated in vitro, the knowledge about the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles remains deficient. In this study, we have synthesized ZnO particles of different sizes and morphologies with the assistance of different types of surface stabilizing agents - polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly (α,γ, l-glutamic acid) (PGA) - through a low-temperature hydrothermal procedure. The characterization of the prepared powders was preformed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), as well as Malvern's Mastersizer instrument for particle size distribution. The specific surface area (SSA) of the ZnO powders was measured by standard Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. The antibacterial behavior of the synthesized ZnO particles was tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cultures, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), respectively. We compared the results of the antibacterial properties of the synthesized ZnO samples with those of the commercial ZnO powder. According to the obtained results, the highest microbial cell reduction rate was recorded for the synthesized ZnO powder consisting of nanospherical particles. In all of the examined samples, ZnO particles demonstrated a significant bacteriostatic activity.

  19. Study on Molecular Chain Morphology of Konjac Glucomannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; XIE Bi-jun

    2003-01-01

    The long-range structure of konjac glucomannan(KGM) is studied by using laser light scatter(LLS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and method of viscostdity. The weight-average molecularweight (Mw), root-mean-square ratio of gyration[ (S2) 1/2 ], second viral coefficient (A2) and multi-dispersioncoefficient (Mw/Mn) are 1.04× 106, 105.0±-0. 9 nm, (- 1.59±0. 28) × 10-3 mol ml g-2 and 1. 015±0. 003,respectively. Mark-Houwink equation is established as [η] = 5. 96 × 10-2Mw0.73 and the molecular chain pa-rameters are as follows: ML=982.82 nm-1 , Lp=27.93 nm, d=0.74 nm, h=0.26 nm, L=1 054.11 nm.Further more molecular chain morphology of KGM is studied by using atom force microscope (AFM) andtransmission electronic microscope (TEM), and the result shows that the KGM molecular is an extendingsemi-flexible linear chain without branch. Therefore, the image of molecular chain morphology confirms thededuction drawn by Mark-Houwink equation and molecular chain parameters.

  20. Quantitative Study on Polymer Flocculation Mechanism Based on Mathematical Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ling-xiang; WANG Chen-yi

    2006-01-01

    Until now, understanding of polymer flocculation has remained restricted within the qualitative explanations of the bridge unite theory and the electricity neutralization theory, because people not only lacked the systemic knowledge of the polymer flocculation mechanism, the flocculation dynamic process study and the flocculation effect estimate, but also could not penetrate within the flocculation process microscopic field to obtain the structural character parameters such as floccule structure, the frame bridge models and so on. In this paper, not only coal slurry flocculation images were photographed by using the transmission electron microscope, but also the basic theory of the mathematical morphology was applied to the coal slurry flocculation image processing. The steps and methods of the mathematical morphology were expounded in detail. The micro-structural parameters such as the flocculate size and the bridge length were obtained, which combined the microscopic flocculation grain configuration observations with the macroscopic flocculation effect, so as to get the maximum amount of veracious information to describe and explain the whole flocculation course by rule and line. On this basis, not only the flocculation models of polymers in the coal slurry are suggested, but the quantitative study on flocculation mechanism has been achieved.

  1. A Morphological Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wainwright, C; Penprase, B E

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the morphological properties of 42 gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical band. The purpose of this study is to understand the relation of GRBs to their macro-environments, and to compare the GRB-selected galaxies to other high redshift samples. We perform both qualitative and quantitative analyses by categorizing the galaxies according to their visual properties, and by examining their surface brightness profiles. We find that all of the galaxies have approximately exponential profiles, indicative of galactic disks, and have a median scale length of about 1.7 kpc. Inspection of the visual morphologies reveals a high fraction of merging and interacting systems, with \\~30% showing clear signs of interaction, and an additional ~30% exhibiting irregular and asymmetric structure which may be the result of recent mergers; these fractions are independent of redshift and galaxy luminosity. On the other hand, the three GRB host gal...

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYESTER——MORPHOLOGY OF SHEAR ORIENTED FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiayu; DONG Yanming; LI Xianxing; XIONG Qianzhen

    1989-01-01

    The morphology of shear-oriented films of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester containing a triad ester mesogenic unit and a flexible spacer has been investigated in details. The formation conditions and process, the fine structures and the relaxation process of mat structure in the oriented films have been observed and discussed.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  4. Morphological and microscopic identification studies of Cordyceps and its counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-juan Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic and microscopic studies were applied to distinguish Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. and its 5 common counterfeits. Transverse sections of stroma and larvae and surface sections of stroma of C. sinensis, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps barnesii, Cordyceps gracilis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps militaris were examined and their morphological and microscopic features photographed. The main morphological and microscopic features of the 6 species of Cordyceps were basically similar except for certain diagnostic differences. These included macroscopic differences from C. sinensis as follows: the stroma of C. gunnii is stout and rough with sterile bulgy or branched apex; the larvae of C. barnesii has a pair of teeth on the head; the stroma of C. liangshanensi is thread-like; C. gracilis is without stroma; and C. militaris is without larvae. There were also microscopic differences: from C. sinensis as follows: the stroma of C. barnesii is without perithecia; C. gunnii, C. liangshanensis and C. gracilis are without bristles on the larva body. These differences allow C. sinensis and its counterfeits to be easily distinguished.

  5. A Biochemical and Morphological Study of Rat Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulé, Y.; Rouiller, C.; Chauveau, J.

    1960-01-01

    Microsomes isolated by differential centrifugation from a rat liver homogenate in 0.88 M sucrose solution have been studied from the biochemical and morphological point of view. 1. Under these experimental conditions, the "total microsome" fraction was obtained by centrifuging the cytoplasmic extract free of nuclei and mitochondria, for 3 hours at 145,000 g. Morphologically, the total microsomes consist mainly of "rough-surfaced membranes" and "smooth" ones. 2. The total microsomes have been divided into 2 subfractions so that the 1st microsomal fraction contains the "rough" vesicles (2 hours centrifugation at 40,000 g) while the 2nd microsomal fraction consists essentially of smooth vesicles, free particles, and ferritin (centrifugation of the supernatant at 145,000 g for 3 hours). 3. By the action of 0.4 per cent sodium deoxycholate in 0.88 M sucrose, it was possible to obtain a pellet for each of the 2 fractions which consisted of dense particles, rich in RNA, poor in lipids, and which represented about 50 to 60 percent of the RNA and 10 to 15 per cent of the proteins. The results have been discussed taking into consideration the hypothesis of the presence of RNA in the membranes of microsomal vesicles. PMID:14424705

  6. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% using the twin screw extrusion method. Maleic acid polyethylene (MAPE was added as a coupling agent. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties improved with increasing RH loading. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the RH loading increased. SEM micrographs revealed good interfacial bonding between the fiber and polymer matrix.

  7. Study on Multi-agent Systems with Colored Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰顺国; 李军

    2008-01-01

    The approach to model multi-agent systems with hierarchical colored Peal nets is introduced.In a multi-agent system,every agent is modeled with colored Petri net system,and the colored Petri net system of the multi-agent system is a hierarchical colored Petri net system,such that the agents planning deadlock detection and avoidance,can be analyzed with the Petri net system.

  8. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin: curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Sylgard 184 (100 parts encapsulating resin plus 10 parts curing agent) were greater than 5 g/kg in rats and mice. According to classical guidelines, the mixture would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the mixture to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation tests, also in the rabbit, showed the Sylgard 184 mixture to be a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in the guinea pig demonstrated the mixture to be a very mild sensitizer in two of six animals.

  9. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerellaimmaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerellacauseyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

  10. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alberto Salazar Moncada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with S. causeyae (at least 23% and Hanseniella sp. (22%. Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

  11. [Morphological manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis found in fundus (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinskaia, M V; Fedorov, A A; Pliukhova, A A; Voevodina, T M; Balatskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    Results of angiography and morphology of 32 eyes (16 chinchilla rabbits) with experimental atherosclerosis are presented. N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatova experimental hypercholesterolemia model (1912) was used. The animals were divided into the following groups: initial and advanced atherosclerosis, control group, follow-up 3 and 6 months. After 3 months progressive reduction of perfused retinal vessels and early degenerative changes of neurons and photoreceptors were found. In 6 months these changes became more significant and generalized. Due to ongoing small vessel reduction blood flow went to the major vessels and changed its distribution followed by ischemia of adjacent retina. No changes in choriocapillary layer and retinal pigment epithelium were found in any of groups studied.

  12. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  13. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY OF UTERUS USING ULTRASOUND SCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Priya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomical variations of uterus particularly those concerning the body of uterus are well known in medical literature. Knowledge of these variations is important in reproductive periods of life, as well as in deciding the surgical procedures involving caesarean section delivery. However there are some exceptional variations in the body of uterus that may puzzle the obstetrician and gynaecologist dealing with gynaecological patients. Normal development of the female reproductive tract requires a complex series of events. Failure of any part of this process can result in congenital anomaly. Careful sonography and an awareness of the sonographic findings of early pregnancy in anomalous uteri should improve the detection of these anomalies. Recognition of such anomalies will also allow differentiation of those patients requiring repeat dilatation and curettage from those requiring laparotomy, as in the presence of a blind uterine horn or ectopic gestation. 3D ultrasonography permits the obtaining of planar reformatted sections through the uterus, which allow precise evaluation of fundal indentation & length of the septum. Aim This study was undertaken to assess the morphology of uterus and evaluate the anomalies. Materials: 1500 subjects within the age of 15-45 were assessed using ultrasound scan and the anomalies were analyzed. Results: 5-7% cases involving the variations of morphology of the uterus were reported in this study, that 3DUS has recently become the only mandatory step in the initial investigation. Conclusion: With timely and accurate diagnosis, appropriate management is likely to provide the best possible outcome for all such patients.

  14. The Study and Perspective of Mobile Agent Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Hong; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Hai-yan

    2004-01-01

    Security is an important issue for the widespread deployment of applications based on software agent technology. It is generally agreed that without the proper countermeasures in place, use of agent-based applications will be severely impeded. So many projects have focused on the security issues of mobile agent and many mechanisms have been proposed to solve the security problem. This paper discusses the security issues and the countermeasures. Then it points out some directions for the research of the mobile agent security.

  15. CN Morphology Studies of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Matthew M

    2011-01-01

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13-17,...

  16. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  17. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth.

  18. Effect of complexing agent TEA: The structural, morphological, topographical and optical properties of Fe{sub x}S{sub x} nano thin films deposited by SILAR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, K., E-mail: 1984manikandan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Anna University BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Mani, P. [Department of Physics, Anna University BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Surendra Dilip, C. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Valli, S. [Department of Physics, M.I.E.T. Arts and Science College, Tiruchirappalli 620 007, Tamilnadu (India); Fermi Hilbert Inbaraj, P.; Joseph Prince, J. [Department of Physics, Anna University BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-01-01

    Iron sulfide thin films (Fe{sub x}S{sub x}) (x = 0.05 M, 0.10 M, 0.15 M, 0.20 M and 0.25 M) were deposited by SILAR method from equimolar and equivolume aqueous solutions of ferrous nitrate and sodium sulfide with the addition of complexing agent TEA. The structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the films were derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–vis spectral techniques. The mixed characteristics (crystalline and amorphous) of the deposited films and the increasing crystalline qualities with the concentrations were understood from the XRD analysis. The grain sizes and roughness of the films were decreases with the increasing concentration and also at the higher concentration films are shown by the same images presence of hexagonal like crystallite structure. The influence of complexing agent TEA on the surface roughness and morphological properties are confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM) results. The effect of increasing substrate concentration on the absorption and transmission measurements and its impact on the optical band-gap energy were enumerated from the UV–vis analysis.

  19. Effect of complexing agent TEA: The structural, morphological, topographical and optical properties of FexSx nano thin films deposited by SILAR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, K.; Mani, P.; Surendra Dilip, C.; Valli, S.; Fermi Hilbert Inbaraj, P.; Joseph Prince, J.

    2014-01-01

    Iron sulfide thin films (FexSx) (x = 0.05 M, 0.10 M, 0.15 M, 0.20 M and 0.25 M) were deposited by SILAR method from equimolar and equivolume aqueous solutions of ferrous nitrate and sodium sulfide with the addition of complexing agent TEA. The structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the films were derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectral techniques. The mixed characteristics (crystalline and amorphous) of the deposited films and the increasing crystalline qualities with the concentrations were understood from the XRD analysis. The grain sizes and roughness of the films were decreases with the increasing concentration and also at the higher concentration films are shown by the same images presence of hexagonal like crystallite structure. The influence of complexing agent TEA on the surface roughness and morphological properties are confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM) results. The effect of increasing substrate concentration on the absorption and transmission measurements and its impact on the optical band-gap energy were enumerated from the UV-vis analysis.

  20. Nanobioceramic Composites: A Study of Mechanical, Morphological, and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivabalan Sasthiryar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the incorporation of biomass carbon nanofillers (CNF into advanced ceramic. Biomass from bamboo, bagasse (remains of sugarcane after pressing, and oil palm ash was used as the predecessor for producing carbon black nanofillers. Furnace pyrolysis was carried out at 1000 °C and was followed by ball-mill processing to obtain carbon nanofillers in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm. CNFs were added to alumina in varying weight fractions and the resulting mixture was subjected to vacuum sintering at 1400 °C to produce nanobioceramic composites. The ceramic composites were characterized for mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. A high-resolution Charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to study the fracture impact and the failure mechanism. An increase in the loading percentage of CNFs in the alumna decreased the specific gravity, vickers hardness (HV, and fracture toughness values of the composite materials. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and the thermal stability of the ceramic composite increased as compared to the pristine alumina.

  1. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  2. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamannan, B; Mugundan, S; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R; Praveen, P

    2014-07-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  3. Morphology-controlled growth of magnetic iron oxide components on gold nanoparticles as bi-functional agents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Hybrid nanostructure can inherit the physiochemical properties of its individual components to realize its multi-functionality. The coupling of plasmonic effect of gold nanoparticles with magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles has shown great promise as bi-functional agents allowing simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic/photonic thermal therapy. However, since gold and iron oxide are two dissimilar materia...

  4. Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    2012-06-01

    The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

  5. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  6. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN STRUCTURE OF THE JUGULAR FORAMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi B.N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The jugular foramen is difficult to understand and to access surgically; the difficulties in exposing this foramen are created by its deep location and the surrounding structures, such as the carotid artery anteriorly, the facial nerve laterally, the hypoglossal nerve medially and the vertebral artery inferiorly, all of which block access to the foramen and require careful management. It is difficult to conceptualize because it varies in size and shape in different crania, between the two sides the same cranium, from its intracranial to extracranial end in the same foramen and because of its complex irregular shape, its curved course, its formation by two bones and the numerous nerves and venous channels that pass through it. The present study is concentrated to study morphological features of jugular foramen. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken in 250(500 sides adult south Indian skulls from different regions of south India, from different medical colleges. We have observed the size of foramen and presence of jugular fossa. Result: Out of 250 skulls in 20.8% of cases the right foramina were larger than the left, in 24.8% of cases the left foramina were larger than the right and in 8% cases were equal on both sides. The jugular fossa present bilaterally in 60%, on the right only in 21.6% cases, on the left only in 7.6% cases and was absent in 10.8% cases. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is no significance different between size of foramen in right and left side. The jugular fossa or bulb present bilaterally in majority of cases.

  7. Morphological and Spectral Study of the Galaxy Kaz 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Movsessian, T. A.

    2005-04-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the nucleus and immediately surrounding regions of the galaxy Kaz 73 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6 m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory in combination with the multi-pupil VAGR spectrograph. Isophotes are constructed for monochromatic images in the Hα, [NII]λ 6584, and [SII]λ6731 lines. It is shown that the surface brightness of the nucleus in monochromatic images of these lines increases rapidly from the edge to the center, with an increase of 5m for the Hα line. The nucleus of Kaz 73 is found to rotate clockwise about its axis, which is perpendicular to the direction of the arms of the galaxy. The extent of the nucleus in the direction of the arms is found to be a consequence of its rotation; that is, the nucleus is flattened in the direction of the poles. Overall, the nucleus of Kaz 73 has all the kinematic features of an entire galaxy. The masses of the nucleus and its gaseous component are determined to be 6.5ṡ108 M• and 1.9ṡ104 M•, respectively.

  8. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  9. Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2014-11-04

    Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities.

  10. Morphological Study of Directionally Freeze-Cast Nickel Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyungyung; Kim, Min Jeong; Choi, Hyelim; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman; Dunand, David C.

    2016-03-01

    Nickel foams, consisting of 51 to 62 pct aligned, elongated pores surrounded by a network of Ni walls, were fabricated by reduction and sintering of directionally cast suspensions of nanometric NiO powders in water. Use of dispersant in the slurry considerably affected the foam morphology and microstructure at both the micro- and macro-scale, most likely by modifying ice solidification into dendrites (creating the aligned, elongated macro-pores) and NiO powder accumulation in the inter-dendritic space (creating the Ni walls with micro-pores). The mean width of the Ni walls, in foams solidified with and without dispersant, was 21 ± 5 and 75 ± 13 µm, respectively. Additionally, the foams with the dispersant showed less dense walls and rougher surfaces than those without the dispersant. Moreover, the fraction of closed pores present in the foam walls with the dispersant was higher than that of the samples without dispersant. We finally verified the potential energy application of the Ni foam produced in this study by carrying out a preliminary single-cell performance test with the Ni foam sample as the gas diffusion layer on the anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  11. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kanagasabapathy; Sobha Jayakrishnan

    2011-05-01

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the electrochemically less noble zinc deposits more preferentially, than the more noble iron. So the industrial process control over the deposition becomes difficult. So, this study correlates the effect of various deposition parameters over the deposition kinetics and deposited alloy characteristics. Transition and partial current densities were computed. Effect of hydrogen overpotential and surface coverage due to the adsorbed intermediates over anomalous deposition were explored. Plausible deposition mechanism and mathematical model was proposed to predict the anomalous electrodeposition characteristics. Textural, morphological and phase structural characteristics of the alloy was investigated. By the substitution of iron in the hcp lattice, c/a ratio was lowered and the lattice geometry was distorted. Intermetallic compounds of variable composition such as FeZn14, Fe5Zn33, Fe3Zn13 and FeZn3 with `' and `' phase structures were noted. Electrodeposition parameters were optimized and smooth, adherent, strain-free deposits with required iron content and hardness were obtained.

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CORONARY SINUS IN HUMAN CADAVERIC HEARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manoranjitham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The coronary sinus is a dilated venous channel opening into the right atrium of the heart. The coronary venous system has gained importance in recent years for electrophysiological procedures like arrhythmia ablation, biventricular pacing and implantation of cardiac pacemakers. The present study aims to study the formation and tributaries of coronary sinus and also the morphology of thebesian valve. Materials and Methods: 30 formalin fixed cadaveric hearts available in the department of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Perambalur, Tamil nadu, was used for the study. The formation and tributaries of coronary sinus were noted. The length of coronary sinus in millimeters was measured from the union of great cardiac vein and left marginal vein upto the opening of the coronary sinus in the right atrium with vernier calipers. The width of the coronary ostium in the right atrium was measured in millimeters with vernier calipers. Results: In 93.33% specimens the coronary sinus was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and left marginal vein. In 3.33% specimens it was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and posterior vein of left ventricle, and in 3.33% specimens it was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and oblique vein of left atrium. The left marginal vein was absent in 2 specimens and small cardiac vein was absent in 1 specimen. The mean length of coronary sinus was 54.98 + 12.2mm. The mean width of coronary sinus ostium was 9.35 + 3.24mm. The Thebesian valve was present in 93.33% specimens and it was semilunar in shape. Conclusion: The knowledge of coronary sinus anatomy will be helpful during electrophysiological procedures.

  13. Morphological description and life cycle of Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae): causal agent of human paragonimiasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Imelda; Velásquez, Luz E; Vélez, Iván D

    2003-08-01

    The first morphological description is made of all stages of the life cycle of a Paragonimus species infecting humans in Colombia. Larval stages were obtained both in vitro and from field collections. Adult Paragonimus spp. are described. The aquatic snail Aroapyrgus sp. serves as an intermediate host of this species, both naturally and experimentally, yielding rediae and cercariae. Crabs (Hypolobocera bouvieri monticola and H. emberarum) were found to be the natural second intermediate hosts, and individuals of another crab species (Strengeria sp.) were also infected in the laboratory.

  14. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF CEREBRAL BRIDGING VEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the morphological properties of pig cerebral bridging vein. Methods. The morphology and fibre arrangement of 15 cerebral bridging veins obtained from 7 Danish Yorkshire landrace pigs were observed. Results. There was a narrow region at the junction of the cerebral bridging veins and superior sagittal sinus termed “ outflow cuff segment". The diameter and length of outflow cuff segment were much smaller and the thickness was higher than those of the cerebral bridging veins (P0.05). Conclusions. There were differences in fibre arrangement and morphological properties between the outflow cuff segment and the cerebral bridging vein, just like a resistance valve, the outflow cuff segment may play an important role in stabilizing cerebral venous outflow and regulating intracranial pressure.

  16. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  17. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  18. Morphological study of borosilicate glass surface irradiated by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. S.; Du, X.; Yuan, W.; Duan, B. H.; D. Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Peng, H. B.; Yang, D.; Zhang, G. F.; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    Borosilicate glass is a candidate material for radiation waste formation and other optical applications in various fields. To understand the radiation effect of borosilicate glass, heavy ion (Arq+, Krq+ and Xeq+) irradiations were used to simulate the alpha and recoiled nuclei irradiations in this study. The surface morphology of glass has been compared to ion irradiation doses and ion energies. The surface topography evolution of irradiated samples is characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Micro-bumps are observed on the sample surface after irradiationwith 5 MeV Xeq+ over 5 × 1013 ions·cm-2. The size and density of the bumps increaseswith increasing irradiation dose. At a lowdose, bumps are on the nanometer (nm) scale and rather rare.While the dose is higher than 9 × 1015 ions·cm-2, the size of bumps is on the scale of a few microns, and the density is saturated. However, the height of the bumps increases froma fewnmto over 150nmwith further irradiation. The distribution of micro-bumps is nearly homogeneous. The bumps are condensed and swell up, and there is no crystallized structure according to the TEMdiffraction pattern. Elementmigration and concentrations are observedwith SIMS imaging. The arrayed micro-bumps are a new finding, and they might be used to change the surface properties. Bump formation is caused by phase separation, and volume swelling is induced by ion irradiation.

  19. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes.

  20. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  1. Morphological study of silver corrosion in highly aggressive sulfur environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    the silicone coating to the interface has resulted in three corrosion types namely: uniform corrosion, conductive anodic filament type of Ag2S growth, and silver migration with subsequent formation of sulfur compounds. Detailed morphological investigation of new and corroded power modules was carried out...

  2. Abrasive blasting agents: designing studies to evaluate relative risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Ann; Greskevitch, Mark; Kuempel, Eileen; Suarez, Fernando; Toraason, Mark

    Workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica used in abrasive blasting are at increased risk of developing a debilitating and often fatal fibrotic lung disease called silicosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that silica sand be prohibited as abrasive blasting material and that less hazardous materials be used in blasting operations. However, data are needed on the relative risks associated with exposure to abrasive blasting materials other than silica. NIOSH has completed acute studies in rats (Hubbs et al., 2001; Porter et al., 2002). To provide dose-response data applicable to making recommendation for occupational exposure limits, NIOSH has collaborated with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to design longer term studies with silica substitutes. For risk assessment purposes, selected doses will include concentrations that are relevant to human exposures. Rat lung burdens achieved should be comparable to those estimated in humans with working lifetime exposures, even if this results in "overloading" doses in rats. To quantify both dose and response, retained particle burdens in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes will be measured, as well as biochemical and pathological indices of pulmonary response. This design will facilitate assessment of the pulmonary fibrogenic potential of inhaled abrasive blasting agents at occupationally relevant concentrations.

  3. Comparative investigation of 11 Achillea collina Becker accessions concerning phenological, morphological, productional features and active agent content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindlovits, Sára

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Achillea collina Becker accessions of different origin were tested in open field plots during three years for their phenological, morphological, productional features and active material content in Budapest, Hungary. Among the tested plant materials European selected cultivars, Hungarian cultivated stocks and populations from wild growing habitats were investigated. Concerning flowering time, two types (early and late were distinguished. Flowering time of the less abundant late type, represented by Hungarian variety ‘Azulenka’ and ‘Gb22’, started approximately 2 weeks later than that of the early flowering type. Plant height and length of flowering horizon varied only slightly among taxa, and increased after the first year of cultivation. The proportion of useful plant organs in the drug was stable. Biomass and drug production of the investigated genotypes was variable, late flowering types providing higher yields. Essential oil, proazulene, total phenolic and flavonoid content varied on a large scale among accessions and years. Results demonstrate the high intraspecific variability of A. collina and also the role of valuable genotypes in drug production. Selected cultivars may provide stable and good yields and drug quality under particular environmental conditions, while genotypes of wild origin may be valuable sources of future breeding programs.

  4. Study on the agile supply chain management based on agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The most important task of the agile supply chain management (ASCM) is to reconfigure a supply chain based on the customers' requirement. Without more sophisticated cooperation and dynamic formation in an agile supply chain, it cannot be achieved for mass customization, rapid response and high quality services. Because of its great potential in supporting cooperation for the supply chain management, agent technology can carry out the cooperative work by inter-operation across networked human, organization and machines at the abstractive level in a computational system. A major challenge in building such a system is to coordinate the behavior of individual agent or a group of agents to achieve the individual and shared goals of the participants. In this paper, the agent technology is used to support modeling and coordinating of supply chain management.

  5. Morphologic study of nipple-areola complex in 600 breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Jun-ichi; Fukuma, Eisuke; Uchida, Yoshihiro

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the morphologic characteristics of the nipple-areola complex, the diameter of the nipple-areola complex and the height of the nipple in 300 adult women (600 breasts) were measured using micrometer calipers. Furthermore, the morphologic characteristics were classified into four types by visual observation. Mean diameter of the areola was 4.0 cm, mean diameter of the nipple was 1.3 cm, and mean height of the nipple was 0.9 cm. From the morphologic point of view, the elevated plateau type without constriction (IIs) was most commonly found, being present in 60.2% of breasts. Inverted nipples (III) were found in 3.5% and unclassified type (IV) such as multiple or divided nipples was found in 0.3%. Because women have become sensitive about the appearance of their breasts and there is increasing cosmetic interest following surgery for breast carcinoma, operations on the nipple-areola complex are now common. When a surgeon counsels a patient and designs a reconstruction method prior to operation, these data may be helpful.

  6. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  7. Pharmacogenetic study of deferasirox, an iron chelating agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Lee

    Full Text Available Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3% patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing -1774 del and/or -24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79-28.67, P = 0.005. Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%. Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7-43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34-150.35, P = 0.028. Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox.

  8. Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Mi Kyung; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Lee, Sang Seop; Kim, Hyery; Park, June Dong; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing −1774 del and/or −24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79–28.67, P = 0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7–43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34–150.35, P = 0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox. PMID:23737969

  9. Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azuan Abu Osman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, untreated bovine cortical bones (BCBs were exposed to a range of heat treatments in order to determine at which temperature the apatite develops an optimum morphology comprising porous nano hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp crystals. Rectangular specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 3–5 mm of BCB were prepared, being excised in normal to longitudinal and transverse directions. Specimens were sintered at up to 900 °C under ambient pressure in order to produce apatites by two steps sintering. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. For the first time, morphology of the HAp particles was predicted by XRD, and it was verified by SEM. The results show that an equiaxed polycrystalline HAp particle with uniform porosity was produced at 900 °C. It indicates that a porous nanoHAp achieved by sintering at 900 °C can be an ideal candidate as an in situ scaffold for load-bearing tissue applications.

  10. Studying the properties of galaxy cluster morphology estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Weißmann, A; Suhada, R; Ameglio, S

    2012-01-01

    X-ray observations of galaxy clusters reveal a large range of morphologies with various degrees of disturbance, showing that the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical shape which are used to determine the cluster mass from X-ray data are not always satisfied. It is therefore important for the understanding of cluster properties as well as for cosmological applications to detect and quantify substructure in X-ray images of galaxy clusters. Two promising methods to do so are power ratios and center shifts. Since these estimators can be heavily affected by Poisson noise and X-ray background, we performed an extensive analysis of their statistical properties using a large sample of simulated X-ray observations of clusters from hydrodynamical simulations. We quantify the measurement bias and error in detail and give ranges where morphological analysis is feasible. A new, computationally fast method to correct for the Poisson bias and the X-ray background contribution in power ratio and center shift ...

  11. [Progress in study of oral biofilm dispersal-inducing agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhu; Jingmei, Yang; Dingyu, Duan; Yi, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Communities of bacteria wrapped in self-generated extracellular polymeric matrix and attached to a solid surface are known as biofilm. Biofilm formation and development can be divided into three stages: adhesion of cells to a surface, reproduction of the cells, and dispersion of cells. The procedure, which surface-attached biofilm disperses bacterial cells into the environment to colonize new sites, is defined as biofilm dispersal. Biofilm dispersal is an essential stage of biofilm life cycle. It plays an important role in the transmission of bacteria. For many pathogenic bacteria, biofilm dispersal can transform bacteria in biofilm into planktonic state and promote the spread of infection. The formation of biofilm may increase the resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agent and host defence response compared with planktonic cells. In the oral cavity, oral microorganism can attach to the surface of oral tissue and prosthesis to form biofilm. Dental caries and periodontal disease are oral chronic infections diseases of the oral tissue. The occurrence of them has a close relationship with biofilm. The mechanism of dispersal is a hot topic in recent years. Some agents which promote dispersal might be a therapeutic potential against biofilm infections. The clinical implication of dispersal agents and potential application are promising. This article reviews the dispersal-inducing agents of oral biofilms.

  12. A STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF IPP/IIR BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shaoyun; LI Huilin; XU Xi

    1991-01-01

    The effect of isobutylene-isoprene rubber (ⅡR) on the crystallizing behavior of isotactic polypropylene (IPP) as well as the morphology of the blends in relation with its properties have been studied by DSC, WAXD, polarized light microscope, SEM and mechanical properties test.The experimental results show that ⅡR has slight influence on melting point, crystallinity,crystallization rate of IPP. It seems certain that ⅡR has not entered into IPP phase in melt state.ⅡR has retarding action on the growth of IPP crystal and is an effective nucleating agent of IPP spherulites. The impact strength of the blend increases rapidly with ⅡR content more than 30 parts;the tensile strength of the blend, however, decreases as ⅡR content increases. The temperature and time of after heat- treatment also have great influence on the impact strength of the blend. The impact strength of IPP / ⅡR (100 /20) heat- treated at about 130 ℃ for 2h is 5 times as high as that of the untreated blend.

  13. Structural and morphological studies of manganese-based cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, M., E-mail: monika.michalska83@gmail.com [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Lipińska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Sikora, A. [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wrocław (Poland); Ziółkowska, D.; Korona, K.P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzejczuk, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Manganese cathode nanomaterials were successfully obtained by modified sol–gel method. • Crystallinity of the powders was confirmed by various structural method. • AFM and Raman spectroscopy showed that LiMnPO{sub 4} is promising material for LIBs. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline powders: lithium-manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) of spinel and lithium-manganese phosphate (LiMnPO{sub 4}) of olivine structure were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. In this synthesizing process, lithium and manganese salts and complexing agent were used as reactants. The obtained powders were characterized by a number of methods: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The mean sizes of crystallites were about 30 nm for LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 60 nm for LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticles. The influence of crystallographic structure on the stability of two manganese compounds was studied. The correlation between the structural and morphological results of spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and olivine LiMnPO{sub 4} properties was examined for the first time in this work.

  14. Study of the morphology and biomechanics of sacral fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Ren-fu; YANG Di-sheng; WANG Yi-jin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the morphological characteristics of sacral fracture under different impact loads.Method: Ten fresh pelvic specimens were loaded in dynamic or static state. A series of mechanical parameters including the pressure strain and velocity were recorded.Morphological characteristics were observed under scanning electron microscope.Results: The form of sacral fracture was related to the impact energy. Under low-energy impact loads, ilium fracture, acetabulum fracture and crista iliaca fracture were found. Under high-energy impact loads, three types of sacral fracture occurred according to the classification of Denis: sacral ala fracture, Type Ⅰ fracture; sacral foramen cataclasm fracture, Type Ⅱ fracture; central vertebral canal fracture, Type Ⅲ fracture. Nerve injury of one or two sides was involved in all three types of sacral fracture.The fracture mechanism of sacrum between the dynamic impact and static compression was significantly different.When the impact energy was above 25 J, sacral foramen cataclasm fracture occurred, involving nerve root injury.When it was below 20 J, ilium and sacral fracture was most likely to occur. When it was 20 ~ 25 J, Type Ⅰ fracture would occur. While in the static test, most of the fracture belonged to ilium or acetabulum fracture. The cross section of sacrum was crackly and the bone board of Haversian system was brittle, which could lead to separation of bone boards and malposition of a few of cross bone boards.Conclusions: In dynamic state, sacrum fracture mostly belongs to Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ, and usually involves the nerve roots. Sacrum fracture is relevant to the microstructures, the distribution of the bone trabecula, the osseous lacuna and the Haversian system of sacrum. The fracture of ilium and acetabulum more frequently appears in static state, with slight wound of peripheral tissues.

  15. Thyroid morphology in lethal non-thyroidal illness: a post-mortem study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. de Jongh (Felix); A.C. Jobsis; J.W.F. Elte (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is associated with alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism. Whether morphological changes of the thyroid gland accompany NTI is unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe thyroid morphology in patients with

  16. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  17. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  18. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  19. Morphological modelling of the response to a shipwreck - A case study at Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Fredsoe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    with a simplified 1D morphological evolution model for the coastline. The model concept is applied to the case study in order to show how the modelling concept may be applied to real coastlines with general bathymetric features. The results show that the model captures the overall morphological response fairly well...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OVARY AND UTERUS OF EARLY PREGNANT RATS AND WOMEN TREATED WITH MIFEPRISTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWen-Jian; ZHANGLong-Sheng; YANGXin-Li; SHENGJi-Yun; ZHOUJie-Ling; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, morphological studies of uterus and ovary during terminating early pregnancy with mifcpristonc Were reported. In the experimental studies, 24 hrs after inhering 10 mg / kg mifcpristonc to early pregnant rats, all embryos wcrc dead, with decidual cells

  1. Morphological study of gastric lesions developing in the rat under several damaging conditions: modifications induced by pretreatment with zinc acexamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, M L; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Fontarnau, R; Bulbena, O

    1992-09-01

    Lesions developing in the gastric mucosa of the rat after exposure to different gastric damaging agents (100 mg/kg aspirin, and 70% or 100% ethanol) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The severity of the lesions was quantified according to morphological criteria. Modifications in the severity of these lesions induced by pretreatment with zinc acexamate were also analyzed. The scanning electron microscope revealed that with the exception of absolute ethanol, which caused distinctive morphological features, lesions found under the different experimental agents shared a common pattern of progression. Ultrastructural lesions on surface epithelial cells preceded further alterations of parietal cells. After the integrity of the epithelial cells was lost, detachment of the parietal cells occurred, probably, through peptic digestion of the connections between cells and their extracellular matrices. Pretreatment of animals with zinc acexamate increased the presence of mucus on the gastric surface and significantly prevented the progression of lesions towards the severest stages. Ultrastructural damage of surface epithelial cells was not influenced by this treatment, but detachment of damaged cells was clearly diminished. These data confirm the protective effect of zinc acexamate against gastric aggressions. Moreover, our studies confirm the notion that mucus secretion and maintenance of continuity on the gastric lumen by surface epithelial cells is of critical importance in preventing the gastric damage induced in these experimental models.

  2. Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Won Lee; Hyoung Jin Kang; Ji-Yeob Choi; Nam Hee Kim; Mi Kyung Jang; Chang-Woo Yeo; Sang Seop Lee; Hyery Kim; June Dong Park; Kyung Duk Park; Hee Young Shin; Jae-Gook Shin; Hyo Seop Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-asso...

  3. Decontamination Technologies for Emerging CBRNE Agents: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    persistent organic pollutants . For ENPs, the vulnerability was determined to be extreme for Al/Fe2O3, Al/CuO, Al/ammonium perchlorate and high for Al...materials. For sensitive equipment materials, the efficiency ranged from 41.9% to 100.0%. For plastic keyboards, diazinon was the easiest OP compound...trials to identify, optimize and demonstrate advanced decontamination technologies; 2) investigate the persistence of target agents on different

  4. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone. PMID:28222099

  5. Ultrasound Assessment of Umbilical Cord Morphology in the First Trimester: A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narayan, Rajit; Saaid, Rahmah; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether morphology and measurement of the umbilical cord could be accurately assessed at the time of the 11- to 13+6-week scan. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 100 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies at 11-13+6 weeks' gestation...... be consistently studied in the first trimester. A subjective method of evaluation of the morphology may be a more reproducible technique until measurement strategies are refined and operator experience developed....

  6. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.

