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Sample records for agents morphological study

  1. Effect of two bleaching agents on enamel morphology: a SEM study

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    Ghavam M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching materials are able to change the surface morphology as well as mineral and organic content of tooth structure. Considering that bleaching is done for aesthetic purpose, awareness of the possible effect of these materials on hard tissue is important, because it may affect the restorative treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two bleaching materials, Kimia and Ultradent both containing 35% H2O2, on tooth enamel by SEM. Materials and Methods: Five intact central incisors were cut into three sections vertically and each part was randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, without any bleaching. Group 2, bleached with Kimia 35% H2O2. Group 3, bleached with Ultradent 35% H2O2. Each tooth served as its own control. Then the samples were observed by SEM with 250 and 500 magnifications. Results: In the control group some scratches and small white grains were observed which seems to be the result of mastication trauma and pumice powder. In the other groups, morphologic changes like increased surface roughness, deepening of cracks, rod exposure and presence of new cracks were observed. The two experimental materials did not differ in these regards. Conclusion: It seems that both studied materials have limited destructive effects on tooth enamel which seems to be of no clinical importance.

  2. A Study on the Morphology of a Dispersed Particle Gel Used as a Profile Control Agent for Improved Oil Recovery

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    Qing You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve in-depth profile control of injection water and improve oil recovery, a new profile control agent, termed as dispersed particle gel (DPG, has been developed and reported. In this paper, the morphology of DPG and the factors that influence its morphology are systematically investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The AFM studies show that DPG is composed of small pseudospherical particles and that their sizes can be controlled by adjusting the shearing rate, the initial polymer mass concentration, and the salinity. Dynamic light scattering (DLS is used to study the effects of the initial polymer mass concentration, the shearing rate, the salinity, and the high-temperature aging on the particle size of DPG. The aggregation ability of DPG is explained using the DLVO theory and space stability theory. This work provides a scientific basis and technical support for the formula design of DPG and its application in the oil and gas field.

  3. Cardioplegia using low volumic cardioplegic agents: morphological study in isolated rabbit hearts Cardioplegia utilizando baixo volume de agentes cardioplégicos: estudo morfológico em coração isolado de coelhos

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    Ana Paula Marques Lima-Oliveira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological cardioplegic solution aims to eliminate the consequences of ischemic damage, which results from the misbalance between the offer and consumption of energy during the arrest of the heart beats during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. OBJECTIVES: This research experimentally evaluates the structural and ultrastructural changes in isolated rabbit hearts submitted to arrest protected by a Low Volumetric Cardioplegic Solution (LVCS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study counted with a control group and two experimental groups. In group I the cardiac arrest was obtained by infusion of the LVCS for 2 hours. In group II the experiment was conducted in the same way until the arrest protected by LVCS for 2 hours, and immediately after reperfusion was performed with the Ringer Locke (RL oxygenated solution for 1 hour. In the control group the hearts were perfused with the RL oxygenated solution for 2 hours. After the experiments, 8 samples of the left ventricle were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for histological and ultrastructural analysis. RESULTS: The myocardial cells, the fibroblasts and the endothelial cells which were observed in the experimental groups I and II, presented with marginalization of the heterochromatin, compaction of the nucleolus, change in the morphology of the mitochondria and compaction of the cristae. Also there was an increase of the density of the mitochondrial matrix. This indicates that the nuclear structure as well as the structure of the cytoplasmic organelles were altered when compared to the cells of the control group. CONCLUSION: The structural modifications were due a physiological adaptation of the cell, and not an indication of oncosis or apoptosis, suggesting that the cardioplegic solution used was efficient for the preservation of the cells.INTRODUÇÃO: A solução cardioplégica farmacológica busca eliminar as conseqüências do dano isquêmico, que é o

  4. The Compatibility Effect Of Coupling Agent On Rheological-Morphological Relationship Of Banana Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rheological properties of banana fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP/BF) composites at different composition were analysed using Shimadzu capillary rheometer. The effect of coupling agent concentration on the rheological properties was studied and followed by drawing a relationship of rheological-morphological properties of PP/BF composites. It was found that all composite system exhibits pseudoplasticity and incorporation of treated fibres consequents enhanced viscosity due to improved interfacial adhesion at fibre-matrix interface. However, it was observed that PP/BF composite with 2 wt% silane concentration does not yield further enhancement in the rheological properties when compared to that of 1 wt%. Composites with 1 wt% silane concentration were found to yield most promising compatibility effect with well-oriented and uniformly dispersed fibre morphology.

  5. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-12-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry. PMID:27119158

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies. PMID:20101524

  7. Morphological, Serological and Molecular Analyses of Anthracnose-Causing Agent on Banana Fruit

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    Nataša Duduk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Colletotrichum, C. musae and C. gloeosporoides, occur as infecting species of banana. The study focused on examining the etiology of anthracnose on banana fruits sold on the domestic market. An isolate was obtained from a deseased banana fruit on PDA medium, forming a white colony with intensive and uniformed growth. It was not possible to identify the isolated fungus based on its morphological characteristics. Positive serological reaction in an ELISA test with monoclonal antibodies for C. acutatum indicated an antigen site for the used monoclonal antibodies. Positive reaction when C. gloeosporioides-specific primers were applied indicated a similarity in the ITS sequence ofthe fungus and the examined isolate from banana fruit. Although there are no available data in literature that C. gloeosporioides-specific CgInt primer can be used for amplification of the phylogenetically related C. musae, our results do not exclude that the isolate could be C. musae. The host plant, symptoms observed and colony characteristics of the fungus isolated from the banana fruit mostly correspond to C. musae. Based on morphological, antigenand gentic characteristics, the isolate from banana was determined as Colletotrichum sp., while species identification of the anthracnose-causing agent on banana requires additional analysis.

  8. Morphology and photoluminescence study of titania nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Memesa, Mine; Lenz, Sebastian; Emmerling, Sebastian G. J.; Nett, Sebastian; Perlich, Jan; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2011-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles are prepared by sol–gel chemistry with a poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate triblock copolymer acting as the templating agent. The sol–gel components—hydrochloric acid, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and triblock copolymer—are varied to investigate their effect on the resulting titania morphology. An increased titania precursor or polymer content yields smaller primary titania stru...

  9. Effects of antistatic agent on the mechanical, morphological and antistatic properties of polypropylene/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposites

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    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP and PP/organo-montmorillonite (OMMT compounds containing antistatic agent (3, 6 and 9 wt% were prepared using co-rotating twin screw extruder followed by injection molding. PP/OMMT composites were prepared by mixing of PP, OMMT and maleated PP (PPgMAH. The mechanical properties of PP blends and PP/OMMT nanocomposites were studied by tensile and impact tests. The effect of antistatic agent (AA on the surface resistivity of PP and PP/OMMT nanocomposites were studied. The morphological properties of PP blends and PP/OMMT nanocomposites were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The intercalation of OMMT silicates layer in PP nanocomposites was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD. The impact strength of PP blends and PP/OMMT nanocomposites did not vary significantly by the addition of antistatic agent. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of PP/OMMT nanocomposites were slightly decreased with the increasing loading of antistatic agents. From FESEM analysis, the dispersion of antistatic agent in the PP matrix can be revealed. In addition, the surface resistivity of PP/OMMT compound was affected by the loading of antistatic agent. XRD results indicated the formation of intercalated nanocomposites for PP/OMMT/AA.

  10. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  11. Epitheliocystis agents in sea bream Sparus aurata: morphological evidence for two distinct chlamydia-like developmental cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, S; Zarza, C; Padrós, F; Marín de Mateo, M

    1999-06-23

    The morphology of membrane-bound intracellular inclusions, or 'cysts', of epitheliocystis from sea bream Sparus aurata is described. Inclusions under the light microscope appear either granular or amorphous. Granular inclusions do not elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain the 3 distinctive developmental stages of chlamydial organisms: the highly pleomorphic reproductive form or reticulate body, the condensing form or intermediate body and the infective non-dividing rather uniform elementary body. Amorphous inclusions may elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain prokaryotic organisms which differ morphologically from those reported within granular cysts. More or less elongated electron-lucent organisms divide by fission to give rise to electron-dense non-dividing small cells with a dense nucleoid. Vacuolated and non-vacuolated small cells are reported. The morphology and developmental cycle of sea bream epitheliocystis agents would support their chlamydial nature; however, the immunohistochemical study conducted on gill samples which carried both inclusions failed to demonstrate the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) chlamydial antigen. The different stages of the 2 distinct developmental cycles described in the present study are compared with electron microscope observations of epitheliocystis organisms reported from different host species. The hypothesis that epitheliocystis infection in the sea bream might be caused by a unique highly pleomorphic chlamydia-like agent, the life history of which includes 2 entirely different developmental cycles, is discussed. PMID:10439904

  12. The Influence of Surface-Active Agent on the Micro-Morphology and Crystallinity of Spherical Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Liu, Huan; Kan, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoyang; Long, Haibo; Zhou, Yonghui

    2015-08-01

    This search used the low-cost boric acid and borax as a source of boron, urea as a nitrogen source, surface-active agent Dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (SDBS) as a dispersant, and thus prepared different micro-morphology and crystallinity hexagonal boron nitride powders under a flowing ammonia atmosphere at a nitriding temperature of 900 °C. The effect of the surface-active agent (SDBS) content on the crystallinity and micro-morphology of hexagonal boron nitride powders was studied, and the corresponding relationship between micro-morphology and crystallinity was explored. The results showed that under a certain synthetic process (900 °C for 3 h), the surfactant content had affected the crystallinity and micro-morphology of h-BN powders. Without the added surfactant, the graphitization index (GI) was 3.61, and micro-morphology of h-BN powders. was spherical, the distribution of ball diameters was uneven, and there was also significant particle agglomeration, with some particles even exhibiting adhesion, sintering necks, and high sphericity and diameter. When the added SDBS percentages were 2%, 4% and 6%, the graphitization index (GI) decreased to 2.98, 2.58 and 2.41 respectively: the corresponding crystallinity improved significantly. When the surfactant SDBS content was higher (10%), the diameter distribution of the h-BN powders was even, but there was evidence of agglomeration of particles and particle adhesion. The crystallinity decreased when the GI value was increased to 4. When the surfactant SDBS content was 6%, the dispersion of h-BN powders was at its optimum, and the particle size distribution was at its most uniform. Meanwhile the GI value was at its lowest, and the crystallinity at its highest. PMID:26369229

  13. Receptor binding studies of soft anticholinergic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fenglei; Buchwald, Peter; Browne, Clinton E.; Farag, Hassan H.; Wu, Wnei-Mei; Ji, Fubao; Hochhaus, Guenther; Bodor, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    Receptor binding studies were performed on 24 soft anticholinergic agents and 5 conventional anticholinergic agents using 4 cloned human muscarinic receptor subtypes. The measured pKi values of the soft anticholinergic agents ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, with the majority being in the range of 7.5 to 8.5. Strong correlation was observed between the pKis determined here and the pA2 values measured earlier in guinea pig ileum contraction assays. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r2) were 0...

  14. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  15. Wettability of porous polydimethylsiloxane surface: morphology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorasani, M.T. [Biomaterial Department, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14185/515, Tehran 14965115 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m.khorasani@proxy.ipi.ac.ir; Mirzadeh, H. [Biomaterial Department, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14185/515, Tehran 14965115 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermani, Z. [Biomaterial Department, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14185/515, Tehran 14965115 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    Two methods used for producing porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. In the first method, PDMS films without photosensitizer was exposed to CO{sub 2}-pulsed laser at room temperature, as the excitation source. In the second method applying NaCl solid particles to the external surface layer before it is cured. In this study the morphology, wettability and surface chemical characteristics have been investigated. These surfaces have been studied by performing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. To evaluate the surface wettability, the water drop contact angle was measured. SEM photomicrographs and ATR-FTIR spectra and water drop contact angle measurement show that the morphology of these surfaces change to a uniform porous surface and wettability decreased. Results indicated that the porosity and morphology are important factor in wettability of PDMS surface and laser irradiation cause ordering in molecular chains onto the PDMS surface and this surface is a superhydrophobic compared to the virgin PDMS surface.

  16. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Peng; CHANG Hong-fa; YU Yong-min; DAI Guo-xin; LI Hong-wei; JIANG Qiang-guo; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene,and exploring the injury situation of different heights,different fall ways and postures,to provide a reference for the forensic identification of high fall injury.Methods:All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender,age,ground-touching posture,fall height,site and type of the injury.Results:Among 134 high fall cases,98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6±16.9 on average),in which,10-60 years old group consisted of 110 cases (82%).Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73%) and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators.Among these cases,head injury was generally serious,followed by chest and abdominal injuries.The morphologic changes depend upon the height,nature,as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground.Conclusion:Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifications of the cause and nature of high fall injuries.

  17. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the p

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON SHAPES OF PTERION

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    Pavan P. Havaldar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pterion is defined as an H-shaped small circular area formed by the junction of four bones: frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid on norma lateralis of the skull, Pterion junction has been used as a common extra-cranial landmark for surgeons in microsurgical and surgical approaches towards important pathologies of this region. Pterion is an important landmark for anterior branch of middle meningeal artery, Broca’s motor speech area to the left, insula, the lateral cerebral fissure, for the pathologies of optic nerve, orbit, sphenoidal ridge and for the anterior circulation aneurysm and tumors, because of its clinical importance we focused our present study on morphology of shape of pterion. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 pterions were examined from 250 adult dry skulls. The present study was undertaken in adult south Indian skulls from different regions of south India, from different medical colleges. We have observed different shapes of pterion like sphenoparietal frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric. Results: The sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. 250 human skulls of known gender (148 male, 102 female were examined on both sides. Four types of pterion were observed – sphenoparietal 72.8%, frontotemporal 16.4%, stellate 8.8% and epipteric 2%. Conclusion: The pterion is points of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. The patterns of formation exhibit population based variations. The sutural morphology of the pterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. These findings may helpful in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  20. Radiation Chemistry Studies on Chemotherapeutic Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling

    1977-01-01

    Adrenalin has been studied as a model radiation protective agent by means of pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenalin with e–aq and OH were determined : k(e–aq+ adr—NH+2)= 7.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, k(e–aq+ adr—NH)= 2.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, and k(OH +...

  1. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology Efeitos de agentes clareadores à base de peróxidos na microdureza, rugosidade e morfologia superficial do esmalte

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Franco Pinto; Rogério de Oliveira; Vanessa Cavalli; Marcelo Giannini

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment). Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11): control, Whiteness Perfect - 10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP), Colgate Platinum - 10% CP, Day White 2Z - 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP), Whiteness Super - 37% CP, Opalescence Quick - 35% CP and Whiteness HP - ...

  2. Transparent tooth model: A study of root canal morphology using different reagents

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    Bhavana Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complexity of root canal morphology has fascinated the imaginations of many. Several techniques have been tried in the past to view the three-dimensional anatomy of the pulp canal system with varied success. It has been hypothesized in the present study that a combination of decalcifying agent and clearing agent can be used to prepare transparent tooth model. Aims: The aim of the present study was to access the efficacy of two decalcifying agent (formic acid and nitric acid and two clearing agents (methyl salicylate and eugenol to prepare transparent tooth model. Materials and Methods: The study material included 80 freshly extracted teeth both maxillary and mandibular. After decalcifying and clearing of the specimen, they were graded for transparency and haziness criteria. Results: The results of the present study indicated that methyl salicylate when used as a clearing agent showed better transparency, lower level of haziness and good root canal morphology. On the other hand samples cleared by eugenol showed good root canal morphology but lesser transparency and higher degree of haziness and yellowing of samples, more so when used in combination with nitric acid. Conclusion: It was concluded by the present study that combination of nitric acid when used with methyl salicylate proved to be the best combination for the preparation of the transparent tooth model.

  3. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  4. Radiation Chemistry Studies on Chemotherapeutic Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling

    1977-01-01

    Adrenalin has been studied as a model radiation protective agent by means of pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenalin with e–aq and OH were determined : k(e–aq+ adr—NH+2)= 7.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, k(e–aq+ adr—NH)= 2.5 × 108 dm3 mol–1 s–1, and k......(OH + adr)= 2.2 × 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1(pH = 9.2). e–aq attacks the amino group by splitting off methylamine, whereas OH and O–aq lead to the formation of the corresponding adducts of the cyclohexadienyl type. OH radicals can also abstract an electron from an O– group at pH > 8....

  5. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology Efeitos de agentes clareadores à base de peróxidos na microdureza, rugosidade e morfologia superficial do esmalte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco Pinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment. Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11: control, Whiteness Perfect - 10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP, Colgate Platinum - 10% CP, Day White 2Z - 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP, Whiteness Super - 37% CP, Opalescence Quick - 35% CP and Whiteness HP - 35% HP. Bleaching agents were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The control group remained not treated and stored in artificial saliva. Microhardness testing was performed with a Knoop indentor and surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Morphologic observations were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%, and revealed a significant decrease in microhardness values and a significant increase in surface roughness post-bleaching. Changes in enamel morphology after bleaching were observed under SEM. It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rugosidade, microdureza e morfologia superficial do esmalte dental humano tratado com seis agentes clareadores (antes e depois do tratamento. Amostras de esmalte dental humano foram obtidas de terceiros molares e aleatoriamente distribuídas em sete grupos (n = 11: controle, Whiteness Perfect - peróxido de carbamida a 10% (PC 10%, Colgate Platinum - PC 10%, Day White 2Z - peróxido de hidrogênio a 7,5% (PH 7,5%, Whiteness Super - PC 37%, Opalescence Quick - PC 35% e Whiteness HP - PH 35%. Os agentes clareadores foram aplicados de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento e armazenado em saliva artificial. O teste de microdureza foi realizado

  6. Study and application of imaging agents for infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situation of current study and clinic application of main imaging agents for infection and inflammation is summarized. These agents include radiolabelled small molecular compounds, leucocytes, large molecular proteins, liposomes, antibiotics, biotins and etc

  7. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  8. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and 15 accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions was used for morphological analyses of germplasm. Reiterative analyses examined data of both a...

  9. FIBRE FLOC MORPHOLOGY AND DEWATERABILITY OF A PULP SUSPENSION: ROLE OF FLOCCULATION KINETICS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FLOCCULATION AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrikki Liimatainen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to find out how properties of a flocculation agent and flocculation kinetics affect the morphology of fibre flocs and how dewatering of a fibre suspension may be attributed to floc morphology. Fibre flocculation, analysed in terms of floc size, mass fractal dimension, floc strength, and the kinetic constant of flocculation, was measured with a digital image analysis system using cationic polyacrylamides as flocculants and NaCl as a coagulant. The results suggest that the kinetics of fibre flocculation is not a key factor determining floc properties but follows from the high bonding ability of the flocculation agent, which also lies behind the high floc density and size, i.e., the factors that lead to fast flocculation and improved floc properties are partly the same. In addition to interfibre bonding strength, the structure of the bonding layer of polymeric flocculants was found to be a significant factor describing floc morphology. Dewaterability of the fibre suspension was improved by increased floc density, which promotes fast water flow through the large voids around the dense flocs, while large, irregular flocs induced loose floc packing, which further improved dewatering by creating larger voids. Increased floc strength seemed to reduce the sealing of fluid passageways, particularly on the surface of the wire, where fibre squeezing could blind the filter fabric.

  10. Study of Desorption Agent for LADS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojing; Qin Ruyi; Liu Jinlong

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the procedure for selection, evaluation and development of the LADS-D desorption agent associated with the LADS-A adsorbent used in the non-hydroprocessing adsorptive desulfurization (LADS) process for FCC naphtha developed by LPEC Refining Research Institute. The LADS-D desorption agent can effectively remove the sulfides adsorbed on the LADS-A adsorbent. The saturated LADS-A adsorbent can be instantly regenerated by the LADS-D desorption agent to recover its adsorption activity. The LADS-D desorption agent can not only effectively remove all impurities adsorbed on the adsorbent, but also has strong ability to dissolve the impurities to keep a stable desorption efficiency of adsorbent to be basically commensurate with fresh adsorbent after extended use.

  11. Studies of dynamics of physical agent ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Moreno, Israel

    2002-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of learning in physical heterogeneous multi-agent systems(MAS) and the analysis of the benefits of using heterogeneous MAS with respect tohomogeneous ones. An algorithm is developed for this task; building on a previous work on stability in distributed systems by Tad Hogg and Bernardo Huberman, and combining two phenomena observed in natural systems, task partition and hierarchical dominance. This algorithm is devised for allowing agents to learn which are th...

  12. A study on development and applications of agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agent study is variously applied from the restricted research of an early AI field to the practical SW development of the design and implementation of a high level, distributed hybrid system. Among the detailed research fields of AI, making a new research field called distributed AI, the trial of resolving a problem based on an agent, has begun. Related to it, the requirement of an intelligent system to offer convenience to easily do a job which the user wants, with the recent trial of an approach for internet agents of various types, were developed to be performed automatically and the agent anticipate the user's need. In this paper, the basic concepts regarding an agent system, research direction and applications were analyzed and outlined. The consisting elements were also analyzed. such as background, needs, basic concepts and properties of the agent. The agent's research status was recently analyzed, and the development and related property of an intelligent agent were written. Application and the instance of a generalized agent about applicable fields in the real world were studied, functions and services about intelligent agents were analyzed. The applicable field of an agent technique becomes various not in information retrieval on a web site, but in the processing of internet information, and in the electronic commerce, industry and medical fields. Through analyzing and comparing the general concept of various agents, this study will aid in establishing a future direction of research in this field

  13. A study on development and applications of agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Sohn, Jae Min

    2000-06-01

    An agent study is variously applied from the restricted research of an early AI field to the practical SW development of the design and implementation of a high level, distributed hybrid system. Among the detailed research fields of AI, making a new research field called distributed AI, the trial of resolving a problem based on an agent, has begun. Related to it, the requirement of an intelligent system to offer convenience to easily do a job which the user wants, with the recent trial of an approach for internet agents of various types, were developed to be performed automatically and the agent anticipate the user's need. In this paper, the basic concepts regarding an agent system, research direction and applications were analyzed and outlined. The consisting elements were also analyzed. such as background, needs, basic concepts and properties of the agent. The agent's research status was recently analyzed, and the development and related property of an intelligent agent were written. Application and the instance of a generalized agent about applicable fields in the real world were studied, functions and services about intelligent agents were analyzed. The applicable field of an agent technique becomes various not in information retrieval on a web site, but in the processing of internet information, and in the electronic commerce, industry and medical fields. Through analyzing and comparing the general concept of various agents, this study will aid in establishing a future direction of research in this field.

  14. Rheological/Morphological Study of PS/CNT Nanocomposite Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Dubois, Charles

    2008-07-01

    This work depicts rheological characteristics of Polystyrene (PS)/Carbon Nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite solutions and their incidence on the morphological properties of final electrospun fibers. Nanocomposite fibers were obtained through electrospinning of PS/Di-Methyl Formamide (DMF) solutions containing different concentrations and types of Carbon Nanotubes. The morphology of fibers at different concentrations and types of CNTs was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy. Correlation between initial CNT dispersion and final fibers morphologies was obtained using viscometry results and optical microscopy of initial solutions. The results obtained show that beads presence in fibers are due to nanoparticles agglomerations. A styrenic copolymer (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene, SBS-Kraton) was employed as a compatibilizing agent to improve CNTs dispersion instead of chemical modification. Addition of copolymer affects both final fiber morphologies and CNT dispersion condition.

  15. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  16. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  17. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  18. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Rani Mutta, Geeta; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height-height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO x N y , InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size.

  19. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: Stability and cytocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ornelas da Silva, Paulo Roberto [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Gouvêa dos Santos, Raquel [Laboratório de Radiobiologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CNEN/CDTN, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG){sub 1000}, and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. - Highlights: • BNNTs were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents. • Hydrophilic molecules do not alter the biocompatibility profile of BNNTs. • No significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations in ROS could be observed.

  20. Morphology-Controlled Synthesis Of SrTiO3 Nanocube By Capping Agent-Assisted Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Eka Putri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of SrTiO3 nanocubes have been carried out by solvothermal process using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as capping agent to control the particles morphology. The condition of the synthesis was obtained at 160 ºC for 24 hours with molar ratio of SrTiO3 and capping agent was 1 : 1. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern shows that SrTiO3 adopts a perovskite structure with a higher intensity of 110 at 2q:32.33º and the crystallite size calculated from FWHM was found to be 41 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrum shows a shift in particular absorption band attributed the interaction between SrTiO3 particles surface and the head group of CTAB molecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM image shows the cubic-like particles of SrTiO3, this indicatesthat CTAB successfully functions as capping agent on the synthesis of SrTiO3.

  1. A Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using Different Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, David

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with desulfurization of hot metal using different agents. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of commonly used desulfurization agents such as fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, and mixtures of commercial-CaO-Mg. The possibility to use ZnO for desulfurization of hot metal was also investigated. The desulfurization mechanisms and kinetics of these agents were studied. A broad comparison of the desulfurization abilities of the agents was performed under...

  2. Morphological transformation of an established Syrian hamster dermal cell with the anti-tussive agent noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R; Parry, E M; Parry, J M

    1992-05-01

    Following exposure to the alkaloid noscapine hydrochloride over a concentration range of 10-120 micrograms/ml immortal cultures of Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts were shown to undergo morphological transformation. The resultant transformed foci produced cultures which were anchorage independent as confirmed by soft agar tests. Karyotype analysis of a noscapine transformed colony demonstrated an increase in chromosome number compared to the immortal culture and the non-random duplication of a translocated chromosome 9 previously identified in the immortal culture. These data indicate that noscapine, which has previously been shown to be a spindle inhibitor and inducer of polyploidy in cultured cells, is capable of inducing in vitro cell transformation. Such data indicate a carcinogenic potential for this widely used cough suppressant. PMID:1602976

  3. Extraction and Study of Bacteriophages, Used against Agents of Potato Soft Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Magda D. Davitashvili; Lela Z. Tsiklauri

    2012-01-01

    The use of specific bacteriophages and their complex mixtures against bacterial diseases is very effective. As for causative agent of potato soft rot Erwinia carotovora, specific phages (25 phages in total) were extracted from diseased potato, soil and sewage. The study of their biological properties showed the diversity of phages in terms of lytic action, virion plaque and morphology, as well as in relation to different environmental factors. Phages showed explicit antibacterial activity in ...

  4. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the separation of uranium from Se, Br, Mo, Sb, Ba, Ta, W, Au and Hg is presented. Separations were carried out by solvent extraction technique using tetracycline as complexing agent and benzyl alcohol as organic phase. Masking agents (e.g. EDTA) were required for some of the separations: e.g. Hg, Ba. (T.I.)

  5. Morphological and microscopic identification studies of Cordyceps and its counterfeits

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-juan Liu; Hao-bin Hu; Chu Chu; Qin Li; Ping Li

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic studies were applied to distinguish Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. and its 5 common counterfeits. Transverse sections of stroma and larvae and surface sections of stroma of C. sinensis, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps barnesii, Cordyceps gracilis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps militaris were examined and their morphological and microscopic features photographed. The main morphological and microscopic features of the 6 species of Cordyceps were basically simi...

  6. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Stevanović1, Branimir Kovačević2, Jana Petković3, Metka Filipič3, Dragan Uskoković11Institute of Technical Sciences of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, SloveniaAbstract: Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly- α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA, a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, poly-α, γ, L-glutamic, green synthesis, morphology, cytotoxicity

  7. Hypoxia-mimetic agents inhibit proliferation and alter the morphology of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Hui-Lan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic diseases is closely related to level of hypoxia in the damaged tissues. To elucidate the potential therapeutic applications and limitations of hMSCs derived from human umbilical cords, the effects of hypoxia on the morphology and proliferation of hMSCs were analyzed. Results After treatment with DFO and CoCl2, hMSCs were elongated, and adjacent cells were no longer in close contact. In addition, vacuole-like structures were observed within the cytoplasm; the rough endoplasmic reticulum expanded, and expanded ridges were observed in mitochondria. In addition, DFO and CoCl2 treatments for 48 h significantly inhibited hMSCs proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (P Conclusions The hypoxia-mimetic agents, DFO and CoCl2, alter umbilical cord-derived hMSCs morphology and inhibit their proliferation through influencing the cell cycle.

  8. [Aging of the aorta: a morphological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L; Meola, M; Giuliano, G; Borelli, A; Riccioni, S

    1994-05-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the aging of aorta with respect to atherosclerotic modifications: abdominal aorta echotomography is the preferred approach for this study. In 354 elderly patients, 65 and over, we have evaluated the diameter and the course of the aorta, the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta and iliac vessels, and the presence of aneurysms. Two kinds of findings could be identified by echotomography: age-related physiologic modifications, represented essentially by an increase of the aortic diameter; pathologic changes, characteristic for atherosclerosis, of which aneurysms are the most dangerous complications. PMID:7924179

  9. Influence of corn flour as pore forming agent on porous ceramic material based mullite: Morphology and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala-Landeros J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous material was processed by the mixing, molding and pressing the ceramic material, afterward burnout and sintering; through the forming porous, using corn flour at different concentration (10, 15 and 20 wt.% as a pore forming agent; in order to determinate the influence of porous on the mechanical, morphological and structural properties. The effect of the volume fraction of corn flour in the mullite matrix, at various sintering temperature from 1100, 1200, 1300 and 1500°C were tested by Diffraction X ray, showing changes in crystalline phases of mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2, as result of sintered temperatures. Presence of talcum powder in formula, also cause the formation of the cordierite and cristobalite crystalline phases, giving stability and adhesion to the structure of ceramic material. When sintering at temperatures between 1300 to 1500°C, and it was used the concentration of corn flour 15-20 wt.% as forming agent porous, it was found the better mechanical properties. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the presence of open porosity and anisotropy.

  10. Morphological study of some Euphorbia taxa in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MEHDI TALEBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Talebi SM, Noori M, Davijani SS. 2016. Morphological study of some Euphorbia taxa in Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 103-110. Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae has nearly 2000 species and great morphological diversity present between its members. For this reason, species of this genus are classified into different infrageneric ranks. In the present study, morphological characteristics of fifteen taxa of this genus were examined in Iran. Thirty one qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics from the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied taxa were examined. ANOVA test showed significant variations for all of studied quantitative features. PCA-biplot of the studied traits confirmed that some of them were very useful for identification of the treated taxa. In addition, the obtained results did not confirm species classifications in sections/subsections according to Flora Iranica as well as Flora of Turkey and proved high morphological variations between these species; therefore traditional classification of species in subsection must be changed and our results confirmed previous molecular studies.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN HUMAN FETAL EAR OSSICLES-A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pramila Padmini; B.Narasinga Rao

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the morphological variation, if any, of the ear ossicles in the human fetuses and use of the study in medical applications. Materials And Methods :This study is performed on 100 sets of middle ear ossicles, each set consisting of Malleus, Incus and Stapes, which were taken from 50 fetal cadavers left and right sides of both Result: All the three ossicles showed variations in their morphology and more so in the stapes. Discussion: There are few studies in the literature on indi...

  12. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON FORAMEN OVALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi Murugan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: Foramen ovalee is an important foramen of the middle cranial fossa. Foramen ovalee is situated in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, posterior to the foramen rotundum and lateral to the lingula and posterior end of the carotid groove. Through the foramen ovale the mandibular nerve, accessory meningeal artery and lesser petrossal nerve are passing through it. The shape of foramen ovale is ovale in shape as compare to other foramina of the skull, its shape and size is quite variable. Meterials and Methods: A total 250 skulls were used for this study. The skulls were collected with I MBBS student from different medical colleges in south India. Skulls in poor conditions or skulls with partly damaged surroundings of the foramen ovalee were not considered. Maximum length and width of foramen ovalee was measured. Variation in right and left side and sex difference in length and width were calculated, the variations in shape also recorded. Results: The mean value of length of left foramen ovale is 8.5+1.32mm and right was 8.9+1.67mm. In female it was 8.7+1.67mm and male was 8.4+1.71mm. The mean value of width of left foramen ovale is 3.7+1.03mm and right was 3.9+0.98mm. In female it was 3.8+0.92mm and male was 3.7+1.02mm.The shape of foramen ovale was ovale in 69% of skulls, almond in 29% of skulls and round was 2% of skulls. Conclusion: The present study conclude that there is significant difference between sizes of right and left side foramen ovale and found that between male and female foramen ovale sizes also not shown any significance difference. Foramen ovale has practical significance to both neurosurgical and functional cranial neuroanatomy as it provides transcutaneous approaches to the skull base especially in cases of trigeminal neuralgia, as the Gasserion ganglion can be approached through it.

  13. Studies of waterborne agents of viral gastroenteritis. Final report Feb 79-Feb 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, R.

    1983-07-01

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cubic symmetry, and is morphologically similar to, but antigentically distinct from the previously described Norwalk and Hawaii agents. After an incubation period of 18 to 48 hours, the agent is shed in stools of acutely ill individuals for a period of one to five days. Employing both IEM and RIA, serum antibody rises were observed in 3/3 naturally occurring cases and in 8/9 cases of experimentally-induced illness in normal volunteers (the studies in normal volunteers had been carried out prior to the initiation of studies supported by this grant). IEM and RIA appeared to be equally sensitive for detection of antibody rises, but the RIA was more sensitive than IEM for the detection of SMA in stool specimens. Preliminary attempts to cultivate the agent in vitro were unsuccessful.