  7. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents : Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Ostergaard, D; Donati, F; Fisher, D; Hunter, J; Kampmann, JP; Kopman, A; Proost, JH; Rasmussen, SN; Skovgaard, LT; Varin, F; Wright, PMC

    2000-01-01

    In September 1997, an international consensus conference on standardization of studies of neuromuscular blocking agents was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on the conference, a set of guidelines fur good clinical research practice (GCRT) in pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents

  8. Phylogenetic studies of the core Alismatales inferred from morphology and rbcL sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxian Li; Zhekun Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The phylogeny of Alismatales remains an area of deep uncertainty, with different arrangements being found in studies that examined various subsets of genes and taxa. Herein we conducted separate and combined analyses of 103 morphological characters and 52 rbcL sequences to explore the controversial phylogenies of the families. Congruence between the two data sets was explored by computing several indices. Morphological data sets contain poor phylogenetic signals. The homology of morphological characters was tested based on the total evidence of phylogeny. The ineongruence between DNA and morphological results; the hypothesis of the 'Cymodoceaceae complex'; the relationships between Najadaceae and Hydrocharitaceae; the intergeneric relationships of Hydrocharitaceae; and the evo-lutionary convergence of morphological characters were analyzed and discussed.

  9. A Study of an Intelligent Battlefield Damage Assessment System Based on a Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-kai; DAI Wan-jun; TANG Yan-feng; WANG Jia-ning

    2008-01-01

    Battlefield damage assessment is the key to Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair (BDAR).We present an Intelligent Battlefield Damage Assessment System (IBDAS) based on multi-agent system technology. We first establish the system framework, and then study the interior structure and workflow of a problem allocation agent. The result shows that, there are many advantages to resolve the problem of battlefield damage assessment by applying multi-agent system technology, and it will bring significant military benefit.

  10. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: A study on Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eAngelelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs non-derived words. Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs low of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  11. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  12. Study of the hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent effects on bovine enamel using X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Ruda F.; Calazans, Fernanda S.; Miranda, Mauro S.; Santos, Ramon S.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Assis, Joaquim T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen Peroxide's a bleaching agent capable of oxidizing a wide range of colored organic, causing discoloration and hence bleaching of the substrate, but some authors related the occurrence of side effects related to bleaching of the tooth structure, such as changes in morphology superficial. It was used 6 bovine incisors, each tooth was initially evaluated six times in different areas to obtain the count of elements phosphorus and calcium using X-Ray Fluorescence. The teeth were randomly divided in two groups: both groups were submitted to bleaching in office with hydrogen peroxide 38%, once a week during three weeks. Group 1 was stored in distilled water and group 2 in artificial saliva, between the sessions. The measurements were repeated every seven days before the bleaching treatment. Besides that, changes in mineral levels were always assessed in the same area and using the same procedure. It was observed that the bleaching was not able to demineralize the tooth enamel studied. (author)

  13. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  14. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU HaiJun; ZHANG PengFei; OHEN WenQiang; ZHANG Mei; ZHANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atheroaclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  15. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezky Purna Satit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ensure that they allocate their resources effectively and efficiently. A total of 215 respondents were selected from customers of three travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. The data collected was analyzed using three statistical methods, that is, mean analysis, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The results revealed that only product and price were associated with customer decision-making over travel agents. Based on the findings, strategic recommendations are proposed for the travel industry in Indonesia.

  16. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa) based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Bustam BM (2010) Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa) based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG). This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996) and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens...

  17. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies on The Surface Morphologies of Chemical Bath Deposited Cus Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Soonmin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, copper sulphide thin films were deposited onto microscope glass slide by chemical bath deposition technique. The tartaric acid was served as complexing agent to chelate with Cu2+ to obtain complex solution. The influence of pH value on the surface morphologies of the films has been particularly investigated using the atomic force microscopy technique. The atomic force microscopy results indicate that the CuS films deposited at pH 1 were uniform, compact and pinhole free. However, the incomplete surface coverage observed for the films prepared at high pH (pH 2 and 2.5 values.

  18. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF WORMIAN BONES IN CADAVER SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Adinarayana; Pujitha

    2015-01-01

    Wormian bones are accessory bones are not normally present in skull . They may or may not be associated with clinical abnormalities . In the present study a significant number of wormian bones were identified at the Department of Anatomy , Andhra Medical College , Visakhapatnam . Their incidence with other population were done in the presen t study

  20. Spelling and Morphology in Dyslexia: A Developmental Study Across the School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Levie, Ronit

    2017-01-25

    The current study examined the effect of morphological knowledge on spelling development in Hebrew-speaking schoolchildren, adolescents and adults with dyslexia, compared with typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 238 Hebrew-speaking readers of five grade levels of whom 139 were TD and 99 had developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants were tested on a function letter spelling task, a phonological awareness task and a morphological awareness task. The overall picture that emerged from the results is that performance on all measures increased with grade level, with TD participants always scoring higher than peers with DD. Moreover, the higher the morphological complexity in spelling and irregularity in noun inflection, the higher the differences between the DD and TD participants. Finally, performance on the morphological awareness task contributed to spelling morphologically more complex spelling items in the TD, but not in the DD group. From clinical and educational perspectives, these results strongly suggest that rigorous morphological instruction is necessary in teaching children and adolescents with dyslexia to identify and use morphological cues in spoken and written Hebrew. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Surface structural, morphological, and catalytic studies of homogeneously dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Shweta; Mutreja, Vishal; Pal, Bonamali; Singh, Satnam

    2016-11-01

    Highly dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures were synthesized within the channels of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified mesoporous SBA-15 for catalyzing the reduction of p-dinitrobenzene, p-nitrophenol, and p-nitroacetophenone, respectively. A green templating process without involving any reducing agent, by varying the amount (1-10 wt.%) of Ag loading followed by calcination at 350 °C under H2 led to change in the morphology of Ag nanoparticles from nanospheres ( 7-8 nm) to nanorods (aspect ratio 12-30 nm) without any deformation in mesoporous sieves. In comparison to white bare SBA-15, gray-colored samples were formed with Ag impregnation exhibiting absorption bands at 484 and 840 nm indicating the formation of anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous matrix. TEM and FE-SEM micrographs confirmed the presence of evenly dispersed Ag nanostructures within as well as on the surface of mesoporous matrix. AFM studies indicated a small decrease in the average roughness of SBA-15 from 20.59 to 19.21 nm for 4 wt.% Ag/m-SBA-15, illustrating the encapsulation of majority of Ag nanoparticles in the siliceous matrix and presence of small amount of Ag nanoparticles on the mesoporous support. Moreover, due to plugging of mesopores with Ag, a significant decrease in surface area from 680 m2/g of SBA-15 to 385 m2/g was observed. The Ag-impregnated SBA-15 catalyst displayed superior catalytic activity than did bare SBA-15 with 4 wt.% Ag-loaded catalyst exhibiting optimum activity for selective reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol (100 %), p-nitroacetophenone to p-aminoacetophenone (100 %), and p-dinitrobenzene to p-nitroaniline (87 %), with a small amount of p-phenylenediamine formation.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  4. Endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography of murine colonic morphology to determine effectiveness of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGendre-McGhee, Susan; Rice, Photini F. S.; Wall, R. Andrew; Klein, Justin; Luttman, Amber; Sprute, Kyle; Gerner, Eugene; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging modality capable of tracking the development of individual colonic adenomas. As such, OCT can be used to evaluate the mechanisms and effectiveness of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer models. The data presented here represent part of a larger study evaluating α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and Sulindac as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents using mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). 27 A/J mice were included in the chemoprevention study, subdivided into four treatment groups (No Drug, DFMO, Sulindac, DFMO/Sulindac). 30 mm lateral images of each colon at eight different rotations were obtained at five different time points using a 2 mm diameter spectral domain OCT endoscopy system centered at 890 nm with 3.5 μm axial resolution in air and 5 μm lateral resolution. Images were visually analyzed to determine number and size of adenomas. Gross photos of the excised colons and histology provided gold standard confirmation of the final imaging time point. Preliminary results show that 100% of mice in the No Drug group developed adenomas over the course of the chemoprevention study. Incidence was reduced to 71.43% in mice given DFMO, 85.71% for Sulindac and 0% for DFMO/Sulindac. Discrete adenoma size did not vary significantly between experimental groups. Additional experiments are currently under way to verify these results and evaluate DFMO and Sulindac for chemotherapeutic applications.

  5. Mapping Urban Form: Morphology studies in the contemporary urban landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinzon Cortes, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the importance to study the form of the contemporary urban landscape. It shows how mapping is the tool by which the formal logic of the contemporary city can be uncovered. Through mapping, the urban landscape can be understood as systems of overlapping layers. This observ

  6. FISSURES AND LOBES OF LUNGS: A MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The fissures of the lungs serve as boundaries for the lobes of the lungs. They also acts as barriers to avoid the spread of pathologies .The proposed aim of the study was to study the fissures and lobes of the lungs and their variations and to compare them with previous studies and to find their clinical implications. Methods: Thirty pairs of lungs were used for the study, obtained from formalin-fixed cadavers of south-indian origin. The lung specimens were observed for the patterns of lobes and fissures, variations were noted and specimens were photographed. Results: Five right lungs showed absence of horizontal fissure. Out of thirty, twelve right sided lungs showed incomplete fissures.On the left side, seven specimens showed incomplete oblique fissure. In addition, two right-sided specimens and four left sided specimens showed presence accessory fissure. Conclusion: The results and their comparison with the previous works show that there is a wide range of difference in occurrence of major, minor and accessory fissures between and among different populations. Knowledge of such variations is mandatory for surgeons in pre-operative planning for performing pulmonary lobectomies and for radiologists for interpreting X-rays and CT scans

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF TIBIAL NUTRIENT FORAMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College Jammu. Material for the study comprised of seventy adult dry Tibiae, of unknown sex, available in the Department of Anatomy .Bones were labelled from 1 to 70.The number and direction of nutrient foramina on the posterior surface of the shaft was noted and counted. The situation of nutrient foramina in relation to the length of tibiae and in relation to vertical line on posterior surface was observed. The distance of nutrient foramen from the upper and lower end of tibia was measured . It was observed that in most of the bones there was a single nutrient foramen, directed downwards, which was present on the upper half of Tibia. It was present lateral to the vertical line on posterior surface of tibia. The mean distance of nutrient foramina from the upper end of tibia and from the lower end of tibia was more on the right side. The present study gains clinical significance as consistent position of the nutrient foramen is of importance in fractures involving upper third of Tibia through nutrient canal, which disrupts the blood supply to the shaft. This invariably results in delayed union.

  8. Nanobioceramic Composites: A Study of Mechanical, Morphological, and Thermal Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sivabalan Sasthiryar; Abdul Khalil, H. P. S.; A. H. Bhat; Z.A. Ahmad; Md. Nazrul Islam; Zaidon, A.; Rudi Dungani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the incorporation of biomass carbon nanofillers (CNF) into advanced ceramic. Biomass from bamboo, bagasse (remains of sugarcane after pressing), and oil palm ash was used as the predecessor for producing carbon black nanofillers. Furnace pyrolysis was carried out at 1000 °C and was followed by ball-mill processing to obtain carbon nanofillers in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm. CNFs were added to alumina in varying weight fractions and the resulting mixture w...

  9. Biochemical and morphological study on hepatotoxicity of azathioprine in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1979-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats given azathioprine in the diet for 3 to 4 weeks developed severe liver damage. Elevations of serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were associated with increased hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels and decreased liver glucose 6-phosphatase activities, i.e., conditions which were commonly observed in various hepatotoxin-induced liver injuries. Light and electron microscopic observations revealed centrolobular necrosis with large scars and the proliferation of the mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. This model could be used to study the mechanisms of azathioprine-induced liver damage and its prevention.

  10. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  11. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  12. Morphological control of zinc tricarbohydrazide perchlorate crystals:Theoretical and experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; QI ShuYuan; ZHANG TongLai; ZHOU ZunNing; YANG Li; ZHANG JianGuo

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical crystal-morphology of zinc tricarbohydrazide perchlorate (ZnCP) was studied using the morphology simulation software.The growth trends and surface characteristics were calculated using the Bravais-Friedel-Donnay-Harker (BFDH),Growth Morphology,and Equilibrium Morphology methods; these provide theoretical guidance for the choice of crystal-control reagents.On the basis of the simulations,experiments were carried out to study the effects of five different crystal-control reagents,including carboxymethylcellulose (A),polyacrylamide (B),dextrin (C),Tween 40 (D),and Tween 60 (E),in the control of the crystal-morphology of ZnCP.Mixtures of two reagents and higher temperatures were used to further optimize the ZnCP crystals.The results show that ZnCP crystals are well dispersed,and have a large apparent density and regular crystal-morphology under the control of a mixture of reagents A and E in a mass ratio of 1 ∶ 4 at 80℃.

  13. Study of sunspot group morphological variations leading to flaring events

    CERN Document Server

    Korsos, M B; Ludmany, A

    2014-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the most probable sites of flare occurrences are the locations of high horizontal magnetic field gradients in the active regions. Instead of magnetograms the present work checks this assumption by using sunspot data, the targeted phenomenon is the pre-flare behaviour of the strong horizontal gradients of the magnetic field at the location of the flare. The empirical basis of the work is the SDD (SOHO/MDI-Debrecen sunspot Data) sunspot catalogue. Case studies of two active regions and five X-flares have been carried out to find possible candidates for pre-flare signatures. It has been found that the following properties of the temporal variations of horizontal magnetic field gradient are promising for flare forecast: the speed of its growth, its maximal value, its decrease after the maximum until the flare and the rate of its fluctuation.

  14. Histo-morphology of age of contusions: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Unmesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : During forensic evaluation the determination of age of contusions play a very important role. Age of contusions is normally determined based on their colour. Different authors have different interpretations of age of contusions based on colour. Objective : The aim of the present study is to have a first hand information regarding the colour changes occurring in contusions with the passage of time, in our population and also to compare the aging process of contusions in our population with the standard data available Methods: Contusions were classified into small, medium and large. Both naked eye examination of colour of contusions and microscopic examination of contusions were done. Perl’s staining was also done to confirm the presence of pigments. Results: 65 male and 15 female patients were included in the study. Majority of the cases the contusions were due to road traffic accidents. It was observed that in contusions of 24 hrs duration it was red in colour,followed by blue colour for two to three days. Contusions of four to six days were bluish black coloured and green in colour by seventh day. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of RBC in injuries less than 24 hrs duration. Lymphocytes and polymorphs were prominent in third and fourth day of injury. Perl’s stain was positive from the fifth day onwards. Conclusion : The observations of colour tone of injury and histopathological findings including special staining techniques like Perl’s stain can help the forensic pathologist to a certain extent in dating the age of medium sized contusion in moderately nourished adult subjects during the initial phases of injury. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 339-342

  15. Resampling-based approaches to study variation in morphological modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Fruciano

    Full Text Available Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1, using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2 propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3 show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4 suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5 propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application--that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface--has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/.

  16. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts.

  17. Correlative Study on MRI Morphologic Features,Pathology, and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chen; Shuigen Gong; Weiguo Zhang; Jinhua Chen; Shuangwu He; Baohua Liu; Zengpeng Li

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation among MRI morphologic features,pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer.METHORDS MRI was used to analyze the morphologic features of breast cancers of 78 patients before operation. The mastectomy specimens of the breast neoplasms were immunohistochemically stained, and the expression of the estrogen (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, P53, and the distribution of microvessel density (MVD) measured. The pathologic results were compared with the MRI features.RESULTS Among the 80 breast cancers, ER positive expression was positively correlated with the spicular contour of breast cancers (P<0.01),while showing a significant inverse correlation with the T-stage (P<0.05). CerbB-2 and P53 positive expression were positively correlated with the necrotic center of the cancers (P<0.05). The expression of PR was not significantly correlated with the spicular contour, obscure margin, necrotic center, and T-stage of these cancers (P>0.05). Among 41 breast cancers examined with dynamic contrast enhanced MR, there was a positive correlation between the spatial distribution of the contrast agent and MVD(P<0.01).CONCLUSION To a certain extent there is some correlation among the MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biological factors in breast cancer. The biological behavior and prognosis of breast cancer can be assessed based on MRI features.

  18. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a  synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP, as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I  collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. 

  19. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  20. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF SELF-FIXED SIZING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxiang Zhu; Shuangfei Wang; Qifeng Yang; Shangyong Nong

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study about the synthesis of self-fixed sizing agent and gives a detailed example about this kind of sizing agent's practical operation.The study focuses on the condition of emulsion polymerization and the proportions of monomer,which can make the product not only have a nice waterproof attribute but also have a better stability of emulsion. At the same time the use of the cation monomer enables the polymer to adhere to fiber easily.

  1. Kinetic Study of Organic Dye Degradation Using ZnO Particles with Different Morphologies as a Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Yong Pung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel approach using zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO2·2H2O and ammonia (NH4OH solution as precursors. By adjusting the reaction parameters such as amount of ammonia and reaction time as well as complexing agent aluminium sulphate Al2(SO43, ZnO particles with different morphologies, that is, rodlike, ricelike and disklike could be synthesized. The effectiveness of ZnO particles with different morphologies (rodlike, ricelike and disklike on the photocatalytic activity has been studied. The results showed that rodlike ZnO particles were the most effective in degrading the Rhodamine B (RhB solution under the illumination of ultraviolet (UV light. The rate constant was found to be first order, with rodlike particles the highest (0.06329 min−1, followed by rice-like ZnO particles (0.0431 min−1 and disk-like ZnO particles (0.02448 min−1.

  2. STUDIES ON HORIZONTAL COMPETITION AMONG HOMOGENOUS RETAILERS THROUGH AGENT-BASED SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming XIE; Jian CHEN

    2004-01-01

    This paper adopts agent-based simulation to study the horizontal competition among homogenous price-setting retailers in a one-to-many supply chain (a supply chain consists of one supplier and multiple retailers). We model the supplier and retailers as agents, and design their behavioral rulesrespectively. The results show that although the agents learn individually based on their own experiences, the system converges asymptotically to near Nash equilibrium steady states.When analyzing the results, we first discuss the properties of these steady states. Then based on these properties, we analyze the effects of the retailers' horizontal competition on the retail prices, retailers'profits and supplier's revenue.

  3. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  4. [Features of episodes of mental disorders in chronic renal insufficiency (clinico-morphologic study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkina, M V; Tsivil'ko, V S; Tsivil'ko, M A

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied the traits of psychotic attacks in 40 patients with terminal stages of chronic renal insufficiency. They were expressed in atypical delirious, delirio-amentive and amentive conditions. 8 cases were studied morphologically. The pathological process in the brain was characterized as toxico-dyshomeostatic encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of such disorders is discussed.

  5. [Morphological study of the adrenals of rats exposed on the Kosmos-690 satellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, E A; Alekseev, E I

    1979-01-01

    Adrenals of 12 rats flown aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and 30 rats used in the ground-based experiments Control-1 and Control-2 were studied morphologically. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd and 27th days after completion of the experiments (i. e., on the 12 and 37th days after irradiation at a total dose of 800 rad). A comparative study of morphological changes in the adrenals of flight and control rats did not show any distinct differences. It is therefore concluded that space flight factors did not produce a significant effect on the adrenal response to irradiation at a dose of 800 rad.

  6. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowie, Wander Marius

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A thi

  7. Experimental study on low temperature performance of polymer drilling mud agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Jiajia; XU Huiwen; CAI Hongliang

    2009-01-01

    Drilling fluid additives has a major impact on rheology behavior and other performances of the drilling fluid. The key to low temperature drilling fluids is choosing antifreeze and polymer agent which have a strong ability in resisting low temperature. On the basis of determining glycol as antifreeze agent, the low-temperature-performance and capacities of anti-collapse of regular validity mud agents have been studied, the mechanism of anti-caving of the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA), polypropylene potassium (KPA) and PAC-141 polymer additives have been also analyzed. A pilot study of compatibility between ethylene glycol and the polymers has educed that the polymers, ethylene glycol and inorganic salt are compatible, and they can significantly reduce the freezing point of drilling fluid. Anti-collapse ability of the drilling mud is the results of synergistic action among the agents.

  8. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations: a case study in Xinji county, China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural reform since 1978 and its impact for extension system and extension agents. Before the rural reform, Chinese agriculture was collectively managed. The extension system dealt with collective groups of farmers and was used as a po...

  9. Gold Nanoparticle Contrast Agents in Mammography: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    target sites using near-infrared light-scattering or photothermal therapy using near-infrared laser light [29, 30]. Hainfield et al. have studied 11...burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding

  10. A reliable primary human CNS culture protocol for morphological studies of dendritic and synaptic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Robert R; Iskander, Sam; Achim, Cristian L; Hearn, Stephen; Nassif, Jane; Wiley, Clayton A

    2002-08-30

    Primary dissociated human fetal forebrain cultures were grown in defined serum-free conditions. At 4 weeks in vitro the cultures contained abundant morphologically well differentiated neurons with complex dendritic arbors. Astrocytic proliferation was negligible without the use of antimitotic agents. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a dense neuropil, numerous cell-cell contacts and synapses. Neurons expressed a variety of proteins including growth associated protein-43 (GAP43), microtubule associated protein-2ab (MAP), class-III beta tubulin (C3BT), neurofilaments (NF), synaptophysin (SYN), parvalbumin (PA) and calbindin (CB). The cultures have proven to be reliable and simple to initiate and maintain for many weeks without passaging. They are useful in investigations of dendritic growth and injury of primary human CNS neurons.

  11. Combining multiobjective optimization and cluster analysis to study vocal fold functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaparthi, Anil; Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R

    2014-07-01

    Morphological design and the relationship between form and function have great influence on the functionality of a biological organ. However, the simultaneous investigation of morphological diversity and function is difficult in complex natural systems. We have developed a multiobjective optimization (MOO) approach in association with cluster analysis to study the form-function relation in vocal folds. An evolutionary algorithm (NSGA-II) was used to integrate MOO with an existing finite element model of the laryngeal sound source. Vocal fold morphology parameters served as decision variables and acoustic requirements (fundamental frequency, sound pressure level) as objective functions. A two-layer and a three-layer vocal fold configuration were explored to produce the targeted acoustic requirements. The mutation and crossover parameters of the NSGA-II algorithm were chosen to maximize a hypervolume indicator. The results were expressed using cluster analysis and were validated against a brute force method. Results from the MOO and the brute force approaches were comparable. The MOO approach demonstrated greater resolution in the exploration of the morphological space. In association with cluster analysis, MOO can efficiently explore vocal fold functional morphology.

  12. Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

  13. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  14. Morphological study on Littorina Flava (King & Broderip from Brazil (Caenogastropoda, Littorinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed morphological study of the littorinid Littorina flava (King & Broderip, from Venezuelan and Brazilian coasts, is given and commented. a considerable degree of shell characters variation was found, mainly in color and sculpture. The pallial cavity presents normal fashion of mesogastropods, without any detectable morphological modification for the long air-exposure. The digestive system present odontophore muscles very similar to those of the cerithioideans and hydrobioideans; the radula, however, is enormously long; the stomach lacks differentiate style sac. The penis is characteristic in lacking annex glands. The pallial oviduct has no jelly gland, and has a well developed bursa copulatrix and vaginal tube.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF ZIZIPHORA PUSHKINII ADAMS. OF LAMINACEAE LINDL. FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical study of Ziziphora puschkinii Adams. was carried out. It resulted on the revelation of diagnostic signs of a stem, leafstalk and lamina structure. According to the present results, the nodal and caulifoliar morphology in Ziziphora may be helpful in systematic researches. Stomatal apparatus of diacytic type and big unicellular trichomes presence may be considered to be diagnostic signs of lamina epidermis. The data reseived may be uded in further systematic researches of Ziziphora L. genus.

  16. Experimental Artifacts for Morphological Tweaking of Chemical Sensor Materials: Studies on ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ul Haq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensing mechanisms of gases on solid structures are predominantly surface-dominated. Benign surface features in terms of small grain size, high aspect ratio, large surface area and open and connected porosity, are required to realize a successful sensor material. Such morphological artifacts are a function of the fabrication and processing techniques employed. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of monoshaped and monosized zinc oxide (ZnO particles by a homogeneous precipitation method, using urea and/or hexmethyltetraamine as the reductant. The effect of operating conditions and experimental variables, such as the relative concentration of the precursors, temperature, and the aging time on the morphology of the resulting particles was studied systematically. These experimental parameters were optimized in order to achieve particles of uniform morphology and of narrow size distribution. Some of these particles were employed for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature.

  17. STUDY ON ION-POLYMER INTERACTION AND MORPHOLOGIC STRUCTURE OF POLYURETHANE/SALT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫华; 杨兵; 王新灵; 唐小真

    2001-01-01

    A poly(ethylene oxide) urethane and a model-compound of hard segment(HD) were prepared in this study. Solid polymer electrolytes were got from the blends of polyurethane, HD and NaClO4. The samples were characterized by mean of FT-IR and AFM. Effects of salt concentration on ion-polymer interaction and further on morphologic structure of the composites were investigated and some interesting results were obtained. The results show that HD and concentration of NaClO4 have an important effect on ion-polymer interaction and morphologic structure of the complex. It is also found that in AFM pictures of the samples there is a transition point and ion-polymer interaction of the polyurethane/salt systems play an extremely important role on morphologic structure.

  18. Insulin versus oral agents in the management of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes: a case based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon Leora J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin is the recommend therapeutic agent of choice for the management of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD, despite only sub-optimal reductions in glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality reported by centers using this agent. The newer insulin sensitizing agents demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory mechanisms may provide an alternative management option for CFRD. Methods A prospective case based therapeutic comparison between insulin, sulfonylurea, metformin and thiazolidinedione was observed over one decade with 20 CFRD patients diagnosed using American Diabetes Association guideline standards. Patients entering the study elected treatment based on risk and benefit information provided for treatment options. Patients receiving organ transplant or requiring combination diabetic medications were excluded from the study. Results No statistical advantage was achieved regarding overall glycemic control for oral agents over insulin. Additional outcome measures including changes in weight, liver function testing and FEV1 were not statistically significant. Conclusion Insulin alone may not be the only therapeutic option in managing CFRD. Oral hypoglycemic agents were equally effective in treating CFRD and may provide an alternative class of agents for patients reluctant in using insulin.

  19. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents: good clinical research practice (GCRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Ostergaard, D; Donati, F; Fisher, D; Hunter, J; Kampmann, J P; Kopman, A; Proost, J H; Rasmussen, S N; Skovgaard, L T; Varin, F; Wright, P M

    2000-11-01

    In September 1997, an international consensus conference on standardization of studies of neuromuscular blocking agents was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on the conference, a set of guidelines for good clinical research practice (GCRP) in pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents is presented. Guidelines include: design of the study; relevant patient groups to investigate; test drug administration, sampling and analysis; pharmacokinetic analysis; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling; population pharmacokinetics; statistics; and presentation of pharmacokinetic data. The guidelines are intended to aid those working in this research area; it is hoped that they will assist researchers, editors of scientific papers, and pharmaceutical companies in improving the quality of pharmacokinetic studies.

  20. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgen, H.; Hellemann, G.S.; Stellato, R.K.; Lahuis, B.; van Daalen, E.; Staal, W.G.; Rozendal, M.; Hennekam, R.C.; Beemer, F.A.; van Engeland, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McN

  1. Morphological features in children with autism spectrum disorders: a matched case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgen, H.; Hellemann, G.S.; Stellato, R.K.; Lahuis, B.; Daalen, E. van; Staal, W.G.; Rozendal, M.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Beemer, F.A.; Engeland, H.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McN

  2. [Experimental and morphological study of the effect of antiangiogenic therapy on corneal neovessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonian, V R; Voevodina, T M; Fedorov, A A; Budzinskaia, M V; Balaian, M L

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental and morphological study of combined antiangiogenic effect of photodynamic therapy with Photosens photosensitizer and Avastin (bevacizumab) on neovascularization process in corneal stroma. The combined approach has demonstrated an advantage over separate application of these methods, what, however, has to be proved clinically.

  3. Study of Pitting Morphology Fractal Characteristic of Corroded Surface of 304 Stainless Steel in FeCl3 Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 梁成浩

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the pitting corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments and SEM micrographs of the pitting corrosion morphology were obtained. The image processing technique combining with the fractal method was employed to analyze these pitting corrosion images and the self-similarity of pits morphology was observed. It indicates that fractal characteristics exist in pitting corrosion of 304 stainless steel. The self-similarity and complexity of the pitting morphology phenomenon were described in terms of fractal dimension which can also be an important parameter related to characterize pitting morphology qualitatively and quantitatively.

  4. A comparative study of the effect of different topical agents on burn wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katara Gunjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical agents are used to treat burn wound infections. Aims and Objective: The present work was aimed to find out the in vitro efficacy of different topical agents against burn wound pathogens. Settings and Design: Randomly selected gram-positive (29 and gram-negative bacterial (119 isolates from burn wound cases admitted in burn unit of Choithram Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, were included in the in vitro activity testing for silver nitrate, silver sulphadiazine (SSD, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, nitrofuran, soframycin, betadine, benzalkonium chloride and honey by growth inhibition on agar medium. Materials and Methods: Multidrug-resistant isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were checked for different topical agents. 1% topical agent was mixed with Mueller-Hinton agar. Two microlitres of bacterial suspension adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard was spread over the topical agent containing plates. The plates without the topical agent were used as control plates. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37΀C. Results: SSD (148/148, silver nitrate (148/148 and chlorhexidine (148/148 showed excellent activity against all the pathogens. Neosporin had poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (4/44 Proteus spp. (2/4 and group D streptococci (1/4. Betadine did not show activity against the bacterial isolates in the presence of organic matter. Honey did not exert any antimicrobial activity under the study conditions. Conclusion: SSD, silver nitrate and chlorhexidine have excellent activity against all the bacterial pathogens and could be used empirically, while identification of the infective agent is required for selecting the alternative topical agents such as nitrofuran, soframycin, and benzalkonium chloride.

  5. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of newer generation dentin bonding agents: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Somani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adhesive dentistry has been progressing with rapid pace over the past decade. Composite resin is the most esthetic restorative material currently available for restoring teeth. In spite of it being in use since a decade, still failure cases are seen which are mainly due to polymerization shrinkage and subsequent inadequate adhesion to cavity walls, leading to microleakage. Various generations of dentin bonding agents have been introduced to overcome the shortcoming of composite resin. Aims: To determine the microleakage of the 6 th , 7 th , and 8 th generation dentin bonding agents. Materials and Methods: Forty-five extracted human premolars were taken for the study. Standardized Class V cavities were prepared on all the teeth. The samples were divided into three groups according to the generation of bonding agent used. Group I was bonded with the 6 th generation, Group II with the 7 th generation, and Group III with the 8 th generation dentin bonding agent. All the Class V preparations were restored with a nano-ceramic composite restorative (Ceram X. The samples were then thermocycled between 5 and 55 ± 2°C for 100 cycles and immersed in 2% methylene blue for 48 h for evaluation of microleakage under a stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis, and Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the various groups. Results: The microleakage value was the highest in Group II (7 th generation bonding agent followed by Group I (6 th generation bonding agent and least in Group III (8 th generation bonding agent. Conclusions: The 8 th generation dentin bonding showed statistically significant results in terms of lesser microleakage as compared to the 6 th and 7 th generation dentin bonding agents.

  6. Behaviour Study of a Multi-Agent Mobile Robot System during Potential Field Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Nagy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-agent based mobile robot simulation system will bepresented where the behaviour of the system is studied with different number of agents (1,3,6 and also with different number of ultrasonic range sensors on agents (8 or 16 USsensors on individual agents. The task of the autonomous agents is to create the potentialfield (PF of an unknown environment. The classic problems of PF building, like oscillationand trapping, are not the focus of the article, but instead, the article is concerned with theagents’ self-organizing ability where self-organizing is controlled by a genetic algorithm(GA. The GA is equipped with two fitness functions where one “maintains” the distancesbetween certain agents (spat distr, while another “watches” the area coverage (areacover. In fact, the paper can be divided into three main parts. The first part describes theultrasonic sensing and range measuring with systematic errors, the potential field (PFbuilding and the moving strategies. The second part contains description of the GA, theoperation of the GA, the structure of the system, the fitness functions and a general systemerrordetermination. In the final third part, the obtained results are analyzed and presentedin the appendices.

  7. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bustam BM (2010 Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG. This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996 and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens of 36 species (33 species of Austrostipa, two species of Hesperostipa and one species of Anemanthele at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Twenty eight micro morphological characters were used. The data were collected from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves, and from the lemma epidermis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. ISWG provided the molecular data. Parsimony analysis and a distance method (Unweighteic Pair Group with Arithmatic Mean: UPGMA were used to analyze mico morphological and molecular data separately. Only UPGMA analysis was used to analyze the combined data. The results support the monophyly of Austrostipa. However, there is a little support for the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996, other than for the consistent recognition of Falcatae. The characters for comparisons between genera are too homoplasious at this level and do not contain enough information for analyses at subgeneric level, a problem apparently shared with the DNA sequences.

  8. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non

  9. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  10. Studies on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) dosimeter sensor for organophosphorous nerve agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.; Harteveld, J.L.N.

    1997-01-01

    As a follow-up of previous work on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor for nerve agents, irreversible response effects have been studied in more detail. Surface analytical studies indicated that degradation products are responsible for the effects observed. In addition it was tried to explore these

  11. Study and Application of Gelling Water Shutoff and Profile Control Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongguan; Yu Liancheng; Tian Hongkun; Xu Yanxing

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oilfield Chemistry Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, has made great efforts to study and develop oil chemicals since 1976.For many years, the systematic research has been done on the styles of polymers,crosslinking agents and addtional agents, which are primary components of the gelling systems,the chemical reaction process, the physical and chemical performance of final gelling forms,and the compatibility of chemicals with the different strata. The gelling systems adaptable to the different formations have been formed through these studies.

  12. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms.

  13. A Study on Karst Morphology Forms in Manjil Region of Gilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hajati Ziabari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is The Study on Karst Morphology Forms in Manjil Region of Gilan Province. Due to geological features and quantity and type of rainfalls in Gilan Province and other effective factors on formation and development of Karst and Karst water resources, it is necessary to study karst morphology forms of this region. This study has studied Manjil region. It has first studied and identified karst forms of the region and then considered their formation in relation to the regional tectonic and creation of water potentials. Karst morphology forms of the region were identified and the cause of their creation was specified. Among them, Dorfak Mountain with an altitude of 2714 m in the south- central part of Gilan Province in Rudbar City near to Manjil can be mentioned as an example. Also Manjil Cheshmeh Bad Cave with an altitude of 1400 m above sea level is among other karst phenomena of the region and is regarded as the most important karst phenomenon in Asmari limestone.

  14. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bounthavong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Crohn’s disease (CD, and psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review.Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events.Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27% and RA (24%. Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%, adalimumab (40%, and infliximab (18% between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab.Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population.

  15. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounthavong, Mark; Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population.

  16. The morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A: a study over time and wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Josefin; Kjaer, Karina; Jerkstrand, Anders; Kirshner, Robert P; Leibundgut, Bruno; Lundqvist, Peter; Mattila, Seppo; McCray, Richard; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Wheeler, J Craig

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A based on images and spectra from the HST as well as integral field spectroscopy from VLT/SINFONI. The HST observations were obtained between 1994 - 2011 and primarily probe the outer hydrogen-rich zones of the ejecta. The SINFONI observations were obtained in 2005 and 2011 and instead probe the [Si I]/[Fe II] emission from the inner regions. We find a strong temporal evolution of the morphology in the HST images, from a roughly elliptical shape before ~5,000 days, to a more irregular, edge-brightened morphology thereafter. We demonstrate that this transition is a natural consequence of the change in the dominant energy source powering the ejecta, from radioactive decay before ~5,000 days to X-ray input from the circumstellar interaction thereafter. The [Si I]/[Fe II] images display a more uniform morphology, which may be due to a remaining significant contribution from radioactivity in the inner ejecta and the higher abundance of these elem...

  17. Morphology, structure and magnetic study of permalloy films electroplated on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamrani, S. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-Conducteurs pour l’énergétique, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 les 7 merveilles, Algiers (Algeria); Université Mouloud Mammeri, TiziOuzou 15000 (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Schäfer, R. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Inst. f. Metallic Materials, Helmholtz str. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Neu, V.; Pofahl, S. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Inst. f. Metallic Materials, Helmholtz str. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Hadjersi, T. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-Conducteurs pour l’énergétique, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 les 7 merveilles, Algiers (Algeria); Benbrahim, N. [Université Mouloud Mammeri, TiziOuzou 15000 (Algeria)

    2015-12-15

    We report the effect of deposition potential on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (Permalloy: Py) deposits, elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The morphology of SiNWs and Py/SiNWs were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. The analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra shows a change in the texture with the deposition potential. The grain size, the lattice parameter and the strain were studied as a function of the deposition potentials. From hysteresis loops, we have shown that the magnetization easy axis is the plane of the samples. - Highlights: • Permalloy deposits were elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). • SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. • The magnetization easy axis was found to be in the plane of samples.

  18. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds.

  19. Structure and morphology studies of chromium film at elevated temperature in hypersonic environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Hegde; V Kulkarni; M Nagaboopathy; K P J Reddy

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the after shock heated structural and morphological studies of chromium film coated on hypersonic test model as a passive drag reduction element. The structural changes and the composition of phases of chromium due to shock heating (2850 K) are characterized using X-ray diffraction studies. Surface morphology changes of chromium coating have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after shock heating. Significant amount of chromium ablation and sublimation from the model surface is noticed from SEM micrographs. Traces of randomly oriented chromium oxides formed along the coated surface confirm surface reaction of chromium with oxygen present behind the shock. Large traces of amorphous chromium oxide phases are also observed.

  20. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  1. Use of a commercially available nucleating agent to control the morphological development of solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sharenko, Alexander

    2014-08-12

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. The nucleating agent DMDBS is used to modulate the crystallization of solution-processed small molecule donor molecules in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) devices. This control over donor molecule crystallization leads to a reduction in optimized thermal annealing times as well as smaller donor molecule crystallites, and therefore more efficient devices, when using an excessive amount of solvent additive. We therefore demonstrate the use of nucleating agents as a powerful and versatile processing strategy for solution-processed, small molecule BHJ OPVs. This journal is

  2. Agent Behavior-Based Simulation Study on Mass Collaborative Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass collaborative product development (MCPD benefits people by high innovation products with lower cost and shorter lead time due to quick development of group innovation, Internet-based customization, and prototype manufacturing. Simulation is an effective way to study the evolution process and therefore to guarantee the success of MCPD. In this paper, an agent behavior-based simulation approach of MCPD is developed, which models the MCPD process as the interactive process of design agents and the environment objects based on Complex Adaptive System (CAS theory. Next, the structure model of design agent is proposed, and the modification and collaboration behaviors are described. Third, the agent behavior-based simulation flow of MCPD is designed. At last, simulation experiments are carried out based on an engineering case of mobile phone design. The experiment results show the following: (1 the community scale has significant influence on MCPD process; (2 the simulation process can explicitly represent the modification and collaboration behaviors of design agents; (3 the community evolution process can be observed and analyzed dynamically based on simulation data.

  3. Family of enhanced photoacoustic imaging agents for high-sensitivity and multiplexing studies in living mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, Adam; Bodapati, Sunil; Teed, Robert; May, Salomón Y; Tabakman, Scott M; Liu, Zhuang; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Hongjie; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2012-06-26

    Photoacoustic imaging is a unique modality that overcomes to a great extent the resolution and depth limitations of optical imaging while maintaining relatively high contrast. However, since many diseases will not manifest an endogenous photoacoustic contrast, it is essential to develop exogenous photoacoustic contrast agents that can target diseased tissue(s). Here we present a family of novel photoacoustic contrast agents that are based on the binding of small optical dyes to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-dye). We synthesized five different SWNT-dye contrast agents using different optical dyes, creating five "flavors" of SWNT-dye nanoparticles. In particular, SWNTs that were coated with either QSY(21) (SWNT-QSY) or indocyanine green (SWNT-ICG) exhibited over 100-times higher photoacoustic contrast in living animals compared to plain SWNTs, leading to subnanomolar sensitivities. We then conjugated the SWNT-dye conjugates with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptides to molecularly target the α(v)β(3) integrin, which is associated with tumor angiogenesis. Intravenous administration of these tumor-targeted imaging agents to tumor-bearing mice showed significantly higher photoacoustic signal in the tumor than in mice injected with the untargeted contrast agent. Finally, we were able to spectrally separate the photoacoustic signals of SWNT-QSY and SWNT-ICG in living animals injected subcutaneously with both particles in the same location, opening the possibility for multiplexing in vivo studies.

  4. MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF A SERIES OF AZOBENZENE-CONTAINING SIDE-ON LIQUID CRYSTALLINE TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Deng; Annie Br(u)let; Pierre-antoine Albouy; Patrick Keller; Xiao-gong Wang; Min-hui Li

    2012-01-01

    A series of azobenzene containing side-on liquid crystalline ABA triblock copolymers were investigated.This triblock series possesses the same central liquid crystal block B and various lengths of the amorphous block A.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),small angle X-rays and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) were used to study their morphologies.Aider annealing the samples over weeks at a temperature within the nematic temperature range of block B,different morphologies (disordered,lamellar,perforated layer and hexagonal cylinder) were observed by TEM.The alignment behavior of these azo triblock copolymers in the magnetic field for artificial muscle application,as well as the phase period and the order-disorder transition (ODT) were studied in situ by SANS.

  5. COLONIAL AND TRADITIONAL URBAN SPACE IN JAVA: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF TEN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARYO Rony Gunawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of morphological studies of cities in Java tended to place the elements of traditional urban space – such as Alun-alun, Mosque, Palace and Market – as the main elements of city. Other elements such as the colonial urban space –  Resident Office, Fort, Church, Park and so on – are often considered separately or placed as a complementary part. Through a morphological study  by exploring ten cities in Java, I found both elements of traditional and colonial urban space were set in a unique and various pattern. There are some findings indicating that the elements of colonial urban space significantly influence the city structure as well as those of the traditional ones. Therefore, understanding the urban space form in Java should include and put elements of both of traditional and colonial urban space as an integral part.

  6. Morphology vs. taxonomy in the family Pandanaceae: a case study in the Javanese species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endarti Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since a large number of characters are now known for Freycinetia Gaudich. and Pandanus Parkinson species, it appears useful to consider their use in identifying plants from Java. Fieldwork carried out for this study has provided stronger foundation for understanding morphological variation within the species. This study was undertaken to have a better understanding on the morphology of the family in order to make a better species delimitation. Characters of habit, stem, leaves, auricles, bracts, peduncle and pedicel, inflorescence, staminate flowers (male, pistillate flowers (female, cephalia and berries were found useful in delimitation and identification of Javanese Freycinetia, while characters of habit, stem, prop root, marginal spine, leaves, bracts, inflorescentia, peduncle, staminate flowers (male, pistillate flowers (female, cephalia, drupes were found to be useful for distinguishing among species of Javanese Pandanus. 

  7. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  8. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  9. Mobile Agent-Based Software Systems Modeling Approaches: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam Belghiat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agent-based applications are special type of software systems which take the advantages of mobile agents in order to provide a new beneficial paradigm to solve multiple complex problems in several fields and areas such as network management, e-commerce, e-learning, etc. Likewise, we notice lack of real applications based on this paradigm and lack of serious evaluations of their modeling approaches. Hence, this paper provides a comparative study of modeling approaches of mobile agent-based software systems. The objective is to give the reader an overview and a thorough understanding of the work that has been done and where the gaps in the research are.

  10. Experimental Study on the Curing Effect of Dredged Sediments with Three Types of Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment solidification technology is widely used to dispose dredged sediment, three types of curing agents were used in this study to solidified the dredged sediment from shallows in Nantong with three types of curing agents: JY, ZL and FJ. The results showed that the optimal additive amounts of these three curing agents were 140g JY, 16g ZL, 2.0g FJ per 1000g of the dredged sediment respectively, their 28d USC were up to 2.48 MPa, 2.96 MPa and 3.00 MPa. JY has obvious early strength effect, which of FJ is not that obvious, but the later-stage strength of sediment solidified by FJ are relatively higher.

  11. Computer Aided Morphological Analysis for maxillo-facial diagnostic: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This article compares most of the three-dimensional (3D) morphometric methods currently proposed by the technical literature to evaluate their morphological informative value, while applying them to a case study of five patients affected by the malocclusion pathology. The compared methods are: conventional cephalometric analysis (CCA), generalised Procrustes superimposition (GPS) with principal-components analysis (PCA), thin-plate spline analysis (TPS), multisectional spline (MS) and clearan...

  12. A comparative study of tooth root morphology in the great apes, modern man and early hominids

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, S A

    1984-01-01

    This thesis sets out to document and analyse some aspects of the metric and morphological variation of tooth roots within the Hominoidea. Samples of the extant species Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and Homo sapiens formed the basis of this study, but fossil hominid specimens from the East African Plio/Pleistocene sites of Koobi Fora, Laetoli, Olduvai and Peninj were also included. The maximum of 182 root, crown and jaw measurements were taken for each s...

  13. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or mate...

  14. Morphological studies in the buffalo as a contribution to biotechnological methodologies in the animal production

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Pelagalli

    2010-01-01

    The researchers in the morphological area of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Naples are long since carrying out investigations on the buffalo. This is due to the paucity of data in the literature of the field as well as scientific interest for many aspects of the biology of this species like the seasonality of the sexual cicle. The studies that have been done are numerous and regard many different fields as the chromosome map, spermatogenesis, histogenesis of the endocrine pancreas, blo...

  15. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations: a case study in Xinji county, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural reform since 1978 and its impac

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PET FILMS WITH DIFFERENT CRYSTALLIZATION RATE IN DRAWING PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mao; ZHU Lilan; GUAN Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Morphological changes during stretching of two PET samples (S and T) with different crystallization rate have been studied by means of SALS, solvent etching and polarizing microscope techniques. Results show that under the same drawing conditions larger and more perfect rod-like and spherulitic superstructures were formed more easily in the sample with higher crystallization rate (sample S). The amount of less compact regions which may be easily attacked by the vapor of allyl amine decreases more rapidly in sample S than in sample T during stretching, and these regions are more randomly distributed in sample T especially at low elongations. The difference of the two samples in morphological changes is coincident with their difference in tensile behavior.

  17. A morphological study of molecularly imprinted polymers using the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gpaniagua@pas.uned.es; Fernandez Hernando, Pilar [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Durand Alegria, J.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique for producing polymers with applications in affinity-based separation, in biomimetic sensors, in catalysis, etc. This variety of uses relies upon the production of polymers with different affinities, specificities, sensitivities and loading capacities. Research into the development of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with new or improved morphologies - which involves modification of the polymerisation process - is therefore underway. This paper reports a comparative study of non-covalent MIPs synthesised by 'bulk' polymerisation using digoxin as template. These were synthesised under different conditions, i.e., changing the functional monomers employed (methacrylic acid or 2-vinylpyridine), the porogens (acetonitrile or dichloromethane) used, and by altering the volume of the latter. The polymerisation process was allowed to proceed either under UV light or in a thermostat-controlled waterbath. The surface morphology (was determined by scanning electron microscopy) and the ability of the different polymers to selectively rebind the template was then evaluated.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RELATION OF BED MORPHOLOGY WITH SURFACE FLOW IN MEANDER CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Alternate bars have the property that they migrate downstream whenever floods occur. However,in meander channels whose bend angles are larger than a critical value, the migration of bars can be suppressed, and the positions of bank erosion and flood attack also will be steady. In this study, the bed morphology in flume channels with bends of various lengths and angles is investigated at various flow discharges, and the relation of bed morphology to surface flow is investigated in detail using fluid measuring software. An effort is made to obtain guidelines for the plane shape design of meander channels. Based on the experimental results of bed topography and measurement of surface flow direction and velocity distribution, from the viewpoint of bank erosion and the concentration and dispersion of flood flow the most suitable plane shape for meandering channels is suggested through which the migration of alternate bars is suppressed.

  19. Surface morphology and composition studies in InGaN/GaN film grown by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Tao; Han Ping; Shi Yi; Zheng Youdou; Zhang Zhao; Liu Lian; Su Hui; Xie Zili; Zhang Rong; Liu Bin; Xiu Xiangqian; Li Yi

    2011-01-01

    InGaN filmsweredepositedon(0001)sapphiresubstrates with GaN buffer layers under different growth temperatures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.The In-composition of InGaN film was approximately controlled by changing the growth temperature.The connection between the growth temperature,In content,surface morphology and defect formation was obtained by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).Meanwhile,by comparing the SEM and AFM surface morphology images,we proposed several models of three different defects and discussed the mechanism of formation.The prominent effect of higher growth temperature on the quality of the InGaN films and defect control were found by studying InGaN films at various growth temperatures.

  20. Forensic medical study on morphology and formative mechanism of blunt head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hong-wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the patterns and morphologic characteristics of blunt head injury and analyse its formative mechanism in attempt to provide references for medicolegal expertise. Methods: The statistical analysis was done in terms of gender, age, as well as the nature, pattern, location, and feature of the injuries. Results: Among the 202 cases of head injury-induced death, 124 were male and 78 female with the age ranging from 1-81 years. Death caused by homicide was dominant (106, 52.5%, followed by suicide (49, 24.3% and accident (44, 21.8%. The majority of suicide-induced death were by falling from height, and traffic crash was responsible for majority of unexpected death cases. The morphology and pathogenesis of the injuries varied according to differences on the mode, magnitude, and orientation of the outside force giving rise to blunt injury as well as the character of vulnerants. Conclusion: Studies on the morphology and its forma-tive rationale of blunt head injury will offer easy access to medicolegal expertise on the mode and character of the injury. Key words: Brain; Head injuries, closed; Cranioce-rebral trauma; Forensic medicine

  1. Forensic medical study on morphology and formative mechanism of blunt head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-wei; CHANG Hong-fa; YU Yong-min; DAI Guo-xin; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the patterns and morphologic characteristics of blunt head injury and analyse its formative mechanism in attempt to provide references for medicolegal expertise.Methods:The statistical analysis was done in terms of gender,age,as well as the nature,pattern,location,and feature of the injuries.Results:Among the 202 cases of head injury-induced death,124 were male and 78 female with the age ranging from 1-81 years.Death caused by homicide was dominant (106,52.5%),followed by suicide (49,24.3%) and accident (44,21.8%).The majority of suicide-induced death were by falling from height,and traffic crash was responsible for majority of unexpected death cases.The morphology and pathogenesis of the injuries varied according to differences on the mode,magnitude,and orientation of the outside force giving rise to blunt injury as well as the character of vulnerants.Conclusion:Studies on the morphology and its formative rationale of blunt head injury will offer easy access to medicolegal expertise on the mode and character of the injury.

  2. Morphological studies in the buffalo as a contribution to biotechnological methodologies in the animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Pelagalli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The researchers in the morphological area of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Naples are long since carrying out investigations on the buffalo. This is due to the paucity of data in the literature of the field as well as scientific interest for many aspects of the biology of this species like the seasonality of the sexual cicle. The studies that have been done are numerous and regard many different fields as the chromosome map, spermatogenesis, histogenesis of the endocrine pancreas, blood circulation and innervation, and the structure and ultrastructure of several organs. In the present lecture, more recent and interesting results are reported regarding the blood circulation and peripheral innervation of several organs and the structure an ultrastructure of tracts of the digestive system. In particular, the following topics are presented: the evolution of the coronaric circle during the embryonic development; the hypophyseal ciculation; the morphology of sensitive corpuscles in the external genital organs and in the reticular groove. In addition, data regarding the structure, the ultrastructure of the stomach wall and the role of each mucosal layer in the stomach functions are reported. The results of these morphological studies costitute a scientific background which is essential in the field of the applicative biotechnology

  3. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  4. Comparative scale morphologies in common freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah-Ayuni, F.; Muse, A. O.; Samat, A.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Hard plates covering fish body or scales, do not only serve as external protection, but are also important as one of the tools for species identification. This study was designed to recognise morphological characters of fish scales that can be used for identification and to comprehend the inter-specific variations of scales from different species by using selected indices from scale measurements; L1/1, L2/L, L1/L2, and W/L. Sixteen species of common freshwater fishes were sampled from a few localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Examinations were based on photographs to determine the scale morphologies. Basic distinguishable characteristics that were identified are type of scale, the overall shape, the position and shape of the focus, distribution of radii, and the circuli appearance. It was found that scale type and radii arrangement at the anterior field are two significant morphological features that could distinguish between Cyprinidae and other families. Main characters used to identify scales at species level are radii cover, structure of inter radial tongue, and radii arrangement. Meanwhile, multiple comparison tests to reveal inter-specific variations suggested that there are significant differences among 16 species of common freshwater fishes studied. Two indices were found to be suitable to highlight the significant differences (P<0.05) for all species which are index L1/L2 and index W/L. For all indices, species that showed significantly different with most of other species are Osteochilus vittatus, Pristolepis fasciata, Rasbora sumatrana, and Labeo rohita. The scales of Osteochilus vittatus showed significant values with most of other species in more than one index; index L1/L and index L2/L. The distinctive morphological character that distinguished it from other Cyprinidae species is having clearly formed serrations in the middle of the inter-radial tongue at the anterior region.

  5. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Draganski, Bodgan

    2016-05-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1-weighted images (R1 (=1/T1), R2 *, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18-87 years). Synthetic T1-weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features-gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue-myelination, iron, and water content-on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801-1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, Aswathy E.; Priyamvada, Hema; Ravikrishna, R.; Després, Viviane R.; Biju, C. V.; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols, which are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere, are poorly characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Improved knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is essential to have a better understanding of their dispersion and long-range transport in the atmosphere and at the same time to assess their role as potential Ice Nuclei (IN). In the present work, possibly for the first time we report the morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from marine urban and high altitude continental regions in Southern India. The samples were collected using polycarbonate filter paper and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy-dispersive Spectra Detector (EDX/EDS). The observed bioaerosols exhibited great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world. At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols. Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments, and lot of other non-identified bio-particles were also observed constituting the remaining fraction. Further, the classification of fungal spores exhibited strong variability over this region. For example, fungal spores of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota class were seen in abundance in marine environment, while Ascomycota especially Cladosporium were seen in abundance in high altitude continental environment. Our findings also suggest that increase in diversity of bioaerosol particles at marine site appeared to coincide with precipitation. It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting environments. However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore

  7. Surfactant mediated morphological tethering of Cu2O nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes a very simple and reproducible methodology to study the self-assembly of nanoparticles functionalized with a non-ionic tethering agent attached to the surface of the nanoparticle seeds. The synthesis starts with the [Cu(OH)4]2- species acting as a template, with varying concentration of the tethering agent Triton X-100 (TX100). The morphological alteration is systematically investigated. The effect of surfactant micelles, growth reaction time, and solution temperature has a tremendous impact on the morphology of the nanocrystals that govern the controlled synthesis of different shapes of nanostructures. The initial morphology of the nanocrystals is polyhedron in the absence of a tethering additive. The addition of TX100 suppresses the polymorph phase morphology and enhances the non-uniform spherical morphology of the nanocrystals. The surface modification effect enhances the morphological alteration, which potentially makes it applicable to various industrial uses such as water cleaning, hydrogen production, and third-generation solar cells.

  8. A Review on the Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Morphologies Studied via TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protima Rauwel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver has been recognized as a nontoxic, safe inorganic antibacterial/antifungal agent used for centuries. Silver demonstrates a very high potential in a wide range of biological applications, more particularly in the form of nanoparticles. Environmentally friendly synthesis methods are becoming more and more popular in chemistry and chemical technologies and the need for ecological methods of synthesis is increasing; the aim is to reduce polluting reaction by-products. Another important advantage of green synthesis methods lies in its cost-effectiveness and in the abundance of raw materials. During the last five years, many efforts were put into developing new greener and cheaper methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The cost decrease and less harmful synthesis methods have been the motivation in comparison to other synthesis techniques where harmful reductive organic species produce hazardous by-products. This environment-friendly aspect has now become a major social issue and is instrumental in combatting environmental pollution through reduction or elimination of hazardous materials. This review describes a brief overview of the research on green synthesis of silver metal nanoparticles and the influence of the method on their size and morphology.

  9. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P0.05. There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P>0.05. Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  10. A pilot study: the efficacy of virgin coconut oil as ocular rewetting agent on rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  11. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  12. Morphological Study on Room-Temperature-Cured PMMA-Grafted Natural Rubber-Toughened Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yuhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study was conducted on ternary systems containing epoxy, PMMA-grafted natural rubber, and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B. Optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis were used. The following four materials were prepared at room temperature: cured unmodified epoxy, cured toughened epoxy, cured unmodified epoxy/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites, and cured toughened epoxy/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites. Mixing process was performed by mechanical stirring. Poly(etheramine was used as the curing agent. The detailed TEM images revealed co-continuous and dispersed spherical rubber in the epoxy-rubber blend, suggesting a new proposed mechanism of phase separation. High-magnification TEM analysis showed good interactions between rubber and Cloisite 30B in the ternary system. Also, it was found that rubber particles could enhance the separation of silicates layers. Both XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the intercalation of Cloisite 30B was achieved. No distinct exfoliated silicates were observed by TEM. Aggregates of layered silicates (tactoids were observed by SEM and EDX, in addition to TEM at low magnification. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of organic and inorganic elements in the binary and ternary epoxy systems containing Cloisite 30B.

  13. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  14. Micro- and nanosecond laser TiN coating/steel modification: Morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, M.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Gaković, B.; Panchenko, A. N.; Radak, B.; Stasić, J.

    2009-09-01

    Morphology effects induced during interaction of μs- (Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser) or ns- (HF laser) pulses with titanium nitride (TiN) coating, deposited on austenitic stainless steel AISI 316, were studied. Experiments were carried out in regime of focused laser beam in air at atmospheric pressure. The used laser fluences were found to be sufficient for inducing intensive surface modifications of the target. The energy absorbed from the CO2 as well as HF laser beam is mainly converted into thermal energy, causing different effects like ablation, appearance of hydrodynamic features, etc. Morphology characteristics obtained during ns-pulses irradiation (HF laser) were different to those initiated by μs-pulses (TEA CO2 laser). The changes on the target surface in form of massive resolidifed droplets and crown-like structures were observed only for ns- (HF laser) pulses. It was found that these effects are a consequence of higher temperature and better coupling of the HF laser radiation with the target. Recent investigations of ps-Nd:YAG laser interaction with the same TiN coating showed that morphology picture is quite different including the reduction of thermal effect.

  15. Effect of cold plasma on glial cell morphology studied by atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Recek

    Full Text Available The atomic force microscope (AFM is broadly used to study the morphology of cells. The morphological characteristics and differences of the cell membrane between normal human astrocytes and glial tumor cells are not well explored. Following treatment with cold atmospheric plasma, evaluation of the selective effect of plasma on cell viability of tumor cells is poorly understood and requires further evaluation. Using AFM we imaged morphology of glial cells before and after cold atmospheric plasma treatment. To look more closely at the effect of plasma on cell membrane, high resolution imaging was used. We report the differences between normal human astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells by considering the membrane surface details. Our data, obtained for the first time on these cells using atomic force microscopy, argue for an architectural feature on the cell membrane, i.e. brush layers, different in normal human astrocytes as compared to glioblastoma cells. The brush layer disappears from the cell membrane surface of normal E6/E7 cells and is maintained in the glioblastoma U87 cells after plasma treatment.

  16. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  17. A study of the masticatory muscles morphology and function on asymmetric prognathism; Used by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Hirotoshi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Each case was measured to analyze the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount using Computed Tomography (CT) photos and P-A cephalogram. At the same time, the relation of morphology and function between the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount was analyzed to examine the function of masseter using electromyography. To determine the relation between morphology and function of masseter in asymmetric prognathism, 23 cases were chosen for the study from among 11 male and 12 female patients who were diagnosed as asymmetric prognathism. In asymmetric prognathism, both morphology and function in the mandibular malposition side were recognized to be larger than that in the cross sectional area of muscle side, on the examination of the cross sectional area of muscle and the activity of masseter. A highly significant and positive correlation was recognized in the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and the CT mandibular malposition amount which were examined by the CT photos. In the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and in the left and right difference of the activity of masseter, there was also a highly positive and significant correlation. (author) 58 refs.

  18. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  19. Quantification and morphology studies of nanoporous alumina membranes: a new algorithm for digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Khoobaram S; Jidesh, Pacheeripadikkal; Sudheendra, Parampalli; Kulkarni, Suresh D

    2013-08-01

    A new mathematical algorithm is reported for the accurate and efficient analysis of pore properties of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) membranes using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. NAA membranes of the desired pore size were fabricated using a two-step anodic oxidation process. Surface morphology of the NAA membranes with different pore properties was studied using SEM images along with computerized image processing and analysis. The main objective was to analyze the SEM images of NAA membranes quantitatively, systematically, and quickly. The method uses a regularized shock filter for contrast enhancement, mathematical morphological operators, and a segmentation process for efficient determination of pore properties. The algorithm is executed using MATLAB, which generates a statistical report on the morphology of NAA membrane surfaces and performs accurate quantification of the parameters such as average pore-size distribution, porous area fraction, and average interpore distances. A good comparison between the pore property measurements was obtained using our algorithm and ImageJ software. This algorithm, with little manual intervention, is useful for optimizing the experimental process parameters during the fabrication of such nanostructures. Further, the algorithm is capable of analyzing SEM images of similar or asymmetrically porous nanostructures where sample and background have distinguishable contrast.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COWPEA GERMPLASMS DIVERSITY FROM GHANA AND MALI USING MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Z. Doumbia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea improvement can be enhanced by knowledge of genetic diversity available between and within local and regional gene banks. This variability is the foundation of all cowpea improvement programs. A total of 94 accessions (47 from Ghana and 47 from Mali was used for this study. Twelve qualitative and twenty quantitative traits such as flower color, growth habit, raceme position, seed shape, day 50% flowering, day 50% maturity, plant height, seed length and seed weight were used to assess collections. Data collected from different morphological traits were analyzed using XLSTAT 2013. Principal component analysis, scatter plot matrix and clustering separated the accessions according to some qualitative and quantitative traits. Accessions were classified based on their morphological relationships using un-weighted pair-group average Cluster Analysis. Results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity between and within both germplasm; levels of similarity ranged between 0.95 to 0.069 for combined qualitative and quantitative data. However, some morphological traits discriminated more efficiently between the accessions than others. Few groups of the accessions were different from other accessions for some important traits. Implications of the variability in cowpea improvement are discussed.

  1. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise.

  2. THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE EJECTA IN SUPERNOVA 1987A: A STUDY OVER TIME AND WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Josefin [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper [Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kjaer, Karina; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jerkstrand, Anders [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mattila, Seppo [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); McCray, Richard [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a study of the morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A based on images and spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as integral field spectroscopy from VLT/SINFONI. The HST observations were obtained between 1994 and 2011 and primarily probe the outer H-rich zones of the ejecta. The SINFONI observations were obtained in 2005 and 2011 and instead probe the [Si I]+[Fe II] emission from the inner regions. We find a strong temporal evolution of the morphology in the HST images, from a roughly elliptical shape before {approx}5000 days, to a more irregular, edge-brightened morphology with a ''hole'' in the middle thereafter. This transition is a natural consequence of the change in the dominant energy source powering the ejecta, from radioactive decay before {approx}5000 days to X-ray input from the circumstellar interaction thereafter. The [Si I]+[Fe II] images display a more uniform morphology, which may be due to a remaining significant contribution from radioactivity in the inner ejecta and the higher abundance of these elements in the core. Both the H{alpha} and the [Si I]+[Fe II] line profiles show that the ejecta are distributed fairly close to the plane of the inner circumstellar ring, which is assumed to define the rotational axis of the progenitor star. The H{alpha} emission extends to higher velocities than [Si I]+[Fe II], as expected from theoretical models. There is no clear symmetry axis for all the emission. Instead, we find that the emission is concentrated to clumps and that the emission is distributed somewhat closer to the ring in the north than in the south. This north-south asymmetry may be partially explained by dust absorption. We compare our results with explosion models and find some qualitative agreement, but note that the observations show a higher degree of large-scale asymmetry.

  3. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Duranceau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1 and particle back diffusion term (k2 was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  4. Study of the effect of nanoparticles and surface morphology on reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuming; Duranceau, Steven J

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1) and particle back diffusion term (k2) was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  5. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  6. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  7. The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Achievement among Young Chinese-Speaking English Language Learners: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Katie; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Luo, Yang C.; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the development of morphological awareness and its contribution to vocabulary and reading comprehension among young Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs). We focused on two aspects of morphological awareness: derivational awareness and compound awareness. Participants included 46 kindergarteners (younger…

  8. What’s in a verb? Studies in the verbal morphology of the languages of the Americas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowicka, Grażyna J.; Carlin, Eithne B.

    2006-01-01

    Verbal morphology tends to be the most complex part of the grammatical structure of indigenous American languages. Studies in this volume look into the structural complexity that verbal forms can exhibit on the American continent and into the morphological categories that have attracted researchers’

  9. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, M.O.; Eibye-Jacobsen, D.; Worsaae, K.

    2011-01-01

    The jaw ontogeny of Dorvillea albomaculata and D. bermudensis was studied in cultured specimens, reproducing asexually by transverse fission. Mandibular growth was found to occur by lateral apposition. Maxillary development exhibited a gradual growth pattern, as opposed to the maxillary moults...... found in closely related species (Macnaughton et al. 2009). Details of dentition and numbers of maxillary plates as well as the ontogenetic growth patterns of the jaws were found to provide significant information of systematic value. Based on detailed studies of jaw ontogeny and morphology, Dorvillea...

  10. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGY OF CHROMIUM IN CHILLED Cu-0.14%-2.0%Cr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; Z.K.Fan

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of chromium in chilled Cu-Cr alloys with 0.14%-2.0% Cr has been studied. The results showed that eutectic Cr phase takes a fibrous shape, and pre-eutectic Cr is dendritic in the studied chilled Cu-Cr alloy. During solute treatment of the eutectic and super-eutectic Cu-Cr alloys, only part of chromium particles dissolved in copper phase,some fiber and dendritic chromium still remained. Forging before solute treatment can reduce the size of primary Cr particles, which benefits the aging structure.

  11. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats.

  12. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nourian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the developments to the desired areas. Several models have been developed and evaluated for simulating urban land-use expansions. Despite the variety of the models, most of them have focused on simulating urban land-use expansions just around a city. Thus, the regional models that consider wider area are of primary importance.2- Theoretical basesIn this study a new agent-based model has been developed and implemented to simulate urban land-use expansion in Qazvin and Alborz regions of Qazvin state which have an area of 1620 square kilometers. In this model, land-use developers have been treated as agents that move in the landscape explicitly and assess the state of parcels for development. So, the environment of the model is raster. The agents are developed into five groups which have different aims. The agents may fall in competition to develop the same parcels. Moreover, due to the spatial essence of the problem, GIS were used to prepare the environment of agents’ movement and search and to aggregate and analyze the results.Two main steps can be recognized in this model: the Searching step and the Development step:Searching step: The agents are created and distributed in the districts. The selection of districts is probabilistic and is based on the primary probability of selection, assumed for districts. When agents go to the districts, at first they move randomly to the neighborhood of pre-developed areas. Wherever the agent starts its activities, it

  13. COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON THYMUS GLAND OF HUMAN AND PRIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Devi Raja Rajeswari,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: The comparative morphological and anatomical study on thymus was carried out in human and primate. The prenatal stage of Macaca radiata was selected for the present study. Study Design: Cross sectional analytical type of study. Place and Period of study: Department of Anatomy, Dr. A.L.M. PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chennai from July 1999 to June 2000. Materials: The comparative morphology and anatomy of thymus of human embryonic, 10 weeks, 15 weeks and prenatal foetuses, and monkey foetus was carried out. Methods: Comparative micro-anatomical study was done by paraffin processing method. The sections were stained as per the method published by Culling (1974. Results: In monkey foetus, the thymus gland is slightly elongated, whereas in human foetuses it is not elongated and oval in shape. The size of the thymus is larger in human foetuses than monkey foetus. In both cases cells are parenchymal in nature. Due to spatial organization in human foetuses, the lymphocytes aggregation is more in cortex than in medulla. In monkey foetus the lymphocyte aggregation is simpler in arrangement through spatial organization is much less.

  14. Personality as predictor of customer service centre agent performance in the banking industry: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Blignaut

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Since service quality is an important differentiator in the banking industry, it is essential to select suitable customer service centre staff, particularly those who are responsible for handling queries from clients who hold significant lifetime value in this industry.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to identify personality traits, as measured by the Occupational Personality Questionnaire 32r (item response theory scored version, including the more parsimonious Big Five personality traits, that may act as job performance predictors for customer service centre (CSC agents in the banking industry.Motivation for the study: This study provides an exploratory investigation of whether specific personality traits differ amongst CSC agents in the banking industry, based on their job performance. No published research in this field could be identified.Research design, approach and method: Purposive sampling was used to collect data from the entire CSC agent base of a particular banking group (N = 89. Responses were analysed by means of quantitative techniques.Main findings and practical/managerial implications: Results indicate that parsimonious traits of personality, expressed as the Big Five personality traits, predict job performance. The importance of carefully selecting suitable job performance criteria for a specific environment, however, emerged as a critical issue in performance prediction.Contribution: The study focuses attention on the importance of CSC agents’ performance as frontline staff in the banking industry and identifying valid criteria for selecting the most suitable agents. Providing a one-contact point of service such as a CSC is a fairly new approach in the South African banking industry and this study provides an initial investigation of personality traits that may serve as job performance predictors in this environment.

  15. Investigation of the Effects of Titanate as Coupling Agent and Some Inorganic Nanoparticles as Fillers on Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Soft PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Hajian; Gholam Ali Koohmareh; Afsaneh Mostaghasi

    2011-01-01

    The effects of titanate as a coupling agent and some particulate nanoscale particles such as TiO2, CaCO3, and ZnO on thermal and mechanical properties of emulsion polyvinylchloride (E-PVC) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mechanical tests. In this research, it was found that, in the presence of nanoparticles of CaCO3, TiO2, and ZnO, the peak temperature of dehydrochlorination of E-PVC was shifted to higher temperatures, and the rate of mass loss was decreased. Also r...

  16. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2016-01-08

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  17. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  18. A genome-wide association study identifies five loci influencing facial morphology in Europeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes--PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1--in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF GALANTHUS WORONOWII LOZINSK. FROM AMARYLLIDACEAE JAUME ST-HIL. FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out morphological and anatomical studies of Galanthus woronowii L., we have revealed diagnosis indices of lamina, stem, bulb and root. The leaf is hypostomal, dorsoventral, stomatal apparatus of paracytic and anisocytic type. The stem has a fascicular structure, with aerenchyma. The root has primary structure, with tetrarch conductive system. The bulb has a fascicular structure of conductive system with characteristic parenchimal sheath of conductive fascicles

  20. The Study on Morphological and Functional Changes of Thymus, Spleen and T Lymphocytes in Vasectomized Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿智; 李璐; 赵丹; 赵雪检; 丛琦; 郑志超; 潘淑琴

    1997-01-01

    The morphology and functional changes of thymus, spleen and T lymphocytes were studied in vasectomlzed rabbits. The results showed that: (t) A significant low weight of thymus and spleen, and a slight or medium atrophy of thymic lobules and shrinked splenic nodules and lymphoid tissues were observed in the rabbits vasectomized for 6 months (VG6 rabbits), (2) Spontaneous-proliferation of thymus could not be affected by vasectomy, (3) The lowest activity of IL 2 was detected in the supernatant of spleen ceil culture of VG6 rabbits.

  1. Preparation and Morphological Study of Coal-tar-based Carbon Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-ying; ZHU Jiang-jiang; ZHANG Chang-xing; WANG Yi-min; WANG Yan-ping; YU Ming-fang

    2006-01-01

    A novel process for fabricating coal-tar pitch derived carbon foam was introduced. The coal-tar based mesophase pitch was characterized by Infrared Spectrum and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction. Scanning Electron Microscope was used for the morphological study of carbon foam. The results showed that the pitch foam with pores of 300 - 500 μm and low density of 0.2 - 0.5 g/cm-3 could be successfully fabricated and further carbonized and graphtized to obtain a novel carbon foam.

  2. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E. [Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nason, D. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

    1993-05-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  3. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.

    1993-04-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position, and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  4. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  5. A Nanocomplex System as Targeted Contrast Agent Delivery Vehicle for MRI Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Korotcov, Alexandru; Shan, Liang; Meng, Huan; Wang, Tongxin; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Zhao, Yuliang; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and tested a liposomal nanocomplex system, which contains Gd-DTPA as a payload and transferrin on the surface, as a tumor specific targeting MRI contrast agent for studying prostate cancer tumors in mice. In vivo, the probe significantly enhanced the MRI signal. The image contrast between the peripheral region of the tumor and the non-involved muscle was nearly 50% higher two hours after administration of the nanocomplex. The liposomal nanocomplex increased the amount of Gd ...

  6. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...... no effect on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms or lung function was observed. The persons had a relatively long exposure. Therefore, a healthy worker effect may have influenced the results....

  7. Lipid-lowering agents in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis: human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Mograbi, Julnar; Ghali, Murad

    2012-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease which refers to the presence of hepatic steatosis without significant intake of alcohol. NAFLD is an asymptomatic disease that can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is currently the most common cause of incidental abnormal liver tests and elevated serum liver enzyme activities in the developed world. Obesity, diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome are frequently associated with the NAFLD. The treatment of NAFLD focuses on life-style modifications. Statins, fibrates, and other lipid-lowering agents have been proposed as effective lipid-lowering treatments in patients with NAFLD/NASH. However, clinicians are concerned that hyperlipidemic patients with NAFLD/NASH who are treated with statins could develop transaminitis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of lipid-lowering agents for NAFLD/NASH by reviewing reports of human studies including pilot, prospective, preliminary, and post hoc analysis studies on online databases during the period of 1980 to December 2012. The results of studies provide compelling evidence that lipid-lowering agents are safe and efficacious in patients with NAFLD/NASH and that some of these agents can induce a reduction in the extent of the hepatic steatosis. Well-designed randomized controlled studies of adequate size and duration with histological endpoints are needed in order to establish a suitable lipid-lowering treatment for hyperlipidemic patients with NAFLD/NASH, and for nonhyperlipidemic patients with NAFLD/NASH with a high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  8. Investigation of the Effects of Titanate as Coupling Agent and Some Inorganic Nanoparticles as Fillers on Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Soft PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of titanate as a coupling agent and some particulate nanoscale particles such as TiO2, CaCO3, and ZnO on thermal and mechanical properties of emulsion polyvinylchloride (E-PVC were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and mechanical tests. In this research, it was found that, in the presence of nanoparticles of CaCO3, TiO2, and ZnO, the peak temperature of dehydrochlorination of E-PVC was shifted to higher temperatures, and the rate of mass loss was decreased. Also results of differential scanning calorimetry showed that the addition of nanoparticle of CaCO3, TiO2, and ZnO led to an increase in glass transition temperature. The impact strength, elastic modulus and toughness of the samples were enhanced after addition of 0–10 part of filer in hundred parts of resin (phr nano-CaCO3, nano-TiO2, and nano-ZnO due to improvement of compatibility of the polymer and the nano-particles. Also UV and thermal stability of the samples were enhanced by means of the nanoparticles. It was found that, in the presence of titanate as coupling agent, content of additives that could be used in the composite of PVC shifts to higher amounts.