  14. Adaptive Load Balancing: A Study in Multi-Agent Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Schaerf, A.; Shoham, Y; Tennenholtz, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study the process of multi-agent reinforcement learning in the context of load balancing in a distributed system, without use of either central coordination or explicit communication. We first define a precise framework in which to study adaptive load balancing, important features of which are its stochastic nature and the purely local information available to individual agents. Given this framework, we show illuminating results on the interplay between basic adaptive behavior parameters a...

  15. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  16. Study on scattering properties of tissues with hyperosmotic chemical agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Optical properties of biological tissue are variable due to the changes of micro-structures and scattering constituents after hyperosmotic chemical agents permeates into tissue. The changes of optical properties of biological tissue are due to the refractive indices matching between the scatterers with high refractive index and the ground substances, which reduce scattering of tissue. The main reasons are that permeated semipermeable chemical agents with higher refractive index than the ground substances of tissuemakes the refractive index of ground substances of tissue higher by the enhancement of the permeated concentration. We studied on the collimated transmittance changes of light penetrating biological tissue after the hyperosmotic chemical agents administrates with different concentration.

  17. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment

  18. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  19. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  20. Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo, Joao; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Does the language processing system make use of abstract grammatical categories and representations that are not directly visible from the surface form of a linguistic expression? This study examines stem-formation processes and conjugation classes, a case of "pure" morphology that provides insight into the role of grammatical structure in…

  1. Study of altered platelet morphology with changes in glycaemic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitakshara Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which is an important simple and effortless tool can be used more extensively to predict the acute vascular events and thereby help curb morbidity and mortality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 757-761

  2. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories. PMID:17454433

  3. Morphological study of maxillary canine region based on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maxilla is generally known as a site where anatomical limitations make it difficult to obtain sufficient bone volume. A large amount of bone exists in the canine region between the anterior margin of the maxillary sinus and the piriform aperture margin. Although this region is crucial for implant treatments, there have not been any reports on morphological studies of the region. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the canine region based on CT, and also the morphology and position of the maxillary sinus located posterior to the canine region. The results were as follows: In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the higher the level, the smaller the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to become. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to be smaller in female patients than in male patients. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, no significant differences in mesio-distal length and bucco-lingual width were observed between dentulous and edentulous jaws. The morphology of the maxillary sinus was mainly of an inverse-trapezoidal, circular, or triangular form. The position of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was most frequently found at the site corresponding to the second premolar. Through this study, we have reconfirmed that the canine region is vital for implant treatments in the maxilla. (author)

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN HUMAN FETAL EAR OSSICLES-A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pramila Padmini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the morphological variation, if any, of the ear ossicles in the human fetuses and use of the study in medical applications. Materials And Methods :This study is performed on 100 sets of middle ear ossicles, each set consisting of Malleus, Incus and Stapes, which were taken from 50 fetal cadavers left and right sides of both Result: All the three ossicles showed variations in their morphology and more so in the stapes. Discussion: There are few studies in the literature on individual differences in these ossicles and these studies were on either adult or different species. Conclusion: the ear ossicles of the destitute human fetuses can be used as homografts to replace eroded adult middle ear ossicles.

  5. Great influence of a small amount of capping agents on the morphology of SnS particles using xanthate as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Qiaofeng, E-mail: qiaofenghan@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang Meijuan; Zhu Junwu; Wu Xiaodong; Lu Lude [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang Xin, E-mail: wangx@mail.njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: Various morphologies of SnS particles were obtained by varying the reaction conditions. Especially, slightly excess of ligands resulted in obvious change of morphology for SnS. The experimental results were reproducible. - Abstract: Several hierarchical tin sulfide (SnS) architectures have been prepared based on the reaction of tin dichloride (SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) with potassium O-ethyldithiocarbonate (ethylxanthate, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}K) via a solvothermal route in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution at 180 deg. C for 24 h. By varying experimental parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time and the ratios of reactants, various morphologies of three-dimensional (3D) superstructures assembled by SnS nanosheets, nanoribbons and nanorods were obtained. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For a typical molar ratio of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}K/SnCl{sub 2} = 2, the addition of a slight excess of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}K (molar ratio of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}K/SnCl{sub 2} = 2.4) resulted in one-dimensional growth of lamellar SnS particles and their assembly into flowerlike superstructures. Similarly, for the molar ratio of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCS{sub 2}K/SnCl{sub 2} = 2, if a small amount of capping agent (1 mL potassium oleate in 40 mL DMF solution) was employed, SnS microspheres aggregated by nanorods were formed. Possible mechanisms for the formation of 3D SnS microstructures were proposed. Optical properties of the products were also studied.

  6. Great influence of a small amount of capping agents on the morphology of SnS particles using xanthate as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: Various morphologies of SnS particles were obtained by varying the reaction conditions. Especially, slightly excess of ligands resulted in obvious change of morphology for SnS. The experimental results were reproducible. - Abstract: Several hierarchical tin sulfide (SnS) architectures have been prepared based on the reaction of tin dichloride (SnCl2.2H2O) with potassium O-ethyldithiocarbonate (ethylxanthate, C2H5OCS2K) via a solvothermal route in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution at 180 deg. C for 24 h. By varying experimental parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time and the ratios of reactants, various morphologies of three-dimensional (3D) superstructures assembled by SnS nanosheets, nanoribbons and nanorods were obtained. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For a typical molar ratio of C2H5OCS2K/SnCl2 = 2, the addition of a slight excess of C2H5OCS2K (molar ratio of C2H5OCS2K/SnCl2 = 2.4) resulted in one-dimensional growth of lamellar SnS particles and their assembly into flowerlike superstructures. Similarly, for the molar ratio of C2H5OCS2K/SnCl2 = 2, if a small amount of capping agent (1 mL potassium oleate in 40 mL DMF solution) was employed, SnS microspheres aggregated by nanorods were formed. Possible mechanisms for the formation of 3D SnS microstructures were proposed. Optical properties of the products were also studied.

  7. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia E. Lensink

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual language control (BLC is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an ERP study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch and L2 (English. Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

  8. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  9. Morphological studies of cytotoxic lesions in reversible endotoxic shock

    OpenAIRE

    R. García; Díaz-Laviada, l.; Bosch, M. A.; Abarca, S.; Portolés, M. T.; Risco, C; Ainaga, M. J.; Pagani, R.; Municio, A. M.; Escalona, J.

    1990-01-01

    Reversible endotoxic shock was induced in adult rats by intravenous injection of E. coli Olll:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the progression of metabolic and morphological alterations was evaluated. Serum samples and biopsies from adrenal gland, liver and lung were studied at different times after LPS injection. Histological changes in these tissues were observed after endotoxin administration, coinciding with both the acute-phase and the recovery-phase of...

  10. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae): a morphological and biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lobato Paraense; Pointier, J.P.; Delay, B.; A. F. Pernot; Incani, R N; C. Balzan; P. Chrosciechowski

    1992-01-01

    Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873) from Lake Valencia (type locality) and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system) and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis). In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacust...

  11. Extraction and Study of Bacteriophages, Used against Agents of Potato Soft Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda D. Davitashvili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of specific bacteriophages and their complex mixtures against bacterial diseases is very effective. As for causative agent of potato soft rot Erwinia carotovora, specific phages (25 phages in total were extracted from diseased potato, soil and sewage. The study of their biological properties showed the diversity of phages in terms of lytic action, virion plaque and morphology, as well as in relation to different environmental factors. Phages showed explicit antibacterial activity in vitro in liquid and solid media, as well as during model tests of potato tubers artificial inoculation.

  12. Experimental models used for the study of antihepatotoxic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2012-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo liver models have been developed in the past years to study the hepatoprotective agents. These systems measure the ability of the test drug to prevent or cure liver toxicity (induced by various hepatotoxins) in experimental animals. In in vitro models fresh hepatocytes are treated with hepatotoxin and the effect of the test drug on the same is evaluated. In in vivo models, a toxic dose or repeated doses of a known hepatotoxin are administered to induce liver damage in experimental animals. The test substance is administered along with, prior to and/or after the toxin treatment. Various chemical agents normally used to induce hepatotoxicty in experimental animals for the evaluation of hepatoprotective agents include carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, Acrylamide, adriamycin, alcohol, antitubercular drugs etc. The present article explains the mechanism of action of various hepatotoxic chemical/drugs, their dosage and route of administration.

  13. Toxicological studies of a new chelating agent 8102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of toxicological studies of a new chelating agent 8102 in different kinds of animals (mice, rats, rabbits and dogs) were reported. The results show that for mice, LD50 is 782 +- 21 mg/kg (i.v) and 3.17 +- 0.06 g/kg (i.m), and for rats, LD50 is 478 +- 15 mg/kg (i.v) and 3.04 +- 0.08 g/kg (i.m). In subacute experiments for dogs, the agent 8102 in doses of 50, 100, 150 mg(kg.day) was injected i.m. and for control group 0.9% saline was injected i.m.. Treatment was continued for 30 days. In pathological and clinical chemical analysis no essential change was observed. The experimental results suggest that the toxicity of this new chelating agent 8102 is low

  14. Morphological analysis of microcellular PP produced in a core-back injection process using chemical blowing agents and gas counter pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Reglero Ruiz, José Antonio; Vincent, Michel; Agassant, Jean-François; Claverie, Aurore; Huck, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    A complete experimental analysis of the microcellular injection process using Chemical Blowing Agents (CBA) with Gas Counter Pressure (GCP) and core-back expansion is presented. Three different types of polypropylene, neat and charged, were mixed with two different CBAs and injected into a plate mold with varying process parameters. First, an exhaustive cartographical mapping of the plate morphology is analyzed. In a second step, the relation between injection parameters and the resulting mor...

  15. Comparison of effect of desensitizing agents on the retention of crowns cemented with luting agents: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jalandar, Sonune Shital; Pandharinath, Dange Shankar; Arun, Khalikar; Smita, Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Many dentists use desensitizing agents to prevent hypersensitivity. This study compared and evaluated the effect of two desensitizing agents on the retention of cast crowns when cemented with various luting agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety freshly extracted human molars were prepared with flat occlusal surface, 6 degree taper and approximately 4 mm axial length. The prepared specimens were divided into 3 groups and each group is further divided into 3 subgroups. Desensitizing agen...

  16. Multi-Tape Two-Level Morphology A Case Study in Semitic Non-linear Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraz, G A

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an implemented multi-tape two-level model capable of describing Semitic non-linear morphology. The computational framework behind the current work is motivated by Kay (1987); the formalism presented here is an extension to the formalism reported by Pulman and Hepple (1993). The objectives of the current work are: to stay as close as possible, in spirit, to standard two-level morphology, to stay close to the linguistic description of Semitic stems, and to present a model which can be used with ease by the Semitist. The paper illustrates that if finite-state transducers (FSTs) in a standard two-level morphology model are replaced with multi-tape auxiliary versions (AFSTs), one can account for Semitic root-and-pattern morphology using high level notation.

  17. Optimised crystal morphologies for active pharmaceutical ingredients and related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Horgan, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are crystalline solids in their pure forms. Crystalline solids have definable morphologies, i.e. shape and size. Crystal morphology is determined by both the internal structure of the crystals and external factors during growth from solution. The morphology of a crystal batch can affect key processes during manufacturing. Companies generally accept whatever morphology the manufacturing process provides and deal with any subsequent probl...

  18. An in vitro study of silk stent morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurboonyawat, Thaweesak [University of Paris 7 Bichat School of Medicine, Department of Functional and Interventional Neuroradiology, Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Paris (France); Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Bangkok (Thailand); Blanc, Raphael; Piotin, Michel; Spelle, Laurent; Moret, Jacques [University of Paris 7 Bichat School of Medicine, Department of Functional and Interventional Neuroradiology, Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Paris (France); Schmidt, Paul [University of Paris 7 Bichat School of Medicine, Department of Functional and Interventional Neuroradiology, Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Paris (France); The Duluth Clinic Ltd, Duluth, MN (United States); Nakib, Amir [Universite de Paris 12, Laboratoire Images, Signaux et Systemes Intelligents (LISSI, E. A. 3956), Creteil (France)

    2011-09-15

    Morphology of the Silk stent (Balt, Montmorency, France) after deployment is not fully understood, especially in tortuous vessels. An in vitro study was conducted to study morphology and flow-diverting parameters of this stent. Two sets of different-sized and curved polytetrafluoroethylene tubes were studied. To simulate the aneurysm neck, a small hole was created in a tube. A stent was placed in each of the different tubes. Angiographic computerized tomography and macroscopic photography were then obtained. The images were analyzed to calculate a Percentage of Area Coverage (PAC). Good stent conformability was observed. The PAC was 21% in the straight model with matched stent and vessel diameter. In the straight model with an oversized stent, the PAC was increased. In the curved models, dynamic wire repositioning occurred. The repositioning was affected by the size of the stent and the angle of the vessel curve. Compared to the straight model, this increased the PAC in two instances: on the convexity (oversized stent), and on the concavity (matched stent and vessel diameter). The PAC did not significantly change at the sides of the curve. By design, the wires of the silk stent move relative to each other. In a curved model, the PAC is different at the convexity, concavity, and lateral walls. The stent diameter affects the PAC. These results are clinically relevant because it is desirable to maximize and minimize the PAC across the aneurysm neck and branch vessel orifice, respectively. (orig.)

  19. A Study in a Hybrid Centralised-Swarm Agent Community

    CERN Document Server

    van Aardt, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a systems architecture for a hybrid Centralised/Swarm based multi-agent system. The issue of local goal assignment for agents is investigated through the use of a global agent which teaches the agents responses to given situations. We implement a test problem in the form of a Pursuit game, where the Multi-Agent system is a set of captor agents. The agents learn solutions to certain board positions from the global agent if they are unable to find a solution. The captor agents learn through the use of multi-layer perceptron neural networks. The global agent is able to solve board positions through the use of a Genetic Algorithm. The cooperation between agents and the results of the simulation are discussed here. .

  20. Study on Molecular Chain Morphology of Konjac Glucomannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; XIE Bi-jun

    2003-01-01

    The long-range structure of konjac glucomannan(KGM) is studied by using laser light scatter(LLS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and method of viscostdity. The weight-average molecularweight (Mw), root-mean-square ratio of gyration[ (S2) 1/2 ], second viral coefficient (A2) and multi-dispersioncoefficient (Mw/Mn) are 1.04× 106, 105.0±-0. 9 nm, (- 1.59±0. 28) × 10-3 mol ml g-2 and 1. 015±0. 003,respectively. Mark-Houwink equation is established as [η] = 5. 96 × 10-2Mw0.73 and the molecular chain pa-rameters are as follows: ML=982.82 nm-1 , Lp=27.93 nm, d=0.74 nm, h=0.26 nm, L=1 054.11 nm.Further more molecular chain morphology of KGM is studied by using atom force microscope (AFM) andtransmission electronic microscope (TEM), and the result shows that the KGM molecular is an extendingsemi-flexible linear chain without branch. Therefore, the image of molecular chain morphology confirms thededuction drawn by Mark-Houwink equation and molecular chain parameters.

  1. Bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent: experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the efficacy, safety and related characteristics of bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent. Materials and methods: The authors prepared bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent from the stem tubers of bletilla of Chinese medicinal herb. Related characteristics of bletilla colloid were studied. In four pigs hepatic arterial embolization was performed with the bletilla colloid. Results: The bletilla colloid was a homogenous viscous colloid whose relative viscosity was 2324.6 mm2/s. It was easily injected through 4-F catheter and hyperattenuating under fluoroscopy, meanwhile, with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility, without pyrogenetic response and toxicity. In vitro, the mixture of bletilla colloid and MMC did not produce separation and suspension phenomena but released 50% of MMC at 1.8h and 100% at 3.4h. The bletilla colloid mainly embolized peripheral arteries, maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. The injuries of normal hepatic tissues were slight, without hepatic cytonecrosis. Conclusions: Bletilla colloid, safe and effective in use with angioembolic function and characteristics of carrier and slow-release, is a potential peripheral embolization agent

  2. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% using the twin screw extrusion method. Maleic acid polyethylene (MAPE was added as a coupling agent. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties improved with increasing RH loading. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the RH loading increased. SEM micrographs revealed good interfacial bonding between the fiber and polymer matrix.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, G A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  5. Morphological and microscopic identification studies of Cordyceps and its counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-juan Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic and microscopic studies were applied to distinguish Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. and its 5 common counterfeits. Transverse sections of stroma and larvae and surface sections of stroma of C. sinensis, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps barnesii, Cordyceps gracilis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps militaris were examined and their morphological and microscopic features photographed. The main morphological and microscopic features of the 6 species of Cordyceps were basically similar except for certain diagnostic differences. These included macroscopic differences from C. sinensis as follows: the stroma of C. gunnii is stout and rough with sterile bulgy or branched apex; the larvae of C. barnesii has a pair of teeth on the head; the stroma of C. liangshanensi is thread-like; C. gracilis is without stroma; and C. militaris is without larvae. There were also microscopic differences: from C. sinensis as follows: the stroma of C. barnesii is without perithecia; C. gunnii, C. liangshanensis and C. gracilis are without bristles on the larva body. These differences allow C. sinensis and its counterfeits to be easily distinguished.