  9. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  10. Ultrahigh Vacuum Studies of the Fundamental Interactions of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants with Amorphous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    G. The Dissociative Adsorptoin of N2 on a Multiply Promoted Iron Catalyst Used for Ammonia Synthesis : A Temperature Programmed Desorption Study...where their potential use as chemical warfare agents began. The synthesis of other G-series agents, G standing for German, shortly followed. Also...warfare. The most common blister agent, sulfur mustard, was first synthesized in 1822 by Despretz. Victor Meyer developed a modified synthesis to

  11. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  12. Morphology, orthography, and the two hemispheres: A divided visual field study with Hindi/Urdu biliterates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2016-07-25

    Although identical on the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu differ markedly on the written level in terms of reading/writing direction and orthographic depth, with discernible processing consequences. The present study used a divided field paradigm to study the impact of writing system characteristics of Hindi and Urdu on word naming latencies in skilled biliterate users of these languages. Hindi (read/written from left to right) was hypothesized to show a larger right field advantage than Urdu (read/written from right to left); Hindi words sharing form overlap with primes were expected to show a significant priming effect in the left visual field, but a significant right field effect for morphologically-primed naming. Both these expectations were confirmed. An overall right field advantage was obtained for one syllable Hindi and Urdu words; two syllable Urdu words showed either no visual field differences or a left field advantage, and the right field advantage for Hindi was significantly greater for two syllable than one syllable words. Further, Hindi words showed significant form priming (relative to control stimuli) in the left visual field and significant morphological priming (relative to form priming) in the right visual field. By contrast, Urdu words showed no significant form priming in either visual field, and significantly greater morphological than form priming in the left visual field. These results are taken to suggest that visual field asymmetries in word naming are sensitive to differences in reading habit-related scanning biases and to orthographic depth-related differences in word recognition processes.

  13. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahnert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1–1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of different error sources. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably high biases in radiative impact studies. We

  14. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahnert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1–1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of differences in the optical cross sections and asymmetry parameters. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHETRIC STUDY OF JUGULAR FORAMEN IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifan Khanday

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The jugular foramen, the bony opening on the basis of skull, is an opening through which pass the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves, two dural sinuses, and the meningeal branches of the occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries. The increasing use of modern diagnostic procedures and new surgical approaches has created a need for much more detailed anatomical studies and explanations. This article reveals some additional features. Material and Methods: 324 jugular foramina of skulls of persons of unknown age and gender were examined. The morphological characteristics of all the investigated jugular foramina were described, measured, and compared, taking into consideration their side. Results: Jugular foramina were studied for a review of its morphology, morphometry and its comparison with previous studies. Different shapes and sizes of jugular foramen were seen. Laterality was also noticed, compartmentation was also observed which was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: A detailed examination of the jugular foramen anatomy was performed. The main types of jugular foramina and the frequencies of bipartite or tripartite division were established. Several dimensions of the parts of the jugular foramen were measured. Some new data could provide important information about the anatomy of the jugular foramen for reliable surgical interventions in this area.

  16. STM/AFM studies of the evolution of morphology of electroplated Ni/W alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Younes, O.; Ashkenasy, N.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Gileadi, E.

    2002-11-01

    The surface morphology evolution of Ni/W alloys was studied, as a function of the alloy composition. Using the modified plating baths developed in our laboratory recently, electroplated Ni/W alloys with different W content, in the range of 7-67 atom percent (a/o), can be obtained. This was found to lead to different structures, ranging from polycrystalline fcc-Ni type structure to amorphous, followed by orthorhombic with increasing W content in the alloy. Powder XRD was studied to determine the crystal structures. Ex situ STM, AFM and SEM were used to study in detail the surface morphologies of the different alloys, and their evolution with increasing W content. The important findings are that a mixture of two crystalline forms can give rise to an amorphous structure. Hillocks that are usually a characteristic of epitaxial growth can also exist in the amorphous alloys. Oriented scratches caused by stress can also be formed. Up to 20 a/o of W is deposited in the alloys in crystalline form, with the fcc-Ni type structure. Between 20 and about 40 a/o an amorphous structure is observed, and above that an orthorhombic crystal structure is seen, which is characteristic of the NiW binary alloy. Careful choice of the composition of the plating bath allowed us to deposit an alloy containing 67 a/o W, which corresponds to the composition NiW 2.

  17. STUDY ON STUDENTS’ AWARENESS CONCERNING ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDOUS AGENTS OF CANCER RISK AND PREVENTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Cebulska-Wasilewska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge on environmental and occupational risk of cancer and its prevention among Polish students. We were interested also in their sources of knowledge. Methods. Survey, using the questionnaire, was conducted among 1080 respondents, who are or probably will be in their future work, exposed to harmful agents, due to study profile. Results. Students rated their knowledge on environmental and occupational cancer agents and cancer prevention mostly as limited (over 77%. Participation in “Safety Work and Environment” courses did not differentiate their level of cancer risk awareness. 901 students (84% responded to question about specific substances, which may cause cancer. Almost 2% of students indicated none from 10 given agents as carcinogenic. About 34% of respondents pointed all given agents, 39% pointed on 8–9 of them, 5–7 agents 13.2% of surveyed and 9% of them indicated on 1–4 agents. Students were aware of carcinogenic features of radiation, asbestos, cigarettes smoking (93.2–93.8%, benzene, benzo[?]pirene and pesticides (79,2 –83,6%. Less of them declared carcinogenic features of PAHs (75.4%, heavy metals (73.9%, electromagnetic field (64.8% and infections (60.8%. Only 48% of respondents specified possible lowering of the cancer by risk intervention practices. Medical and engineering profile, as well as attendance in courses covering the issues of health safety at work or environment (SWE significantly decreased percentage of respondents who didn’t specified any procedure (but it was still high: 48–62%. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that most students, only to some extent, are aware of the most well known cancer-causing substances occurrence. Their knowledge is mostly limited and they do not know prevention procedures and ways to lower or eliminate the risk. Therefore the modernization of educational programs and development of more efficient

  18. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  19. Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdjad Asih Nawangsih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis. X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB of rice (Oryza sativa L., a major disease that constrains production of the staple crop in many countries of the world. Identification of X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo was conducted based on the disease symptoms, pathogenicity, morphological, physiological, and genetic characteristics of bacterial cultures isolated from the infected plants. Fifty bacterial isolates predicted as Xoo have been successfully isolated. They are aerobic, rod shaped, and Gram negative bacteria. The isolates were evaluated for their hypersensitivity in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice plant. Fifty isolates induced hypersensitive reaction in tobacco and showed pathogenicity symptom in rice in different length. Based on physiological test, hypersensitivity and pathogenicity reactions, three bacterial isolates strongly predicted as Xoo, i.e. STG21, STG42, and STG46, were non indole formation, non pigment fluorescent, hydrolyzed casein, catalase activity positive, but negative oxidase. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of STG21 and STG42 showed 80% and 82% homology with X. oryzae, respectively, while STG46 showed 84% homology with X. campestris. Mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis of STG21 generated one of the mutants (M5 lossed it’s ability to induce hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plant and deficient in pathogenicity on rice. The lesion length of rice leaf caused by the mutant M5 decreased up to 80%.

  20. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi

    2008-08-15

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 microg/kg/day, 0.05 LD(50)) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition (approximately 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction (approximately 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures.

  1. Xenogenic Esophagus Scaffolds Fixed with Several Agents: Comparative In Vivo Study of Rejection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Koch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most infants with long-gap esophageal atresia receive an esophageal replacement with tissue from stomach or colon, because the native esophagus is too short for true primary repair. Tissue-engineered esophageal conducts could present an attractive alternative. In this paper, circular decellularized porcine esophageal scaffold tissues were implanted subcutaneously into Sprague-Dawley rats. Depending on scaffold cross-linking with genipin, glutaraldehyde, and carbodiimide (untreated scaffolds : positive control; bovine pericardium : gold standard, the number of infiltrating fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, giant cells, and capillaries was determined to quantify the host response after 1, 9, and 30 days. Decellularized esophagus scaffolds were shown to maintain native matrix morphology and extracellular matrix composition. Typical inflammatory reactions were observed in all implants; however, the cellular infiltration was reduced in the genipin group. We conclude that genipin is the most efficient and best tolerated cross-linking agent to attenuate inflammation and to improve the integration of esophageal scaffolds into its surrounding tissue after implantation.

  2. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  3. Evaluation of three topical anaesthetic agents against pain : A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To compare pain responses of children during local anaesthetic infiltration at bilateral buccal sites prepared with topical application of EMLA 5% cream, benzocaine 18% gel or lignocaine 5% ointment and also to find out the rapidity of onset of action of these agents. METHODS : 60 healthy children aged 6 to 12 years old, received bilateral buccal infiltration following application of topical anaesthetic agents applied in a double blind design. Pain responses were compared based on subject self report using visual analogue scale (VAS and operator assessment using Sound -Eye -Motor (SEM scale. RESULTS : Benzocaine gel had the rapidest onset of action. EMLA 5% cream proved to be superior in pain reduction compared to benzocaine and lignocaine. Taste acceptance was better with benzocaine gel. Further studies are required for EMLA cream with an improved formulation more suitable for mucosal application before its routine use in dentistry.

  4. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M

    2015-04-08

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  5. Nutritional assessment as a complement to studies in populations exposed to oxidizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gimena Galán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oxidative stress (OS is associated with an imbalance between oxidation and antioxidant systems in favor to the former. The micronutrient dietary contribution could provide a protective effect against occupational exposure to oxidizing agents. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between nutritional status, dietary and hygiene habits, macro and micronutrients intake and OS in a population exposed to oxidizing agents, compared with unexposed population.Material and methods: two populations with similar characteristics were studied, except for the work activity of one of them, constituted for people of both sexes, of 18-30 years old. Exposed Group consisted of 26 individuals working in photocopying and Unexposed Group by 27 volunteers who do not perform such work activity. A nutritional survey, two reminders of 24 hours, anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters, and a determination of OS markers (Catalase, GSH / GSSG and TBARS was performed.Results: to establish associations between variables, results were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Results show a positive correlation between work activity and oxidative imbalance and between high energy intake, low antioxidant micronutrients source intake, sedentary, altered lipid profile and OS. A positive relationship between low power intake, normal lipid profile and adequate fruits and vegetables intake with a normal oxidative state was show.Conclusions: Results show that changes in hygiene and dietary habits may provide protection to individuals exposed to oxidizing agents.

  6. Study of combination treatment effect of the {sup 166}Ho and anticancer agents in-vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, S. M.; Choi, S. J.; Park, K. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    For the development of new controlled drug delivery systems, the application of combination therapy using radioisotopes and tumor static agents has drawn great attention. This study was designed to estimate the treatment effect of the combination therapy with Holmium ({sup 166}Ho) and tumor static agents. Ho-166 was produced at the KAERI using HANARO reactor. The drugs applied were Sunpla, Methotrexate and Doxorubicin. Human glioblastoma (T98G), adenocarcinoma (MKN45), hepatocellular (Hep3B), lung carcinoma (Calu6), ovary adenocarcinoma (NIH:OVCAR- 3) and rat glioma (C6) were used. The cell cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines determined by MTT assay. In the case where the chemotherapeutic agent was solely applied to the cell lines, the IC{sub 50} values wer e 2.4x10{sup -5}M of the Sunpla for MKN45 and 4.23x10{sup -6}M of the Doxorubicin for Calu6. The radioactivity of Ho-166 occurring 20% apoptosis was 10{mu}Ci. As for Sunpla and Doxorubicin, the value of IC20 was dependent on the cell lines used. The combination treatment of {sup 166}Ho and drug was to improve therapeutic success rate in T98G, MKN45, Hep3B, and Calu6. From this in vitro study it can be concluded that combining 166Ho radionuclide therapy and chemotherapy could enhance the effect of each in eliminating proliferating tumor cells.

  7. Studies of corrosion morphologies by use of experiments and computer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Terje

    1997-12-31

    CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel is frequently encountered in the oil industry. This thesis studies the morphology of corroded metals and the dynamical evolution of corrosion attacks, especially pits and general corroded fronts, experimentally and by computerized simulation. Two experimental systems of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} bearing waters and aluminium in chloride containing electrolytes were used. Fractal geometry was used in analysing the corrosion patterns and found to be a fruitful technique. The position of the corroding fronts was obtained by destructive methods as well as non-destructive ones. To study fragile corrosion product layers or the corrosion process in situ, a grazing angle lighting technique was developed and found superior to other techniques. A computer model was developed that uses Monte Carlo technique to simulate the generation of localized pits and more general corroded front morphologies. A three-dimensional model and two versions of a two-dimensional model were developed. The three-dimensional model was used to provide incremental data of corroded volume and depth as a function of the simulation time. 185 refs., 97 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Studies on the Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nickel Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Nickel Phthalocyanine (NiPc are fabricated at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar using Hind-Hivac thermal evaporation plant. The films are deposited on to glass substrates at various temperatures 318, 363, 408 and 458K. The optical absorption spectra of these thin films are measured. Present studies reveal that the optical band gap energies of NiPc thin films are highly dependent on the substrate temperatures. The structure and surface morphology of the films deposited on glass substrates of temperatures 303, 363 and 458K are studied using X-ray diffractograms and Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM, show that there is a change in the crystallinity and surface morphology due to change in the substrate temperatures. Full width at half maximum (FWHM intensity of the diffraction peaks is also found reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs show that these crystals are fiber like at high substrate temperatures. The optical band gap increases with increase in substrate temperature and is then reduced with fiber-like grains at 408K. The band gap increases again at 458K with full of fiber like grains. Trap energy levels are also observed for these films.

  9. Morphology study of nanofibers produced by extraction from polymer blend fibers using image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Neda; Tavanaie, Mohammad Ali; Payvandy, Pedram [University of Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The morphology of nanofibers extracted from the industrial-scale produced polypropylene/polybutylene terephthalate (PP/PBT) blend fibers was studied. To study the morphology and diameter measurements of the nanofibers, image processing method was used, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional visual method. Comparing these two methods indicated the good performance of image processing methods for the measuring of nanofiber diameter. Among the various applied image processing methods, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method was determined as the best for image thresholding. Additionally, the distance transform method was determined as the best way for measuring nanofiber diameter. According to high regression coefficient (R=0.98) resulting between the draw ratio and nanofibers diameter, the high effectiveness of draw ratio to nanofiber diameter is concluded. The spherical (drop) shapes of the PBT dispersed phase particles were eventually deformed into very thin fibrils during the drawing process. The results of measuring the nanofiber diameters showed that the diameter means of nanofibers varied from 420 nm to 175 nm with the highest draw ratio. Good uniformity for diameter of nanofibers was observed, which had not been observed in previous works.

  10. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the pollen and the stomata, and the lower their number per unit area. The triploid strain produced the shortest plants and the lowest number of inflorescences, whereas the tetraploid strain had the largest leaves. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the strains, with a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and all of the morphological features examined.

  11. Epididymis of Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): A Morphological Comparative Study in Relation to Sexual Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruceño, A A M; Aguilera-Merlo, C I; Chaves, E M; Mohamed, F H

    2017-02-01

    The morphological variations and the androgen receptor (AR) expression were studied in viscacha epididymis in relation to sexual maturity. The animals were divided into immature, pre-pubertal and adult, according to their corporal weight and testicular histology. The epididymides were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for AR and morphometric analysis. In pre-pubertal and adult animals, four well-differentiated segments (initial, caput, corpus and cauda) were observed, while in immature animals, three segments were identified (initial-caput segment, corpus and cauda). In each segment, the structural parameters and the relative cell distribution were different between the groups. The serum testosterone levels of pre-pubertal and adults showed a very significant increase related to sexual maturity. The AR expression in epithelial and fibromuscular stromal cells was different between the groups. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the morphological characteristics of the viscacha epididymis vary while sexual maturity is reached, the development of initial and caput is subsequent to corpus and cauda development and the androgens might play an important role during this process.

  12. Studies on the Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Cobalt Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc are fabricated at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar using Hind-Hivac thermal evaporation plant. The films are deposited on to glass substrates at various temperatures 318, 363, 408 and 458K. The optical absorption spectra of these thin films are measured. The present studies reveal that the optical band gap energies of CoPc thin films are almost same on substrate temperature variation. The structure and surface morphology of the films deposited on glass substrates of temperatures 303, 363 and 458K are studied using X-ray diffractograms and Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM, which show that there is a change in the crystallinity and surface morphology due to change in the substrate temperatures. Full width at half maximum (FWHM intensity of the diffraction peaks is also found reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs show that these crystals are needle like, which are interconnected at high substrate temperatures. The optical band gap energy is almost same on substrate temperature variation. Trap energy levels are also observed for these films.

  13. Morphologies of diblock copolymer confined in a slit with patterned surfaces studied by dissipative particle dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian; HUANG Yongmin; LIU Honglai; HU Ying

    2007-01-01

    Diblock copolymers with ordered mesophase structures have been used as templates for nano-fabrication.Unfortunately,the ordered structure only exists at micrometerscale areas,which precludes its use in many advanced applications.To overcome this disadvantage,the diblock copolymer confined in a restricted system with a patterned surface is proved to be an effective means to prohibit the formation of defects and obtain perfect ordered domains.In this work,the morphologies of a thin film of diblock copolymer confined between patterned and neutral surfaces were studied by dissipative particle dynamics.It is shown that the morphology of the symmetric diblock copolymer is affected by the ratio of the pattern period on the surface to the lamellar period of the symmetric diblock copolymer and by the repulsion parameters between blocks and wall particles.To eliminate the defects in the lamellar phase,the pattern period on the surface must match the lamellar period.The difference in the interface energy of different compartments of the pattern should increase with increasing film thickness.The pattern period on the surface has a scaling relationship with the chain length,which is the same as that between the lamellar period and the chain length.The lamellar period is also affected by the polydispersity of the symmetric diblock copolymer.The total period is the average of the period of each component multiplied by the weight of its volume ratio.The morphologies of asymmetric diblock copolymers are also affected by the pattern on the surface,especially when the matching period of the asymmetric diblock copolymer is equal to the pattern period,which is approximately equal to the lamellar period of a symmetric diblock copolymer with the same chain length.

  14. Pollen morphology of Prototulbaghia Vosa: A comparative palynological study of the Southern African Alliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andriessen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The  Southern  African  Alliaceae  Borkh.  is  represented  by  four genera (Allium L., Nothoscordum Kunth, Tulbaghia L. and Prototulbaghia Vosa and 28 species. The  pollen  morphology  of  the  endangered  monotypic  genus Prototulbaghia has  not  been described  before.  A  comparative  study  of  the  pollen  morphology  of Prototulbaghia  siebertii Vosa, Nothoscordum  borbonicum Kunth, Tulbaghia  simmleri P.Beauv.  and T.  violaceae Harv.  is presented in this article. Scanning electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy, were used to examine the pollen. The pollen morphology of the species can be described as perprolate and monosulcate, and the surface sculpture as reticulate and heterobrochate. However, the pollen of Prototulbaghia siebertii displays a unique characteristic as the grains are folded in their breadth with the tips touching, hence causing the grain to display a triangular and disulcate appearance. It might be possible to ascribe this fold to the process of harmomegathy or a still unknown event that occurs during the development of the pollen grain. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the cause of folding and whether it is a unique taxonomic  characteristic  of  this  genus,  and  if  it  could  be  of  evolutionary  significance  for the Alliaceae.

  15. THE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS OF MORUS NIGRA

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    Yu. A. Vakhrusheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, plants have been the main source of new drugs. Morus nigra, which contains a rich complex of biologically active substances necessary for an organism (vitamins, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids is of great interest. We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of stems of Morus nigra, identified the main diagnostic characters of the studied medicinal plants. Experimental studies have shown that the stems of Morus nigra are characterized by the presence of thick-walled epidermal cells with slightly convoluted walls and a large number of ordinary thick-walled fuzz.

  16. Morphology of polyacrylate/nanosilica composites as studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybowicz, Mirosław; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Sądej, Mariola; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Drozdowski, Mirosław

    2014-07-01

    The Raman scattering study of the morphology of poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA)/nanosilica composites at various levels of the filler loading was performed. Two types of nanosilica were applied: unmodified (Aerosil 200) and surface and structure modified (Aerosil R7200). The composites were obtained by photocuring of monomer/silica mixtures. Using surface Raman mapping method we obtained information concerning the distribution of nanosilica particles in the composites being under study. The size and structure of nanosilica aggregates within the polymer matrix strongly depend on the amount of the nanosilica added. To check uniformity of the nanosilica dispersion in the composites the Raman depth studies were also performed for PHEA containing 20 wt.-% of nanosilica.

  17. Relationship of electrical resistance end morphological changes thigh rats after modeling of open fracture (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the development of industry, increasing number of vehicles on the roads rate of traumatic injuries among adult population causing disability and mortality is still high in all countries of the world. Among all fractures of long bones open diaphyseal fractures ranges from 28% to 53%. Objective. To study the relationship of electrical resistance and morphological features of the femur of white male rats after modeling the open fracture. Methods. Studies were conducted on white male rats aged about 3 months. Digital multimeter UT70B was used to measure the electrical resistance of bones in experimental animals after 1 and 3 hours of experimental modeling of opened bone fracture. Histological and electron microscopic studies were performed to evaluate bone structure. Results. 1 hour after modeling an open bone fracture it was detected the presence of empty lacunae or gaps filled with detritus. 3 hours after the experiment cellular density in the first studied area was reduced 4.1 times, in the second area - 3.2 times comparing with the control. Conclusion. These histological examination and study of the electrical resistance of bone fragments after re-fracture (with or without coagulation fragments indicate similar changes in direction of the bone. Electrical resistance after testing in the clinical setting can be used for testing the bone fragments after an open fracture to assess viability. We have developed a technique for evaluation the electrical resistance making it possible to predict the viability of bone tissue with opened diaphyseal fractures of extremities on early stages. Citation: Pavlova TM, Berezka MI. [Relationship of electrical resistance end morphological changes thigh rats after mod-eling of open fracture (experimental study]. Morphologia. 2016;10(2:31-9. Ukrainian.

  18. Study of DNA damage induced by dental bleaching agents in vitro Estudo de danos no DNA induzidos por agentes clareadores dentais in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental bleaching is a simple and conservative procedure for aesthetic restoration of vital and non-vital discolored teeth. Nevertheless, a number of studies have demonstrated the risk of tissue damage from the contact of these agents with the oral mucosa. In the current study, the genotoxic potential associated with exposure to dental bleaching agents was assessed by the single cell gel (comet assay in vitro. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells in vitro were exposed to six commercial dental bleaching agents (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed - Discus Dental; Nite White - Discus Dental; Magic Bleaching - Vigodent; Whiteness HP - FGM and Lase Peroxide - DMC. The results pointed out that all dental bleaching agents tested contributed to DNA damage as depicted by the mean tail moment, being the strongest effect observed with the highest dose of hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP and Lase Peroxide, at a 35% concentration. On the other hand, Magic Bleaching (Vigodent induced the lowest level of DNA breakage. Negative and positive controls displayed absence and presence of DNA-damaging, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that dental bleaching agents may be a factor that increases the level of DNA damage. A higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced higher noxious activities in the genome as detected by single cell gel (comet assay.Clareamento dental é um procedimento simples e conservador para restaurar esteticamente a cor de dentes vitais e não-vitais. Entretanto, alguns estudos têm demonstrado o risco de dano tecidual a partir do contato desses agentes com a mucosa bucal. Neste presente estudo, o potencial genotóxico associado à exposição aos agentes clareadores dentais foi avaliado pelo teste de células individualizadas em gel (teste do cometa in vitro. Células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO in vitro foram expostas a seis agentes clareadores dentais comercialmente disponíveis (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed

  19. Degenerative and regenerative changes in epidermal organ culture: a morphological study with reference to membrane-coating granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S J; Vickers, C F

    1988-11-01

    Membrane-coating granules (MCG) are poorly understood lamellate organelles unique to keratinized epithelia. This study provides data on a skin model for future in vitro investigations of MCG. Porcine ear epidermal organ cultures were used under standard cell culture conditions. This system was selected because it is easily established and, following a degenerative period in which MCG are lost, regenerates to form a highly differentiated epidermis. The epidermis appeared healthy during the first 2 d in vitro and contained MCG but lost keratohyalin granules (KHG). Overt degenerative changes were evident in the upper epidermis on Day 3, and MCG were now bloated. By Day 4 only one to three layers of viable undifferentiated cells remained. In the overlying necrotic epidermis MCG were rare, presumably due to the bursting of bloated MCG. Epidermal regeneration began around Day 5 and by Day 7 there were 8 to 13 layers, including a rudimentary parakeratotic stratum corneum (up to 4 layers). The stratum granulosum (two to three layers) now contained immature KHG and poorly lamellate MCG, but only amorphous material extracellularly. By Day 11 there were three to four layers of granular cells as in vivo, and an orthokeratotic stratum corneum (two to four layers). Improved cornification coincided with an increased number of mature KHG and cross-banded MCG, and lamellate MCG contents extracellularly. This model of epidermal regeneration will facilitate studies into the role played by MCG in keratinization because the epithelium initially lacked MCG but later expressed all the major morphologic features of epidermis. Furthermore the mechanisms by which MCG translocation and extrusion are effected may be probed by the inclusion of such agents as antimicrotubular drugs and calcium ionophores.

  20. Study of Social Integrity Behavioral Mode Based On Multi-agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social integrity deficiency has become the main obstacle and prominent bottleneck to the construction of a harmonious society. Under this serious circumstance, paying attention to the problem and finding a solution has become an important issue we are faced with contemporarily. Former studies by some scholars have mainly centered on the basis of regime and education and some conclusions have been made. This paper, from the perspective of Multi-agent system, analyses the behavioral mode of the social integrity system and describes the process of emergence from the micro level to the macro one. Based on the Multi-agent system stimulus-response principle, it constructs the basic behavioral mode of social integrity; based on the adaptive-learning theory, it constructs the whole behavioral mode; and based on the evolution of agent, it constructs the level-emerge mode, which will provide a new point of view for the research of the social integrity system. According to this, some resolutions can be achieved to the issue mentioned above, which builds scientific reasonable policy basis and gives theoretical guidance for the central and local government in solving the widespread lack of social integrity.

  1. The walking bleach procedure: an in vitro study to measure microleakage of five temporary sealing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, N; Cox, C F; Arai, T; Nakamura, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro sealing capacity of five materials, each used as a temporary sealing agent for the walking bleach technique. All teeth received traditional biomechanical root canal instrumentation, after which the walking bleach agent was placed in the pulp chamber space. The occlusal access was sealed with one of five temporary materials: two hydraulic filling materials, a photoactivated resin composite, a zinc oxide-eugenol cement, and a zinc oxide phosphate cement with/without the placement of a piece of rubber sheet that was placed as a barrier to isolate filling material from the bleaching agent. All teeth were stored in a 1% solution of Alcian blue with thermal cycling stress. After 1 wk, they were sectioned longitudinally, and ranked by graded scores of 0 to 3, according to the degree of the dye penetration. Significantly less dye microleakage was observed in the two hydraulic materials than in the photoactivated resin. Both zinc oxide-eugenol and zinc phosphate cements showed a considerable amount of microleakage. There were no significant differences between the groups with and without a rubber sheet. Our data demonstrate that hydraulic filling materials provide the most favorable cavosurface seal when they are firmly packed into the cavity space to prevent microleakage.

  2. The potential of antiviral agents to control classical swine fever: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Jantien A; Vrancken, Robert; Neyts, Johan; Goris, Nesya

    2013-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a continuous threat to pig populations that are free of disease without vaccination. When CSF virus is introduced, the minimal control strategy imposed by the EU is often insufficient to mitigate the epidemic. Additional measures such as preemptive culling encounter ethical objections, whereas emergency vaccination leads to prolonged export restrictions. Antiviral agents, however, provide instantaneous protection without inducing an antibody response. The use of antiviral agents to contain CSF epidemics is studied with a model describing within- and between-herd virus transmission. Epidemics are simulated in a densely populated livestock area in The Netherlands, with farms of varying sizes and pig types (finishers, piglets and sows). Our results show that vaccination and/or antiviral treatment in a 2 km radius around an infected herd is more effective than preemptive culling in a 1 km radius. However, the instantaneous but temporary protection provided by antiviral treatment is slightly less effective than the delayed but long-lasting protection offered by vaccination. Therefore, the most effective control strategy is to vaccinate animals when allowed (finishers and piglets) and to treat with antiviral agents when vaccination is prohibited (sows). As independent control measure, antiviral treatment in a 1 km radius presents an elevated risk of epidemics running out of control. A 2 km control radius largely eliminates this risk.

  3. Stereomicroscopic study of the human tooth caries: clinical and morphological correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Roxana; Vasile, Liliana; Marchese, Cristian; Sava-Rosianu, Ruxandra

    2012-06-01

    Objectives: Stereomicroscopy allows a three-dimensional study of the images and of laterality at superior quality in comparison with other methods. Those advantages are given by the large examination fields and the wide work distances. The adding of the clinical and morphological data at the results gathered with stereomicroscopy and the stereo micrometry is useful in order to appreciate the deepness and the widening of the carious process, and the necessity to reconsider the therapeutically strategy. Materials and methods: During 2009-2011 the study material was represented by 10 surgically removed impacted third molars, and by 20 premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes, with closed and macroscopically apparently integer surfaces. 13 premolars with different degrees of carious affectation and periodontal lesions, which were surgically extracted without trauma, were also selected. The in situ measurements at the occlusal site were realized through the utilization of a fluorescent laser device - DIAGNOdent. The basic principles in stereomicroscopy stood at the base of the obliquely and circularly coaxial illumination techniques, one with optical alignment adjustment of the optical microscope and mechanical adjustment for the optimal illumination and micrometry. The Olympus Microscope SZ ×7 and an Olympus camera with 2,5 × digital zoom and a 3× optical zoom has been used to study the samples in stereomicroscopy and through polarized light it. Results: The DiagnoDent measured the following data: out of 43 apparently healthy teeth, 18 presented values between 2 and 13 (D1), 13 showed values between 14 and 24 (D2), 12 measured values over 24 (D3). After the histological examination in stereomicroscopy and in the polarized light: 25 teeth were healthy, 10 presented caries extended in dental enamel and 8 presented dentinal caries. Stereomicroscopy has allowed the morphological study, the color absorption, the appreciation of the lesions' deepness and substance

  4. Pharmacological studies of dopamine transporter imaging agent 125/131I-β-CIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To prepare 125/131I-β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β- (4-iodophenyl)tropane)as an imaging agent for dopamine transporter (DAT), the labeling method from tributylstannyl precursor with peracetic acid has been reported in this article. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the labeled compound was over 95% determined by HPLC and TLC. The stability, partition coefficients were also determined. The pharmacological studies of the imaging agent were performed in rats, mice, rabbits and normal monkey. The ligand showed preferable uptake in brain (1.9%ID/organ in rats and 4.5%ID/organ in mice at 5 min). The ratios of striatum/cerebellum, hippocampus/cerebellum and cortex/cerebellum were 28.9, 3.97 and 4.75 at 6h in rats, and 8.52, 2.99 and 3.06 at 6h in mice, respectively. In monkey brain imaging the ratios of striatum/frontal cortex (ST/FC) and striatum/occipital cortex (ST/OC) were 5.14 and 5.97 at 4h, respectively. All of above showed the high affinity of the ligand to DAT. The compound was primarily metabolized in liver because the hepatic uptake was much higher than other organs (75.4%ID/organ at 18 h). The half-life of blood elimination was 5 min. The dose received by mice was 2500 times as high as that received by human in the test of undue toxicity, which evaluated the safety of the agent. All the results suggest that β-CIT can be used as a potential DAT imaging agent.

  5. Study on optimization of agent initial positions in land combat simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunguo; LIANG Yanchun; LEE Heow Pueh; LU Chun; YANG Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    The use of computational-intelligence-based techniques in the optimization of agent initial positions in land combat simulations is studied. A novel method for the reduction of support vectors in the support vector machine (SVM) is presented. The optimization on the width of the Gaussian kernel function and the combination of the SVM with the radial basis function neural network are performed in the proposed method. Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the running efficiency drastically compared with that using the traditional SVM with the same precision. We also summarize and present some experiences and trends in the study on the optimization problem in land combat simulation.

  6. Speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents used in cancer chemoprevention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Marianne; Paulin, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents from multiple manufacturers from several time points. Sources of selenized yeast included Nutrition 21 (San Diego, CA), which supplied the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) Trial from 1981......-1996; Cypress Systems (Fresno, CA; 1997-1999); and Pharma Nord (Vejle, Denmark; 1999-2000), which supplied the Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Trial pilot studies. The low-molecular-selenium species were liberated from the samples by proteolytic hydrolysis followed by separation...

  7. A Molecular Mechanics Study of Morphologic Interaction between Graphene and Si Nanowires on a SiO2 Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the morphologic interaction between graphene and Si nanowires on a SiO2 substrate, using molecular mechanics simulations. Two cases are considered: (1 a graphene nanoribbon intercalated by a single Si nanowire on a SiO2 substrate and (2 a blanket graphene flake intercalated by an array of Si nanowires evenly patterned in parallel on a SiO2 substrate. Various graphene morphologies emerge from the simulation results of these two cases, which are shown to depend on both geometric parameters (e.g., graphene nanoribbon width, nanowire diameter, and nanowire spacing and material properties (e.g., graphene-nanowire and graphene-substrate bonding strength. While the quantitative results at the atomistic resolution in this study can be further used to determine the change of electronic properties of graphene under morphologic regulation, the qualitative understandings from this study can be extended to help exploring graphene morphology in other material systems.

  8. The Gelation Ability and Morphology Study of Organogel System Based on Calamitic Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gelation property of a series of LMOG bearing hydrazide and azobenzene groups, namely, N-4-(alkoxyphenyl-N′-4-[(4-methoxyphenylazophenyl] benzohydrazide (BNBC-n, n=8,12,14, has been systematically studied in this work. The obtained results demonstrate that the gelling ability in organic solvents is significantly influenced by the length of terminal alkoxy chain. In different organic solvents, it is hard to observe the organogel formation for BNBC-8 molecule. On the contrary, the organogelators BNBC-12 and BNBC-14 bearing longer terminal chains have shown great ability to gel organic solvents to form stable organogels. The critical gelation concentration for BNBC-12 reaches as low as 5.3 × 10−3 M, which can be considered as a supergelator. It has been manifested that the aggregation morphology of organogel strongly depends on the nature of the gelling solvents and the length of the terminal alkoxy chain. The gelation of BNBC-n provides an easy method for the preparation of multidimensional structure and manipulation of morphology from ribbons, hollow tube fiber to 3D net-like structure in different solvents. The cooperation of hydrogen bonding, π-π interaction, and Van der Waals force is suggested to be the main contribution to this self-assembled structure.

  9. Clinical and Morphological Studies on Spontaneous Cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dinev1, S Denev2* and G Beev2

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, pathoanatomical, histological, and bacteriological studies were performed on broiler chickens, growing broiler parents, and growing egg layers, in three different poultry farms, after an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The method of contamination of the birds was established. Several local and systemic clinico-morphological forms of spontaneous P. aeruginosa infections in various categories of stock birds were described: cases of P. aeruginosa infection resulting from injection of contaminated vaccines; case of P. aeruginosa infections through contaminated aerosol vaccine and cases of pododermatitis, periarthritis and arthritis in broiler chickens associated with P. aeruginosa infection. In different cases mortality range between 0.5 and 50%. The results showed that apart from embryonic mortality in hatcheries, and septicemic infections in newly hatched chickens, the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa was associated with localized and systemic lesions in this category, as well as in young and growing birds. On one hand, these results have a theoretical significance, contributing for the confirmation and expansion of the wide array of clinico-morphological forms of P. aeruginosa infections in birds. On the other hand, the knowledge on these forms has a purely practical significance in the diagnostics of P. aeruginosa infections by poultry pathologists and veterinary practitioners.

  10. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Bierkens, Marc; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2015-04-01

    The prospect of sea level rise and increase in extreme weather conditions has led to a new focus on coastal defense in the Netherlands. As an innovative solution for coastal erosion a mega-nourishment named the Sand Motor (or Sand Engine) has been constructed at the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents; keeping the coastal defense structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. The large size and position of the Sand Motor might lead to a substantial increase of fresh ground water resources. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied. The preliminary model calculations show that in a period of 20 years volume of fresh water gradually increases to ca. 12 Mm3. In the nearby dune area 7-8 Mm3 is abstracted yearly, therefore the first results are promising in increasing fresh groundwater resources. More model calculations will be performed to investigate the sensitivity of the change in the fresh, brackish and salt water distribution.

  11. Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

  12. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  13. Crenosoma vulpis in wild and domestic carnivores from Italy: a morphological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a metastrongyloid nematode primarily associated with respiratory tract infections of red foxes in North America and Europe. Sporadic cases have also been reported in domestic dogs. The present study aimed to provide morphological, molecular, and epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of this nematode throughout Italy. From 2012 to 2014, 12 of the 138 foxes examined, three dogs and one badger scored positive for C. vulpis. Forty adults were isolated from foxes and the badger, whereas first-stage larvae were detected in the three dogs. All specimens were morphologically identified as C. vulpis, and 28 nematodes were also molecularly characterized by sequencing mitochondrial (12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) and nuclear (18S rDNA) ribosomal genes. Four haplotypes were identified based on the 12S rDNA target gene, with the most representative (78.5%) designated as haplotype I. No genetic variability was detected for the 18S rDNA gene. The molecular identification was consistent with the distinct separation of species-specific clades inferred by the phylogenetic analyses of both mitochondrial and ribosomal genes. Data herein reported indicates that C. vulpis has a wide distribution in foxes from southern Italy, and it also occurs in dogs from southern and northern regions of the country. Practitioners should consider the occurrence of this nematode in the differential diagnosis of canine respiratory disease, particularly in dogs living close to rural areas where foxes are present.

  14. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  15. Effect of zinc acexamate on gastric lesions induced by aspirin: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Fontarnau, R; Bulbena, O

    1990-11-06

    The morphology of gastric lesions induced by aspirin in the rat and their modification by pretreatment with zinc acexamate (100 mg/kg) were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of mucosal levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the development of these lesions was also investigated. High (200 mg/kg) or low (50 mg/kg) doses of aspirin inhibited PGE2 production similarly, but the morphology of these lesions differed considerably. While gross exfoliation of extensive areas of gastric mucosa was observed after 200 mg/kg aspirin, only ultrastructural lesions of surface epithelial cells were present after 50 mg/kg aspirin. Regardless of the dose of aspirin administered, pretreatment with zinc acexamate raised PGE2 levels and increased the presence of mucus. Our results showed that after zinc acexamate, the development of deep erosions appearing with high doses of aspirin was prevented and the ultrastructural lesions induced by low doses of aspirin were not observed. The fact that zinc acexamate did not modify the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin in the carrageenin-induced oedema model suggests that the protective effect of zinc acexamate is exerted locally on the gastric mucosa.

  16. THE CORACOIDS IN FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PENGUINS (AVES, SPHENISCIDAE OF THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The partial articulated skeleton MLP 77-V-10-1 comes from the upper levels of La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica at the southwestern slope of the plateau. These remains were found in the Submeseta Allomember, within the Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone, dated at 34.2 Ma using strontium isotope ratios from shells. MLP 77-V-10-1 is a giant penguin, probably the largest ever described, whose coracoids are strikingly wide at the distal surface. The present contribution is a study of this new fossil penguin, with particular emphasis on the coracoids. The osteography and associated muscles are described. Functional connotations of coracoid morphology are thoroughly discussed and its implications on the mechanics of diving are explored. We concluded that the coracoid morphology suggests a change in diving strategy from the earliest penguins until the living representatives. In the oldest penguins, the improvement of diving capacity would have been linked to the development of stronger bone and probably muscular structures enabling endurance of greater forces operating in a denser medium. In contrast, the Neogene penguins would have optimized the force action of the flight apparatus by developing more precise movements, adjusting the angle of attack of each of the effective forces. 

  17. Morphological Study and Analysis of Microhardness and Permeability of the Furcation of Maxillary Premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tiago Elias; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Cruz-Filho, Antonio Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The morphology, microhardness and dentin permeability of the furcation region of maxillary premolars were evaluated. Ten premolars were cut lengthwise and the furcation region was delimited. In one group (n=10) microhardness was measured in the buccal, central and palatal regions, in the outer middle and inner layers of the furcation, and in the buccal and palatal regions adjacent to the furcation. Knoop hardness was tested with 10 g load for 15 s. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (a=0.05). In the other group (n=10) confocal microscopy was used to study dentin morphology. Other 10 specimens were instrumented with ProTaper and immersed in 10% copper sulfate for analysis of permeability under light microscopy. About microhardness, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the buccal (39.9±3.1), central (39.5±4.4) and palatal (39.7±5.0) regions of the furcation, or between these regions and the adjacent buccal (39.1±5.8) and palatal (39.7±5.8) regions (p>0.05). The inner layer (42.3±3.7) had significantly higher microhardness (pmicrohardness values. In conclusion, the inner dentin layer is harder than the outer dentin layer. The dentinal tubules are sinuous and intertwine towards the middle layer. Dye penetration is restricted to the outer layer.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MORPHOLOGICAL, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GREENGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the different growth regulating compounds on morphological, quality and yield parameters in greengram at Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad during rabi 2009- 10. The basic material for the present investigation consists of Greengram cv WGG-37 and two growth promoting (NAA and Brassinosteroid and growth retarding substances (Chlormequat chloride and Mepiquat chloride. These growth regulators were sprayed at flower initiation stage. The morphological traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of trifoliates per plant and days to 50% flowering and maturity were significantly increased by NAA @ 20 ppm, whereas total dry matter production (TDM over growth regulator treatments at all stages NAA (20 ppm and brassinosteroid (20ppm recorded significantly higher values. Among the quality parameters highest seed protein content (% and highest nitrogen harvest index values were recorded with growth retarding substance chlormequat chloride (187.5 g a.i ha-1 in greengram. The seed yield increased significantly with NAA (20 ppm followed by mepiquat chloride 5% AS, brassinosteroid (20 ppm, chlormequat chloride (137.5.5 a.i/ha.

  19. Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Study of ZnO Nanoparticle Reinforced Chitosan Based Transparent Biocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kunal; Maiti, Sonakshi; Liu, Dagang

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan based biocomposite transparent films reinforced with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles at different loading i.e. 2, 4 and 6 wt% were successfully prepared by solution casting method. Shape, size and geometry of the zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biocomposite films were subjected to mechanical characterization, thermal analysis, morphology study and moisture uptake behaviour. The characterization tools used here include wide angle X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopic analysis, differential scanning calorimetric analysis and also UV-visible transmittance behavior. SEM micrographs revealed uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles in biocomposite films. Improvement of the tensile strength about 133 % was observed significantly in case of 4 wt% loaded chitosan/ZnO films with respect to the neat chitosan film. 43 % higher transparency was observed in case of 2 wt% ZnO loaded biocomposites films, thus indicating the best combination of properties of 2 wt% ZnO loaded biocomposite films.

  20. Cluster Morphology-Polymer Dynamics Correlations in Sulfonated Polystyrene Melts: Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-04-01

    Reaching exceptionally long times up to 500 ns in equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations studies, we have attained a fundamental molecular understanding of the correlation of ionomer clusters structure and multiscale dynamics, providing new insight into one critical, long-standing challenge in ionic polymer physics. The cluster structure in melts of sulfonated polystyrene with Na+ and Mg2 + counterions are resolved and correlated with the dynamics on multiple length and time scales extracted from measurements of the dynamic structure factor and shear rheology. We find that as the morphology of the ionic clusters changes from ladderlike for Na+ to disordered structures for Mg2 + , the dynamic structure factor is affected on the length scale corresponding to the ionic clusters. Rheology studies show that the viscosity for Mg2 + melts is higher than for Na+ ones for all shear rates, which is well correlated with the larger ionic clusters' size for the Mg2 + melts.

  1. An AFM study of the morphology and local mechanical properties of superconducting YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soifer, Ya.M.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Kazakevich, M.; Rabkin, E

    2004-02-01

    The morphology of thin superconducting YBCO films deposited on sapphire and on SrTiO{sub 3} was studied with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The intrinsic mechanical properties in the flat, particles-free and chemically homogeneous regions of the films were determined with the aid of nanoindenting atomic force microscope. Also the microscopy studies revealed the difference in topography of the films, the nanohardness and Young's modulus of two films were very close to each other. For the indents shallower than 0.2 of the film thickness the Young's modulus and hardness of the films on two different substrates converged to the values of 210 and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The possible deformation mechanisms determining the localized deformation of intrinsically brittle ceramic films are discussed.

  2. An AFM study of the morphology and local mechanical properties of superconducting YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Ya. M.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Kazakevich, M.; Rabkin, E.

    2004-02-01

    The morphology of thin superconducting YBCO films deposited on sapphire and on SrTiO 3 was studied with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The intrinsic mechanical properties in the flat, particles-free and chemically homogeneous regions of the films were determined with the aid of nanoindenting atomic force microscope. Also the microscopy studies revealed the difference in topography of the films, the nanohardness and Young’s modulus of two films were very close to each other. For the indents shallower than 0.2 of the film thickness the Young’s modulus and hardness of the films on two different substrates converged to the values of 210 and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The possible deformation mechanisms determining the localized deformation of intrinsically brittle ceramic films are discussed.

  3. Surface morphology study on CdZnTe crystals by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, M.; George, M.A.; Burger, A.; Collins, W.E.; Silberman, E. [Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The study of the crystal surface morphology of CdZnTe is important for the understanding of the fundamentals of crystal growth in order to improve the crystal quality which is essential in applications such as substrates for epitaxy or performance of devices, i.e., room temperature nuclear spectrometers. We present a first atomic force microscopy study on CdZnTe. Cleaved (110) surfaces were imaged in the ambient and an atomic layer step structure was revealed. The effects of thermal annealing on the atomic steps together with Te precipitation along these steps are discussed in terms of deformation due to stress relief and the diffusion of tellurium precipitates. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Morphological study of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) tongue by SEM and LM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ghasem; Babaei, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Belal

    2017-02-03

    The hedgehog tongue is a tactile and taste organ which carries out various functions. Detailed functional and morphological studies are required to clearly define the relationship of the hedgehog tongue with taste, food palatability, mastication and swallowing of food, as well as the production of sounds. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the European hedgehog tongue and the lifestyle of this animal, as well as to compare findings with the results of studies on other vertebrates. Gross and micro-anatomical light and scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the hedgehog tongue could be divided in three areas, namely the apex, body and root. A keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which was smooth on the ventral surface but bore four types of papillae on the dorsal surface, lined the tongue. Three types of these papillae were found to have gustatory functions and to express their activity in close relation with the salivary glands. These simple conical filiform papillae were situated caudally and distributed one after the other without a break. The dome-shaped fungiform papillae on the apex, with the highest distribution rate on the apex edge, were small, but those on the body and root were large. The three circular vallate papillae were arranged in a triangular shape. The foliate papillae with a few tiny projections, found in a shallow furrow, were situated between the root and the body. Most of the nerve fibers observed in different sections of the tongue tissue were of the unmyelinated type, confirming that the main task of the hedgehog tongue was its gustatory function.

  5. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asra Anjum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, pathologists and obstetricians. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 50 placentae which were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the department of Anatomy, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, during the period of 2 years. The morphological variations of placenta, the size, shape, weight and attachment of umbilical cord with its blood vessels were observed, recorded and photographed. The prime objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the morphological alterations of placenta and umbilical cord in pregnancy. Results and Conclusion: In the current study, the majority of the placentae showed round shape, few placentae with oval and irregular and with an accessory lobe in single placenta. The current study also includes variations in insertion of umbilical cords was eccentric in majority, central, marginal and velamentous in a few. Pregnancy induced hypertension significantly affects the placenta by reducing weight and it does not have any significant effect on the shape of placenta, umbilical cord insertion and number of cotyledons on maternal surface. The placenta is the most accurate record of the infants prenatal experience.

  6. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20-21, D-10098 Berlin (Germany); Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J. [Department of General Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Klinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C. [Department of Juvenile Rheumatology, II. Kinderklinik, Krankenhaus Berlin Buch, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7{+-}2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7{+-}2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ``open`` from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.) With 10 figs., 30 refs.

  7. An agent-based simulation model to study accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pai; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-03-01

    Creating accountable care organizations (ACOs) has been widely discussed as a strategy to control rapidly rising healthcare costs and improve quality of care; however, building an effective ACO is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders (payers, providers, patients) with their own interests. Also, implementation of an ACO is costly in terms of time and money. Immature design could cause safety hazards. Therefore, there is a need for analytical model-based decision-support tools that can predict the outcomes of different strategies to facilitate ACO design and implementation. In this study, an agent-based simulation model was developed to study ACOs that considers payers, healthcare providers, and patients as agents under the shared saving payment model of care for congestive heart failure (CHF), one of the most expensive causes of sometimes preventable hospitalizations. The agent-based simulation model has identified the critical determinants for the payment model design that can motivate provider behavior changes to achieve maximum financial and quality outcomes of an ACO. The results show nonlinear provider behavior change patterns corresponding to changes in payment model designs. The outcomes vary by providers with different quality or financial priorities, and are most sensitive to the cost-effectiveness of CHF interventions that an ACO implements. This study demonstrates an increasingly important method to construct a healthcare system analytics model that can help inform health policy and healthcare management decisions. The study also points out that the likely success of an ACO is interdependent with payment model design, provider characteristics, and cost and effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

  8. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  9. New morphology, symmetry, orientation and perfection of lysozyme crystals grown in a magnetic field when paramagnetic salts (NiCl 2, CoCl 2 and MnCl 2) are used as crystallizing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, D. C.; Oda, Y.; Wakayama, N. I.; Ataka, M.

    2003-05-01

    Chlorides with different paramagnetic cations such as Ni 2+, Co 2+ and Mn 2+ were used as crystallizing agents instead of NaCl to crystallize hen egg-white lysozyme. NiCl 2 was found to give two types of crystals with different morphologies: one (roof-like) is a new type of orthorhombic P2 12 12 1 crystal with lattice constants a=79.0 Å, b=80.8 Å, and c=37.5 Å; the second is an ordinary tetragonal crystal of its characteristic shape with a= b=80 Å and c=38 Å. The appearance of the roof-like shape became dominant in the presence of a magnetic field. In the case of using CoCl 2 and MnCl 2, ordinary tetragonal crystals were formed. A striking fact was that the a-axis of the crystals oriented along the magnetic field when CoCl 2 was used, as opposed to the usual c-axis orientation. Large and optically perfect lysozyme crystals can be obtained in a magnetic field when NiCl 2 or MnCl 2 is used as a crystallizing agent. These profound effects of the paramagnetic cations may be caused by the coordination of Ni 2+ and Co 2+ ions to a lysozyme molecule, which was found by X-ray crystallography.

  10. Study on Surface Morphology of GaN Growth by MOCVD on GaN/Si(111) Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The surface morphology of GaN grown by MOCVD on GaN/Si template was studied. Rough morphology and deep pinhole defects on some surface areas of the samples were observed and studied. The formation of rough morphology is possibly related to Ga-Si alloy produced due to poor thermal stability of template at high temperature. The deep pinhole defects generated are deep down to the surface of MBE-grown GaN/Si template. The stress originated from the large thermal expansion coefficient difference between GaN and Si may be related to the formation of the pinhole defects. The surface morphology of the GaN can be improved by optimizing the GaN/Si template and decreasing the growth temperature.

  11. Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2013-01-15

    Dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology through membrane dynamics are linked to changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. Although mitochondrial membrane fusion/fission events are frequent in cell culture models, whether mitochondrial membranes dynamically interact in postmitotic muscle fibers in vivo remains unclear. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial morphology in intact muscle is lacking. Here, using electron microscopy (EM), we provide evidence of interacting membranes from adjacent mitochondria in intact mouse skeletal muscle. Electron-dense mitochondrial contact sites consistent with events of outer mitochondrial membrane tethering are also described. These data suggest that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo among mitochondria, possibly to induce morphology transitions, for kiss-and-run behavior, or other processes involving contact between mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, a combination of freeze-fracture scanning EM and transmission EM in orthogonal planes was used to characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphology. Two subpopulations of mitochondria were studied: subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF), which exhibited significant differences in morphological descriptors, including form factor (means ± SD for SS: 1.41 ± 0.45 vs. IMF: 2.89 ± 1.76, P mitochondrial size and morphological parameters were highly skewed, suggesting the presence of mechanisms to influence mitochondrial size and shape. In addition, physical continuities between SS and IMF mitochondria indicated mixing of both subpopulations. These data provide evidence that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle and that factors may be involved in regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial morphology.

  12. Morphology and Mixing of Black Carbon Particles Collected in Central California During the CARES Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffet, Ryan; O' Brien, Rachel; Alpert, Peter A.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Pham, Don Q.; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-23

    Aerosol absorption is strongly dependent on the internal heterogeneity (mixing state) and morphology of individual particles containing black carbon (BC) and other non-absorbing species. Here, we examine an extensive microscopic data set collected in the California central valley during the CARES 2010 field campaign. During a period of high photochemical activity and pollution buildup, the particle mixing state and morphology were characterized using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) at the carbon K-edge. Observations of compacted BC core morphologies and thick organic coatings at both urban and rural sites provide evidence of the aged nature of the particles. Based on the observation of thick coatings and more convex BC inclusion morphology, the contribution of fresh BC emissions at the urban site was relatively small. These measurements of BC morphology and mixing state provide important constraints for the morphological effects on BC optical properties expected in aged urban plumes.

  13. Synthetic Plasmodium-like hemozoin activates the immune response: a morphology - function study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to an important role for hemozoin (HZ, the malaria pigment, in the immunopathology related to this infection. However, there is no consensus as to whether HZ exerts its immunostimulatory activity in absence of other parasite or host components. Contamination of native HZ preparations and the lack of a unified protocol to produce crystals that mimic those of Plasmodium HZ (PHZ are major technical limitants when performing functional studies with HZ. In fact, the most commonly used methods generate a heterogeneous nanocrystalline material. Thus, it is likely that such aggregates do not resemble to PHZ and differ in their inflammatory properties. To address this issue, the present study was designed to establish whether synthetic HZ (sHZ crystals produced by different methods vary in their morphology and in their ability to activate immune responses. We report a new method of HZ synthesis (the precise aqueous acid-catalyzed method that yields homogeneous sHZ crystals (Plasmodium-like HZ which are very similar to PHZ in their size and physicochemical properties. Importantly, these crystals are devoid of protein and DNA contamination. Of interest, structure-function studies revealed that the size and shape of the synthetic crystals influences their ability to activate inflammatory responses (e.g. nitric oxide, chemokine and cytokine mRNA in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our data confirm that sHZ possesses immunostimulatory properties and underline the importance of verifying by electron microscopy both the morphology and homogeneity of the synthetic crystals to ensure that they closely resemble those of the parasite. Periodic quality control experiments and unification of the method of HZ synthesis are key steps to unravel the role of HZ in malaria immunopathology.

  14. [Morphological and histological study of eggs of six species of the Triatoma genus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Marcos T; da Rosa, João A; da Silva, Nilza N; Ceretti, Walter; Urbinatti, Paulo R; Barata, José M S; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the morphological and histological characteristics of eggs from six triatomine species in order to obtain a generic and specific characterization of this group of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors and better understand their phylogenetic and taxonomic aspects. The eggs of the respective species came from the collection of the Laboratório de Triatomíneos e Culicídeos da Faculdade de Saúde Pública/USP, from the Insetário do Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara - SESA and from the Triatomine insectary of the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos (FIOCRUZ), in Rio de Janeiro. Morphological studies were done with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses used only optical microscopy. All of the species analyzed showed a predominance of hexagonal cells. The exchorion of Triatoma breyeri Del Ponte, T. costalimai Verano Galvão, and T. tibiamaculata (Pinto) consists of unornamented cells, overlapping or slightly separated, with a smooth, padded appearance. Meanwhile, in T. matogrossensis Leite Barbosa, T. sherlocki Papa, Juberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira Barata, and T. williami Galvão, Souza Lima, the exchorion cells are ornamented on their entire surface with perforations and fissures. Egg histology showed undulations, pores, and orifices. The study helps to expand the generic and specific knowledge of the Triatominae subfamily. The characteristics identified in the exchorion of the eggshells can help separate close species. These new parameters will back the elaboration of future dichotomous keys, help to determine each vector species role and expand knowledge of the various species.

  15. Morphological Diversity of the Rod Spherule: A Study of Serially Reconstructed Electron Micrographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available Rod spherules are the site of the first synaptic contact in the retina's rod pathway, linking rods to horizontal and bipolar cells. Rod spherules have been described and characterized through electron micrograph (EM and other studies, but their morphological diversity related to retinal circuitry and their intracellular structures have not been quantified. Most rod spherules are connected to their soma by an axon, but spherules of rods on the surface of the Mus musculus outer plexiform layer often lack an axon and have a spherule structure that is morphologically distinct from rod spherules connected to their soma by an axon. Retraction of the rod axon and spherule is often observed in disease processes and aging, and the retracted rod spherule superficially resembles rod spherules lacking an axon. We hypothesized that retracted spherules take on an axonless spherule morphology, which may be easier to maintain in a diseased state. To test our hypothesis, we quantified the spatial organization and subcellular structures of rod spherules with and without axons. We then compared them to the retracted spherules in a disease model, mice that overexpress Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, to gain a better understanding of the rod synapse in health and disease.We reconstructed serial EM images of wild type and DscamGoF (gain of function rod spherules at a resolution of 7 nm in the X-Y axis and 60 nm in the Z axis. Rod spherules with and without axons, and retracted spherules in the DscamGoF retina, were reconstructed. The rod spherule intracellular organelles, the invaginating dendrites of rod bipolar cells and horizontal cell axon tips were also reconstructed for statistical analysis.Stereotypical rod (R1 spherules occupy the outer two-thirds of the outer plexiform layer (OPL, where they present as spherical terminals with large mitochondria. This spherule group is highly uniform and composed more than 90% of the rod spherule population. Rod

  16. Design, diversity-oriented synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of quinolinyl heterocycles as antimycobacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachakonda, Venkatesham; Alla, Manjula; Kotipalli, Sudha Sravanti; Ummani, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports design and diversity oriented synthesis of novel bis heterocycles with a common 2-methyl, C-4 unsubstituted quinoline moiety as the central key heterocycle. Employing reagent based skeletal diversity approach; a facile synthesis of bis heterocycles with different heterocyclic rings at C-3 position of the quinoline moiety has been accomplished. A broad range of heterocyclic frameworks thus obtained were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity. The active scaffolds were further explored by a parallel library generation in order to establish SAR. Further, low cytotoxicity against A549 cell line enhances the potential of the synthesized molecules as promising antimycobacterial agents.

  17. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  18. Morphological and spectral study of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Karapetian, E. L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.

    2007-10-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Observatory using the VAGR multiaperture spectrograph. Isophotes of monochromatic images of the Hα, [NII] λ6584, and [SII] λ6717 lines are constructed. Densifications I and II are found to rotate with north-south oriented axes of rotation. The two densifications (“knots”) have all the kinematic and spectral properties of individual galaxies. It is assumed that Kaz 139 and the densifications I and II were ejected from the nucleus of Kaz 460 at different times, with Kaz 139 probably having been ejected first, although they may all have been ejected simultaneously with different velocities. Along with Kaz 460, these objects form a physical group of galaxies and, at the same time, are a consequence of the activity of the nucleus of Kaz 460.

  19. Morphological study of Sr2CeO4 blue phosphor with fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gomes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and spectroscopic studies of Sr2CeO4 blue phosphor in the form of fine particles prepared from a powdered multi-component precursor, via a combustion method, are reported. Samples were also prepared through a solid-state reaction and from a polymeric precursor for comparison. Citric acid or glycine as fuels in the combustion method lead to a mixture which is heated at 950 ºC for 4 h, resulting in spheroidal particles with a diameter between 250-550 nm. Samples from the polymeric precursor result in spheroidal particles (350-550 nm and from the solid-state reaction in irregular particles (~ 5 mum. Therefore, the combustion method is adequate for preparation of Sr2CeO4 in the form of spherical fine particles.

  20. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE OF THE KUSHIYARA AND MONU RIVERS BY REMOTE SENSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J.B.ALAM; R.ALAM,M.UDDIN; T.NAHAR

    2007-01-01

    The Kushiyara and Monu rivers are two of the major river systems in the northeast region of Bangladesh. Analyzing satellite images of the Kushiyara and Monu rivers between 1990 and 1997, it was found that significant changes occurred at five distinct locations; i.e., Ahmadpur, Monumukh, Raysrr, Kaprangibari and Telibil. The amount of change was measured as 168.34 ha by using a plani-meter. Transportation of sediment was the major contributing factor of morphological change. The total average sediment concentration of Kushiyara and Monu rivers was found to be 16889.6 ppm per year during the study period by applying the Engelund and Hansen equation approach. Protection work has been suggested at the vulnerable locations.

  1. Morphological Studies of the PWN Candidate HESS J1809-193

    CERN Document Server

    Komin, Nu; Djannati-Ataï, A; Gallant, Y A; Kosack, K; Pühlhofer, G; Schwemmer, S

    2007-01-01

    The source HESS J1809-193 was discovered in 2006 in data of the Galactic Plane survey, followed by several re-observations. It shows a hard gamma-ray spectrum and the emission is clearly extended. Its vicinity to PSR J1809-1917, a high spin-down luminosity pulsar powerful enough to drive the observed gamma-ray emission, makes it a plausible candidate for a TeV Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN). On the other hand, in this region of the sky a number of faint, radio-emitting supernova remnants can be found, making a firm conclusion on the source type difficult. Here we present a detailed morphological study of recent H.E.S.S. data and compare the result with X-ray measurements taken with Chandra and radio data. The association with a PWN is likely, but contributions from supernova remnants cannot be ruled out.

  2. Structural and morphological study of damage in lead/acid batteries during cycling and floating tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, C.; Reumont, G.; Smaha, J. P.; Foct, J.

    Premature capacity loss is a severe problem observed in lead/acid batteries; it has been localised at the grid/positive active material interface (PAM) and in the PAM. In order to understand these phenomena, cycled batteries with Pb-Sb-Sn and Pb-Ca-Sn positive grid alloys were studied and compared with floated batteries with Pb-Ca-Sn positive grid alloys. The evolution of the crystallographic and morphological structure of the PAM and of the grid/PAM interface during the tests were investigated. Formation of isolated agglomerates of PAM by the phenomena assimilated to sintering was found to be the reason of the failure of cycled batteries, whereas the intergranular corrosion of the grid initiated the floated batteries' end of life. The results and mechanisms of these phenomena are presented.

  3. Surface morphology and photoluminescence studies of Sb-doped ZnO layers grown using MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartel, Corinne; Haneche, Nadia; Jomard, Francois; Lusson, Alain; Vilar, Christele; Laroche, Jean-Michel; Galtier, Pierre; Sallet, Vincent [Groupe d' Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMaC), CNRS-Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, Meudon (France)

    2010-07-15

    ZnO and ZnO:Sb films were deposited using low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition on C- and R-oriented sapphire and O-polar ZnO substrates. Surface morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Whereas ZnO films grown on C-sapphire show a rough surface and hexagonal rods, the doped ZnO:Sb layers exhibit a relatively smoother surface, indicating a possible surfactant effect of antimony. The secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements permit to determine the antimony profile in the doped layers. Sb concentrations from 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 20} at/cm{sup 3} were measured, depending on the growth conditions and substrate nature. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit donor-acceptor pair emission at 3.22 eV. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Studies on pore morphology of titanium and its oxide by small angle neutron scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Tripathy; A K Patra; P U Sastry

    2008-11-01

    Titanium metal bodies have been prepared from the sintered powder compacts of TiO2 by a novel molten salt electrochemical approach, known as FFC Cambridge process. The phase and compositional characterizations of both Ti and TiO2 have been carried out by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphologies of sintered TiO2 pellet and the metallic Ti pellet, obtained after electrochemical reduction have been studied by SANS over a scattering wave vector q range of 0.003–3.5 nm-1 using a double crystal diffractometer and a pin-hole collimated SANS instrument. In the case of reduced metal pellet, average pore size was found to be larger than that of the oxide pellet as the voids left behind after the oxygen atoms left the oxide matrix, could not coalesce.

  5. Distribution of Action Potential Duration and T-wave Morphology: a Simulation Study

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhii, Elena; Wei, Daming

    2009-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of the action potential duration (APD) distribution and T-wave morphology taking into account the midmyocardial cells (M-cells) concept are described. To investigate the effect of M-cells we present a computer model in which ion channel action potential formulations are incorporated into three-dimensional whole heart model. We implemented inhomogeneous continuous action potential duration distribution based on different distributions of maximal slow delayed rectifier current conductance. Using the proposed action potential distribution procedure midmural zeniths with longest action potential length were created as islands of model cells in the depth of thickest areas of ventricular tissue. Different spatial functions on layer indexes were simulated and their influences on electrocardiogram waveforms were analyzed. Changing parameters of ion channel model we varied duration of minimal and maximal action potential and investigated T-wave amplitude, Q-Tpeak and QT intervals vari...

  6. A study of the influence of a gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive on endometrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, T; Leppien, G; Fossman, W G; Hessing, C; Vladescú, E; Runnebaum, B

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate histological changes in the endometrium in 20 volunteers treated with a low-dose, gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive. Endometrial biopsy specimens were taken before, during a 6-month period of oral contraceptive use and in a post-treatment period. These specimens were evaluated using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, ultrasound examinations of the uterus, endometrial thickness and ovaries were performed. The low-dose, gestodene-containing triphasic oral contraceptive had no adverse effects on the endometrium (e.g. no proliferation, no polyps, no inflammatory processes), was well tolerated and showed a low side-effect profile. The inhibition of endometrial transformation was demonstrated both by endometrial morphology as well as by endometrial thickness, as measured by transvaginal ultrasound examination.

  7. Morphology, surface topography and optical studies on electron beam evaporated MgO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Chowdhury; J Kumar

    2006-10-01

    Electron beam evaporated thin films of MgO powder synthesized by burning of magnesium ribbon in air and sol–gel technique are studied for their microstructure (SEM), surface topography (AFM), and optical transmission behaviour (UV-visible spectroscopy). MgO thin films are shown to be either continuous or have mesh like morphology. The bar regions are believed to be of magnesium hydroxide formed due to absorption of moisture. Their AFM images exhibit columnar/pyramidal/truncated cone structure, providing support to the 3D Stranski–Krastanov model for film growth. Further, they are shown to have high transmittance (∼90%) in the wavelength range 400–600 nm, but absorb radiation below 350 nm substantially giving signature of a band transition.

  8. Post Deposition Annealing Effects on Optical, Electrical and Morphological Studies of ZnTTBPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rejitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines (Pcs act as efficient absorbants of photons in the visible region, specifically between 600 and 700 nm. It will produce an excited triplet state. In this paper we report the annealing effects of optical, electrical and surface morphological properties of thermal evaporated Zinc-tetra-tert-butyl-29H, 31H phthalocyanine (ZnTTBPc thin films. The optical transmittance measurements were done in the visible region (400-800 nm and, films were found to be absorbing in nature. From spectral data the absorption coefficient α, dielectric constant ε and the extinction coefficient k were evaluated and, results discussed. Also the optical band gap of the material was estimated. The activation energies were measured. Scanning electron microscopic studies was carried out to determine surface uniformity of films.

  9. Morphology of Enceladus's craters by photometric studies with ISS/Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgio, K.; Rodriguez, S.; Ferrari, C. C.; Brahic, A.

    2010-12-01

    The study of crater morphology (depth to diameter ratio) can bring valuable information on the structural properties of the surface and sub-surface of the impacted body. We report here on the analysis of images of the cratered terrains of the Saturn’s moon Enceladus recorded between 2005 and 2008 by the ISS instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft. We used a 3D morphological model (Buratti and Veverka, 1985) coupled with a regolith scattering model (Hapke, 1993, 2001) in order to analyze the photometric behavior of a sample of a set of 50 Enceladus’ craters. This method enables us to verify the general photometric properties of Enceladus’ regolith (single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor in very good agreement with previous studies - e.g. Verbiscer and Veverka, 1994) and derive for the first time robust estimations of the craters’ depth. As previously done for other bodies (Schenk, 1989), we used this new information to plot the depth/diameter ratio as a function of the diameter for all the craters of our sample. Such a diagram allows to determine the presence of a transition diameter, which usually defines the transition between two regimes of crater formation (simple to complex craters) and is diagnostic of the structural properties of the crust. The value of the transition diameter for Enceladus is found close to the one of Mimas but slightly differs from the empirical general law derived by Schenk (1989) (inversely proportional to surface gravity), being globally lower than for other icy bodies. We will discuss the possible implications of such a low value on the Enceladus’s geological history and crust properties.

  10. Variation of the major sulci of the occipital lobe - A morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occipital lobe of cerebrum is intimately related with visual function. The detailed anatomy of this lobe is essential for the surgeons and radiologists. The aim of the present study was to identify the variation of different sulci of the occipital lobe and find the relations between them. So, this study was done to evaluate the different parameters of these sulci by studying cerebral hemispheres morphologically. Methods: Total 106 formalin fixed cadaveric brains were studied. The locations and the length (cm of the calcarine, lunate and parieto-occipital sulcus were studied in detail. Microsoft excel software was utilized to analyze the data. Results: The calcarine sulcus in 59.43% had terminated by dividing into two rami. In only 31.13% cases calcarine sulcus met lunate sulcus after reaching the superolateral surface of the hemisphere. Lunate sulcus was of myriad shapes. Though in 49.05% of cases it was convex, in majority of brains it was “f” or “S” shaped. Different hemispheres of the same brain revealed significant variation. Conclusion: The study revealed wide variability of the sulci of the occipital lobe. For proper planning of neurosurgical procedures and radiological representation of visual functional areas, detailed knowledge on the variation of these sulci are essential. So, parameters of occipital sulci can permit safer access to deep structures and reduce operative complications.

  11. The Study of Mobile Agent Technology%移动Agent技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红斌; 石纯一

    2000-01-01

    Mobile Agent is a new distributed computing model. This articte introduces the concepts,origin,behavior,development language,general structure of mobile agent,and attempts to present an account of current research efforts.

  12. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CINTRA, Luciano Tavares Angelo; BENETTI, Francine; FERREIRA, Luciana Louzada; RAHAL, Vanessa; ERVOLINO, Edilson; JACINTO, Rogério de Castilho; GOMES, João Eduardo; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental materials in general are tested in different animal models prior to the clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents, by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and Methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals were untreated (control). The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated through histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell count in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. Fibroblasts were also counted. Scores were attributed to odontoblastic layer and vascular changes. Tertiary dentin area and pulp chamber central area were measured histomorphometrically. Data were compared by analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the coronal pulp occlusal third up to the 15-min application groups of each bleaching gel. In the groups exposed to each concentration for 30 and 45 min, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, reduction on the pulp chamber central area and enlargement of the tertiary dentin area were observed, without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extracoronal bleaching showed to be adequate for studies of bleaching protocols, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and tooth structure caused by different concentrations and application periods of bleaching agents. PMID:27119766

  13. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental materials, in general, are tested in different animal models prior to their clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group. Ten animals (control were untreated. The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell counting in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. The counting of fibroblasts was also performed. Scores were attributed to the odontoblastic layer and to vascular changes. The tertiary dentin area and the pulp chamber central area were histomorphometrically measured. Data were compared by the analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05. Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the occlusal third of the coronal pulp until the time of 15 min for both concentrations of bleaching gels. In 30 and 45 min groups of each concentration, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, a reduction in the pulp chamber central area and an enlargement of tertiary dentin area were observed without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extra coronal bleaching showed to be adequate for bleaching protocols studies, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and in the tooth structure caused by different concentrations and periods of application of bleaching agents.

  14. Study of drug utilization, morbidity pattern and cost of hypolipidemic agents in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh P. Patel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the extent of use and costs of lipid-lowering agents are not widely available. Our aim was to study the drug utilization and morbidity pattern, cost of different hypolipidemic drugs along with the risk assessment for coronary heart disease. Methods: After approval of protocol by the Institutional Review Board, an observational, prospective study was carried out in 300 patients using NCEP and ATP III Guidelines-2002 for evaluation of presence or absence of risk factors for coronary heart diseases. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 16.0and WHO Core Drug Prescribing Indicators. Results: Patient’s morbidity pattern revealed that 62%, 49.3%, 28% suffered from ischemic heart disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus respectively. On risk assessment, 48%, 13.3% patients had borderline and high level of total cholesterol respectively; 42%, 22.7% had borderline and high triglyceride levels respectively; 71.1% men and 62% women had low HDL cholesterol levels while 17.3%, 6% and 2.7% patients had borderline high, high and very high level of LDL cholesterol levels respectively. Frequency of prescriptions was atorvastatin (82%, rosuvastatin (9.3% and simvastatin (4.7% among the most frequently prescribed statins drug group. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 7.34. Drugs prescribed by generic name and from essential drugs list was 24.96% and 71.81% respectively. Mean cost of hypolipidemic agents/prescription/day was 10.74 (±1.96 Indian Rupees with rosuvastatin being the costliest. Conclusion: Rational use of hypolipidemic agents with an increasing trend of statins prescriptions will significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality from coronary heart diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 470-475

  15. Comparison of voiding cystourethrography and urosonography with second-generation contrast agents in simultaneous prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świętoń, Dominik; Rybczyńska, Dorota; Czarniak, Piotr; Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Kaszubowski, Mariusz; Szurowska, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Background The invasiveness and exposure to radiation in voiding cystourethrography led to the introduction of alternative methods of diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, including contrast enhanced voiding urosonography. While there is a limited number of studies comparing these methods using new generation ultrasound contrast agents, none of them compared both methods simultaneously. This study is aimed at assessing agreement between contrast enhanced voiding urosonography with second-generation ultrasound contrast agents and voiding cystourethrography. Methods From April 2013 to May 2014, 83 children (37 female and 46 male), mean age 3.5 years, age range from 1 month to 17.5 years, underwent prospective simultaneous assessment by contrast enhanced voiding urosonography and voiding cystourethrography, with a total of 166 uretero-renal units evaluated. Results The sensitivity of voiding cystourethrography and contrast enhanced voiding urosonography were comparable, amounting to 88%, however, neither reached 100% for the entire studied population. The negative predictive value of voiding urosonography and voiding cystourethrography was 97%, and there was no difference between both methods. Conclusion Voiding cystourethrography and contrast enhanced voiding urosonography are comparable methods in diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, and can be performed alternatively. However, some limitations of contrast enhanced voiding urosonography must be remembered.