  6. Morphological findings in dynamic swallowing studies of symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Schober, Ewald; Schima, Wolfgang; Eisenhuber, Edith; Stadler, Alfred; Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Partik, Bernhard; Lechner, Gerhard [Department of Radiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Radiologic Tumor Diagnosis, Vienna (Austria); Ekberg, Olle [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of videofluoroscopy in the detection of structural abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus in patients with different symptoms of impaired deglutition. Dynamic radiographic recording of deglutition was performed in 3193 consecutive patients (1578 men, 1615 women; mean age 54 years) suffering from dysphagia, suspicion of aspiration, globus sensation, and non-cardiac chest pain. We assessed different structural lesions from the oral cavity to the esophagus and classified them into eight categories. Their frequency and association with the different clinical symptoms were evaluated. Videofluoroscopy revealed 1040 structural abnormalities in 833 patients (26%) including mass lesions from the oral cavity to hyoid/larynx (n=66), pharyngeal diverticula (n=181), pharyngeal masses (n=78), other pharyngeal narrowings (n=71), webs (n=98), masses (n=39), and other narrowings (n=73) of the upper esophageal sphincter, esophageal diverticula (n=80), esophageal webs, rings and strictures (n=194), and intrinsic and extrinsic esophageal lesions (n=160). There was a considerable variance of findings for different symptoms. In a large proportion of symptomatic patients videofluoroscopy detects morphological abnormalities along pharynx and esophagus often combined with functional disorders. This fact underlines the role of videofluoroscopy as a diagnostic test for function as well as morphology. (orig.)

  7. Study on Multi-agent Systems with Colored Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰顺国; 李军

    2008-01-01

    The approach to model multi-agent systems with hierarchical colored Peal nets is introduced.In a multi-agent system,every agent is modeled with colored Petri net system,and the colored Petri net system of the multi-agent system is a hierarchical colored Petri net system,such that the agents planning deadlock detection and avoidance,can be analyzed with the Petri net system.

  8. A Morphological, Biochemical and Biological Studies of Halophilic Streptomyces sp. Isolated from Saltpan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika T. Lakshmipathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dermatophytes have developed resistance to the existing antifungal antibiotics. As a part of our continuous search we had isolated, identified and characterized actinomycetes from the halophilic environment having antagonistic activity against the dermatophytes namely Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Approach: Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil sample collected from the Ennore saltpan region, Chennai, India and screened for antidermatophytic secondary metabolite production by well diffusion method. Four dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum [MTCC 3272], Trichophyton mentagrophytes [MTCC 7687], Microsporum gypseum [MTCC 2819] and Epidermophyton floccosum [MTCC 7880] were used to study its susceptibility to the isolated actinomycetes. Actinomycetes which showed antidermatophytic activity were subjected to cultural characterization with respect to aerial and substrate mycelia color, diffusible and melanin pigment production and the growth of the organisms on different media. Further the micro morphological characteristics such as spore surface ornamentation and spore chain morphology determined by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM analysis also suggested that the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The isolates were also tested for utilization of various carbon and nitrogen sources, degradation of complex compounds, sensitivity to antibiotics and inhibitory compounds. Results: All the 3 isolates exhibited different cultural and morphological characteristics. Based on the cultural characters and morphology they were assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The three isolates produced an inhibition zone of 30-31 mm on an average, utilized a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, degraded almost all the complex compounds and exhibited a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance. They were designated as Streptomyces sp. DKDVIT1, Streptomyces sp. DKDVIT2 and

  9. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIVE PARTICULARITIES OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cojocaru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is not a simple vascular senescence process, but also is a progressive and high risk disease. From morphologic point of vue it can be found a large variety of atherosclerotic lesions depending on their evolution and localization. The aim of this study was to investigate and to correlate clinical and evolutive aspects of the atherosclerotic process, regarding 213 patients of Cardiovascular Department of Cardiovascular Disease Institute ``Prof. Dr. George IM Georgescu``, Iaşi, which have been investigated for a period during 2005-2009. The arterial fragments from both muscular and elastic types of arteries were prelevated by endarterectomy and were specifically prepared for histopathological exam. The microscopic exam revealed the high frequency of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, especially type V and type VI in a positive correlation with age, sex, clinical diagnostic and other associated risk factors.

  10. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  11. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alberto Salazar Moncada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with S. causeyae (at least 23% and Hanseniella sp. (22%. Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

  12. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  13. Morphologic changes of the diaphragm with aging: A CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the variations in morphology of the diaphragm with aging, 120 CT studies of patients in their third to eighth decade of life were systematically evaluated for the appearance and thickness of the muscular diaphragm. The thickness of the muscular diaphragm decreased with advancing age from 8 +- 1.8 mm to 6.5 +- 0.7 mm. The number of irregularities and defects of the diaphragm increased with age from 0% to 60% between the fourth and eighth decades. A strong correlation with emphysema was demonstrated. The majority of these defects appeared in the posterior medial aspect of the diaphragm corresponding to the foramen of Bochdalek. However, these defects were most probably acquired and not congenital as they were not demonstrable in the younger population. The suggest that there exists a structurally weak area in this region of the diaphragm that becomes apparent with increased laxity of connective tissue and decreased muscle tone with advancing age

  14. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY OF UTERUS USING ULTRASOUND SCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Priya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomical variations of uterus particularly those concerning the body of uterus are well known in medical literature. Knowledge of these variations is important in reproductive periods of life, as well as in deciding the surgical procedures involving caesarean section delivery. However there are some exceptional variations in the body of uterus that may puzzle the obstetrician and gynaecologist dealing with gynaecological patients. Normal development of the female reproductive tract requires a complex series of events. Failure of any part of this process can result in congenital anomaly. Careful sonography and an awareness of the sonographic findings of early pregnancy in anomalous uteri should improve the detection of these anomalies. Recognition of such anomalies will also allow differentiation of those patients requiring repeat dilatation and curettage from those requiring laparotomy, as in the presence of a blind uterine horn or ectopic gestation. 3D ultrasonography permits the obtaining of planar reformatted sections through the uterus, which allow precise evaluation of fundal indentation & length of the septum. Aim This study was undertaken to assess the morphology of uterus and evaluate the anomalies. Materials: 1500 subjects within the age of 15-45 were assessed using ultrasound scan and the anomalies were analyzed. Results: 5-7% cases involving the variations of morphology of the uterus were reported in this study, that 3DUS has recently become the only mandatory step in the initial investigation. Conclusion: With timely and accurate diagnosis, appropriate management is likely to provide the best possible outcome for all such patients.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE BASILAR ARTERY IN ADULT HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish A. Wankhede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basilar artery is the large median and major artery of the posterior circulation of the brain. Many variations are seen in the basilar artery, majority of them in position, origin and shape of the artery. Many authors have documented various anomalies as well as differences of the anatomy in this area in the Indian population as compared to the Western literature. Context and purpose of study: Many studies are available on the anterior circulation of the brain i.e. on vessels of the circle of Willis but studies on the posterior circulation are very few. And such studies so far had been done mostly in the American and European races and are mostly based on imaging techniques. Studies in the Indian population have been few. Hence the present study is concentrated on the morphological study of the basilar artery of human adult brain, to show the frequency and type of variations in the morphology of the basilar artery. Results: The basilar artery most commonly takes origin from the vertebral artery where left vertebral artery is greater in size than the right vertebral artery (72.5%. Level of formation of the basilar artery is most commonly observed at the ponto-medullary junction (62.5%. Length of the basilar artery varied from minimum 2.4cm to maximum 3.6cm. More commonly artery lies in the range of 2.6-3.0cm (57.5%. Diameter of the basilar artery at origin ranges from 3.2-4.2mm, at mid level from 3-4mm and at termination 3.1-4mm. Level of termination of the basilar artery is more commonly at the mid brain-pons junction (50%. Most of the basilar arteries are of straight type (55% and next common is bent or curved type (37.5%. Fenestration of 4mm is seen in proximal part of the one basilar artery (2.5%. Conclusion: Variations of the basilar artery are common. Neurosurgical importance of this study lies during the exposure of the region for different purposes. Knowledge of the vascular variations will increase the success of the

  16. The Study and Perspective of Mobile Agent Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Hong; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Hai-yan

    2004-01-01

    Security is an important issue for the widespread deployment of applications based on software agent technology. It is generally agreed that without the proper countermeasures in place, use of agent-based applications will be severely impeded. So many projects have focused on the security issues of mobile agent and many mechanisms have been proposed to solve the security problem. This paper discusses the security issues and the countermeasures. Then it points out some directions for the research of the mobile agent security.

  17. A Study of Morphological Patterns of Glenoid Cavity of Scapula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina B Rajput

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder arthroplasty offer pain relief and improvement in patients of shoulder arthritis. Appropriate fixation of glenoid component of scapula is essential to evade loosening which is the common indication for revision surgery. The glenoid cavity is small and allows only a restricted spot for limited fixation devices. For this reason, knowledge of the morphology of glenoid cavity is important. So, in the current study, 5 diameters of glenoid cavity of 43 right sided and 57 left sided dried unpaired human scapulae have been measured with the aid of digital vernier callipers. Various shapes of glenoid cavity like inverted comma , pear or oval based on the glenoid notch have also been observed. The values of glenoid cavity in the current study are lower than those reported in other studies. These suggest that the difference in size of the glenoid cavity in Gujarati population may have to be taken into consideration while deciding the size of the glenoid component in shoulder arthroplasty in this population. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 504-507

  18. CN Morphology Studies of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Matthew M

    2011-01-01

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13-17,...

  19. Morphological and stoichiometric study of chemical bath deposited CdS films by varying ammonia concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ammonia concentration on stoichiometric, surface morphological, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films has been studied systemically. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films was carried out via using cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, thiourea as the sulphur source and ammonia as the complexing agent. Ammonia concentration was changed from 0 to 2.5 M. At ammonia concentration greater than or equal to 0.1 M and lower than 0.6 M, nanowires or flake-like structures were obtained. At ammonia concentration ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 M, uniform, dense, and continuously coated films were obtained. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis revealed that as the ammonia concentration changed from 0.1 to 2.0 M, the Cd/S ratio in the obtained film increased from 0.24 to 2.61. Not only typical cadmium-poor but also unusual sulphur deficiency phenomena were observed for CBD CdS thin films. The films deposited with ammonia concentration of 1.0 M show the highest degree of crystallinity and closest stoichiometry Cd/S≅1, and have a preferred orientation. The direct band energy gaps of as-grown films were found to be 2.23-2.77 eV. The formation mechanism of the films with various morphologies and cadmium and sulphur deficiencies are discussed.

  20. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  1. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe2Al5) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer

  2. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. PMID:27040242

  3. Morphology-controlled growth of magnetic iron oxide components on gold nanoparticles as bi-functional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Leung, CW; Ruotolo, A.; Jiang, C; Pong, PWT

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Hybrid nanostructure can inherit the physiochemical properties of its individual components to realize its multi-functionality. The coupling of plasmonic effect of gold nanoparticles with magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles has shown great promise as bi-functional agents allowing simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic/photonic thermal therapy. However, since gold and iron oxide are two dissimilar materia...

  4. Study of the hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent effects on bovine enamel using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen Peroxide's a bleaching agent capable of oxidizing a wide range of colored organic, causing discoloration and hence bleaching of the substrate, but some authors related the occurrence of side effects related to bleaching of the tooth structure, such as changes in morphology superficial. It was used 6 bovine incisors, each tooth was initially evaluated six times in different areas to obtain the count of elements phosphorus and calcium using X-Ray Fluorescence. The teeth were randomly divided in two groups: both groups were submitted to bleaching in office with hydrogen peroxide 38%, once a week during three weeks. Group 1 was stored in distilled water and group 2 in artificial saliva, between the sessions. The measurements were repeated every seven days before the bleaching treatment. Besides that, changes in mineral levels were always assessed in the same area and using the same procedure. It was observed that the bleaching was not able to demineralize the tooth enamel studied. (author)

  5. CN MORPHOLOGY STUDIES OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September, the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December, the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January, the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13 to 17, 17.2 hr from September 10 to 13, 18.2 hr from October 12 to 19, and 18.7 hr from October 31 to November 7. We conducted Monte Carlo jet modeling to constrain the pole orientation and locations of the active regions based on the observed morphology. Our preliminary, self-consistent pole solution has an obliquity of 100 relative to the comet's orbital plane (i.e., it is centered near R.A. = 2570 and decl. = +670 with an uncertainty around this position of about 150) and has two mid-latitude sources, one in each hemisphere.

  6. Morphological Study of Directionally Freeze-Cast Nickel Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyungyung; Kim, Min Jeong; Choi, Hyelim; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman; Dunand, David C.

    2016-03-01

    Nickel foams, consisting of 51 to 62 pct aligned, elongated pores surrounded by a network of Ni walls, were fabricated by reduction and sintering of directionally cast suspensions of nanometric NiO powders in water. Use of dispersant in the slurry considerably affected the foam morphology and microstructure at both the micro- and macro-scale, most likely by modifying ice solidification into dendrites (creating the aligned, elongated macro-pores) and NiO powder accumulation in the inter-dendritic space (creating the Ni walls with micro-pores). The mean width of the Ni walls, in foams solidified with and without dispersant, was 21 ± 5 and 75 ± 13 µm, respectively. Additionally, the foams with the dispersant showed less dense walls and rougher surfaces than those without the dispersant. Moreover, the fraction of closed pores present in the foam walls with the dispersant was higher than that of the samples without dispersant. We finally verified the potential energy application of the Ni foam produced in this study by carrying out a preliminary single-cell performance test with the Ni foam sample as the gas diffusion layer on the anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  7. Morphological and Spectral Study of the Galaxy Kaz 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Movsessian, T. A.

    2005-04-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the nucleus and immediately surrounding regions of the galaxy Kaz 73 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6 m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory in combination with the multi-pupil VAGR spectrograph. Isophotes are constructed for monochromatic images in the Hα, [NII]λ 6584, and [SII]λ6731 lines. It is shown that the surface brightness of the nucleus in monochromatic images of these lines increases rapidly from the edge to the center, with an increase of 5m for the Hα line. The nucleus of Kaz 73 is found to rotate clockwise about its axis, which is perpendicular to the direction of the arms of the galaxy. The extent of the nucleus in the direction of the arms is found to be a consequence of its rotation; that is, the nucleus is flattened in the direction of the poles. Overall, the nucleus of Kaz 73 has all the kinematic features of an entire galaxy. The masses of the nucleus and its gaseous component are determined to be 6.5ṡ108 M• and 1.9ṡ104 M•, respectively.

  8. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  9. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kanagasabapathy; Sobha Jayakrishnan

    2011-05-01

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the electrochemically less noble zinc deposits more preferentially, than the more noble iron. So the industrial process control over the deposition becomes difficult. So, this study correlates the effect of various deposition parameters over the deposition kinetics and deposited alloy characteristics. Transition and partial current densities were computed. Effect of hydrogen overpotential and surface coverage due to the adsorbed intermediates over anomalous deposition were explored. Plausible deposition mechanism and mathematical model was proposed to predict the anomalous electrodeposition characteristics. Textural, morphological and phase structural characteristics of the alloy was investigated. By the substitution of iron in the hcp lattice, c/a ratio was lowered and the lattice geometry was distorted. Intermetallic compounds of variable composition such as FeZn14, Fe5Zn33, Fe3Zn13 and FeZn3 with `' and `' phase structures were noted. Electrodeposition parameters were optimized and smooth, adherent, strain-free deposits with required iron content and hardness were obtained.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CORONARY SINUS IN HUMAN CADAVERIC HEARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manoranjitham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The coronary sinus is a dilated venous channel opening into the right atrium of the heart. The coronary venous system has gained importance in recent years for electrophysiological procedures like arrhythmia ablation, biventricular pacing and implantation of cardiac pacemakers. The present study aims to study the formation and tributaries of coronary sinus and also the morphology of thebesian valve. Materials and Methods: 30 formalin fixed cadaveric hearts available in the department of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Perambalur, Tamil nadu, was used for the study. The formation and tributaries of coronary sinus were noted. The length of coronary sinus in millimeters was measured from the union of great cardiac vein and left marginal vein upto the opening of the coronary sinus in the right atrium with vernier calipers. The width of the coronary ostium in the right atrium was measured in millimeters with vernier calipers. Results: In 93.33% specimens the coronary sinus was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and left marginal vein. In 3.33% specimens it was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and posterior vein of left ventricle, and in 3.33% specimens it was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and oblique vein of left atrium. The left marginal vein was absent in 2 specimens and small cardiac vein was absent in 1 specimen. The mean length of coronary sinus was 54.98 + 12.2mm. The mean width of coronary sinus ostium was 9.35 + 3.24mm. The Thebesian valve was present in 93.33% specimens and it was semilunar in shape. Conclusion: The knowledge of coronary sinus anatomy will be helpful during electrophysiological procedures.