  16. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Working on the street and exposure to violence at work: a study with traffic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lancman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done with transit agents, who for various reasons related to the organization of their work and the fact that the street is their work space, are exposed to situations of intense verbal, and sometimes physical, aggression. By studying this situation it is hoped to make a contribution to understanding the impact of violence on the mental health of workers who work on the streets and its reflections in their health, their work development and relationships. This study was based on theoretical/methodological principles of the psychodynamics of work. This is a reserach-action method in which doing research presupposes having a transformative action on the situation studied. We verified that living with violence in the exercise of their profession has a strong impact on workers' mental health on the one hand, and on the other, they develop strategies and use work-related intelligence in order to be able to continue working.

  18. Studies on the selective Am3+ transport, irradiation stability and surface morphology of polymer inclusion membranes containing Cyanex-301 as carrier extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K; Hassan, P A; Manchanda, V K

    2011-08-15

    Transport behaviour of Am(3+) across cellulose triacetate (CTA) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing Cyanex-301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the carrier extractant and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) as the plasticizer was investigated from different feed and strip conditions. The TBP plasticized membrane resulted back transport of Am when alpha-hydroxy iso-butyric acid was used as the complexing agent in the strip phase while no such effect was seen when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as the complexant. Effect of varying Cyanex-301 concentration and bipyridyl (bipy) concentration on Am transport was also investigated. Long term reusability of the membrane was studied by measuring the permeability coefficient (P) after exposing the PIMs to a maximum gamma ray dose of ∼ 200 kGy. The surface morphology of the membranes was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and the roughness parameter was correlated to transport efficiency.

  19. Methods and models for the design and study of dynamic agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agents are so called intelligent computer programs that are able to function autonomously and act pro-actively to perform tasks. A group of agents that is cooperating to perform a large task is called a Multi-Agent System (MAS). Similar to human organizations, a MAS also requires a form of organizat

  20. A morphological and morphometric study of jugular foramen in dry skulls with its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Jugular foramen of human skull is one of the most interesting foramina. It is a complex bony canal, numerous vital structures, including nerves and vessels are transmitted through it. Most of the intracranial and extra cranial lesions of posterior cranial fossa might affect the structures in jugular foramen in addition to intrinsic abnormalities. As the neurosurgeons have become courageous in approaching this area, so there is a need to become familiar with this area. Hence, the present study was done to examine the anatomy of jugular foramen, including its morphological features and dimensions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 50 dried skulls. 100 jugular foramina were studied on both right and left side of skulls. The length, width of jugular foramen and width and depth of jugular fossa were measured using vernier calipers. Presence of dome, complete and incomplete septation was also looked for. Results: The mean right and left anteroposterior diameter, latero-medial diameter, area, jugular fossa width, depth in our study was 11.22, 16.52, 187.34, 6.83, 11.58 mm and 9.52, 16.02, 153.2, 5.69, 11.13 mm. Dome was present in jugular foramen in 74% on the right side and 58% on the left side. Complete septation in jugular foramen is seen in 44% on the right side and 42% on the left side. Conclusion: This study will help the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region.

  1. Morphological Effects in Children Word Reading: A Priming Study in Fourth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Severine; Dusautoir, Marion; Cole, Pascale; Ducrot, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    A growing corpus of evidence suggests that morphology could play a role in reading acquisition, and that young readers could be sensitive to the morphemic structure of written words. In the present experiment, we examined whether and when morphological information is activated in word recognition. French fourth graders made visual lexical…

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Shaffer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3. We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8 for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Orlova, Ekaterina; Lee, Myoung Keun; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Raffensperger, Zachary D; Heike, Carrie L; Cunningham, Michael L; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Kau, Chung How; Nidey, Nichole L; Moreno, Lina M; Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Laurie, Cecelia A; Laurie, Cathy C; Cole, Joanne; Ferrara, Tracey; Santorico, Stephanie; Klein, Ophir; Mio, Washington; Feingold, Eleanor; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A; Marazita, Mary L; Weinberg, Seth M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis.

  4. Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of glyphosate tolerance in Mexican Cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara de la Cruz, Ricardo; Barro, Francisco; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José Alfredo; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, glyphosate-tolerant legumes have been used as cover crops for weed management in tropical areas of Mexico. Mexican cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.) is an innate glyphosate-tolerant legume with a potential as a cover crop in temperate areas of the country. In this work, glyphosate tolerance was characterized in two Mexican cologania (a treated (T) and an untreated (UT)) populations as being representatives of the species, compared in turn to a glyphosate-susceptible hairy fleabane (S) (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.) population. Experiments revealed that T and UT Mexican cologania populations had a higher tolerance index (TI), and a lower shikimic acid accumulation and foliar retention than the hairy fleabane S population. Absorption and translocation, leaf morphology and metabolism studies were only carried out in the Mexican cologania T population and the hairy fleabane S population. The latter absorbed 37% more (14)C-glyphosate compared to the Mexican cologania T at 96 h after treatment (HAT). Mexican cologania T translocated less herbicide from the treated leaf to the remainder of the plant than hairy fleabane S. The Mexican cologania T presented a greater epicuticular wax coverage percentage than the hairy fleabane S. This morphological characteristic contributed to the low glyphosate absorption observed in the Mexican cologania. In addition, the Mexican cologania T metabolized glyphosate mainly into AMPA, formaldehyde and sarcosine. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance observed in Mexican cologania is mainly due to the poor penetration and translocation of glyphosate into the active site, and the high glyphosate degradation into non-toxic substances.

  5. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smijs, Threes G M; Mulder, Aat A; Pavel, Stan; Onderwater, Jos J M; Koerten, Henk K; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for superficial mycosis caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum consist of the use of topical or oral antifungal preparations. We have recently discovered that T. rubrum is susceptible to photodynamic treatment (PDT), with 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) as a photosensitizer. The susceptibility appeared to depend on the fungal growth stage, with PDT efficacy higher with microconidia when compared to mycelia. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the use of scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes caused by a lethal PDT dose to T. rubrum when grown on isolated human stratum corneum. Corresponding dark treatment and light treatment without photosensitizer were used as controls. A sub-lethal PDT dose was also included in this investigation The morphologic changes were followed at various time points after the treatment of different fungal growth stages. Normal fungal growth was characterized by a fiber-like appearance of the surface of the hyphae and microconidia with the exception of the hyphal tips in full mycelia and the microconidia shortly after attachment to the stratum corneum. Here, densely packed globular structures were observed. The light dose (108 J/cm2) in the absence of Sylsens B, or the application of the photosensitizer in the absence of light, caused reversible fungal wall deformations and bulge formation. However, after a lethal PDT, a sequence of severe disruptions and deformations of both microconidia and the mycelium were observed leading to extrusion of cell material and emptied fungal elements. In case of a non-lethal PDT, fungal re-growth started on the remnants of the treated mycelium.

  6. Insights on the Study of Nafion Nanoscale Morphology by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yakovlev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nafion is one of the most common materials used for polyelectrolyte membranes and is the standard to which novel materials are compared. In spite of great interest in Nafion’s nanostructure, it is still a subject of controversy. While multiple research efforts have addressed Nafion’s morphology with Transmission Electron Microscopy, the results of these efforts have often been inconsistent and cannot satisfactorily describe the membrane structure. One of the reasons for differences in the reported results is the lack of sufficient control over the damage caused by electron beam irradiation. In this work, we describe some aspects of damage in the material that have a strong influence on the results. We show that irradiation causes mass loss and phase separation in the material and that the morphologies that have been observed are, in many cases, artifacts caused by damage. We study the effect of the sample temperature on damage and show that, while working at low temperature does not prevent damage and mass loss, it slows formation of damage-induced artifacts to the point where informative low-dose images of almost undamaged material may be collected. We find that charging of the sample has a substantial effect on the damage, and the importance of charge neutralization under irradiation is also seen by the large reduction of beam induced movement with the use of an objective aperture or a conductive support film. To help interpret the low-dose images, we can apply slightly higher exposures to etch away the hydrophobic phase with the electron beam and reveal the network formed by the hydrophilic phase. Energy loss spectroscopy shows evidence that fluorine removal governs the beam damage process.

  7. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  8. Comparative study of gum arabic and PVP as stabilizing agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andressa A.; Leal, Jessica; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: andressa_alvess@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Use Colloidal metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles have received a great attention, due in part to their specific properties and potential applications. Control of size and uniformity of nanoparticles is important to prevent aggregation. High-molecular-weight polymers were used as stabilizer agents. Natural polymers, such as gum Arabic, are used as stabilizer because of capping nanoparticles behavior and present advantages such as solubility, non- toxicity and its compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Previous studies showed that the hydrophilic group of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) caused repulsion on gold nanoparticles surface because steric interactions with polymer, for this reason this kind of polymers could be used as stabilizer agent. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles with PVP and gum Arabic using gamma radiation. The results obtained by samples analysis using UV-Visible showed that the gamma irradiation doses influenced the nanoparticles formation by PVP but that is not the case with the GA, because for smaller quantity of Arabic gum in different doses produced and stabilized nanoparticles. The samples were observed for 20 days and showed stability. We have obtained preliminary results showed that the use of radiation is applicable to the formation of gold nanoparticles. (author)

  9. Drug use pattern of antidepressant agents in psychiatric patients – A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksha Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a major public health problem. It causes clinically significant distress, impairment of social, occupational or other important areas of function. Objective: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of antidepressant agents in patients attending psychiatry OPD at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method: A prospective study was carried out at psychiatry outpatient department (OPD at VS General Hospital for 6 months. Patients who were prescribed any of the antidepressant medications irrespective of clinical indication either as monotherapy or in combination with other psychotherapeutic agents were included in the study. Result: Total 455 patients were enrolled for 6 months. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was the most common diagnosis (85.93%. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs was the most commonly prescribed drug group (56.7% followed by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs (46.8%. Amongst TCAs, imipramine was most frequently prescribed drug (65.89% followed by sertraline (56.8% among the SSRIs. Both the TCAs and newer antidepressants were prescribed with equal frequencies. Conclusion: Amongst antidepressants most frequently prescribed medication was imipramine followed by sertraline.

  10. Optimization of the protocols for the use of contrast agents in PET/CT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrí Martínez, L; Kohan, A A; Vercher Conejero, J L

    The introduction of PET/CT scanners in clinical practice in 1998 has improved care for oncologic patients throughout the clinical pathway, from the initial diagnosis of disease through the evaluation of the response to treatment to screening for possible recurrence. The CT component of a PET/CT study is used to correct the attenuation of PET studies; CT also provides anatomic information about the distribution of the radiotracer. CT is especially useful in situations where PET alone can lead to false positives and false negatives, and CT thereby improves the diagnostic performance of PET. The use of intravenous or oral contrast agents and optimal CT protocols have improved the detection and characterization of lesions. However, there are circumstances in which the systematic use of contrast agents is not justified. The standard acquisition in PET/CT scanners is the whole body protocol, but this can lead to artifacts due to the position of patients and respiratory movements between the CT and PET acquisitions. This article discusses these aspects from a constructive perspective with the aim of maximizing the diagnostic potential of PET/CT and providing better care for patients.

  11. Alternative oxidizers for strip coal mine blasting agents. [Including study of possible substitutes; 53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Collins, T.K.

    1979-03-14

    Since ammonium nitrate manufacture is dependent on natural gas, a shortage in natural gas could lead to a critical shortage in coal by limiting the availability of ammonium nitrate for blasting. The purpose of this study was to assess the future availability of ammonium nitrate and to evaluate the potential of alternative oxidizers not dependent upon natural gas for use in blasting agents. Increased storage capacities and rapidly increasing levels of relativey cheap imported ammonia appear to ensure the availability of adequate levels of ammonium nitrate in the near future. In the longer time frame, rising energy costs have increased the potential for basing ammonia production on alternative sources of hydrogen as well as obtaining natural gas from relatively unlimited unconventional sources. While still somewhat uncertain, such unconventional sources appear to have sufficient potential to ensure the availability of ammonium nitrate even long term. However, there are several oxidizers that could be considered as possible replacements for ammonium nitrate if needed. After a critical evaluation two possible alternatives are recommended for further study: the use of sodium nitrate as a partial replacement and the development of a new type of blasting agent based upon water as the main oxidizer.

  12. Comparative evaluation between 20% EDTA-S & Ornidazole gel as root biomodification agent ASEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant V Khairnar, NilkanthMhaske, NeelimaRajhans, NikeshN Moolya, Sudeep HM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It should be well understood that the root surface receptiveness to clot formation & initial periodontal wound healing decides the nature of the connective tissue attachments. This study was carried out to assess the initial wound healing events after the application of 20% EDTA-S & Ornidazole gel and assess the formation of fibrin network following blood. Material& Method: Thirty multi-rooted teeth indicated for extraction due to periodontal disease were selected & divided into group A (20%EDTA-S, group B (Ornidazole gel (1% W/V, group C (7.4pH phosphate buffer saline, group D (20%EDTA-S+ Blood, group E (Ornidazole gel+ Blood, group F (7.4pH phosphate buffer saline+ Blood. Following root planning, the root surface was cut using diamond disc under copious irrigation. Samples from each group were subjected for root conditioning agent application by passive method. Specimens were then subjected to scanning electron microscopic study. Smear layers removal were analysed by Sampaia et al index. Results: 20%EDTA-S removed the smear layer better than ornidazole gel. Fibrin network formation was seen with specimen treated with 20% EDTA-S + Blood. Conclusion: Use of 20% EDTA-S as root conditioning agent has a beneficial effect on initial wound healing events, which are important for periodontal regenerative therapies.

  13. Atomic-scale study of vapour growth morphology of crystalline urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K. [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Banerjee, A. [Laser Physics Applications Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2011-10-15

    The role of surface relaxation on habit controlling energetics and growth morphology are investigated within the framework of Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) and Hartman-Perdok (HP) models. The habit controlling energetics has been calculated using first principles method. The growth morphology obtained using BCF theory shows that the structural relaxation has considerable effect on growth morphology. The relaxed growth morphology obtained using BCF model match with the experimental result from vapour phase. On the other hand the shape obtained using HP model does not correspond with the experimental shape. Observed polar growth morphology of urea crystal has been discussed particularly in the context of different atomic environments of (111) and (111) faces. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  15. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  16. Study of cell killing and morphology on S180 by ultrasound activating hematoporphyrin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全宏; 孙世惠; 肖娅萍; 齐浩; 尚志远; 张军平; 张金选; 任耀辉; 李萌; 李青

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of ascitic S180 and induced sarcoma 180 in vivo was studied with the combination of hematoporphyrin derivatives (HpD) and ultrasound (US) at the frequency of 1.1 MHz and different intensities by light microscopy observation, electronic microscopy observation, cytochemical analysis and fluorescence labeling. The present study indicated that the injury of ascitic S180 increased as time passed and the inhibitory effect was stronger in US plus HpD group than that in other groups. Our results also indicated that the changes in cell structure, cytochrome C oxidase activity, the degradation and missing of DNA were the important factors that inhibited the tumor cell growth and even induced celldeath. The phenomenon of apoptosis of tumor cells indicated that cell death andinduced apoptosis exist in the treatment of sonodynamic therapy (SDT). Our study investigated the mechanism underlying the killing effect of S180 induced by USactivating HpD by the observation of cell morphology and dynamic changes from seminal injury to succeeded injury even to death. It would provide rich referencefor the study of SDT.

  17. Soil evolution in spruce forest ecosystems: role and influence of humus studied by morphological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chersich S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the role and the mutual influences of humus and soil in alpine spruce forest ecosystems we studied and classified 7 soil - humic profiles on the 4 main forestry dynamics: open canopy, regeneration, young stand, tree stage. We studied the role of humification process in the pedologic process involving soils and vegetations studing humic and soil horizons. Study sites are located at an altitude of 1740 m a.s.l near Pellizzano (TN, and facing to the North. The parent soil material is predominantly composed of morenic sediments, probably from Cevedale glacier lying on a substrate of tonalite from Presanella (Adamello Tertiary pluton. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. The characteristics observed in field were correlated with classical chemical and physical soil analyses (MIPAF 2000. In order to discriminate the dominant soil forming process, the soils were described and classified in each site according to the World Reference Base (FAO-ISRIC-ISSS 1998. Humus was described and classified using the morphological-genetic approach (Jabiol et al. 1995. The main humus forms are acid and they are for the greater part Dysmoder on PODZOLS. The main pedogenetic processes is the podzolization, locally there are also hydromorphic processes. We associate a definite humus form with a pedological process at a particular step of the forest evolution. We concluded thath the soil study for a correct pedological interpretation must take count of the characteristics of the humic epipedon.

  18. GROWTH RATE OF HUMAN FETAL LUNG WITH INCREASE IN GESTATIO NAL AGE: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study was designed to find out a relationship between growth rate of lung of the human fetuses at different gestational weeks and that of lung weight/body weight ratio with increase in gestational weeks. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This morphological study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal, Manipur with the permission of the Medical Superintendent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried ou t on 63 ( S ixty three fetuses of different gestational ages ranging from 11 th to 36 th gestational weeks obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal. The gross morphological parameter s such as weights of fetuses and lungs were noted. The mean  SD values of the fetuses and lung weights were measured. The data were statistically and graphically analyzed. RESULTS: The growth rate of left and right lungs showed a minimal value of about 1. 80 gm upto 13 th gestational week and thereafter showed a gradual increase from 13 th to 20 th week and then showed a moderately steep rise and was found to be almost similar upto 24 th week showing an average weight of about 18 gm. From 24 th week, the growth rate of right lung was found slightly faster than that of left lung upto the 36 th gestational week. The differential rate of the lung weight/body weight ratios was observed as follows: a steep fall from 11 th to 12 th week, then a gradual increase from 12 th to 14 th week, then a moderately steep fall from 14 th to 16 th week and then a gradual fall upto 20 th week, a gradual increase from 20 th to 24 th week, then a gradual fall from 24 th to 31 st week and then remained almost constant upto 36 th week. CONCLUSION: T he present study revealed that the growth rate of both the lungs increased gradually upto 20 th week and then a moderate steep rise from 20 th to 24 th week. A significant and

  19. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram.

  20. Novel dual-mode immunomagnetic method for studying reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Carter W; Knaack, Jennifer L S; Ali, Ahmed A I; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2013-05-20

    A novel immunomagnetic method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and free OPNAs in serum. This new approach, deemed dual-mode immunomagnetic analysis (Dual-Mode IMA), combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunomagnetic scavenging (IMSc) and has been used to measure the effectiveness of cholinesterase reactivators on OPNA-inhibited BuChE in serum. BuChE inhibited by the nerve agent VX, uninhibited BuChE, and unbound VX were measured up to 1 h after the addition of oxime reactivators pralidoxime (2-PAM) and obidoxime. IMS experiments consisted of extracting BuChE and VX-BuChE serum adducts using antibutyrylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies conjugated to protein-G ferromagnetic particles. In a parallel set of experiments using IMSc, BuChE-coated magnetic beads were used to extract free VX from protein-depleted serum. Adducts from both IMS and IMSc were analyzed using a published IMS liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IMS-LC-MS/MS) protocol, which has also been demonstrated with other OPNAs. By applying this Dual-Mode IMA approach, 2-PAM was observed to be more potent than obidoxime in reactivating VX-adducted BuChE. VX-BuChE peptide concentrations initially measured at 19.7 ± 0.7 ng/mL decreased over 1 h to 10.6 ± 0.6 ng/mL when reactivated with 2-PAM and 14.4 ± 1.2 ng/mL when reactivated with obidoxime. These experiments also show that previously published IMS-LC-MS/MS analyses are compatible with serum treated with oximes. Dual-Mode IMA is the first immunoaffinity method developed for the simultaneous measurement of OPNA adducted BuChE, unadducted BuChE, and free nerve agent in serum and is a promising new tool for studying reactivator effectiveness on cholinesterases inhibited by nerve agents.

  1. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  2. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of zinc doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared successfully by hydrothermal route on large scale having different doping concentration of zinc from 0 to 0.20%. The calcined nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for structural and morphological studies. XRD analyses reveal that the nanoparticles of these doping concentrations are polycrystalline in nature and existed as tetragonal rutile structure, SEM study of images confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, and spherical nanoparticles. The particles size of the nanoparticles was calculated by Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 9-21 nm. The presence of dopant (i.e. zinc) and formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles are confirmed by EDX and FTIR study. The gas sensing properties of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated for various concentrations of methanol, ethanol and acetone at different operating temperatures and it has been found that with doping concentration of zinc (x = 0.20%) shows the maximum response 78% to methanol, 65% to ethanol and 62% to acetone respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit for a concentration of 100 ppm of each gases.

  3. Surface Morphology and Growth of Anodic Titania Nanotubes Films: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2015-01-01

    become the most studied material as they exhibit promising functional properties. In the present study, anodic TiO2 films with different surface morphologies can be synthesized in an organic electrolyte of ethylene glycol (EG by controlling an optimum content of ammonium fluoride (NH4F using electrochemical anodization technique. Based on the results obtained, well-aligned and bundle-free TiO2 nanotube arrays with diameter of 100 nm and length of 8 µm were successfully synthesized in EG electrolyte containing ≈5 wt% of NH4F for 1 h at 60 V. However, formation of nanoporous structure and compact oxide layer would be favored if the content of NH4F was less than 5 wt%. In the photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting studies, well-aligned TiO2 nanotubular structure exhibited higher photocurrent density of ≈1 mA/cm2 with photoconversion efficiency of ≈2% as compared to the nanoporous and compact oxide layer due to the higher active surface area for the photon absorption to generate more photo-induced electrons during photoexcitation stage.

  4. A STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A TWO-YEAR STUDY

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    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this tertiary care hospital, one of the common condition of all the patients attending the hospital is Anaemia, which is a decrease in haemoglobin content or decrease in haematocrit below the lower limit of the 95% reference range for the individual’s age and sex. The patient presents with varied symptoms of different grades, depending on the severity of anaemia, in different clinical settings. Common presenting symptoms of anaemia are generalised weakness, malaise, loss of appetite and muscular pains. METHODS All the patient samples received at the central laboratory for haemogram, complete blood counts and peripheral smear examination over the period of two years between June 2014 to May 2016 were included in the study. Anaemia cases were diagnosed depending on the criteria of the definition of anaemia, and morphological typing of anaemia was done based on the peripheral smear examination of all the cases with decreased haemoglobin level. Standard cell counter was used to estimate the Hb and other red cell indices, and corroborated with peripheral blood smear examination by standard Romanowsky stains. RESULTS A total of 810 cases of anaemia were diagnosed over the period of two years, of which morphological typing yielded 685 cases of Microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, 15 cases of Dimorphic anaemia, 22 cases of Macrocytic anaemia and 88 cases of Normocytic and normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION Anaemia is one of the most common problems of patients attending this tertiary care hospital, and detection and morphological typing of anaemia is very helping in guiding the clinicians in diagnosis and further management of anaemias for better patient care.

  5. A Study of the Adsorption of Molecular Deposition Filming Flooding Agent MD-1 on Quartz Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoManglai; LiuYong; MengXiuxia; WangJianshe

    2004-01-01

    Molecular deposition filming flooding (MDFF) is a novel oil recovery technique based on the thermopositive monolayer electrostatic adsorption of the MDFF agent on different interfaces within reservoir systems. In this paper, the adsorption property of the MDFF agent, MD-I, on quartz sand has been studied through adsorption experiments at different pH and temperatures. Experimental data are also analyzed kinetically and thermodynamically. The results show that the adsorption of MD-I on quartz sand takes place mainly because of electrostatic interactions, which corresponds to adsorption that increases with pH. Kinetic analyses show that at a higher pH the activation energy for adsorption gets lower and, therefore, the adsorption becomes quicker for MD-1 on quartz sand. Thermodynamic analyses show that pH plays an important role in the adsorption of MD-1 on quartz sand. At a higher pH, more negative surface charges result in the increase of electrostatic interactions between MD-1 and quartz sand. Therefore, the saturated adsorption amount increases and more adsorption heat will be released.

  6. Copper-64 Dichloride as Theranostic Agent for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Preclinical Study

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    Cristina Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival time less than one year. To date, there are only a limited number of effective agents available for GBM therapy and this does not seem to add much survival advantage over the conventional approach based on surgery and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to GBM is essential and those based on radionuclide therapy could be of significant clinical impact. Experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that cancer cells have a particularly high fractional content of copper inside the nucleus compared to normal cells. This behavior can be conveniently exploited both for diagnosis and for delivering therapeutic payloads (theranostic of the radionuclide copper-64 into the nucleus of cancerous cells by intravenous administration of its simplest chemical form as dichloride salt [64Cu]CuCl2. To evaluate the potential theranostic role of [64Cu]CuCl2 in GBM, the present work reports results from a preclinical study carried out in a xenografted GBM tumor mouse model. Biodistribution data of this new agent were collected using a small-animal PET tomograph. Subsequently, groups of tumor implanted nude mice were treated with [64Cu]CuCl2 to simulate single- and multiple-dose therapy protocols, and results were analyzed to estimate therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Study of Lipid Profile in Obese Individuals and the Effect of Cholesterol Lowering Agents on Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Kumar Mukhopadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of cholesterol lowering agents on lipid profile in obese patients. Background: Obesity leads to morbidity as well as mortality. There is usually increased level of total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL- cholesterol, triglycerides and decreased level of HDL- cholesterol in obesity. These are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary disorder and gall stones. Method: Thirty obese patients received treatment with Lovastatin along with dietary measures, compared with age and sex matched controls- before and after 6 weeks of therapy, presented in a table and results were analysed using student's "t" test (both paired and unpaired. Result: There was significant reduction in total cholesterol as well as LDL- cholesterol; HDL- cholesterol was also increased significantly. But triglycerides and VLDL- cholesterol showed small but significant increase. Conclusion: Cholesterol lowering agents like Lovastatin was quite effective when used long-term in dyslipidaemia in obesity towards reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, strokes, etc. Hypertriglyceridaemia should also be treated adequately

  8. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study on some benzodiazepine derivatives as anti-Alzheimer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Bikash; Gayen, Shovanlal; Basu, Anindya; Srikanth, Kolluru; Jha, Tarun

    2004-12-01

    A QSAR study was performed in an attempt to explore the pharmacophore of some benzodiazepine derivatives as anti-Alzheimer agents for the inhibition of gamma-secretase. The study, which used the electrotopological state atom (ETSA) index, which encodes electronic and topological information, reveals the importance of two phenyl rings-one substituted and another unsubstituted, for the inhibition of the enzyme. Fluorine substitution on the substituted phenyl ring has an important contribution to the activity. R-configurations of the aliphatic chain substituents provide the exact conformation of the molecules to enter into the binding pockets of the receptor(s). [figure: see text]. General structure of benzodiazepine containing gamma-secretase inhibitors.

  9. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa Linn. as an antifungal agent in plant tissue culture studies

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    R.S. Upendra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Culturing the individual plant cells, tissues (explants and organs in laboratory or in vitro on synthetic media (MS media under aseptic conditions is a usual process in plant tissue culture studies. The medium is rich in nutrients, also supports the growth of variety of microorganisms especially bacteria and fungi, which causecontamination of the medium, though the media is sterilized by autoclaving. During the process of cooling and transferring the media, the chances of fungal contamination remain high. This is avoided to the maximum extent following the good laboratory practices. A novel means could be incorporating turmeric, a well -known antifungal agent, into the media. In the present study, attempts were made to avoid fungal contamination using the media with various concentration of turmeric powder. Results of the investigation revealed that turmeric powder used at the concentrations of 0.8 g/L and 1.0 g/L in the media resulted in appreciable control of fungal contamination.

  10. A Multi-agent Simulation Tool for Micro-scale Contagion Spread Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Within the disaster preparedness and emergency response community, there is interest in how contagions spread person-to-person at large gatherings and if mitigation strategies can be employed to reduce new infections. A contagion spread simulation module was developed for the Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit that allows a user to see how a geographically accurate layout of the gathering space helps or hinders the spread of a contagion. The results can inform mitigation strategies based on changing the physical layout of an event space. A case study was conducted for a particular event to calibrate the underlying simulation model. This paper presents implementation details of the simulation code that incorporates agent movement and disease propagation. Elements of the case study are presented to show how the tool can be used.

  11. Thermal Analysis, Structural Studies and Morphology of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen

    Spider silk is a remarkable natural block copolymer, which offers a unique combination of low density, excellent mechanical properties, and thermal stability over a wide range of temperature, along with biocompatibility and biodegrability. The dragline silk of Nephila clavipes, is one of the most well understood and the best characterized spider silk, in which alanine-rich hydrophobic blocks and glycine-rich hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating a functional block copolymer with potential uses in biomedical applications such as guided tissue repair and drug delivery. To provide further insight into the relationships among peptide amino acid sequence, block length, and physical properties, in this thesis, we studied synthetic proteins inspired by the genetic sequences found in spider dragline silks, and used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study thermal, structural and morphological features. To obtain a fuller understanding of the thermal dynamic properties of these novel materials, we use a model to calculate the heat capacity of spider silk block copolymer in the solid or liquid state, below or above the glass transition temperature, respectively. We characterize the thermal phase transitions by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). We also determined the crystallinity by TMDSC and compared the result with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). To understand the protein-water interactions with respect to the protein amino acid sequence, we also modeled the specific reversing heat capacity of the protein-water system, Cp(T), based on the vibrational, rotational and translational motions of protein amino acid residues and water molecules. Advanced thermal analysis methods using TMDSC and TGA show two glass transitions were observed in all samples during heating. The low temperature glass transition, Tg(1), is related to

  12. Study on a new nano-dispersing agent and its effect for increasing suspension ability of alcohol-based coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    A study for further improving the suspension rate of alcohol-based coatings using a new nano-dispersing agent has been presented in this paper. The results of experiments show that the new nano-dispersing agent should be used in combination with organic auxiliary agent which significantly increases the suspension effect of alcohol-based coatings. By the methods, the suspension rates of 99%, 98%, 96% and 94% can be achieved at 2h, 2h, 48h and 72h, respectively. These alcohol-based coatings have characters of higher strength, lower gas evolution, better brush ability and no blister after ignition.

  13. Morphological and molecular studies on life cycle stages of Diphtherostomum brusinae (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, S; Tajdari, J; Russell-Pinto, F; Rodrigues, P

    2009-12-01

    Diphtherostomum brusinae was first recorded by the present study in the north of Portugal. Sporocysts, containing cercariae and encysted metacercariae, were observed in the gonads and digestive gland of the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus. Metacercariae were also found infecting the foot, mantle border and gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. The adult form was lodged in the rectum of the definitive host Diplodus sargus. The morphology of the three parasitic stages was studied by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite the close similarity between cercaria and metacercaria, SEM data provided information that allowed their differentiation, namely the presence of a dense crown of microvilli around the oral cavity of the cercariae, which was absent in the metacercariae. In addition, the metacercariae presented a specific pre-acetabular rectangular band with conspicuous triangular spines. The adult showed characteristics of D. brusinae species, in particular the presence of acetabular lips, compact vitellaria and large elliptical eggs. Sequenced ITS1 data clearly demonstrated that the cercariae and metacercarial cysts from N. reticulatus, the cysts from C. edule and the adult isolated from D. sargus were life cycle stages that belonged to the same species, i.e. D. brusinae. Two transmission strategies in the life cycle of this species were observed: (1) cercariae encyst within the sporocysts of N. reticulatus and await ingestion by the definitive host; and (2) N. reticulatus naturally emits cercariae; they encyst in C. edule or the environment and are ingested by the definitive host.

  14. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, S; Boumis, P; Monteiro, H; Gonçalves, D R; Redman, M P; Williams, S

    2016-01-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of $\\sim$19,400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 $M_{\\odot}$ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] $\\lambda 5200$ and [O I] $\\lambda 6300$ emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme Type-I PNe. The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/H$\\alpha$ vs. [S II]/H$\\alpha$ diagnostic diagram, where sho...

  15. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  16. Chromaffin cell calcium signal and morphology study based on multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongxiu; Wei, Shunhui; Qu, Anlian; Zhou, Zhuan

    1998-09-01

    Increasing or decreasing the internal calcium concentration can promote or prevent programmed cell death (PCD). We therefore performed a Ca2+ imaging study using Ca2+ indicator dye fura-2 and a sensitive cooled-CCD camera with a 12 bit resolution. Monochromatic beams of light with a wavelength of 345,380 nm were isolated from light emitted by a xenon lamp using a monochromator. The concentration of free calcium can be directly calculated from the ratio of two fluorescence values taken at two appropriately selected wavelength. Fluorescent light emitted from the cells was capture using a camera system. The cell morphology study is based on multispectral scanning, with smear images provided as three monochromatic images by illumination with light of 610,535 and 470 nm wavelengths. The nuclear characteristic parameters extracted from individual nuclei by system are nuclear area, nuclear diameter, nuclear density vector. The results of the restoration of images and the performance of a primitive logic for the detection of nuclei with PCD proved the usefulness of the system and the advantages of using multispectral images in the restoration and detection procedures.

  17. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  18. Study on the structure and morphology of supramolecular shape memory polyurethane containing pyridine moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. J.; Hu, J. L.; Chen, S. G.; Zhang, C. L.

    2011-06-01

    Fabricating smart materials has been an attractive research topic in recent years. In this study, a series of pyridine-containing shape memory polyurethanes (Py-SMPUs) with different pyridine contents were synthesized. Based on the theoretical analysis, the structure and morphology of Py-SMPUs were studied systematically with FT-IR, DSC, WAXD, DMA, AFM, etc. Results show that a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure is formed in the Py-SMPUs. Hydrogen bonds present in the urethane group and pyridine ring are the most favorable hydrogen bonds which play an important role in the movement of the polymer chain. Microphase separation consisting of a soft phase and hard phase occurs in the Py-SMPUs. The soft phase is influenced greatly by the N, N-bis(2-hydroxyl ethyl) isonicotinamide (BINA) unit and the hard phase is mainly a result of the hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol (HDI-BDO) units. As the BINA content decreases, the soft phase tends to change gradually from a continuous amorphous phase to a droplet-like dispersion phase, whereas the hard phase develops from a droplet-like dispersion amorphous phase to a continuous crystalline phase.

  19. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data.Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  20. Separating Morphologically Similar Pollen Types Using Basic Shape Features from Digital Images: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Holt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: One of the many advantages offered by automated palynology systems is the ability to vastly increase the number of observations made on a particular sample or samples. This is of particular benefit when attempting to fully quantify the degree of variation within or between closely related pollen types. Methods: An automated palynology system (Classifynder has been used to further investigate the variation in pollen morphology between two New Zealand species of Myrtaceae (Leptospermum scoparium and Kunzea ericoides that are of significance in the New Zealand honey industry. Seven geometric features extracted from automatically gathered digital images were used to characterize the range of shape and size of the two taxa, and to examine the extent of previously reported overlap in these variables. Results: Our results indicate a degree of overlap in all cases. The narrowest overlap was in measurements of maximum Feret diameter (MFD in grains oriented in polar view. Multivariate statistical analysis using all seven factors provided the most robust discrimination between the two types. Discussion: Further work is required before this approach could be routinely applied to separating the two pollen types used in this study, most notably the development of comprehensive reference distributions for the types in question.