  11. Comparative Study of Pineapple Juice as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Alshehri, Fahad Mohammed Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using Pineapple Juice (PJ) or ranitidine as negative oral contrast agents and no agent.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF CEREBRAL BRIDGING VEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the morphological properties of pig cerebral bridging vein. Methods. The morphology and fibre arrangement of 15 cerebral bridging veins obtained from 7 Danish Yorkshire landrace pigs were observed. Results. There was a narrow region at the junction of the cerebral bridging veins and superior sagittal sinus termed “ outflow cuff segment". The diameter and length of outflow cuff segment were much smaller and the thickness was higher than those of the cerebral bridging veins (P0.05). Conclusions. There were differences in fibre arrangement and morphological properties between the outflow cuff segment and the cerebral bridging vein, just like a resistance valve, the outflow cuff segment may play an important role in stabilizing cerebral venous outflow and regulating intracranial pressure.

  13. CN Morphology Studies of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December the northern and southern features were roughly equal in ...

  14. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  15. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  16. Time course of morphological processing in aphasia: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2014-04-01

    The spatial distribution of the neuromagnetic response was similar for neurotypical adults and PWA, with significantly greater bilateral posterior activity pre-200ms followed by left posterior activity during 200-400ms. However, the two groups differed in sensitivity to morphological complexity and lexical status. For morphological complexity, the neurotypical effect first appeared in left anterior sensors at 150-200ms; PWA showed this left anterior sensitivity at 200-400ms, indicative of a delayed response. Further, a right lateralized response to morphological complexity found in neurotypical adults at 200-400ms was absent in PWA. For lexical status, the effect appeared at 150-200ms in neurotypical adults in bilateral anterior and right posterior sensors while PWA showed no effect during this time window. At 200-400ms, lexical status effects were left-lateralized for neurotypical adults and were absent for PWA. To summarize, agrammatic PWA show delayed left anterior response for morphological complexity, and insensitivity to all other contrasts. This finding of early morpho-lexical parsing abnormalities needs to be integrated with findings of sentence level morpho-syntactic abnormalities (e.g., functional categories to develop a more comprehensive theoretical account of agrammatism.

  17. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  18. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes. PMID:2685464

  19. Study of suspending agents for gadolinium(III)-exchanged hectorite. An oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays modified with paramagnetic ions have been shown to be effective magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. The efficacy in part relies on the suspension of the small clay particles in aqueous solution. In this study a series of macromolecules were eveluated as suspending agents for Gd(III) ion exchanged hectorite clay in water. The room temperature relaxivities for the Gd-hectorite clays were enhanced by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), cyclodextrins, and cholic acid to aqueous suspensions. Additionally, there was no evidence of free Gd(III) in solution in the presence of these suspending agents. In contrast the combination of alginic acid or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) with the clays resulted in release of the Gd(III) into solution. Xanthan gum, which is often used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in food products, forms a viscous suspension but also reacts with free Gd(III) ions. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Study on the agile supply chain management based on agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The most important task of the agile supply chain management (ASCM) is to reconfigure a supply chain based on the customers' requirement. Without more sophisticated cooperation and dynamic formation in an agile supply chain, it cannot be achieved for mass customization, rapid response and high quality services. Because of its great potential in supporting cooperation for the supply chain management, agent technology can carry out the cooperative work by inter-operation across networked human, organization and machines at the abstractive level in a computational system. A major challenge in building such a system is to coordinate the behavior of individual agent or a group of agents to achieve the individual and shared goals of the participants. In this paper, the agent technology is used to support modeling and coordinating of supply chain management.

  1. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rezky Purna Satit; Huam Hon Tat; Amran Rasli; Thoo Ai Chin; Inda Sukati

    2012-01-01

    Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ens...

  2. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  3. Copper-oxide metalorganic nanocomposite: morphological and X-ray spectroscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalovega, G.; Funik, A.; Myasoedova, T.; Brzhezinskaya, M.

    2016-05-01

    Oxidation state, local and electronic structure as well as the surface morphology of a CuOx nanocomposites were investigated. The research is focused on studying the relationships between surface morphology and structure of the inorganic component of the nanocomposites. The physico-chemical mechanisms of change in local and electronic structure, oxidation state and the surface morphology of nanocomposites in the interaction of metal oxide nanoparticles with different types of matrices were determined.

  4. What's in a verb : studies in the verbal morphology of the languages of the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, E.B.; Rowicka, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Verbal morphology tends to be the most complex part of the grammatical structure of indigenous American languages. Studies in this volume look into the structural complexity that verbal forms can exhibit on the American continent and into the morphological categories that have attracted researchers’ special attention. Unlike most other volumes on indigenous American languages, the present collection overrides regional boundaries and addresses interesting morphological phenomena across North, ...

  5. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  6. Morphological study of silver corrosion in highly aggressive sulfur environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per;

    2011-01-01

    A silicone coated power module, having silver conducting lines, showed severe corrosion, after prolonged use as part of an electronic device in a pig farm environment, where sulfur containing corrosive gasses are known to exist in high amounts. Permeation of sulfur gasses and humidity through the...... silicone coating to the interface has resulted in three corrosion types namely: uniform corrosion, conductive anodic filament type of Ag2S growth, and silver migration with subsequent formation of sulfur compounds. Detailed morphological investigation of new and corroded power modules was carried out, and...

  7. Study of the morphology exhibited by linear segmented polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five series of segmented polyurethanes with different hard segment content were prepared by the prepolymer mixing method. The nano-morphology of the obtained polyurethanes and their microphase separation were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although highly hydrogen bonded hard segments were formed, high hard segment contents promoted phase mixture and decreased the chain mobility, decreasing the hard segment domain precipitation and the soft segments crystallization. The applied techniques were able to show that the hard-segment content and the hard-segment interactions were the two controlling factors for determining the structure of segmented polyurethanes. (author)

  8. A Study on Karst Morphology Forms in Manjil Region of Gilan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Hajati Ziabari; Mohammad Ghafoori; Gholam Reza Lashkaripour; Naser Hafezi Moghadas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is The Study on Karst Morphology Forms in Manjil Region of Gilan Province. Due to geological features and quantity and type of rainfalls in Gilan Province and other effective factors on formation and development of Karst and Karst water resources, it is necessary to study karst morphology forms of this region. This study has studied Manjil region. It has first studied and identified karst forms of the region and then considered their formation in relation to the regi...

  9. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  10. Use of STIM for morphological studies of microstructured polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, morphological characterization of microstructures produced by focused 3 MeV H+ beams and chemical etching on poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils was investigated by on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). STIM images were obtained from different energy regions of the transmitted energy spectra. STIM performance was compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used as a reference. STIM and SEM images provided similar morphological information. The deviations observed between the measured dimensions obtained from both techniques were within the uncertainties of the experiment. Moreover, the scaling of the structures’ size versus etching time (i.e. the etching rates) extracted from STIM and SEM data were equivalent. Prolonged etching times of up to 60 min were performed to check the effect of the irradiation on the non-bombarded vicinity of the structured lines. STIM images clearly revealed a distribution of cavities and porosity along the structured walls for etching times above 20 min. This is attributed to thermal effects and outgassing during the proton beam writing, which probably create voids that are enlarged by the long exposure to the etching solution

  11. Studying the properties of galaxy cluster morphology estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Weißmann, A; Suhada, R; Ameglio, S

    2012-01-01

    X-ray observations of galaxy clusters reveal a large range of morphologies with various degrees of disturbance, showing that the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical shape which are used to determine the cluster mass from X-ray data are not always satisfied. It is therefore important for the understanding of cluster properties as well as for cosmological applications to detect and quantify substructure in X-ray images of galaxy clusters. Two promising methods to do so are power ratios and center shifts. Since these estimators can be heavily affected by Poisson noise and X-ray background, we performed an extensive analysis of their statistical properties using a large sample of simulated X-ray observations of clusters from hydrodynamical simulations. We quantify the measurement bias and error in detail and give ranges where morphological analysis is feasible. A new, computationally fast method to correct for the Poisson bias and the X-ray background contribution in power ratio and center shift ...

  12. A study into preferred explanations of virtual agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual training systems provide an effective means to train people for complex, dynamic tasks such as crisis management or firefighting. Intelligent agents are often used to play the characters with whom a trainee interacts. To increase the trainee's understanding of played scenarios, several accou

  13. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF NUCLEATION PROPERTY OF NUCLEATING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It is deduced from thermodynamic relations and confirm ed by experiment results that the nucleation rate and nucleation temperature o f nucleating agents in the glass are dependent upon their melting entropy ΔSm melting temperature Tm and crystal-type transition in terms of some mathemati cal expressions.

  14. A STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF IPP/IIR BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shaoyun; LI Huilin; XU Xi

    1991-01-01

    The effect of isobutylene-isoprene rubber (ⅡR) on the crystallizing behavior of isotactic polypropylene (IPP) as well as the morphology of the blends in relation with its properties have been studied by DSC, WAXD, polarized light microscope, SEM and mechanical properties test.The experimental results show that ⅡR has slight influence on melting point, crystallinity,crystallization rate of IPP. It seems certain that ⅡR has not entered into IPP phase in melt state.ⅡR has retarding action on the growth of IPP crystal and is an effective nucleating agent of IPP spherulites. The impact strength of the blend increases rapidly with ⅡR content more than 30 parts;the tensile strength of the blend, however, decreases as ⅡR content increases. The temperature and time of after heat- treatment also have great influence on the impact strength of the blend. The impact strength of IPP / ⅡR (100 /20) heat- treated at about 130 ℃ for 2h is 5 times as high as that of the untreated blend.

  15. Structural and morphological studies of manganese-based cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Manganese cathode nanomaterials were successfully obtained by modified sol–gel method. • Crystallinity of the powders was confirmed by various structural method. • AFM and Raman spectroscopy showed that LiMnPO4 is promising material for LIBs. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline powders: lithium-manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) of spinel and lithium-manganese phosphate (LiMnPO4) of olivine structure were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. In this synthesizing process, lithium and manganese salts and complexing agent were used as reactants. The obtained powders were characterized by a number of methods: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The mean sizes of crystallites were about 30 nm for LiMn2O4 and 60 nm for LiMnPO4 nanoparticles. The influence of crystallographic structure on the stability of two manganese compounds was studied. The correlation between the structural and morphological results of spinel LiMn2O4 and olivine LiMnPO4 properties was examined for the first time in this work

  16. Experimental evaluation of a hyperspectral imager for near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthman, A. S.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems have the potential to combine morphological and spectral information to provide detailed and high sensitivity readouts in biological and medical applications. As HSI enables simultaneous detection in several spectral bands, the technology has significant potential for use in real-time multiplexed contrast agent studies. Examples include tumor detection in intraoperative and endoscopic imaging as well as histopathology. A multiplexed readout from multiple disease targets, such as cell surface receptors overexpressed in cancer cells, could improve both sensitivity and specificity of tumor identification. Here, we evaluate a commercial, compact, near-infrared HSI sensor that has the potential to enable low cost, video rate HSI for multiplexed fluorescent contrast agent studies in biomedical applications. The hyperspectral imager, based on a monolithically integrated Fabry-Perot etalon, has 70 spectral bands between 600-900 nm, making it ideal for this application. Initial calibration of the imager was performed to determine wavelength band response, quantum efficiency and the effect of F-number on the spectral response. A platform for wide-field fluorescence imaging in reflectance using fluorophore specific LED excitation was then developed. The applicability of the imaging platform for simultaneous readout of multiple fluorophore signals was demonstrated using a dilution series of Alexa Fluor 594 and Alexa Fluor 647, showing that nanomolar fluorophore concentrations can be detected. Our results show that the HSI system can clearly resolve the emission spectra of the two fluorophores in mixtures of concentrations across several orders of magnitude, indicating a high dynamic range performance. We therefore conclude that the HSI sensor tested here is suitable for detecting fluorescence in biomedical imaging applications.

  17. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  18. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  19. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  20. Silicon surface morphology study after exposure to tailored femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal pulse shaping of ultrashort laser pulses has been used for laser ablation of semiconductors. Even the simplest double pulse sequence with a delay of several picoseconds shows remarkable differences in the interaction process, compared to a single pulse of the same total energy. We discuss the interaction of double pulses with single crystal silicon sample in the context of crater morphology for multiple pulses on the same spot. The growth of the typical columnar structures in helium at atmospheric pressure is suppressed and the crater bottom is flat despite the Gaussian beam profile. The influence of the temporal pulse shape has to be treated in conjunction with the influence of the other ablation parameters

  1. Study of the morphology and biomechanics of sacral fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Ren-fu; YANG Di-sheng; WANG Yi-jin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the morphological characteristics of sacral fracture under different impact loads.Method: Ten fresh pelvic specimens were loaded in dynamic or static state. A series of mechanical parameters including the pressure strain and velocity were recorded.Morphological characteristics were observed under scanning electron microscope.Results: The form of sacral fracture was related to the impact energy. Under low-energy impact loads, ilium fracture, acetabulum fracture and crista iliaca fracture were found. Under high-energy impact loads, three types of sacral fracture occurred according to the classification of Denis: sacral ala fracture, Type Ⅰ fracture; sacral foramen cataclasm fracture, Type Ⅱ fracture; central vertebral canal fracture, Type Ⅲ fracture. Nerve injury of one or two sides was involved in all three types of sacral fracture.The fracture mechanism of sacrum between the dynamic impact and static compression was significantly different.When the impact energy was above 25 J, sacral foramen cataclasm fracture occurred, involving nerve root injury.When it was below 20 J, ilium and sacral fracture was most likely to occur. When it was 20 ~ 25 J, Type Ⅰ fracture would occur. While in the static test, most of the fracture belonged to ilium or acetabulum fracture. The cross section of sacrum was crackly and the bone board of Haversian system was brittle, which could lead to separation of bone boards and malposition of a few of cross bone boards.Conclusions: In dynamic state, sacrum fracture mostly belongs to Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ, and usually involves the nerve roots. Sacrum fracture is relevant to the microstructures, the distribution of the bone trabecula, the osseous lacuna and the Haversian system of sacrum. The fracture of ilium and acetabulum more frequently appears in static state, with slight wound of peripheral tissues.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OVARY AND UTERUS OF EARLY PREGNANT RATS AND WOMEN TREATED WITH MIFEPRISTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWen-Jian; ZHANGLong-Sheng; YANGXin-Li; SHENGJi-Yun; ZHOUJie-Ling; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, morphological studies of uterus and ovary during terminating early pregnancy with mifcpristonc Were reported. In the experimental studies, 24 hrs after inhering 10 mg / kg mifcpristonc to early pregnant rats, all embryos wcrc dead, with decidual cells

  3. Biological cell morphology studies by scanning electrochemical microscopy imagery at constant height: Contrast enhancement using biocompatible conductive substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning ElectroChemical Microscopy (SECM) has emerged as a very attractive method to image living cells activity due to its non invasive character and to the possibility of concomitant electro- and physico-chemical measurements. One of the difficulties when studying morphology of living cells in real time by SECM, using classical constant height mode, is the low contrast of the obtained images due to the insulating character of both the cells and of the underlying substrates. We propose here a technical approach to improve the contrast of SECM imagery obtained at constant height in the feedback mode without the need of Faraday cage. To this aim, a piece of biocompatible transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO coated PET) was attached into the bottom of cell culture well over which the cells were cultured. The transparency of ITO is intended to perform simultaneously SECM and optical microscopy measurements. The concept was applied to the study of endothelial cells, EA.hy926, whose morphology may be altered via an antivascular treatment. Our results show that the differences in the conductivity of the substrate and of the cells enhance the contrast of SECM image in feedback mode at constant height using highly charged redox mediator. In addition, differences in cell morphology are significantly observed by SECM after cell treatment with Combretastatin A4 antivascular agent

  4. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of uranium from rare-earth elements and scandium has been accomplished by a solvent extraction technique using tetracycline as a complexing agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a masking agent for scandium and rare earths. Benzyl alcohol was used as the organic solvent and ionic strength in the aqueous phase was kept constant at 0.10M by addition of NaClO4. Radioisotopes (Sc-46, La-140, Eu-152-154, Tm-170) of the elements were obtained by the irradiation of oxides in a thermal neutron flux of 5x1012ncm-2sec-1 for 8 hours. Samples were counted using a well-type NaI(Tl) coupled to a single channel γ-ray analyser or a Ge-Li detector and a 4096-channel analyser. Concentration of uranium in both phases was determined by activation analysis with epithermal neutrons. (T.I.)