  1. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  2. The Mallory body: morphological, clinical and experimental studies (Part 1 of a literature survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-10-01

    To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments of intermediate diameter that contain intermediate filament components (e.g., cytokeratins) observable by conventional light microscopy or immunohistochemical methods, identical in structure regardless of initiating factors or putative pathogenesis. Although three morphological types can be identified under electron microscopy (with fibrillar structure parallel, random or absent), they remain stereotypical manifestations of hepatocyte injury. A summary of the conditions associated with Mallory bodies in the literature and their validity and potential etiological relationships is presented and discussed, including estimates on the combined light microscopic and immunohistochemical prevalences and kinetics. Emphasis is placed on proper confounder control (in particular, alcohol history), which is highly essential but often inadequate. These conditions include (mean prevalence of Mallory bodies in parentheses): Indian childhood cirrhosis (73%), alcoholic hepatitis (65%), alcoholic cirrhosis (51%), Wilson's disease (25%), primary biliary cirrhosis (24%), nonalcoholic cirrhosis (24%), hepatocellular carcinoma (23%), morbid obesity (8%) and intestinal bypass surgery (6%). Studies in alcoholic hepatitis strongly suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes, and Mallory bodies are only present in diabetic patients if alcoholism or obesity complicates the condition. In addition, case studies on diseases in which Mallory bodies

  3. Monitoring the morphological evolution of complex glaciers: the Planpincieux case-study (Mont Blanc - Aosta Valley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Curtaz, Michèle; Vagliasindi, Marco; Bertolo, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The Planpincieux Glacier (PG) is located on the Italian side of the Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc, Italy. This area is historically known for the occasional activation of ice falls events from the frontal part of the glacier. The PG is a so-called "polythermal" glacier, meaning that the liquid water present at contact between ice and the bedrock in the lower part of the glacier itself plays an important role in the glacier dynamics, and ice falls might occur in a sudden and unpredictable fashion. In this scenario, the accurate analysis of the glacier morphological evolution assumes a crucial role. Starting from 2012, within the framework of the regional plan for glaciers risk detection, a research project was set up to study the Planpincieux Glacier and evaluate the potential hazard concerning the possible activation of large ice or ice-snow avalanches triggered by icefall events in that area. Dynamics of such avalanches, as well as potentially endangered areas, have been evaluated in an expertise by the SLF Institute. Therefore, the availability of both qualitative information and quantitative measurements relevant to the glacier movements represented a primary goal. After a careful evaluation of several possible technical solutions to achieve displacement monitoring also based on the results of a preliminary study managed by the ETH Zurich (prof. M. Funk), we installed an experimental monitoring station located on the opposite side of the valley, at the top of the Mt. de la Saxe, ca. 3.5 km away from the main target. The monitoring station is composed of two modules, including: (i) a surveillance module, based on a medium resolution digital camera, observing large part of the slope; (ii) a photogrammetric module, based on a high resolution digital camera equipped with a 300mm optical zoom, pointed on the Planpincieux glacier front. At this stage, our analyses focused mainly on the qualitative assessment and recognition of impulsive phenomena affecting the

  4. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Jo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models.

  5. A study on the interplay between energy and matter transformation: the effect of elevated temperatures on the leaf morphology of Vitis vinifera var. Merlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, Jack; Bowen, Patricia; Bogdanoff, Carl

    2003-12-01

    This investigation explores the relationship between increased energy levels and leaf morphology. It tests the idea that the causal agent of development is the dissipation of energy into transformed matter. The energy under which leaves developed was modified by increasing temperatures in grape cordons through wrapping them in clear plastic sleeves in the early spring. At the higher temperatures, and energy levels, there was a small but statistically significant decrease in leaf size and a change in organization the leaves. The decrease in leaf size may be due to a reallocation of resources, either to greater shoot growth as a previous study demonstrated or to the appearance of more vectors of development in the leaves, i.e. the appearance of more developmental subsystems. The leaves that grew under the higher temperature regime were more complex, perhaps indicating that the grapes on those same vines may produce more complex juice, another expression of more developmental subsystems. The change in organization in these leaves that developed at higher temperature argues that the causal agent in plant development is energy dissipation and the concomitant transformation of matter, the latter expressed in the appearance of more growth vectors.

  6. Parallel Comparative Studies on Mouse Toxicity of Oxide Nanoparticle- and Gadolinium-Based T1 MRI Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ling, Daishun; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shuaifei; Liu, Ying; Bai, Ru; Baik, Seungmin; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-12-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity are highly desirable because they can significantly increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, they can be potentially toxic to the patients. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigate the toxic effects and subsequent tissue damage induced by three T1 MRI contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine injection (GDI), a clinically used gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (GBCAs), and oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents, extremely small-sized iron oxide NPs (ESIONs) and manganese oxide (MnO) NPs. Biodistribution, hematological and histopathological changes, inflammation, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are evaluated for 24 h after intravenous injection. These thorough assessments of the toxic and stress responses of these agents provide a panoramic description of safety concerns and underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of contrast agents in the body. We demonstrate that ESIONs exhibit fewer adverse effects than the MnO NPs and the clinically used GDI GBCAs, providing useful information on future applications of ESIONs as potentially safe MRI contrast agents.

  7. Rural-urban migration including formal and informal workers in the urban sector: an agent-based numerical simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nilton; Oliveira, Tharnier; Silveira, Jaylson

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this work is to study rural-urban migration in the early stages of industrialization. We use an agent-based model and take into account the existence of informal and formal workers on the urban sector and possible migration movements, dependent on the agents' social and private utilities. Our agents are place on vertices of a square lattice, such that each vertex has only one agent. Rural, urban informal and urban formal workers are represented by different states of a three-state Ising model. At every step, a fraction a of the agents may change sectors or migrate. The total utility of a given agent is then calculated and compared to a random utility, in order to check if this agent turns into an actual migrant or changes sector. The dynamics is carried out until an equilibrium state is reached and equilibrium variables are then calculated and compared to available data. We find that a generalized Harris-Todaro condition is satisfied [1] on these equilibrium regimes, i.e, the ratio between expected wages between any pair of sectors reach a constant value. [4pt] [1] J. J. Silveira, A. L. Esp'indola and T. J. Penna, Physica A, 364, 445 (2006).

  8. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  9. Morphology and mixing of black carbon particles collected in central California during the CARES field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Alpert, Peter A.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Pham, Don Q.; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol absorption is strongly dependent on the internal heterogeneity (mixing state) and morphology of individual particles containing black carbon (BC) and other non-absorbing species. Here, we examine an extensive microscopic data set collected in the California Central Valley during the CARES 2010 field campaign. During a period of high photochemical activity and pollution buildup, the particle mixing state and morphology were characterized using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon K-edge. Observations of compacted BC core morphologies and thick organic coatings at both urban and rural sites provide evidence of the aged nature of particles, highlighting the importance of highly aged particles at urban sites during periods of high photochemical activity. Based on the observation of thick coatings and more convex BC inclusion morphology, either the aging was rapid or the contribution of fresh BC emissions at the urban site was relatively small compared to background concentrations. Most particles were observed to have the BC inclusion close to the center of the host. However, host particles containing inorganic rich inclusions had the BC inclusion closer to the edge of the particle. These measurements of BC morphology and mixing state provide important constraints for the morphological effects on BC optical properties expected in aged urban plumes.

  10. Annual Report 2013-2014: Theoretical Studies of Nerve Agents Adsorbed on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-08

    agents: sarin, a nerve gas , (see Fig. 1) and VX type nerve agents . Although both nerve agents are organophosphates, they differ in the ester linkage...Environmental Effects in the Adsorption of DMMP, Sarin, and VX on gamma-Al2O3: Photolysis and Surface Hydroxylation. Journal of Physical Chemistry C...L Whitten Professor of Chemistry North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 Telephone Number: 919-515-7960 Email: whitten@ncsu.edu

  11. Morphology, cytogenetics, and survival in myelodysplasia with del(20q) or ider(20q): a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullier, François; Daliphard, Sylvie; Garand, Richard; Dekeyser, Mélanie; Cornet, Yvan; Luquet, Isabelle; Talmant, Pascaline; Richebourg, Steven; Jamar, Mauricette; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Christian; Michaux, Lucienne; Chatelain, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 20 with interstitial loss of material [ider(20q)] is a rare cytogenetic abnormality reported in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with neither specific morphological pattern nor clear prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective multicentric study is to compare the peripheral blood and bone marrow morphology of MDS patients with ider(20q) (n = 13) and del(20q) (n = 21) and controls (n = 47) in order to investigate whether the ider(20q) harbors specific morphological features. The secondary objective is to compare the outcome of patients from both groups. This study performed on the largest cohort of MDS patients with ider(20q) is the first that identifies specific morphological features (hypogranulated and vacuolized neutrophils and neutrophil erythrophagocytosis) allowing the identification of this cytogenetic abnormality with high sensitivity (70%) and specificity (85.7%). Suspected ider(20q) by morphology should therefore support targeted FISH tests in case of non informative karyotype. This combined approach will allow a better estimation of the prevalence of this underdiagnozed entity. The overall survival and progression-free survival did not statistically differ in both groups. However, hypogranulated and vacuolized neutrophils were significantly associated with survival.

  12. Novel enterobactin analogues as potential therapeutic chelating agents: Synthesis, thermodynamic and antioxidant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingchun; Jin, Bo; Shi, Zhaotao; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Qiangqiang; Lei, Shan; Peng, Rufang

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel hexadentate enterobactin analogues, which contain three catechol chelating moieties attached to different molecular scaffolds with flexible alkyl chain lengths, were prepared. The solution thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes with uranyl, ferric(III), and zinc(II) ions were then investigated. The hexadentate ligands demonstrate effective binding ability to uranyl ion, and the average uranyl affinities are two orders of magnitude higher than 2,3-dihydroxy-N1,N4-bis[(1,2-hydroxypyridinone-6-carboxamide)ethyl]terephthalamide [TMA(2Li-1,2-HOPO)2] ligand with similar denticity. The high affinity of hexadentate ligands could be due to the presence of the flexible scaffold, which favors the geometric agreement between the ligand and the uranyl coordination preference. The hexadentate ligands also exhibit higher antiradical efficiency than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These results provide a basis for further studies on the potential applications of hexadentate ligands as therapeutic chelating agents.

  13. Mineral trioxide aggregate as pulp capping agent for primary teeth pulpotomy: 2 year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Konde, Sapna; Mathew, Somy; Sugnani, Sony

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) as an agent for pulpotomy in primary teeth and to compare it with that of formocresol (FC) pulpotomy. Nineteen children between the ages of 6 to 8 years with 40 carious primary molars were treated with pulpotomy using either FC or MTA. All the molars were evaluated clinically and radiographically at regular intervals over a twenty four month period. The observations were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Eighty five percent success was observed with FC pulpotomy whereas MTA showed 95% success. MTA showed a higher clinical and radiographic success rate than FC. MTA may be a favorable material for pulpotomy in primary teeth whose pulps have been compromised by a carious or mechanical pulp exposure.

  14. Agent-based simulation of pedestrian behaviour in closed spaces: a museum case study

    CERN Document Server

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Inturri, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Andrea; Ignaccolo, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians at the very fine scale, while moving along the streets, in open spaces or inside a building, simulation modelling becomes an essential tool. In these spatial environments, in the presence of unusual demand flows, simulation requires the ability to model the local dynamics of individual decision making and behaviour, which is strongly affected by the geometry, randomness, social preferences, local and collective behaviour of other individuals. The dynamics of people visiting and evacuating a museum offers an excellent case study along this line. In this paper we realize an agent-based simulation of the Castello Ursino museum in Catania (Italy), evaluating its carrying capacity in terms of both satisfaction of the visitors in regime of normal fruition and their safety under alarm conditions.

  15. Use of Ion-Channel Modulating Agents to Study Cyanobacterial Na+ - K+ Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomati Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an experimental design aimed to investigate changes in total cellular levels of Na+ and K+ ions in cultures of freshwater filamentous cyanobacteria. Ion concentrations were measured in whole cells by flame photometry. Cellular Na+ levels increased exponentially with rising alkalinity, with K+ levels being maximal for optimal growth pH (~8. At standardized pH conditions, the increase in cellular Na+, as induced by NaCl at 10 mM, was coupled by the two sodium channel-modulating agents lidocaine hydrochloride at 1 &mgr;M and veratridine at 100 &mgr;M. Both the channel-blockers amiloride (1 mM and saxitoxin (1 &mgr;M, decreased cell-bound Na+ and K+ levels. Results presented demonstrate the robustness of well-defined channel blockers and channel-activators in the study of cyanobacterial Na+- K+ fluxes.

  16. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-07-20

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Study of adsorption kinetics for fluorescent whitening agent on fiber surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG XianNan; HUANG YanGui; CHAI XinSheng; WEI Wei

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption kinetics for a stilbene derivative type fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) on fiber surfaces was studied based on a real-time spectroscopic measurement system. Results showed that the time-dependent behavior of FWA agrees to that of a mono-molecular adsorption layer on fiber surfaces, as characterized in Langmuir-type expression. The adsorption has two distinguishable stages include-ing initial fast phase with the primary constant of 1.51×1014 and the later near-equilibrium phase with the secondary constant of 4.96×10-4, The maximum amount of FWA adsorbed on fiber surfaces is 1.67×10-4g (per dry weight based fiber) in the initial phase. A mathematical model of adsorption kinetics was therefore established and evaluated, This model is important for the optimization of FWA applica-tion in papermaking.

  18. Study of adsorption kinetics for fluorescent whitening agent on fiber surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption kinetics for a stilbene derivative type fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) on fiber surfaces was studied based on a real-time spectroscopic measurement system. Results showed that the time-dependent behavior of FWA agrees to that of a mono-molecular adsorption layer on fiber surfaces,as characterized in Langmuir-type expression. The adsorption has two distinguishable stages includ-ing initial fast phase with the primary constant of 1.51×1014 and the later near-equilibrium phase with the secondary constant of 4.96×10-4. The maximum amount of FWA adsorbed on fiber surfaces is 1.67×10-4g (per dry weight based fiber) in the initial phase. A mathematical model of adsorption kinetics was therefore established and evaluated. This model is important for the optimization of FWA applica-tion in papermaking.

  19. Study on Plant Morphological Traits and Production Characteristics of Super High-Yielding Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Xue; XIE Fu-ti; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; ZHU Qian; LI Jie; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; YU Cui-mei; LI Chun-hong; YAO Xing-dong

    2013-01-01

    Super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14, soybean cultivars from Ohio in the United States, and the common soybean cultivars from Liaoning Province, China, with similar geographic latitudes and identical pod-bearing habits were used as the study materials for a comparison of morphological traits and production characteristics to provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of improved super high-yielding soybean cultivars. Using a randomized block design, different soybean cultivars from the same latitude were compared under conventional and unconventional treatments for their production characteristics, including morphological traits, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis rate, and dry matter accumulation. The specific characteristics of the super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14 were analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of Liaodou 14 was significantly lower than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, whereas the number of its main-stem nodes was higher than that of the cultivars from Ohio or Liaoning. A high pod density was observed in Liaodou 14 under conventional treatments. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments, the branch number of Liaodou 14 was markedly higher than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, and its branch length and leaf inclination angle were significantly higher than those of common cultivars from Liaoning or Ohio. Only small changes in the leaf inclination angle were observed in Liaodou 14 treated with conventional or unconventional methods. Under each treatment, Liaodou 14 exhibited the lowest amplitude of reduction in SPAD values and net photosynthesis rates from the grain-filling to ripening stages;the cultivars from Ohio and the common cultivars from Liaoning exhibited more significant reductions. Liaodou 14 reached its peak LAI later than the other cultivars but maintained its LAI at a higher level for a longer duration. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments

  20. Kinetic and morphological studies of palladium oxidation in oxygen-methane mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinyi

    The oxidation of Pd single crystals: Pd(111), Pd(100) and Pd(110) was studied using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as they were subjected to O2 in the pressure range between 1 and 150 Torr at temperatures 600-900 K. The oxygen species formed during oxidation, the oxygen uptake dependence on the sample history, the Pd single crystal surface morphology transformations, and the catalytic methane combustion over Pd single crystals were investigated in detail. The Pd single crystal oxidation proceeded through a three-step mechanism. Namely, (1) oxygen dissociatively adsorbed on Pd surface, forming chemisorbed oxygen and surface oxide; (2) atomic oxygen diffused through a thin surface oxide layer into Pd metal, forming near surface and bulk oxygen; (3) bulk PdO formed when a critical oxygen concentration was reached in the near surface region. The diffusion of oxygen through thin surface oxide layer into Pd metal decreased in the order: Pd(110)>Pd(100)>Pd(111). The oxygen diffusion coefficient was estimated to be around 10-16 cm2 s -1 at 600 K, with an activation energy of 80 kJ mol-1. Once bulk PdO was formed, the diffusion of oxygen through the bulk oxide layer was the rate-determining step for the palladium oxidation. The diffusion coefficient was equal to 10-18 cm2 s-1 at 600 K and the activation energy was approximately 120 kJ mol-1. The oxygen diffusion through thin surface oxide layer and bulk PdO followed the Mott-Cabrera parabolic diffusion law. The oxygen uptake on Pd single crystals depended on the sample history. The uptake amount increased with the population of the bulk oxygen species, which was achieved by high oxygen exposure at elevated temperatures, for example in 1 Torr O2 at above 820 K. Ar+ sputtering or annealing in vacuum at 1300 K depleted the bulk oxygen. The Pd single crystal surface

  1. The preclinical pharmacological study of dopamine transporter imaging agent 18F-FP-β-CIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaomin; CHEN Zhengping; WANG Songpei; TANG Jie; LIN Yansong; ZHU Zhaohui; FANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    The paper is to study pharmacologic characteristics of 18F-FP-β-CIT (18F-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β- carbomethoxy-3β- (4-iodophenyl)nortropane) as an imaging agent for dopamine transporter. The radiochemical purity of 18F-FP-β-CIT in aqueous solution was over 95% after standing at room temperature for 4h. Biodistribution displayed rapid uptake in rat brain (1.375 %ID/organ at 5min and 0.100 %ID/organ at 180 min) and the striatal uptake was 1.444,0.731, 0.397, 0.230 and 0.146 %ID/g at 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min, respectively. The values of striatum/cerebellum,striatum/frontal cortex and striatum / hippocampus in rat's brain at 30 min were 3.38, 2.17 and 2.40 respectively. The uptake in striatum can be blocked by β-CFT, suggesting that 18F-FP-β-CIT binds to DAT peculiarly. The compound was rapidly cleared from monkey's blood. The striatal uptake was bilaterally decreased in the left-sided lesioned PD rats, compared with normal control. Brain PET imaging studies in normal monkey showed that 18F-FP-β-CIT was concentrated in striatum. The test of undue toxicity showed that the dose received by mice was 1250 times as by human, which indicates that 18F-FP-β-CIT is very safe. So 18F-FP-β-CIT is a promising PET imaging agent for DAT with safety and validity.

  2. Morphological studies in a model for dengue-2 virus infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main difficulties in studying dengue virus infection in humans and in developing a vaccine is the absence of a suitable animal model which develops the full spectrum of dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is our proposal to present morphological aspects of an animal model which shows many similarities with the dengue infection in humans. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with non-neuroadapted dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Histopathological and morphometrical analyses of liver tissue revealed focal alterations along the infection, reaching wide-ranging portal and centrolobular veins congestion and sinusoidal cell death. Additional ultrastructural observations demonstrated multifocal endothelial injury, platelet recruitment, and alterated hepatocytes. Dengue virus antigen was detected in hepatocytes and in the capillar endothelium of the central lobular vein area. Liver function tests showed high levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase enzyme activity. Lung tissue showed interstitial pneumonia and mononuclear cells, interseptal oedema, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of the bronchiolar epithelial cells. DENV-2 led to a transient inflammatory process, but caused focal alterations of the blood-exchange barrier. Viremia was observed from 2nd to 11th day p.i. by isolation of DENV-2 in C6/36 mosquito cell line inoculated with the supernatant of macerated liver, lung, kidney, and cerebellum tissues of the infected mice.

  3. Structural, morphological and electronic study of CVD SnO{sub 2}:Sb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haireche, S.; Boumeddiene, A. [Laboratoire LASICOM, Faculté des Sciences, Université Saâd Dahlab de Blida (Algeria); Guittoum, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); El Hdiy, A. [Laboratoire LMEN, Universite de Reims Champagne ardenne, Reims, Cedex 2 (France); Boufelfel, A., E-mail: ahboufelfel@gmail.com [Laboratoire de physique, Université du 08 mai 45, Guelma 24000 (Algeria)

    2013-05-15

    We have prepared solid thin film samples of SnO{sub 2}:Sb in different ratios using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition technique APCVD. The chemical composition was determined with Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) within an error of 1%. X-ray diffraction was used to study the influence of Sb concentration on the lattice parameters and preferred orientations. We have found that sample of concentration 4% showed a (200) preferred orientation. The AFM and SEM images showed that the surface roughness of our samples was influenced by the doping concentrations. The lowest electrical surface resistance was 8.0 Ω □{sup −1} for a 3% concentration sample. We found that the contribution to the metallic state is influenced by oxygen vacancy and Sb doping. Also, the sample of good electrical conductive property has an optical gap of 3.60 eV band at room temperature. - Highlights: ► The thickness was a nonlinear function of the reaction time. ► Minimal value of 8.0 Ω □{sup −1} for a 3% concentration and 3.60 eV energy gap. ► Surface morphology is dopant dependant.

  4. Verb morphology in Catalan and Spanish in children with specific language impairment: a developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serrat, Elisabet; Andreu, Llorenc; Serra, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    In this article we examine language processing and development in Catalan or Spanish-speaking children with SLI, focusing on the study of the verb. We analyse the key initial phase of its process of acquisition and aim to define common features of the SLI group that distinguish them from children with normal language development. We intend to identify more precisely the kind of delay shown by these children in a language with a rich verb morphology, in terms of both structure and chronology. The sample comprised 18 Catalan-Spanish bilingual pre-school children, assigned to three groups of six; an SLI group and two control groups, one matched for age and the other matched for MLU-w. Developmental data were obtained by recording situations of spontaneous speech at two different time points. Certain differences were found between groups in verb production. Production of verb inflection by children with SLI was only partial at the first evaluation; they maintained the same percentage of errors after a year. The patterns of correct and incorrect verb forms found in Catalan and Spanish do not corroborate the EOI hypothesis, but they support the Surface Hypothesis, given that the number of errors is not particularly high. This suggests the presence of limitations in subjects' processing ability, linked to the typological characteristics of the specific language being learnt.

  5. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  6. Holographic And Microscopic Study Of Morphology And Velocity Distribution Of Solidifying Particles In Rapidly Stirred Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeulders, R. J.; Mischgofsky, F. H.; Frankena, H. J...

    1983-12-01

    A technique is described to observe shape development and particle displacements of fast moving solidifying particles during stir casting. The optical set-up consists of a Ruby la-ser (generating pulse pairs), a frequency doubled Nd3+:YAG laser (generating single pulses at a 10 Hz repetition rate), a model device of an actual metal stir casting apparatus filled with a transparent organic alloy and three different recording systems. Double exposure holograms and microphotographs are used to analyse the three- and two-dimensional particle displacements, respectively. Simultaneously recorded videotapes, microphotographs and holograms provide the opportunity to study the shape development at a repetition rate of 10 Hz over periods of 103 seconds in an imaging volume of 3 x 2 x 2 mm3. We found that a NPA-water alloy nucleates initially as equiaxed dendritic particles. After a period of stirring, the dendrite tips become more rounded. Finally the particles obtain the shape of a bunch of grapes. This final state is in good agreement with the morphology of stir casted metal alloys. Further we found that the flow behaviour at the start of the experiment can be decisive for the solidification process. We observed Taylor vortices and measured particle displacements, that occur in the direction of rotation and also along the axis of rotation (although there was no flow pressure excerted in that direction) and in the radial direction, too.

  7. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  8. Assessment of morphological changes and DNA quantification: An in vitro study on acid-immersed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sowmya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acid immersion of victim′s body is one of the methods employed to subvert identification of the victim, and hence of the perpetrator. Being hardest and chemically the most stable tissue in the body, teeth can be an important forensic investigative medium in both living and nonliving populations. Teeth are also good reservoirs of both cellular and mitochondrial DNA; however, the quality and quantity of DNA obtained varies according to the environment the tooth has been subjected to. DNA extraction from acid-treated teeth has seldom been reported. Aims: The objectives of the present study were to assess the morphological changes along with DNA recovery from acid-immersed teeth. Materials and Methods: Concentrated hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid were employed for tooth decalcification. DNA was extracted on an hourly basis using phenol-chloroform method. Quantification of extracted DNA was done using a spectrophotometer. Results: Results showed that hydrochloric acid had more destructive capacity compared to other acids. Conclusion: Sufficient quantity of DNA was obtainable till the first 2 hours of acid immersion and there was an inverse proportional relation between mean absorbance ratio and quantity of obtained DNA on an hourly basis.

  9. A pilot study of the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of glass-cermet cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; King, N M; Lee, A M; Yiu, C K; Wei, S H

    1996-07-01

    This study investigated changes in the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of Ketac-Silver and Chelon-Silver glass-current cements over time. Dispersalloy amalgam was used as a control. Contralateral pairs of carious primary molars were restored with the test materials and amalgam. Clinical evaluations were scheduled at 12, 18, and 24 months after placement. Gold-plated replicas of the restorations were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Fractures and cracks in the surface of the Dispersalloy and Chelon-Silver increased the surface roughness; however, the damage was superficial and self-limiting in the Dispersalloy restorations, while in Chelon-Silver the fractures caused the material to break down in layers. A substantial quantity of pores, usually smaller than 50 microns in diameter, were observed throughout the surface of the Chelon-Silver restorations. The pores in the surface of Ketac-Silver were fewer and smaller. The incidence of cavomarginal breakdown increased with time. Chelon-Silver restorations had a higher rate of cavomarginal breakdown than did Ketac-Silver and Dispersalloy restorations up to 18 months. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the marginal adaptation of the three groups at 24 months.

  10. The salivary glands of Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, Lacertilia). A morphological, morphometric and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R A; Costa, J R; Piccolo, A M; Petenusci, S O

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied morphological, morphometric, and histochemically the mucosubstances and proteins in the salivary glands of the lizard Ameiva. Based on the results, the authors concluded: 1. The labial salivary gland is formed by small mucous and mucoserous glands; the sublingual gland by mucoserous cells. 2. Mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid. Mucoserous cells of the labial gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid, hyaluronic acid and protein radicals. Mucoserous cells of the sublingual gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals. 3. The average values for acinar area were: 1,198.11 microns 2 for mucoserous acini and 2,105.95 microns 2 for mucous acini of the labial salivary gland. The average values for nucleus volume were: 47.41 microns 3 for mucoserous cells and 38.97 microns 4 for mucous cells. 4. The average values for acinar area and nuclear volume of the mucoserous cells of the subingual gland were respectively: 1,474.62 microns 2 and 67.77 microns 3.

  11. Real-time morphologic changes of the iliotibial band during therapeutic stretching; an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Ting-Fang Shih, Tiffany; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasonography (US) in determining the morphological changes of the iliotibial band (ITB) with the modified Ober maneuver. Forty-four subjects (23 men and 21 women, mean age (+/- SD), 24.7+/-4.7 years) who had no previous history of lower back, gluteus, hip or knee pain and satisfied additional inclusion criteria were recruited. Twenty out of the 44 subjects were initially examined by both MRI and US for measurement confirmation. Band width of the left ITB (the measures of which were highly correlated between techniques) was then assessed for these 44 subjects by US with the modified Ober maneuver in three gradually increased hip adduction positions; neutral, adducted and adducted with weight in these 44 subjects. In addition, examiner reliability was assessed by conducting duplicate measurements in 20 randomly chosen subjects. Results demonstrated that measures of band width, but not thickness, were highly correlated between MRI and US (pband width were observed between the three positions with the modified Ober maneuver (pBand width changes indicated that the ITB was subjected to a significant stretching force during hip adduction. We conclude that US is a reliable means to directly assess the real-time effects of stretching exercises.

  12. Morphological and histological studies on the embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen M. Habashy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to describe the embryonic changes during development of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on some morphological and histological features. In addition the biochemical composition of eggs was investigated during the embryonic development of the studied species. Results revealed that eggs of M. rosenbergii completed their development in 20 days at 28.5 ± 0.45 °C. The present investigation showed that primordial germ cells (PGCs were detected early in the examined embryos. In 6.5 days old embryo, a cluster of PGCs occupied the dorso-medial region behind the yolky portion. In addition, the biochemical data indicated that the protein content was significantly increased, while lipid and carbohydrate contents decreased during the embryonic development. The lowest water content was found in the bright orange eggs and reached its highest level in the deep brown eggs. It was noted that the increase in the water content was correlated with the increase in the egg diameters. It was also concluded that, variations in the biochemical compositions of eggs reflected changes in their morphogenesis during the embryonic development.

  13. Study on the morphology and agroecology of creat (Andrographis panculata ness. in various habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Raw material supply which still depends on nature has caused genetic erotion of medicinal plants. The objectives of the research were to study creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness. morphology; and agroecology in many habitat for cultivated be medical substance. The research were conducted at three different locations, ie. at lowland ( 700 m asl.. The result showed that creat growth on 180 m – 861 m above sea level with environmental conditions : temperature 20.320C – 26.930C, relative humidity 78% - 87%, perticipation 2053.2 mm/ year – 3555.6 mm/ year. The creat can growth on soil mineral that contains N medium, P low, K medium, Mg low, Ca verylow until low ,C organic low until medium, and pH less acid until acid. The heihgt plant of creat in middleland is the highest of in lowland and upland, that also leaf of creat. The flower, fruit, and root of creat as good as in the habitat various. The highest andrographolid contain in middleland (2.27%, whereas in lowland (1.37% and upland (0.89%.

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL AND KINETIC STUDIES OF PHASE TRANSITIONS OF A SIDE-CHAIN LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-bing Tan; Shu-fan Zhang; Mao Xu

    1999-01-01

    The morphological changes of a side-chain liquid-crystalline polymethacrylate during isotropization and liquid-crystallization transitions were studied by means of polarizing microscopy. These transitions were found to be composed of the initiation of a new phase at local places of the old phase matrix and the growth of the new phase domains. The kinetics of the liquid-crystallization of the polymer from an isotropic melt to a smectic mesophase was also investigated. The isothermal process of the transition can be described by the Avrami equation. The values of the Avrami exponent were found to be around 2.6. which is lower than the value usually obtained for crystallization transition of polymers, but larger than that reported for liquid-crystallization transition of main-chain polymers. These results may indicate the difference in growth geometry of new phase during transition between crystallization and liquid-crystallization in general and between liquid-crystallization of main-chain and side-chain polymers. It was found that the liquidcrystallization of the used side-chain polymethacrylate may occur at small undercoolings with high transformation rate similar to that of main-chain polymers and small-molecule liquid crystals, while the crystallization of polymers can only proceed at large undercoolings. These phenomena can be explained by the idea that the surface free energy of nucleus during liquid-crystallization transition is less than that for crystallization, and evidence was obtained from analysis of the temperature dependence of the transformation rate.

  15. Morphological Characterization of DMPC/CHAPSO Bicellar Mixtures: A Combined SANS and NMR Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Morales, Hannah H [University of Toronto, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Yang, Yongkun [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Macdonald, P [University of Toronto, Canada; Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneously forming structures of a system composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO) were studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), 31P NMR, and stimulated echo (STE) pulsed field gradient (PFG) 1H NMR diffusion measurements. Charged lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) was used to induce different surface charge densities. The structures adopted were investigated as a function of temperature and lipid concentration for samples with a constant molar ratio of long-chain to short-chain lipids (=3). In the absence of DMPG, zwitterionic bicellar mixtures exhibited a phase transition from discoidal bicelles, or ribbons, to multilamellar vesicles either upon dilution or with increased temperature. CHAPSO-containing mixtures showed a higher thermal stability in morphology than DHPC-containing mixtures at the corresponding lipid concentrations. In the presence of DMPG, discoidal bicelles (or ribbons) were also found at low temperature and lower lipid concentration mixtures. At high temperature, perforated lamellae were observed in high concentration mixtures ( 7.5 wt %) whereas uniform unilamellar vesicles and bicelles formed in low-concentration mixtures ( 2.5 wt %), respectively, when the mixtures were moderately and highly charged. From the results, spontaneous structural diagrams of the zwitterionic and charged systems were constructed.

  16. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA-15 by co-condensation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H K Charan; G Ranga Rao

    2015-05-01

    The 3d transition metals were incorporated into SBA-15 matrix by co-condensation synthesis method. Very low concentrations of metals were introduced into silica framework by maintaining the metal to silica ratio in the synthesis gel at 0.01. The difference in hydrolysis rates of metal and silica precursors have led to textural modifications while demonstrating the structural integrity akin to pristine SBA-15. The physicochemical properties obtained offer some insights into the P123 micelle aggregation and mechanism of formation of silica network in the presence of metal salts under similar synthesis conditions of pure SBA-15. The metal doping into SBA-15 leads to increased pore diameters. Higher lattice constants (a0) observed in these samples are attributed to the increased pore wall thickness. The significant retention of the hexagonal mesostructure seen in LXRD indicates diminutive influence of metal salts at lower concentrations.Macroscopic morphologies studied by SEM show the formation of spheres along with conventional fibre-like rods.

  17. Morphological updating on the basis of integrated DTMs: study on the Albano and Nemi craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, G.; Baiocchi, V.; Fabiani, U.; Mazzoni, A.; Riguzzi, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Colli Albani Volcano has recently developed particular interest in the geophysical community for some peculiar characteristics imputable to a recent residual volcanic activity, thus evidencing that it cannot be considered extinguished yet. On April 2006 an airborne laser scanning (ALS) survey of the Albano and Nemi craters has been carried out to obtain a high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) of the area. We have compared the accuracy of the ALS heights with those obtained by a fast GPS kinematic survey, obtaining maximum deviation within 50 cm. Then, we have integrated the ALS survey of the craters and the bathymetry of the Albano lake to achieve a complete DTM, useful for morphological studies. In addition, with a GNSS/RTK survey (July 2007) we have estimated the Albano and Nemi mean lake levels respectively at 288.16 m and 319.02 m (asl). Based on the integrated DTM and the newly estimated water level values, we have evaluated about 21.7 · 106 of m3 the water volume loss of the Albano lake from 1993 to 2007, with an average rate of about 1.6 · 106 m3/yr.

  18. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  19. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Augustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx+ oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species.

  20. Structural and morphological study of ZnO thin films electrodeposited on n-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Ahmed, N., E-mail: nadiaitahmed@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Technologie des materiaux et Genie des Procedes : Equipe d' electrochimie - Corrosion Universite Abderrahmane Mira, Bejaia, 06000 (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger 7 Merveilles (Algeria); Fortas, G. [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger 7 Merveilles (Algeria); Hammache, H. [Laboratoire de Technologie des materiaux et Genie des Procedes : Equipe d' electrochimie - Corrosion Universite Abderrahmane Mira, Bejaia, 06000 (Algeria); Sam, S.; Keffous, A.; Manseri, A. [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger 7 Merveilles (Algeria); Guerbous, L. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (Algeria); Gabouze, N., E-mail: ngabouze@yahoo.fr [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger 7 Merveilles (Algeria)

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we report on the electrodeposition of ZnO thin films on n-Si (1 0 0) and glass substrates. The influence of the deposition time on the morphology of ZnO thin films was investigated. The ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show a variation of ZnO texture from main (0 0 2) at 10 min to totally (1 0 1) at 15 min deposition time. The photoluminescence (PL) studies show that both UV ({approx}382 nm) and blue ({approx}432 nm) luminescences are the main emissions for the electrodeposited ZnO films. In addition, the film grown at 15 min indicates an evident decrease of the yellow-green ({approx}520 nm) emission band comparing with that of 10 min. Finally, transmittance spectra show a high transmission value up to 85% in the visible wavelength range. Such results would be very interesting for solar cells applications.

  1. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells exposed to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, M; Kanari, Y; Yokoya, A; Narita, A; Fujii, K

    2015-09-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria induced by X-irradiation in normal murine mammary gland cells were studied with a live-cell microscopic imaging technique. Mitochondria were visualised by staining with a specific fluorescent probe in the cells, which express fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator 2 (Fucci2) probes to visualise cell cycle. In unirradiated cells, the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria was about 20 % of the total cells through observation period (96 h). In irradiated cells, the population with fragmented mitochondria significantly increased depending on the absorbed dose. Particularly, for 8 Gy irradiation, the accumulation of fragmentation persists even in the cells whose cell cycle came to a stand (80 % in G1 (G0-like) phase). The fraction reached to a maximum at 96 h after irradiation. The kinetics of the fraction with fragmented mitochondria was similar to that for cells in S/G2/M phase (20 %) through the observation period (120 h). The evidences show that, in irradiated cells, some signals are continually released from a nucleus or cytoplasm even in the G0-like cells to operate some sort of protein machineries involved in mitochondrial fission. It is inferred that this delayed mitochondrial fragmentation is strongly related to their dysfunction, and hence might modulate radiobiological effects such as mutation or cell death.

  2. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  3. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapa, Rafal Z., E-mail: rz.slapa@gmail.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A. [Endocrinology Department, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Bielanski Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Migda, Bartosz [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Otto, Maciej [Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, First Faculty of Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowski, Wiesław S. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients.