  5. Autonomous Agent Behaviour Modelled in PRISM -- A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Ruth; Ireland, Murray; Miller, Alice; Norman, Gethin; Veres, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    Formal verification of agents representing robot behaviour is a growing area due to the demand that autonomous systems have to be proven safe. In this paper we present an abstract definition of autonomy which can be used to model autonomous scenarios and propose the use of small-scale simulation models representing abstract actions to infer quantitative data. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we build and verify a model of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in an exemplary autono...

  6. Fracture studies of poly(propylene)/elastomer blend with β-form nucleating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(propylene)/elastomer blends with β-form nucleating agent (β-NA) aryl amides compound (TMB-5) were prepared. The effects of β-NA on crystallization, melting behaviors and elastomer morphologies of PP/elastomer blends were studied through polarization optical microscope (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The fracture behaviors, including notched Izod impact fracture and single-edge notched tensile (SENT) fracture, were comparatively studied to establish the role of NA in improving the fracture toughness of PP/elastomer blends. Our results showed that the presence of β-NA leads to determinable β-PP formation in the blends, and as a consequence the fracture toughness of the blend is improved dramatically. Compared with notched Izod impact testing, which can efficiently characterize the fracture toughness of the blends only at lower elastomer content, SENT testing provides more detail of fracture behavior in all the compositions. Furthermore, SENT test shows that the significant improvement in fracture toughness of PP/elastomer/β-NA is contributed to the simultaneous enhancement of crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy, but largely dominated by crack propagation stage.

  7. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-02-14

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g(-1)). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM(-1) s(-1) and 185.58 mM(-1) s(-1) respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed. PMID:26460932

  8. A morphological and microcrystalline study of the paste from Nasca culture pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphological and microscopic study of the paste from Nasca pottery has been performed. A stereo microscope (x20) and a digital camera were used to study the morphology of the paste while a transmission electron microscope and electron diffraction were used for the study of the microcrystal presents in the paste. The main component of the paste were determined and also some insight about the quality of the paste preparation and calcinations. (author)

  9. Structure and morphology studies of chromium film at elevated temperature in hypersonic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, GM; Kulkarni, V; Nagaboopathy, M; Reddy, KPJ

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the after shock heated structural and morphological studies of chromium film coated on hypersonic test model as a passive drag reduction element. The structural changes and the composition of phases of chromium due to shock heating (2850 K) are characterized using X-ray diffraction studies. Surface morphology changes of chromium coating have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after shock heating. Significant amount of chromium ablation and sub...

  10. Study of occupational risk agents and its probable hazards to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the workplaces become increasingly complex and a strategy evaluation and the control of occupational risks agents is needed. Workers may be exposed to environmental agents (chemical, physical and biological) and other unsuitable conditions by performing tasks that involve these agents directly. The main objective of this study is to approach conceptual aspects of risk conditions, physical in nature, with emphasis on ionizing radiation and its interaction with other agents in occupational and environmental situations. To meet this goal, it is performed a literature review and a summary of the main occupational agents known or suspected to cause any adverse health effects in humans. According to the available literature the reported studies on the effects of combined exposures to radiation and others agents are recognized and, as far as possible, should be taken into account in evaluating of the potential radiation risks at low levels of exposure. (author)

  11. Phylogenetic studies of the core Alismatales inferred from morphology and rbcL sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxian Li; Zhekun Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The phylogeny of Alismatales remains an area of deep uncertainty, with different arrangements being found in studies that examined various subsets of genes and taxa. Herein we conducted separate and combined analyses of 103 morphological characters and 52 rbcL sequences to explore the controversial phylogenies of the families. Congruence between the two data sets was explored by computing several indices. Morphological data sets contain poor phylogenetic signals. The homology of morphological characters was tested based on the total evidence of phylogeny. The ineongruence between DNA and morphological results; the hypothesis of the 'Cymodoceaceae complex'; the relationships between Najadaceae and Hydrocharitaceae; the intergeneric relationships of Hydrocharitaceae; and the evo-lutionary convergence of morphological characters were analyzed and discussed.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents : Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Ostergaard, D; Donati, F; Fisher, D; Hunter, J; Kampmann, JP; Kopman, A; Proost, JH; Rasmussen, SN; Skovgaard, LT; Varin, F; Wright, PMC

    2000-01-01

    In September 1997, an international consensus conference on standardization of studies of neuromuscular blocking agents was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on the conference, a set of guidelines fur good clinical research practice (GCRT) in pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents

  13. A Study of an Intelligent Battlefield Damage Assessment System Based on a Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-kai; DAI Wan-jun; TANG Yan-feng; WANG Jia-ning

    2008-01-01

    Battlefield damage assessment is the key to Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair (BDAR).We present an Intelligent Battlefield Damage Assessment System (IBDAS) based on multi-agent system technology. We first establish the system framework, and then study the interior structure and workflow of a problem allocation agent. The result shows that, there are many advantages to resolve the problem of battlefield damage assessment by applying multi-agent system technology, and it will bring significant military benefit.

  14. Study of the morphology exhibited by linear segmented polyurethanes during shape memory cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using small-angle X-ray, this study aims to identify the role of the morphological structures of linear segmented thermoplastic polyurethane during shape memory cycle. A deformed specimen was placed on a heating stage mounted at the beamline; the shape recovery was measured during 20min. Furthermore, to study the influence of the temperature during recover, the specimens were subjected to different thermo-cycle. In each condition, the phase morphology and composition were investigated. Recovery process was separated into three stages. Bulk incompatibility and entropic recovery were the two controlling features for determining the final polyurethane morphology. (author)

  15. Crater morphology in sandstone targets: The MEMIN impact parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Poelchau, Michael H.; Kenkmann, Thomas; Deutsch, Alex; Hoerth, Tobias; SchńFer, Frank; Thoma, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Hypervelocity (2.5-7.8 km s-1) impact experiments into sandstone were carried out to investigate the influence of projectile velocity and mass, target pore space saturation, target-projectile density contrast, and target layer orientation on crater size and shape. Crater size increases with increasing projectile velocity and mass as well as with increasing target pore space saturation. Craters in water-saturated porous targets are generally shallower and larger in volume and in diameter than craters from equivalent impacts into dry porous sandstone. Morphometric analyses of the resultant craters, 5-40 cm in diameter, reveal features that are characteristic of all of our experimental craters regardless of impact conditions (I) a large central depression within a fragile, light-colored central part, and (II) an outer spallation zone with areas of incipient spallation. Two different mechanical processes, grain fragmentation and intergranular tensile fracturing, are recorded within these crater morphologies. Zone (I) approximates the shape of the transient crater formed by material compression, displacement, comminution, and excavation flow, whereas (II) is the result of intergranular tensile fracturing and spallation. The transient crater dimensions are reconstructed by fitting quadric parabolas to crater profiles from digital elevation models. The dimensions of this transient and of the final crater show the same trends: both increase in volume with increasing impact energy, and with increasing water saturation of the target pore space. The relative size of the transient crater (in percent of the final crater volume) decreases with increasing projectile mass and velocity, signifying a greater contribution of spallation on the final crater size when projectile mass and velocity are increased.

  16. Study of the hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent effects on bovine enamel using X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Ruda F.; Calazans, Fernanda S.; Miranda, Mauro S.; Santos, Ramon S.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Assis, Joaquim T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen Peroxide's a bleaching agent capable of oxidizing a wide range of colored organic, causing discoloration and hence bleaching of the substrate, but some authors related the occurrence of side effects related to bleaching of the tooth structure, such as changes in morphology superficial. It was used 6 bovine incisors, each tooth was initially evaluated six times in different areas to obtain the count of elements phosphorus and calcium using X-Ray Fluorescence. The teeth were randomly divided in two groups: both groups were submitted to bleaching in office with hydrogen peroxide 38%, once a week during three weeks. Group 1 was stored in distilled water and group 2 in artificial saliva, between the sessions. The measurements were repeated every seven days before the bleaching treatment. Besides that, changes in mineral levels were always assessed in the same area and using the same procedure. It was observed that the bleaching was not able to demineralize the tooth enamel studied. (author)

  17. Morphological study of atherosclerotic plaque and its application in vulnerability evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the morphological characteristics and the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque were analyzed theoretically and several suggestions were proposed to evaluate the plaque vulnerability. Validated by animal experiments and clinical studies, the theoretical results were confirmed.

  18. EARLY EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON THE DENTATE GYRUS BASKET CELLS: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells af...

  19. Fundamental studies for the development of pancreas scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    75Se-Selenomethionine is often used for the isotope scanning of pancreas. However, it is desired to develop excellent pancreas scanning agents that give more specific distribution and less radiation hazards than the agent. Pancreas has a high ability to incorporate amino acids into its cells and to utilize the acids for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes. On the basis of this preferential uptake of amino acids, radioactive iodine-labeled amino acids and peptides, γ-131I-iodo-α-aminobutyric acid, N-2-131I-monoiodoacetyl-L- and D-leucines, L- and D-leucine 2-131I-iodoethyl esters, 125I or 131I-labeled dipeptides, and insulin 125I-A and 131I-B chains, were prepared and assayed for their distribution in mouse organs and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Radioactivity of these labeled compounds incorporated into pancreas was almost the same as that of liver and spleen, and considerably smaller than that of stomach, duodenum and kidney. Since a high incorporation into stomach was seen also after the administration of 125I-sodium iodide, it was suggested that iodine ions were liberated in vivo from the labeled compounds within a short time. (author)

  20. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezky Purna Satit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ensure that they allocate their resources effectively and efficiently. A total of 215 respondents were selected from customers of three travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. The data collected was analyzed using three statistical methods, that is, mean analysis, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The results revealed that only product and price were associated with customer decision-making over travel agents. Based on the findings, strategic recommendations are proposed for the travel industry in Indonesia.

  1. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, M.O.; Eibye-Jacobsen, D.; Worsaae, K.

    2011-01-01

    found in closely related species (Macnaughton et al. 2009). Details of dentition and numbers of maxillary plates as well as the ontogenetic growth patterns of the jaws were found to provide significant information of systematic value. Based on detailed studies of jaw ontogeny and morphology, Dorvillea...... albomaculata and D. bermudensis are here reassigned to the genus Parougia (Dorvilleidae, Annelida). This is supported by the external morphology as well as previous molecular studies. (C) 2011...

  2. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of the Daucus guttatus complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a previous study using 94 nuclear orthologs, we reported the species status of D. broteri and D. guttatus (here referred to as the D. guttatus complex) to be unresolved, partitioned into three clades. In the present study, a subset of ten of these 94 nuclear orthologs with 10,982 bp of aligned le...

  3. Morphologic Differences in the Vocal Tract Resonance Cavities of Voice Professionals: An MRI-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra M. Rua Ventura; Diamantino Rui S. Freitas; Ramos, Isabel Maria A. P.; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2013-01-01

    The processes that take place during singing and acting are complex. However, morphologic and dynamic studies of the vocal tracts during speech have been gaining greater attention, mainly because of the rapid technical advances being made with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and image analysis and processing techniques. Objectives/Hypothesis and Methods. Our aim was to describe the morphologic differences in the vocal tract resonance cavities among voice professionals using MRI, and with the...

  4. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangyun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified inclu...

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  6. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  7. A preliminary study of new imaging agents on inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility of imaging inflammatory lesions with five small molecular weight complexes of 99mTc was investigated. The labeling yields of D-glucaric acid (D-Gca), citric acid (Cit), DL-malic acid (DL-Mal), L-malic acid (L-Mal) and tartaric acid (Tar) were all more than 90%. The percentage uptake/g tissue of them and 99mTc-pertechnetate (P) in mice with turpentine-induced abscesses and abscess/muscle (A/M), blood (A/B), liver (A/L), kidney (A/K) concentration ratios were calculated. The maximum A/M ratios were 4.02±0.21 (Cit, 3h), 4.30±0.77 (D-Gca, 3h), 4.04±0.21 (DL-Mal, 6h), 3.50±0.23 (L-Mal, 1h), 3.20±0.17 (Tar, 1h) and 3.23±0.41 (P, 1h) respectively. The scintigram was obtained in a rabbit with turpentine-induced abscess after 99mTc-D-Gca i.v. injection. Results demonstrated they all can accumulate in inflammatory lesions. Of them, 99mTc-D-Gca is probably a potential imaging agent on inflammatory lesions. (author)

  8. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels. PMID:2598833

  9. Clogging of biliary endoprostheses. A morphologic and bacteriologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowidar, N; Kolmos, H J; Lyon, H; Matzen, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The main problem encountered with the use of biliary endoprostheses is their tendency to clog, which necessitates their exchange. We studied this problem by performing light and electron microscopy and bacterial cultures on both unused and clinically used endoprostheses. These examinations showed...

  10. Crystal morphology of simonkolleite (Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O): a SEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the morphology of natural and synthetic simonkolleite crystals is investigated. We use an approach of determining the Miller indices of the faces of crystals with electron-microscopic dimensions by comparing their SEM photographs with model images generated by the computer program VESTA. The morphological importance of the crystallographic forms of simonkolleite was estimated on the basis of Bravais–Friedel–Donnay–Harker law and the theory of PBC-vectors. Model images of the crystals were obtained by the introduction of lattice parameters, space groups and the indices of the morphologically important forms. The program VESTA allows for the obtention of projections of the model image in stochastic orientations and for a very precise comparison with the image of the real crystal. It was found that the studied simonkolleite crystals are formed from basal pinacoid {001} and rhombohedrons {101} and {012}. Key words: simonkolleite, crystal morphology, Miller indices

  11. A STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY OF THE GLENOID CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursharan Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A morphometric study of the glenoid cavity of 80 adult dry human scapulae in North Indian Population was done to evaluate the various parameters of the glenoid cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was done on 80 dry, unpaired adult human scapulae (41 right & 39 left of unknown sex belonging to the North Indian population. Maximum superior-inferior diameter and Maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the glenoid cavity were measured and Glenoid cavity index was calculated. The shape of the glenoid cavity was classified as inverted comma shaped, pear shaped and oval shaped depending upon the presence or absence of a notch on the glenoid rim. RESULTS: The average superior-inferior diameter on right and the left sides were 34.13±3.16 mm and 34.11± 2.57 mm respectively. The average anterior-posterior diameter of the right glenoid was 24.05± 2.86 mm and that of the left was 23.36 ± 2.22 mm. The average glenoid cavity index on the right was 70.37 ± 4.08 and that of left was 68.59 ± 4.36. All values were compared with series of other workers to draw the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: All the parameters showed a greater value for the right side. The difference seen between the values of present study and that of other workers could be explained on the basis of ethnic and racial variations. This fact may be taken into consideration while performing shoulder arthroplasty and designing glenoid prostheses in North Indian population. The current study recorded 80% of glenoid cavities having the glenoid notch, which could be useful while diagnosing different pathologies of the shoulder joint. Thus a sound knowledge of various parameters of the glenoid cavity is important for the anatomists, anthropologists, orthopaedicians and prosthetists

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF TIBIAL NUTRIENT FORAMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College Jammu. Material for the study comprised of seventy adult dry Tibiae, of unknown sex, available in the Department of Anatomy .Bones were labelled from 1 to 70.The number and direction of nutrient foramina on the posterior surface of the shaft was noted and counted. The situation of nutrient foramina in relation to the length of tibiae and in relation to vertical line on posterior surface was observed. The distance of nutrient foramen from the upper and lower end of tibia was measured . It was observed that in most of the bones there was a single nutrient foramen, directed downwards, which was present on the upper half of Tibia. It was present lateral to the vertical line on posterior surface of tibia. The mean distance of nutrient foramina from the upper end of tibia and from the lower end of tibia was more on the right side. The present study gains clinical significance as consistent position of the nutrient foramen is of importance in fractures involving upper third of Tibia through nutrient canal, which disrupts the blood supply to the shaft. This invariably results in delayed union.