  4. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A., E-mail: pajibade@ufh.ac.za

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato–κS,S’–bis (N,N-dimethylthiourea–κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33–7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95–7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON LUMBOSACRAL TRANSITIONAL VERTEBRA IN ADULT INDIAN SACRA AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuri Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (Sacralization is the fusion of 5Th lumber vertebra with the first segment of the sacrum it may be complete or incomplete. In complete sacralization body of the 5Th lumber vertebra completely fuses with the sacrum, where as in incomplete sacralisation shows a well defined joint line between the transverse process and the sacrum. Both forms may be either unilateral or bilateral. Such kind of abnormalities are importance while reporting the X ray, CT and MRI films, during surgical procedures at the Lumbosacral region and making a differential diagnosis for the low back ache patients. Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the incidence and morphological study of Sacralization (Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in adult Indian sacra and its clinical significance. This study was carried out on 150 dry human sacra irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery-Calicut. It was observed that out of 150 sacra, 57 (38% sacra showed sacralization. Out of 57 sacralized bones, 38 (25.33% bones showed bilateral sacralization, whereas 19 (12.67% bones showed unilateral sacralization. Such Lumbosacral transitional vertebra may increase the ricks of Disc bulge / herniation or pseudarthrosis (nonunions with the ilium, degenerative sclerosis around the false joint, compression of lumber nerve roots, low back pain, and false administration of epidural or intradural anaesthetics in lumbosacral region. Its sound knowledge is not only enlightening for the orthopaedic surgeons, also vital for the clinical anatomists, forensic experts and morphologists

  6. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S'-bis(N,N-dimethylthiourea-κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33-7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95-7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  7. Chemical properties and morphology of Marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean atmosphere: a mesocosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Sellegri, Karine; Charrière, Bruno; Sempéré, Richard; Mas, Sébastien; Marchand, Nicolas; George, Christian; Même, Aurèlie; R'mili, Badr; Delmont, Anne; Schwier, Allison; Rose, Clémence; Colomb, Aurèlie; Pey, Jorge; Langley Dewitt, Helen

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a special marine environment characterized by low biological activity and high anthropogenic pressure. It is often difficult to discriminate the contribution of Primary Sea Salt Aerosol formed at the sea surface from background level of the aerosol. An alternative tool to study the sea-air exchanges in a controlled environment is provided by the mesocosms, which represent an important link between field studies and laboratory experiments. The sea-air transfer of particles and gases was investigated in relation to water chemical composition and biological activity during a mesocosm experiment within the SAM project (Sources of marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean) at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO in Western Corsica (May 2013). Three 2 m mesocosms were filled with screened (treatments: one was left unchanged as control and two were enriched by addition of nitrates and phosphates respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16). The evolution of the three systems was followed for 20 days. The set of sensors in each mesocosm was allowed to monitor, at high frequency (every 10 min), the water temperature, conductivity, pH, incident light, fluorescence of chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentration. The mesocosm seawaters were daily sampled for chemical (colored dissolved organic matter, particulate matter and related polar compounds, transparent polysaccharides and nutrients concentration) and biological (chlorophyll a, virus, phytoplankton and zooplankton) analyses. Both dissolved and gaseous VOCs were also analyzed. In addition, few liters of seawater from each mesocosm were daily and immediately collected and transferred to a bubble-bursting apparatus to simulate nascent sea spray aerosol. On-line chemical analysis of the sub-micrometer fraction was performed by a TOF-AMS (Aerodyne). Off-line analysis included TEM-EDX for morphology and size distribution studies and a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer) for

  8. CO - INDUCTION : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIDAZOLAM KETAMINE AND PROPOFOL AS COINDUCING AGENTS TO PROPOFOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : “Co - induction” refers to the administration of a small dose of a sedative or anaesthetic agent prior to the induction of anesthesia, with the aim of achieving more specific ‘target’ responses, while minimizing side effects. Although Propofol is a very po pular IV induction agent, it causes various adverse effects like hypotension and apnoea and it is expensive. So the present study was designed to find whether the concept of co - induction can be used to overcome the above mentioned short comings of Propofol induction. AIM: To compare the effectiveness and evaluate the use of midazolam, ketamine and propofol as co - inducing agents to propofol for general anesthesia. DESIGN : A Prospective Randomized Double blind study was planned. METHOD S : 100 adult patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 aged between 18 – 50 yrs. undergoing elective general, orthopedic or gynecological surgeries under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into four groups of 25 each: Group SP: received normal saline 3 ml IV as co - induction agent. Grou p MP: received inj. Midazolam 0.03mg \\ kg IV Group KP: received inj. Ketamine 0.3mg \\ kg IV . Group PP: received inj. Propofol 0.4mg \\ kg IV (auto - co - induction . All patients received inj. Pentazocine 0.3 mg \\ kg IV followed by blinded pretreatment with either sali ne 3ml IV, (group SP - control, inj.Midazolam.0.03mg \\ kg IV (group M, Inj. Ketamine 0.3mg \\ kg IV (group KP or inj. Propofol 0.4mg \\ kg IV (group PP. Two min later induction was done with inj Propofol until loss of verbal contact or resistance to placement of facemask. Total induction dose of Propofol, associated haemodynamic parameters (HR, MAP at 1min interval for five min after induction and occurrence of significant apnoea (>20 sec or Spo2 < 90% were recorded. The obtained data was analyzed using Chi - squa re test and Students “t” test. RESULTS & CONCLUSION : The mean induction dose of propofol was 1.31mg \\ kg, 1.39mg

  9. A STUDY OF INCID ENCE OF AWARENESS IN GENERAL AN ESTHESIA WITH INHALATIONAL AGENT (HALOTHANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeraghu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : A wareness during general anesthesia is a frightening experience , which may result in serious emotional injury and post - traumatic disorders. Awareness have been reported with many anesthetic techniques , particularly surgical patient populations such as thos e requiring anesthesia for Obstetrics , Major trauma , and cardiac surgery are known to experience a high incidence ( 7 - 43% of awareness. In our study we have made an attempt to evaluate the incidence of awareness in surgical patients under general anesthesi a using inhalational agent ( Halothane with Nitrous oxide . In this study we have evaluated the incidence of awareness by using Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Sweating , Tears score intraoperatively and interviewing patients post - operatively by standard questio nnaire . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred patients undergoing surgical procedures under general Anesthesia were randomly selected for the study . They were posted to undergo surgery from November 2011 to July 2013 . Parameters observed : Intra - operatively Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Sweating , Tears scoring was done at 0 minutes in the operation theatre before induction and 10 minutes after intubation and monitored every 10 minutes till the end of surgery. All the patients were interviewed in the post - operative pe riod soon after complete recovery and 24 hours later again with a set of 10 questions ( Questionnaire method . RESULTS : In our study we have a standard interview questionnaire in the post operative period to study the incidence of awareness. We found that n one of the patients had conscious recall of the events during surgery. In our study of 100 patients none of the patients had awareness. Injection atropine 20 mcg/kg body weight and injection pethidine 1mg/kg body weight were given as premedication. Inducti on agent used was injection thiopental sodium 5mg/kg body weight and maintained with Nitrous oxide , Halothane as

  10. Experimental and clinical study on interventional therapy with scleroticcomplex agents for hepatic cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang An; Xi Xian Yao; Shu Lin Jiang; Dong iai Cui

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of sclerotic complex agents (SCA) on the gallbladder wall of hybrid rabbits, andits therapeutic effect in hepatic cysts.METHODS The SCA containing tetracycline and dexamethasone was injected into the gallbladder of rabbitsto compare its action with those of normal saline and absolute ethylalcohol on the gallbladder wall. Thetherapeutic effects of SCA and absolute ethylalcohol on hepatic cysts were observed.RESULTS Abnormal changes were not found in the tissue cells of gallbladder in normal saline group. Butin absolute ethylalcohol group, a large amount of oozing fluid and blood appeared, the absorption processwas slow, and the fibrous tissue proliferated scarcely. In SCA group, there was less oozing fluid, no blood inthe gallbladder, and the absorption was active and the fibrous tissues grow obviously. In clinical practice,SCA possesses much advantage in the treatment of hepatic cysts, by which the cysts closed promptly, theexudation reduced from early stimulation, and no relapse occurred. The cure rates at the third, sixth,twelfth and twenty-fourth month were 65.1%, 96.2%, 98.1%, and 99.1% respectively; while in thecontrol group were 10.8%, 36.0%, 67.6% and 88.3% respectively. The difference was significant(P<0.01, <0.01, <0.01, <0.05). After the observation for 24 months, no relapse occurred in the SCAgroup, but 7 (6.3%) cases relapsed in control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The sclerotic agents should be used in sequence, i. e., a high concentration wasadministered to reduce and destroy the epithelium of the cysts, and to promote fiber tissue adhesion and thenthe remaining drug was used to stimulate epithelium to absorb the exudation. This combined regimen wasproved to be an ideal and effective method for treating hepatic cysts clinically.

  11. Novel Penicillin Analogues as Potential Antimicrobial Agents; Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Ashraf

    Full Text Available A number of penicillin derivatives (4a-h were synthesized by the condensation of 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as antimicrobial agents. In silico docking study of these analogues was performed against Penicillin Binding Protein (PDBID 1CEF using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 in order to investigate the antimicrobial data on structural basis. Penicillin binding proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity in bacteria. The excellent antibacterial potential was depicted by compounds 4c and 4e against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidus and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the standard amoxicillin. The most potent penicillin derivative 4e exhibited same activity as standard amoxicillin against S. aureus. In the enzyme inhibitory assay the compound 4e inhibited E. coli MurC with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. The docking scores of these compounds 4c and 4e also verified their greater antibacterial potential. The results verified the importance of side chain functionalities along with the presence of central penam nucleus. The binding affinities calculated from docking results expressed in the form of binding energies ranges from -7.8 to -9.2kcal/mol. The carboxylic group of penam nucleus in all these compounds is responsible for strong binding with receptor protein with the bond length ranges from 3.4 to 4.4 Ǻ. The results of present work ratify that derivatives 4c and 4e may serve as a structural template for the design and development of potent antimicrobial agents.

  12. Do coxibs reduce prescription of gastroprotective agents? Results of a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Andrea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxibs are claimed to be cost-effective drugs and reduced prescription of gastroprotective agents is assumed to be one of their major benefits. Real life prescription of these drugs may be substantially different than that considered in pharmacoeconomic analyses or claimed by drug companies, yet. Our objective was to evaluate whether coxibs were associated with reduced prescription of gastro-protective agents (GPAs, specifically proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers and misoprostol compared to non selective NSAIDs. Methods A record-linkage study was performed using 2001 outpatient prescription data from the province of Modena (about 632,000 inhabitants, in Northern Italy. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of GPA prescription for coxib and non-selective NSAID adult users (> 14 years. Three categories of users were further investigated: "acute", "chronic and "incident or new". Main outcome measures were same-day co-prescription and 30 days prescription of GPAs in coxibs and non selective NSAIDs users. To limit selection bias, data were adjusted for age, sex, DDD of coxibs and non selective NSAIDs received during 2001, DDD of GPAs and (for non-incident users DDD of NSAIDs received during the previous 4 years Results Same day co-prescription rates were similar considering the overall population and "acute" users. Chronic coxibs users instead showed higher co-prescription rates than chronic NSAIDs users (OR = 1.2, p Conclusion Assumptions made in pharmacoeconomic analyses on coxibs (lower GPA prescription associated with coxibs use may be overly optimistic. Claims made through cost-effectiveness data should be carefully interpreted, and mechanisms for attributing drug prices revised accordingly.

  13. Reproductive studies in ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. stockes; Rubiaceae: pollen development and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out the reproductive studies on Brazilian accessions of ipecac, Psychotria ipecacuanha. It presented heterostyly, with brevistylous and longistylous flowers. The pollen development was observed from the sections of the anthers embedded in resin. Anther development was normal as usually observed in dicotyledones, displaying four layers: outer epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and inner tapetum. The pollen was bicellular and filled with starch at the microspore stage. Pollen morphology was studied using SEM, which showed pollen polymorphism within and between the two floral morphs. Five types of pollen with reticulate or perforate exine were identified. The characteristics showed that the sexual process was as important as the vegetative propagation for the reproduction of this species.Foram realizados estudos reprodutivos em acessos brasileiros de poaia, Psychotria ipecacuanha. Poaia apresenta heterostilia, com flores brevistilas e longistilas. O desenvolvimento do pólen foi estudado em cortes de anteras embebidas em resina. O desenvolvimento da antera seguiu o padrão normal para as dicotiledôneas, a qual apresentou quatro camadas: epiderme, endotécio, camada média, e tapete, a mais interna. O pólen apresentou-se bicelular e preenchido com amido no estágio de micrósporo. A morfologia do pólen foi estudada utilizando-se MEV. Foi observado polimorfismo polínico dentro e entre as duas formas florais. Foram identificados cinco tipos de grãos de pólen, com exina reticulada ou perfurada. Em seu hábitat natural, sabe-se que essa espécie apresenta propagação por multiplicação vegetativa, mas as características estudadas demonstraram que o mecanismo sexuado é tão importante para a reprodução dessa espécie quanto à propagação vegetativa.

  14. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  15. Synthesis of trimethoprim metal complexes: Spectral, electrochemical, thermal, DNA-binding and surface morphology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezen, Nihat; Tarınç, Derya; Polat, Duygu; Ceşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Complexes of trimethoprim (TMP), with Cu(II), Zn(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Fe(III) have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques involving UV-vis, IR, mass and (1)H NMR. CHN elemental analysis, electrochemical and thermal behavior of complexes have also been investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that these compounds can bind to CT DNA. The binding constants of the complexes with CT DNA have also been calculated. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes in the presence of CT DNA have shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA by both the intercalative and the electrostatic binding mode. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with the reference drug TMP. Almost all types of complexes show excellent activity against all type of bacteria and fungi. The morphology of the CT DNA, TMP, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with CT DNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at CT DNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism.

  16. Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic agents: a prospective study in a teaching hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankesh Barnwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antipsychotic drugs have propensity to produce side effects like extrapyramidal syndrome, hyperglycemia, lipid abnormalities and weight gain. As data from India related to this aspect are scarce, this study was carried out.Aims and Objectives: To study metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs using biochemical parameters and to compare metabolic effects of different antipsychotic agents.Materials and methods: This was a prospective study of patients attending the psychiatry outpatient department from September 2007 to May 2008. Each patient enrolled was followed up for 12weeks or less till the antipsychotics were prescribed. Body weight,fasting blood glucose, fasting lipid profile were recorded at baseline and at subsequent visits.Results: Out of 45 patients, 33 completed the study. Bipolar disorder (31% was the most frequent diagnosis followed by brief psychotic disorder (22%, schizophrenia (20% and others.Olanzapine was the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drug (56% followed by risperidone (24% and haloperidol (20%. 84% received single antipsychotic drug. After 12weeks of therapy all antipsychotics caused significant weight gain (p<0.001, olanzapine caused significant rise in fasting blood glucose (p<0.001 and serum cholesterol (p<0.001. All antipsychotics caused significant rise in serum triglyceride level (p<0.01 Conclusion: All antipsychotics can cause significant abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Selection of antipsychotics, particularly the newer ones requires consideration of co morbidities like obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias. During antipsychotic drug therapy periodic monitoring for metabolic abnormalities is advisable.

  17. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and chemical distinction – A case study from India and its implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambalika Niyogi; Jayanta K Pati; Suresh C Patel; Dipak Panda; Shiv K Patil

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides first report of silica-rich anthropogenic spherules of varying colour, shape, size, surface texture and chemical composition found in road-deposited sediments (RDS) of Allahabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Morphological details and lithophile elemental composition of the silica-rich spherules are compared to microtektites and impact spherules from India to demonstrate their striking morphological similarities and chemical variability. This study suggests the need to use spherule data carefully while assigning an impact origin to spherule-finds or spherule-bearing lithological horizons.

  18. Study on the E-commerce platform based on the agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ruixue; Qin, Lishuan; Gao, Yinmin

    2011-10-01

    To solve problem of dynamic integration in e-commerce, the Multi-Agent architecture of electronic commerce platform system based on Agent and Ontology has been introduced, which includes three major types of agent, Ontology and rule collection. In this architecture, service agent and rule are used to realize the business process reengineering, the reuse of software component, and agility of the electronic commerce platform. To illustrate the architecture, a simulation work has been done and the results imply that the architecture provides a very efficient method to design and implement the flexible, distributed, open and intelligent electronic commerce platform system to solve problem of dynamic integration in ecommerce. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the architecture of electronic commerce platform system, and the approach how Agent and Ontology support the electronic commerce platform system.

  19. Study on Multi Agent-Based Large Scope Distributed Software Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYinghui; LIUYu; ZHANGShikun

    2004-01-01

    Large scope distribution software technology will be a mainstream technology of software development for coming years. But Large scope distribution software development means high software complexity and expensive expenditure. Software architecture acts as blueprint of software system and turns into one of the determinant factor for development~ especially for large scope software in distribution environment. This paper analyzes the flexibility and suitability of software agent to construct LSSA (Large scope software architecture), then ADALSS(Agent-based distributed architecture of large scope software) based on agent federation is presented, and ADALSS mechanism is illustrated as well. Concerning implementation, a layer model of ADALSS based on interface is described. It will be a dominant pattern for future large scope software development to regard each agent as an object and to combine this agent object with ADALSS model.

  20. STUDIES ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SOME PERFLUORO (ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY SMALL ANGLE LIGHT SCATTERING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianguo; JIANG Bingzheng

    1983-01-01

    The crystalline morphology of some FEP copolymers, prepared by different methods, with different hexafluoropropylene (F6) contents was studied by means of small angle light scattering technique.The results obtained show that the main factors which affect the crystalline morphology are the content of F6 and the conditions for crystallization. The morphological structure of these copolymers could change from rod-like to spherulitical, as the F6 content changed from 2% to 14-19% under usual air-quenching condition. However, rod-like crystalline structure would form under very low rate of cooling (0.2 ℃/min). Some Hv patterns show that fine structure also exists in addition to the two- and three-dimensional spherulites coexisting in the specimens prepared under certain crystallization conditions.

  1. Effect of blowing agents and process technology on morphology and dimensional stability of BR/SBR/NR foams%不同发泡剂及工艺条件对BR/SBR/NR发泡材料相结构及尺寸稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 常素芹; 冯钠; 戚晓霞

    2013-01-01

    分别采用一段和两段模压法制备了以顺丁橡胶(BR)/丁苯橡胶(SBR)/天然橡胶(NR)为基体的橡胶发泡材料,研究了三种化学发泡剂N,N’-二甲基戊次甲基四胺(H)、4,4'-氧代双(苯磺酰肼)(OBSH)以及H/OBSH(质量比1:1)复配对发泡及硫化特性的影响,以及3种发泡剂和2种成型工艺对收缩率及相结构的影响.结果表明,发泡剂H对硫化性能影响最大,含发泡剂H的混炼胶在分解过程中释放的热量最多;加入3种发泡剂都具有一种较大的泡孔镶嵌在较小的泡孔丛中的泡孔形态;密度和线收缩率均随着时间的增加而增加,经H/OBSH复配的发泡剂更适合该体系成型,材料线收缩率均比单独使用H和OBSH小,两段模压法可以有效地提高发泡材料的尺寸稳定性,收缩率降低至3.88%,同时发泡剂使用率最多可提高31.67%.%The blends of 1,4-cis polybutadiene rubbers(BR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR) ,and natural rubber (NR) foams were prepared by one-stage and/or two-stage compression molding techniques. The effects of blowing agent H,OBSH and H/OBSH(mass ratio 1:1) Don the vulcanization and foaming characteristics of the rubber foams were investigated. In addition, the effects of the three blowing agents and the two compression molding techniques on the shrinkage and morphology were also studied. The results showed that the rubber had a great influence on the vulcanization and foaming characteristic with blowing agent H, and the gross rubber including of blowing agent H released the maxium heat quantity. The foam articles have the large cells inlay among the small cells with the three blowing agents. The density and shrinkage of BR/SBR/NR foams were increasing with time delaying. The blowing agent H/OBSH was suitable for the system to shape, and shrinkage of BR/SBR/NR foams was lower with blowing agent H/OBSH than those of only filling to blowing agent H and OB-SH. The two-stage compression molding could improve on

  2. Morphological study of synthesized chlorinated polyethylene by inductive plasma; Estudio morfologico de polietileno clorado sintetizado por plasmas inductivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.; Carapia, L.; Fernandez, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales, J. [UAM-I, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a morphological study on the synthesis of Chlorinated polyethylene for plasma starting from Trichloroethylene in a polymerization process and ablation simultaneous of metals, where silver atoms and copper are inserted directly during the growth of the polymer from the gas phase to the one solid is presented. (Author)

  3. Comparative studies of photochemical cross-linking methods for stabilizing the bulk hetero-junction morphology in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta; Tromholt, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    -light illumination to give solvent resistant films and reduced phase separation and growth of PCBM crystallites in polymer:PCBM films. The stability of solar cells based on the cross-linked polymers was tested under various conditions. This study showed that cross-linking can improve morphological stability...

  4. Study of Low Temperature Fuel Cells Thin Films Morphology by GISAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irita, Tomomi; Russell, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering experiments were performed on thin films of Nafion solutions as a function of time as the solvent, methanol/water, evaporated. The development and orientation of the structure and morphology in the thin films, at the free surface and in the bulk of the film, was characterized by the scattering below and above the critical angle. The scattering profiles indicated that Nafion thin morphology was strongly influenced by the conformations of Nafion molecules in the solutions. In addition, the morphology in thin films of sulfonated block copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene-o-butylene)-b-polystyrene, an alternative material for fuel cell applications, was characterized by GISAXS and scanning force microscopy using different solvents and under an applied electric field. Both the solvents used and the applied field was found to markedly influence the orientation of the ion conducting domains in the films.

  5. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda N Shrikhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is associated with atherosclerosis. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to study the association between Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and C-reactive protein (CRP with AMI. Materials and Methods: This group-matched case-control study was carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study compared the risk of occurrence of AMI (outcome if subjects were ever-infected with H. pylori or C. pneumoniae; and their CRP positivity (exposure. Incident cases of myocardial infarctions in a tertiary care hospital were included as cases. Results: The study recruited 265 cases and 265 controls and detected an odds ratio (OR of 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-3.70 and an OR of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.71-3.65 for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori, respectively. Raised CRP levels had an OR of 3.85 (95% CI: 2.54-5.87. Conclusion: Although our study indicates the role of infections in the etiology of AMI in study population, the relative public health impact of these agents in the overall prevalence of AMI needs urgent research attention.

  6. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H. [Churchill Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Alvey, Christopher [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Greenslade, Tessa [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gooding, Mark [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom); Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Mark I. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Franks, Stephen [Imperial College (Hammersmith Campus), Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London (United Kingdom); Golding, Stephen J. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm{sup 3}. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10{sup -16}; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm{sup 3} [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm{sup 3} [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10{sup -7}; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10{sup -6}; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10{sup -5}). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  7. Composition, XRD and morphology study of laser prepared LiNbO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, M.; Havránek, V.; Remsa, J.; Kocourek, T.; Vincze, A.; Bruncko, J.; Studnička, V.; Rubešová, K.

    2013-03-01

    LiNbO3 films were deposited by PLD from LiNbO3 crystalline or from three different stoichiometric or Li-enriched LiNbO3 targets. Polycrystalline films were prepared on SiO2/Si or sapphire substrates at temperatures T S ˜650-750 °C. Main attention was paid to the influence of targets preparation and the deposition conditions on films composition, morphology and crystallinity. The thin-film morphology was determined by SEM microscopy. The composition was measured by SIMS, RBS, PIXE and PIGE methods. Highly oriented, smooth and stoichiometric LiNbO3 films were synthesized.

  8. Geosimulation of urban growth and demographic decline in the Ruhr: a case study for 2025 using the artificial intelligence of cells and agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Stenger, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    The Ruhr is an "old acquaintance" in the discourse of urban decline in old industrialized cities. The agglomeration has to struggle with archetypical problems of former monofunctional manufacturing cities. Surprisingly, the image of a shrinking city has to be refuted if you shift the focus from socioeconomic wealth to its morphological extension. Thus, it is the objective of this study to meet the challenge of modeling urban sprawl and demographic decline by combining two artificial intelligent solutions: The popular urban cellular automaton SLEUTH simulates urban growth using four simple but effective growth rules. In order to improve its performance, SLEUTH has been modified among others by combining it with a robust probability map based on support vector machines. Additionally, a complex multi-agent system is developed to simulate residential mobility in a shrinking city agglomeration: residential mobility and the housing market of shrinking city systems focuses on the dynamic of interregional housing markets implying the development of potential dwelling areas. The multi-agent system comprises the simulation of population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking city agglomerations. Both models are calibrated and validated regarding their localization and quantification performance. Subsequently, the urban landscape configuration and composition of the Ruhr 2025 are simulated. A simple spatial join is used to combine the results serving as valuable inputs for future regional planning in the context of multifarious demographic change and preceding urban growth.

  9. BIODEGRADATION, MORPHOLGICAL, AND FTIR STUDY OF RATTAN POWDER-FILLED NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF FILLER LOADING AND A SILANE COUPLING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komethi Muniandy,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (NR composites were prepared by the incorporation of rattan (Calamus Manan powder at filler loadings in the range of 0 to 30 phr into a natural rubber matrix with a laboratory size two roll mill. The particle size of rattan powder was less than 180 µm. The biodegradation of the rattan powder-filled natural rubber (NR composites were investigated as a function of filler loading and a silane coupling agent. A soil burial test was carried out for six months, and the degradation of the NR compound and the NR composites was evaluated through tensile testing. Morphological properties were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM to evaluate the degradation of the samples after six months of soil exposure. The results indicate that the tensile strength, elongation at break, and stress at 100% elongation (M 100 all decreased after soil burial testing due to the biological attack by microbes onto the sample. Improvement in tensile properties was seen with the addition of the silane coupling agent due to better adhesion between the rattan filler and the rubber matrix. The deterioration in tensile properties due to the biodegradation process was confirmed by SEM and FTIR studies.

  10. Study on Effects of Building Morphology on Urban Boundary Layer Using an Urban Canopy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rongwei; JIANG Weimei; HE Xiaofeng; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    An urban canopy model is incorporated into the Nanjing University Regional Boundary Layer Model. Temperature simulated by the urban canopy model is in better agreement with the observation, especially in the night time, than that simulated by the traditional slab model. The coupled model is used to study the effects of building morphology on urban boundary layer and meteorological environment by changing urban area, building height, and building density.It is found that when the urban area is expanded, the urban boundary layer heat flux, thermal turbulence, and the turbulent momentum flux and kinetic energy all increase or enhance, causing the surface air temperature to rise up. The stability of urban atmospheric stratification is affected to different extent at different times of the day.When the building height goes up, the aerodynamic roughness height, zero plane displacement height of urban area, and ratio of building height to street width all increase. Therefore, the increase in building height results in the decrease of the surface heat flux, urban surface temperature, mean wind speed, and turbulent kinetic energy in daytime. While at night, as more heat storage is released by higher buildings, thermal turbulence is more active and surface heat flux increases, leading to a higher urban temperature.As the building density increases, the aerodynamic roughness height of urban area decreases, and the effect of urban canopy on radiation strengthens. The increase of building density results in the decrease in urban surface heat flux, momentum flux, and air temperature, the increase in mean wind speed, and the weakening of turbulence in the daytime. While at night, the urban temperature increases due to the release of more heat storage.

  11. Study of aerosol behavior on the basis of morphological characteristics during festival events in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anubha; Upadhyay, Vinay K.; Sachdeva, Kamna

    2011-07-01

    Two important festival events were selected to assess their impacts on atmospheric chemistry by understanding settling velocity and emission time of aerosols. Using high volume sampler, aerosols were collected in a sequential manner to understand settling velocity and emission time of aerosols on a particular day. Composition and total suspended particulate load of the aerosols collected during the festivals were used as markers for strengthening the assessment. Terminal settling velocity of the aerosols were calculated using morphological and elemental compositional data, obtained from scanning electron microcopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) study. Aerosol load, black carbon, aromatic carbon and terminal velocity calculations were correlated to obtain conclusion that aerosols collected on the festival day might have been emitted prior to the festival. Settling time of aerosols collected on 17th and 19th October'09 during Diwali were found to be 36.5 (1.5 days) and 12.8 h, respectively. Carbon concentration estimated using EDX was found to be almost double in the sample collected after 2 days of the festival event. This strengthens our inference of time calculation where carbon with high concentration of load must have settled approximately after two days of the event. Settling time of aerosols collected on Holi morning and afternoon was found to be 1.7 and 24.8 h, respectively. Further, because of the small distance of 5.4 km between the meteorological station and sampling site, observed TSP values were compared with theoretical load values, calculated by using visibility values taken from the meteorological data. And it was found that both experimental and calculated values are close to each other about 50% of the times, which proves the assumption that experimental and meteorological data are comparable.

  12. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  13. Clinical, neurophysiological and morphological study of dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth type C neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Florian P; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Gondim, Francisco A A; Tournev, Ivailo; Rao, Chitharanjan V; Ishpekova, Boryana; Kinsella, Laurence J; Pan, Yi; Geller, Thomas J; Litvinenko, Ivan; De Jonghe, Peter; Scherer, Steven S; Jordanova, Albena

    2016-03-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy subtype C (DI-CMTC) was associated with mutations in the YARS gene, encoding tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, in two large unrelated Bulgarian and US pedigrees and one sporadic case. Here for the first time we describe the clinical, neurophysiological and histopathological features, and phenotypic differences between these two DI-CMTC families. Twenty-one affected individuals from the US family and 27 from the Bulgarian family were evaluated. The mean age of onset in US subjects was 10.7 years in men and 7.3 years in women, while in the Bulgarian participants it was 18.2 years in men and 33.7 years in women. The course was slowly progressive. Extensor digitorum brevis atrophy was uniform. Atrophy and/or weakness of upper and lower limb muscles were found in over 50 % of the subjects. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were abnormal in all US adults and five of six children and all Bulgarian patients except one asymptomatic 25-year-old man. Median motor NCS were in the range of 29.5-45.6 m/s in the US family and 24.7-57.8 m/s in the Bulgarian family. Sural sensory nerve action potentials were absent in 14/21 and 4/12 NCS from adult US and Bulgarian participants, respectively. Analysis of sural nerve biopsies from US patients revealed age-dependent morphological changes of axonal degeneration, absence of onion bulbs, and <10 % fibers with segmental remyelination. Our findings provide further insights into the diagnosis and pathology of intermediate CMT. They also extend the phenotypic spectrum of peripheral neuropathies associated with aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations.

  14. Activated hepatic stellate cells in liver cirrhosis. A morphologic and morphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Guido; Franchitto, Antonio; Morini, Sergio; Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Merli, Manuela; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells have been considered the most important cell-type involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblast-like cells has been related to the development of liver fibrosis. The alpha-actin expressed by hepatic stellate cells was considered a marker of their activation to myofibroblast-like cell. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in morphology, distribution, percentage and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression of hepatic stellate cells in normal and cirrhotic livers, and to correlate activated hepatic stellate cells with the progression of fibrosis. Human liver biopsies (n=121) were divided in five groups: 1) normal livers (controls); 2) cirrhosis post-HCV hepatitis; 3) cirrhosis post-HBV hepatitis; 4) non viral related cirrhosis; 5) recurrent HCV hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation. Samples immunostained with anti alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody by immunoperoxidase method were semi-quantitatively evaluated. Liver fibrosis was quantified by computer image analysis on specimens stained with Masson's trichrome. In normal adult livers stellate cells were very rarely stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin. In cirrhotic livers, a strongly enhanced percentage of stellate cells expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected in cirrhotic fragments with respect to the control group, with a significant correlation between alpha-smooth muscle actin positive stellate cells and the volume fraction of fibrosis. Moreover, liver biopsies of recurrent hepatitis revealed an increased number of activated stellate cells compared to normal livers, and intermediate volume fraction of fibrosis. These results confirmed that a direct correlation existed between activated stellate cells and the progression of fibrosis. Alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed to be a reliable marker of hepatic stellate cells activation also in precocious stages of the disease.

  15. Studies on the Morphologic Characteristics and Economic Traits of Different Ploidy Materials of Ramie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-geng; CAO Rui-fang; ZHENG Zong-dao; ZHENG Si-xiang; CUI Guo-xian

    2003-01-01

    Different ploidy ramie materials were studied via microscopic observation on stem sections andmacerated fiber cells. Morphologic differences between different ploidy plants were analyzed. Average barkarea percentages in ramie stem transection of hapioids, tetraploids, diploids and triploids were 28.91, 27. 05,26.97 and 24.77 % respectively. Average percentages of fiber layer area of diploids, haploids, tetraploids andtriploids were 16.80, 16.58, 15.52 and 13.78% respectively. Average fiber cell diameter and cell wall thick-ness were increased along with the increase of the ploidy of the plants. Average fiber length of diploids, trip-loids and haploids were 8.49, 7. 96 and 6.93 em respectively. Average L/B (length/breadth) of diploids,triploids and haploids were 2 470.7, 2 390.6 and 1 616.3 respectively. Average breadths of fiber of haploids,diploids and triploids were 29.30, 33. 87 and 49. 20 μm respectively. However, there were relatively largevariations in the above characteristics among the ramie materials of the same ploidy levels. Field performanceof different ploidy plants was also investigated. As the chromosome ploidy increasing, there was a tendency ofdeclining in shoot number per plant and increasing in stem diameter. Average shoots per plant of haploids,diploids, triploids and tetrapioids were 5.83, 5.30, 3.77 and 3.65 whereas their average stem diameters were0.66, 0.67, 0. 74 and 0. 76 cm respectively. Triploids were the tallest, while haploids were the shortest.Triploids had strong growth vigour, diploids and tetraploids had moderate growth vigour, while haploids ap-peared to be lack of growth vigour. Cold stress tolerance of tetraploids were the strongest, diploid had themoderate tolerance, while haploids and triploids were the least tolerant to cold stress. Both haploids and trip-loids were sterile.

  16. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety ‘BioR-231’ and ‘Hooghly Local’, respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  17. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  18. [Morphologic, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies on pancreatic intraductal hyperplasia and infiltrating carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, R

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer belongs to the neoplasms which are characterised by increasing morbidity and mortality. Five-year survival rates of about 0.4% are the norm, and little has changed in the last 70 years. Important etiological factors are age, sex, diet, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, occupation and chemical exposure, hereditary chronic pancreatitis, and previous surgery (cholecystectomy and gastrectomy). The majority of exocrine tumours of the pancreas are malignant and 80-90% of them comprise ductal adenocarcinomas. The development and growth of pancreatic carcinoma appears to be caused by a progressive accumulation of multiple genetic abnormalities. This includes oncogene (K-ras) activation, loss of tumour-suppressor p53 gene function and overexpression of growth factors and their ligands. The morphological background for the development of pancreatic carcinoma is ductal epithelial hyperplasia. Current molecular studies have resulted in the identification of cell clones exhibiting the same genetic alterations (K-ras and p53 mutations) as in infiltrating pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is only partially defined. The purpose of our study was to evaluate Ki-67 proliferative index and HER-2/neu gene expression in pancreatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions as a sign of increasing epithelial proliferation and dysplasia. Additionally we made an attempt to apply morphometry in demarcating between intraepithelial proliferations of "reactive" type and proliferations with tendency towards progression to cancer. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of bcl-2 and p53 genes in various types of pancreatic intraepithelial proliferations and in pancreatic cancer and to answer the question whether they interact in the process of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. We have also undertaken investigations aiming at determination of the CD44s gene and its v6 isoform expression in intraductal and invasive pancreatic carcinoma

  19. In vivo hepatic uptake inhibition study of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Meyoung Kon [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States)

    1998-07-01

    We have previously reported that the hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin was not affected by coinjecting bilirubin in mice whereas the uptake of Tc-99m-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) was inhibited (Kim et al. J Nucl Med, 38 : 50 p, 1997). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin or Tc-99m-DISIDA could be inhibited by biotin and biocytin. The Balb/c mice (female, 20g, n=5-8) were injected i.v. with the hepatobiliary agents alone (15-22 MBq/20-40 {mu}g) or together with inhibitors at two doses (14 and 28 mg/kg). For pharmacokinetic studies, images were acquired at 10-sec intervals for 20 min using a gamma camera equipped with a pin-hole collimator (d= 1 mm), starting immediately after intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic parameters, peak liver/heart ratio (Rmax) and hepatic half clearance time (HCT), were calculated from liver and heart time-acitivity curves from regions-of-interest. Dynamic images showed rapid hepatic uptake inhibition was characterized by persistent high blood background. These qualitative scintigraphic findings were reflected in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin without inhibitor coinjection showed Rmax of 9.3 and HCT of 383 sec. These parameters did not change significantly when bilirubin or biotin was coinjected, but did change significantly (P<0.05) for biocytin only at the higher dose: 52% decrease in HCT. In contrast, the parameters for Tc-99m-DISIDA (Rmax of 9.2 and HCT of 258 sec) were greatly affected (P<0.01) by biotin (79% decrease in Rman and 2-fold increase in HCT) even at 14 mg/kg concentration. We concluded that Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin is less sensitive to inhibition by bilirubin, biotin, and biocytin than Tc-99m-DISIDA. Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin appears to be a promising hepatobiliary imaging agent for hepatic function studies and may also be a useful tool to investigate the hepatic uptake mechanism of biotin derivatives in vivo.

  20. Compact Galactic Planetary Nebulae: A HST/WFC3 Morphological Catalog, and a Study of their Role in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We present the images of a \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\textit{HST}/WFC3) snapshot program of angularly compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), acquired with the aim of studying their size, evolutionary status, and morphology. PNe that are smaller than $\\sim4\\arcsec$ are underrepresented in most morphological studies, and today they are less well studied than their immediate evolutionary predecessors, the pre-planetary nebulae. The images have been acquired in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda5007$, which is commonly used to classify the PN morphology, in the UV continuum with the aim of detecting the central star unambiguously, and in the $I-$band to detect a cool stellar companion, if present. The sample of 51 confirmed PNe exhibits nearly the full range of primary morphological classes, with the distribution more heavily weighted toward bipolar PNe, but with total of aspherical PNe almost identical to that of the general Galactic sample. A large range of microstructures is evident in our sample as w...