  13. Structural and morphological studies of ZnO: F films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor thin films Zn O and F doped, using the chemical spray technique has been pre- pared, starting from pentanedionate and zinc acetate and ammonium fluorine in ethanol and methanol for a solution at 0.25%. The concentration [F]/[Zn] and the substrate temperature have been changed. From the X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques, the electrical, optical and chemical stability properties for the layers were studied. Size, geometry, and the grain orientation, distribution and the roughness effect in the light trapping were discussed. (Author)

  14. Biochemical and morphological study on hepatotoxicity of azathioprine in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1979-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats given azathioprine in the diet for 3 to 4 weeks developed severe liver damage. Elevations of serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were associated with increased hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels and decreased liver glucose 6-phosphatase activities, i.e., conditions which were commonly observed in various hepatotoxin-induced liver injuries. Light and electron microscopic observations revealed centrolobular necrosis with large scars and the proliferation of the mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. This model could be used to study the mechanisms of azathioprine-induced liver damage and its prevention.

  15. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  16. Histo-morphology of age of contusions: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Unmesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : During forensic evaluation the determination of age of contusions play a very important role. Age of contusions is normally determined based on their colour. Different authors have different interpretations of age of contusions based on colour. Objective : The aim of the present study is to have a first hand information regarding the colour changes occurring in contusions with the passage of time, in our population and also to compare the aging process of contusions in our population with the standard data available Methods: Contusions were classified into small, medium and large. Both naked eye examination of colour of contusions and microscopic examination of contusions were done. Perl’s staining was also done to confirm the presence of pigments. Results: 65 male and 15 female patients were included in the study. Majority of the cases the contusions were due to road traffic accidents. It was observed that in contusions of 24 hrs duration it was red in colour,followed by blue colour for two to three days. Contusions of four to six days were bluish black coloured and green in colour by seventh day. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of RBC in injuries less than 24 hrs duration. Lymphocytes and polymorphs were prominent in third and fourth day of injury. Perl’s stain was positive from the fifth day onwards. Conclusion : The observations of colour tone of injury and histopathological findings including special staining techniques like Perl’s stain can help the forensic pathologist to a certain extent in dating the age of medium sized contusion in moderately nourished adult subjects during the initial phases of injury. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 339-342

  17. Resampling-based approaches to study variation in morphological modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Fruciano

    Full Text Available Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1, using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2 propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3 show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4 suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5 propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application--that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface--has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/.

  18. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  19. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...

  20. Morphological changes of the epiglottis with aging: A radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In man the epiglottis is a thin lamella of a yellow elastic cartilage. The upper part is free and is known as leaf and lower part participates in the formation of the anterior wall of the vestibule of the larynx. The ipithelial covering extends forward onto the base of the tongue over the medial glossoepiglottic folds. The sides of epiglottis are connected with the cartilages of Wrisberg and arytenoid cartilage by the aryepiglottic fold. In view of these anatomical complexities, the function and physiology of the epiglottis have been debated since Magendi (1815), who proposed the theory that the epiglottis acts as a flap valve to prevent food entering the windpipe, and who found that he could remove the free part of the epiglottis in dog without spoilling the dog. Following the introduction of laryngoscopy (Gracia, 1815; Liston, 1840; Czermark; 1861) and modern cineradiographic equipment in 1950's, the anatomy and physiology of epiglottis has become much clearer age as it is seen on the lateral x-ray of the neck. In the present study we have made an attempt to systematically analyze aging changes of the epiglottis in the lateral x-ray of the neck in 245 healthy adults. The age ranged from 16 to 65 years old. Based on our observation the epiglottis was classified into type A, B and C according to their curvatures. Thus, type A represented those with posterior curvature, type B those with straight epiglottis and type C anterior curvature. Type C was subdivided into I, II and III according to the degree of curvature. Thus, type C-I, C-II and C-III represented mild, moderate and marked anterior curvature, respectively. Type A epiglottis was found in the second, third and fourth decades and type C-III in the older age group. Type A was least common and type C most prevalent. It seems that the epiglottis inclines anteriorly with backward curvature with age (p<0.0001)

  1. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja); Entela Ruçi (Kulla); Mirela Lika (Cekani)

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tr...

  2. Novel ceria-zirconia-yttria mesostructures: Synthesis, characterization, diffusional studies & the effects of morphology on their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova Morales, Alma Iris

    Ceria-zirconia-yttria (CZY) mixed oxides are used as catalyst supports for three-way catalysts for automotive exhaust emission control and in solid oxide fuel cells. By improving the morphology of CZY mesopores it is possible to reduce the sintering of supported noble metals and enhance overall catalyst lifetime and performance. However, limited studies have been published on the synthetic control of the morphology of CZY materials and the effects that CZY pore geometry has on catalyst operation. To create optimized CZY catalyst supports, novel mesoporous CZY oxides were synthesized via classical sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) methods, obtaining mesostructures that exhibited excellent physical and diffusional properties. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the factors and mechanisms that promote the creation of ordered mesoporous CZY structures via classical sol-gel and EISA approaches. Classical sol-gel methods are reaction-limited syntheses in which, for the case of CZY materials, the formation of polyoxides occurs rapidly as a result of the availability of water and hydrolyzing agents in the initial solution, yielding disordered oxide mesostructures. Alternatively, EISA is a diffusion-limited process, where the rate of oxide forming reactions is limited by the slow diffusion of water into the initial ethanolic-metal salts solution. The slow loss of ethanol by evaporation enables the condensation-polymerization of metal oxy-hydroxide species to coincide with the ordering of these oligomers around the self-organized polymer template. Thus, for the templated synthesis of mesoporous CZY materials, it is the rate of metal oxide condensation that determines the nature of the resulting oxide structure. The choice of templating technique used during CZY synthesis heavily influenced post-calcination morphologies and pore sizes, but to-date no relationships between pore morphology and catalyst performance for CZY materials was presented

  3. Kinetic Study of Organic Dye Degradation Using ZnO Particles with Different Morphologies as a Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Yong Pung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel approach using zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO2·2H2O and ammonia (NH4OH solution as precursors. By adjusting the reaction parameters such as amount of ammonia and reaction time as well as complexing agent aluminium sulphate Al2(SO43, ZnO particles with different morphologies, that is, rodlike, ricelike and disklike could be synthesized. The effectiveness of ZnO particles with different morphologies (rodlike, ricelike and disklike on the photocatalytic activity has been studied. The results showed that rodlike ZnO particles were the most effective in degrading the Rhodamine B (RhB solution under the illumination of ultraviolet (UV light. The rate constant was found to be first order, with rodlike particles the highest (0.06329 min−1, followed by rice-like ZnO particles (0.0431 min−1 and disk-like ZnO particles (0.02448 min−1.

  4. STUDIES ON HORIZONTAL COMPETITION AMONG HOMOGENOUS RETAILERS THROUGH AGENT-BASED SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming XIE; Jian CHEN

    2004-01-01

    This paper adopts agent-based simulation to study the horizontal competition among homogenous price-setting retailers in a one-to-many supply chain (a supply chain consists of one supplier and multiple retailers). We model the supplier and retailers as agents, and design their behavioral rulesrespectively. The results show that although the agents learn individually based on their own experiences, the system converges asymptotically to near Nash equilibrium steady states.When analyzing the results, we first discuss the properties of these steady states. Then based on these properties, we analyze the effects of the retailers' horizontal competition on the retail prices, retailers'profits and supplier's revenue.

  5. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Pimentel Claro; Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2015-01-01

    The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM) has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm ...

  6. Experimental study on low temperature performance of polymer drilling mud agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Jiajia; XU Huiwen; CAI Hongliang

    2009-01-01

    Drilling fluid additives has a major impact on rheology behavior and other performances of the drilling fluid. The key to low temperature drilling fluids is choosing antifreeze and polymer agent which have a strong ability in resisting low temperature. On the basis of determining glycol as antifreeze agent, the low-temperature-performance and capacities of anti-collapse of regular validity mud agents have been studied, the mechanism of anti-caving of the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA), polypropylene potassium (KPA) and PAC-141 polymer additives have been also analyzed. A pilot study of compatibility between ethylene glycol and the polymers has educed that the polymers, ethylene glycol and inorganic salt are compatible, and they can significantly reduce the freezing point of drilling fluid. Anti-collapse ability of the drilling mud is the results of synergistic action among the agents.

  7. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography. PMID:25821152

  8. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowie, Wander Marius

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A thi

  9. Agent based simulation as an exploratory tool in the study of the human dimension of combat

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lloyd Philip.

    2000-01-01

    War is a human phenomenon and the essence of war is a clash between human wills Ref. 10. The Marine Corps is applying complexity theory to study the human dimension of land warfare with the agent based combat simulation Irreducible Semi-Autonomous Adaptive Combat (ISAAC), developed by Andrew Ilachinski. ISAAC is designed to allow the user to explore the evolving patterns of large unit behavior that result from the collective interactions of individual agents. An urban and a desert scenario we...

  10. Integrative biological studies of anti-tumour agents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    3, 11-difluoro-6, 8, 13-trimethyl-8H- quino [4, 3, 2-kl] acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) is a member of a series of pentacyclic acridines developed at the University of Nottingham, which bind to, and stabilise the structure of G-quadruplex DNA and inhibit the action of telomerase at sub-micromolar concentrations in the cell free TRAP assay and limit cancer cell growth therefore leading to the conclusion that RHPS4 has potential anti-tumour activity. Previous biological studies, however, have...

  11. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  12. Profiling the Buzz Agent: Product Referral and the Study of Social Community and Brand Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The buzz agent is any consumer perceived by others as a source of product referral. Previous literature in word of mouth (WOM has looked into characteristics of individuals who successfully persuade others to choose a brand. While there have been studies in this field, the literature is still scattered and little has been done to profile the consumer playing the buzz-agent role. We aim to deepen our understanding about the consumer who must be recruited as a buzz agent by a firm in a WOM marketing (WOMM initiative. The proposed profile is comprised of three key characteristics: the consumer’s position in the social community, nature of ties in the community and brand attachment. We tested our hypotheses with a survey of 542 consumers from a controlled population. Rather than relying on self-reported questions about referral behavior, we asked respondents in the population to name the individuals to whom the respondents go to obtain information to help pick a brand. This accurately pinpoints which individuals fit the profile of a buzz agent. Results show that buzz agents are popular in their social community (friends and tech experts, carry dissimilar brands as target consumers and are product experts. Our study identifies a profile of consumers that helps firms select buzz agents for WOMM initiatives.

  13. A cadaveric study involving variations in external morphology of gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjankar Vaibhav Prakash, Panshewdikar Pradnyesh N, Joshi DS, Anjankar Ashish Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in the pattern of the extra hepatic biliary tract are usual and are commonly encountered during some radiological investigations or in operation theaters. Such Variations of the morphology of Gall bladder have been well documented in the literature for many years but a detail morphological study of variations of the gall bladder and its incidence is very rare. In this era of quick results, increasing use of diagnostic and interventional procedures makes it important to study variations of gall bladder morphology. Most of the interventional procedures in this modern era are done laparoscopically and there is tremendous increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. So, sound knowledge of possible variations in morphology of gall bladder is important. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken on 90 cadaveric liver and gall bladder specimens in terms of length, maximum transverse diameter, shape, external variations of gall bladder, Interior and length of gall bladder below the inferior border of the liver. Results: GB had length ranging between 7 and 10 cm, transverse diameter between 2 and 5 cm. The commonest shape observed in this study was pear shaped in 82.22% of cases. The length of gall bladder below the inferior border of liver varied between 0.4 and 2.5 cm. Conclusion: The growing importance of such variations, lie not only from the point of biliary disease but also with respect to the various invasive techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct disease.

  14. Morphology of a coral bank, western continental shelf of India: A multibeam study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Kodagali, V.N.; Ramprasad, T.; Nair, R.R.

    -south orientation and occupies an area of about 3 sq km. A 100% coverage obtained in the present study enables us to determine the exact morphology of the bank. A comparison with the single beam echosounding data reveals that the dimensions (length and breadth...

  15. Mastoid emissary foramina: an anatomical morphological study with discussion on their evolutionary and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Murlimanju, B. V.; Chettiar, Ganesh Kumar; Prameela, M. D.; Tonse, Mamatha; Kumar, Naveen; Vasudha V. Saralaya; Latha V Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    The identification of mastoidal emissary veins is of importance in the neurosurgical practice to diagnose abnormal and normal structures. In the present study, the objectives were to estimate the prevalence rate of mastoidal emissary foramina in the temporal bones of the adult skull and to study their number and morphology. The present study included 48 adult human skulls which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The mastoid parts of 96 temporal bones were macr...

  16. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES IN SOME IPOMOEA LINN. SPECIES USING POLLEN AND FLOWER MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde R. OLADUNJOYE; Adeniyi A. JAYEOLA

    2012-01-01

    The current study was conducted in search of constant morpho-anatomical characters to aid the identification and classification of commonly encountered Ipomoea species in south west Nigeria. Flower and pollen morphology as important repository of constant characters formed the focus of the investigation. Whole flowers were dissected to expose the carpel and stamens for study. For pollen study, after soaking in de-ionized water, the anthers were collected and crushed, stained and placed on a g...

  17. A comparative study of the effect of different topical agents on burn wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katara Gunjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical agents are used to treat burn wound infections. Aims and Objective: The present work was aimed to find out the in vitro efficacy of different topical agents against burn wound pathogens. Settings and Design: Randomly selected gram-positive (29 and gram-negative bacterial (119 isolates from burn wound cases admitted in burn unit of Choithram Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, were included in the in vitro activity testing for silver nitrate, silver sulphadiazine (SSD, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, nitrofuran, soframycin, betadine, benzalkonium chloride and honey by growth inhibition on agar medium. Materials and Methods: Multidrug-resistant isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were checked for different topical agents. 1% topical agent was mixed with Mueller-Hinton agar. Two microlitres of bacterial suspension adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard was spread over the topical agent containing plates. The plates without the topical agent were used as control plates. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37΀C. Results: SSD (148/148, silver nitrate (148/148 and chlorhexidine (148/148 showed excellent activity against all the pathogens. Neosporin had poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (4/44 Proteus spp. (2/4 and group D streptococci (1/4. Betadine did not show activity against the bacterial isolates in the presence of organic matter. Honey did not exert any antimicrobial activity under the study conditions. Conclusion: SSD, silver nitrate and chlorhexidine have excellent activity against all the bacterial pathogens and could be used empirically, while identification of the infective agent is required for selecting the alternative topical agents such as nitrofuran, soframycin, and benzalkonium chloride.

  18. Behaviour Study of a Multi-Agent Mobile Robot System during Potential Field Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Nagy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-agent based mobile robot simulation system will bepresented where the behaviour of the system is studied with different number of agents (1,3,6 and also with different number of ultrasonic range sensors on agents (8 or 16 USsensors on individual agents. The task of the autonomous agents is to create the potentialfield (PF of an unknown environment. The classic problems of PF building, like oscillationand trapping, are not the focus of the article, but instead, the article is concerned with theagents’ self-organizing ability where self-organizing is controlled by a genetic algorithm(GA. The GA is equipped with two fitness functions where one “maintains” the distancesbetween certain agents (spat distr, while another “watches” the area coverage (areacover. In fact, the paper can be divided into three main parts. The first part describes theultrasonic sensing and range measuring with systematic errors, the potential field (PFbuilding and the moving strategies. The second part contains description of the GA, theoperation of the GA, the structure of the system, the fitness functions and a general systemerrordetermination. In the final third part, the obtained results are analyzed and presentedin the appendices.

  19. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bustam BM (2010 Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG. This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996 and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens of 36 species (33 species of Austrostipa, two species of Hesperostipa and one species of Anemanthele at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Twenty eight micro morphological characters were used. The data were collected from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves, and from the lemma epidermis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. ISWG provided the molecular data. Parsimony analysis and a distance method (Unweighteic Pair Group with Arithmatic Mean: UPGMA were used to analyze mico morphological and molecular data separately. Only UPGMA analysis was used to analyze the combined data. The results support the monophyly of Austrostipa. However, there is a little support for the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996, other than for the consistent recognition of Falcatae. The characters for comparisons between genera are too homoplasious at this level and do not contain enough information for analyses at subgeneric level, a problem apparently shared with the DNA sequences.

  20. SEM and HRTEM study of porous silicon--relationship between fabrication, morphology and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dian, J.; Macek, A.; Niznansky, D.; Nemec, I.; Vrkoslav, V.; Chvojka, T.; Jelinek, I

    2004-11-15

    We studied the dependence of porous silicon (PS) morphology on fabrication conditions and the link between morphology, porosity and optical properties. P-type (1 0 0) silicon wafers with resistivity of 10 {omega} cm were electrochemically etched in a HF:ethanol:water mixture at various HF concentrations and current densities. Porosity and thickness of the samples were determined gravimetrically. Detailed information about evolution of porous silicon layer morphology with variation of preparation conditions was obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM), the presence of silicon nanoparticles was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Decrease of the mean size of silicon nanoparticles with increasing porous silicon porosity was revealed in a monotonous blue shift of photoluminescence (PL) maximum in room temperature photoluminescence spectra of studied samples. This blue shift is consistent with quantum confinement model of photoluminescence mechanism. We observed that total porosity of porous films cannot fully explain observed photoluminescence behavior and correct interpretation of the blue shift of photoluminescence spectra requires detailed knowledge of porous silicon morphology.

  1. Morphological characterization and reproductive aspects in genetic variability studies of forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Marilda Augusta Peres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization and the study of reproductive behavior are important procedures to identify desirable traits of progenitors to be included in breeding programs. Morphological descriptors and the reproductive behavior of parental accessions of the legumes Arachis pintoi Krapov & W.C.Gregory and A. repens Handro were analyzed looking for the probable causes of seed production variability. Morphological and reproductive characterization were used for the estimation of the genetic variability of five A. pintoi and two A. repens accessions, with crosses being conducted in a greenhouse. Parents and hybrids have shown high pollen stainability, regular meiosis (2n=20, and presented distinctive reproductive behaviors: A. pintoi accessions GK 12787, V 13468 and V 6791-wf are prolific seed producers, while A. pintoi V 13167, V 13338 and A. repens Nc 1579 and Nc 1578, rarely produce seeds. Intraspecific crosses generated fertile F1 and F2 hybrids from five combinations. Interspecific crosses produced sterile F1 hybrids. Stigma morphology and distinct mode of reproduction present among accessions suggest possible barriers for seed production in some cross-combinations. Euclidian distance range between parents was 0.20 to 5.52. Accessions GK 12787 and Nc 1579 presented the maximum distance: 5.52, and V 13468 and Nc 1579 the minimum distance: 0.20. The Euclidian distance was considered an adequate methodology to study genetic diversity of parental accessions.

  2. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non

  3. Assessment of antibacterial properties of newer dentin bonding agents: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavitra B Sampath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of newer dentin bonding agents on Streptococcus mutans using the direct contact test. Materials and Methods: Streptococcus mutans was used as test organism and a direct contact test was performed. The dentin bonding agents to be tested were grouped as Group I, Clearfil Protect Bond, Group II, Adper Easy One, and Group III, Prime and Bond NT. For the direct contact test, three microtiter plates consisting of 96 wells each were taken (288 wells. These wells were divided into three groups of 96 wells; 16 wells of a microtiter plate were utilized, of which four were designated as ′A′ wells (with the dentin bonding agent and bacterial suspension, another four as ′B′ wells (without the dentin bonding agent, but with the bacterial suspension, another four as the ′C′ wells (with the tested material, but without bacteria, which served as the negative control, and the remaining four as the ′D′ wells (without the dentin bonding agent, which served as the positive control. Each group was treated with their respective bonding agents as per the manufactures instructions. Broth of 15 mL was then transferred from the A wells into an adjacent set of B wells containing fresh medium (215 mL. This resulted in two sets of four wells for each tested material containing an equal volume of liquid medium, so that bacterial growth was monitored both in the presence and in the absence of the tested material. The plate was placed for incubation at 37°C in the microplate reader and the optical density in each well was measured at 600 nm. The readings were taken at regular intervals. (Every 30 minutes for 16 hours. Results: The Dentin bonding agents evaluated in this study showed different inhibitory effects. Clearfil Protect Bond and Prime and Bond NT were most effective, and Adper Easy One was least effective against Streptococcus mutans. Interpretation and Conclusion: The Dentin bonding agents

  4. Inclusion Complexes of Sunscreen Agents with β-Cyclodextrin: Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathir A. F. Al-Rawashdeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes of selected sunscreen agents, namely, oxybenzone (Oxy, octocrylene (Oct, and ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (Cin with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, 13C NMR techniques, and molecular mechanics (MM calculations and modeling. Molecular modeling (MM study of the entire process of the formation of 1 : 1 stoichiometry sunscreen agent/β-cyclodextrin structures has been used to contribute to the understanding and rationalization of the experimental results. Molecular mechanics calculations, together with 13C NMR measurements, for the complex with β-CD have been used to describe details of the structural, energetic, and dynamic features of host-guest complex. Accurate structures of CD inclusion complexes have been derived from molecular mechanics (MM calculations and modeling. The photodegradation reaction of the sunscreen agents' molecules in lotion was explored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the photostability of these selected sunscreen agents has been enhanced upon forming inclusion complexes with β-CD in lotion. The results of this study demonstrate that β-CD can be utilized as photostabilizer additive for enhancing the photostability of the selected sunscreen agents' molecules.

  5. [Standardization of pathoanatomic activities in performing specialized and high-tech morphological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, S L; Chibisov, V N; Krivolapov, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    The study reports the standard for the activity of an immunohistochemical laboratory. The standard includes a staff list, objective calculation, and planning the salary in accordance with a real amount of work. On performing the high-tech and labor-intensive morphological studies, the actual spent time essentially differs from the current standards, which requires implementation of organizational, financial, economic, and methodological measures at the federal level. PMID:17290899

  6. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data.Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by anal...

  7. Who is Oxyrrhis marina? Morphological and phylogenetic studies on an unusual dinoflagellate

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Christopher D; Keeling, Patrick J.; Martin, Laura E.; Watts, Phill C; Montagnes, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oxyrrhis marina is a well studied and common protist, used model to a range of ecological processes. Further, as a result of unusual cytological and genetic features, Oxyrrhis is increasingly a target for the study of evolutionary development within the Alveolata. However, morphological and phylogenetic data suggest that O. marina represents multiple species. As different research groups employ different O. marina isolates, the context in which comparisons between isola...

  8. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Ying Tong; Nishata Royan Rajendran Royan; Yong Chuen Ng; Mohd Hafizuddin Ab Ghani; Sahrim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH) filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE) composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 1...

  9. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:21932359

  10. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bounthavong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Crohn’s disease (CD, and psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27% and RA (24%. Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%, adalimumab (40%, and infliximab (18% between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population.

  11. Morphology, structure and magnetic study of permalloy films electroplated on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamrani, S. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-Conducteurs pour l’énergétique, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 les 7 merveilles, Algiers (Algeria); Université Mouloud Mammeri, TiziOuzou 15000 (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Schäfer, R. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Inst. f. Metallic Materials, Helmholtz str. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Neu, V.; Pofahl, S. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Inst. f. Metallic Materials, Helmholtz str. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Hadjersi, T. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-Conducteurs pour l’énergétique, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 les 7 merveilles, Algiers (Algeria); Benbrahim, N. [Université Mouloud Mammeri, TiziOuzou 15000 (Algeria)

    2015-12-15

    We report the effect of deposition potential on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (Permalloy: Py) deposits, elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The morphology of SiNWs and Py/SiNWs were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. The analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra shows a change in the texture with the deposition potential. The grain size, the lattice parameter and the strain were studied as a function of the deposition potentials. From hysteresis loops, we have shown that the magnetization easy axis is the plane of the samples. - Highlights: • Permalloy deposits were elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). • SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. • The magnetization easy axis was found to be in the plane of samples.

  12. Morphologic Characteristics of Choroid in the Major Choroidal Thickening Diseases, Studied by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Bae, Kunho; Kang, Se Woong; Woo, Se Joon; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Gyule

    2016-01-01

    We investigated morphologic features of choroid in the choroidal thickening diseases, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), by a novel tomographic classification system of the choroid. This cross-sectional study involved 30 patients with active CSC, 30 patients with active PCV, and 27 patients with active VKH, and 30 normal controls. Utilizing enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, we classified the morphology of the choroid into five categories: 1) Standard (S), 2) Dilated outer layer and Attenuated inner layer (DA), 3) Darkened (D), 4) Marbled (M), and 5) Pauci-Vascular (PV) types. Additional tomographic characteristics of the choroid such as choroidal vascular dilation, convolution, scleral invisibility, and choroidal hyper- or hypo-thickening were identified as well. The distribution of five choroidal tomographic morphology and additional tomographic characteristics in each group were analyzed. The DA type was observed in the CSC group more frequently than in the normal control group (53.3% vs 3.3%, P invisibility (70.4%) than controls (0% for all three findings). In conclusion, CSC and PCV shared common morphologic characteristics of choroid, including dilated outer vascular layer and focally attenuated innermost layer. Dense hypo-reflectivity and convolution of choroid were the specific tomographic markers for acute VKH. A new tomographic classification system of choroid may provide discrimination ability and insight into major pachychoroidopathies. PMID:26766530

  13. Morphology, structure and magnetic study of permalloy films electroplated on silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effect of deposition potential on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Ni80Fe20 (Permalloy: Py) deposits, elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The morphology of SiNWs and Py/SiNWs were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. The analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra shows a change in the texture with the deposition potential. The grain size, the lattice parameter and the strain were studied as a function of the deposition potentials. From hysteresis loops, we have shown that the magnetization easy axis is the plane of the samples. - Highlights: • Permalloy deposits were elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). • SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. • The magnetization easy axis was found to be in the plane of samples

  14. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  15. Structure and morphology studies of chromium film at elevated temperature in hypersonic environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Hegde; V Kulkarni; M Nagaboopathy; K P J Reddy

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the after shock heated structural and morphological studies of chromium film coated on hypersonic test model as a passive drag reduction element. The structural changes and the composition of phases of chromium due to shock heating (2850 K) are characterized using X-ray diffraction studies. Surface morphology changes of chromium coating have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after shock heating. Significant amount of chromium ablation and sublimation from the model surface is noticed from SEM micrographs. Traces of randomly oriented chromium oxides formed along the coated surface confirm surface reaction of chromium with oxygen present behind the shock. Large traces of amorphous chromium oxide phases are also observed.

  16. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In3+ and Sb3+ ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula

  17. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  18. Controlled Growth of WO3Nanostructures with Three Different Morphologies and Their Structural, Optical, and Photodecomposition Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangalaraj D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tungsten trioxide (WO3 nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using sodium tungstate (Na2WO4·2H2O alone as starting material, and sodium tungstate in presence of ferrous ammonium sulfate [(NH42Fe(SO42·6H2O] or cobalt chloride (CoCl2·6H2O as structure-directing agents. Orthorhombic WO3having a rectangular slab-like morphology was obtained when Na2WO4·2H2O was used alone. When ferrous ammonium sulfate and cobalt chloride were added to sodium tungstate, hexagonal WO3nanowire clusters and hexagonal WO3nanorods were obtained, respectively. The crystal structure and orientation of the synthesized products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and their chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The optical properties of the synthesized products were verified by UV–Vis and photoluminescence studies. A photodegradation study on Procion Red MX 5B was also carried out, showing that the hexagonal WO3nanowire clusters had the highest photodegradation efficiency.

  19. Surface studies of aminoferrocene derivatives on gold: electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad A K; Long, Yi-Tao; Schatte, Gabriele; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    The cystamine conjugate [(BocNH)Fc(CO)CSA]2 was prepared by coupling cystamine with the N-protected ferrocene amino acid derivative BocHN-Fc-COOH and was fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cystamine conjugate forms films on gold substrates, which upon deprotection of the amino group, react with chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics, upon which the redox properties of the Fc group are affected significantly. Cyclic voltammetry shows 50(5) mV anodic shifts of the Fc redox potentials after exposure to EtSCH2CH2Cl, a simulant for sulfur mustard HD (MA), and (NC)(EtO)2P(O), a simulant for nerve agent Tabun (NA). Exposure to MA and NA causes an increase in 2.3 and 4.5 ng mass, respectively, in QCM which indicates ca. 70% efficiency in Boc-deprotection. Ellipsometry measured a film thickness increase from 6(+/-1) A for the deprotected film to 10(+/-4) A for the film modified with MA and to 7(+/-2) A for the film modified with NA. AFM measurements show changes in the thickness and morphology of the film after reaction with MA and NA. The surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and clearly show the attachment of the cystamine conjugate on the surface and its reaction with CWA mimics. PMID:17319647

  20. Intentional Exposure Studies of Environmental Agents on Human Subjects: Assessing Benefits and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I assess the benefits and risks of studies that intentionally expose research subjects to environmental agents. I describe these types of studies, identify their benefits and risks, compare these studies to other research methods that can be used to investigate the relationship between environmental exposures and disease, and discuss some issues related to research design and risk minimization. I argue that the benefits of intentional environmental exposure studies outweigh t...

  1. Exploring metameric variation in human molars: a morphological study using morphometric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Wataru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ohshima, Hayato

    2016-09-01

    Human molars exhibit a type of metameric variation, which is the difference in serially repeated morphology within an organism. Various theories have been proposed to explain how this variation is brought about in the molars. Actualistic data that support the theories, however, are still relatively scarce because of methodological limitations. Here we propose new methods to analyse detailed tooth crown morphologies. We applied morphometric mapping to the enamel-dentine junction of human maxillary molars and examined whether odontogenetic models were adaptable to human maxillary molars. Our results showed that the upper first molar is phenotypically distinct among the maxillary molars. The average shape of the upper first molar is characterized by four well-defined cusps and precipitous surface relief of the occlusal table. On the other hand, upper third molar is characterized by smooth surface relief of the occlusal table and shows greater shape variation and distinct distribution patterns in morphospace. The upper second molar represents an intermediate state between first and third molar. Size-related shape variation was investigated by the allometric vector analysis, and it appeared that human maxillary molars tend to converge toward the shape of the upper first molar as the size increases. Differences between the upper first molar and the upper second and third molar can thus be largely explained as an effect of allometry. Collectively, these results indicate that the observed pattern of metameric variation in human molars is consistent with odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model) and molar crown morphology (patterning cascade model). This study shows that morphometric mapping is a useful tool to visualize and quantify the morphological features of teeth, which can provide the basis for a better understanding of tooth evolution linking morphology and development. PMID:27098351

  2. Agent Behavior-Based Simulation Study on Mass Collaborative Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass collaborative product development (MCPD benefits people by high innovation products with lower cost and shorter lead time due to quick development of group innovation, Internet-based customization, and prototype manufacturing. Simulation is an effective way to study the evolution process and therefore to guarantee the success of MCPD. In this paper, an agent behavior-based simulation approach of MCPD is developed, which models the MCPD process as the interactive process of design agents and the environment objects based on Complex Adaptive System (CAS theory. Next, the structure model of design agent is proposed, and the modification and collaboration behaviors are described. Third, the agent behavior-based simulation flow of MCPD is designed. At last, simulation experiments are carried out based on an engineering case of mobile phone design. The experiment results show the following: (1 the community scale has significant influence on MCPD process; (2 the simulation process can explicitly represent the modification and collaboration behaviors of design agents; (3 the community evolution process can be observed and analyzed dynamically based on simulation data.

  3. Study on Agent Collaborative Work Model of Aircraft Spares Support Based on CSCW Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfu Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft spares support activities involve several support units which are located in different places. For this reason, it is necessary to establish an information network of spares support to coordinate the activity of each support unit. This study focuses its research on creating an Agent collaborative work model of aircraft spares support based on CSCW environment to raise support level and reduce its costs. The author approaches and solves the problem first by designing three-level B/S structure mode for Agent after analyzing the design requirements of it based on CSCW environment and then by exploring the communication mode and collaborative work mechanism between Agent units and probing into the processes of cooperative work group, work flow and formation of support scheme. On the basis of the Agent collaborative work model, the author advances one collaborative control mathematical model under restriction of support level as well and conducts simulating test for the two models by relevant simulation software. The test result is that after collaborative work the support level rises from 93.87 to 97.01% and the total cost per unit time for support costs falls from 903 RMB to 877 RMB. Thus, the optimization of Agent parameters for aircraft spares comes true and relevance of total support cost and support level is determined.

  4. COLONIAL AND TRADITIONAL URBAN SPACE IN JAVA: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF TEN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARYO Rony Gunawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of morphological studies of cities in Java tended to place the elements of traditional urban space such as Alun-alun, Mosque, Palace and Market as the main elements of city. Other elements such as the colonial urban space Resident Office, Fort, Church, Park and so on are often considered separately or placed as a complementary part. Through a morphological study  by exploring ten cities in Java, I found both elements of traditional and colonial urban space were set in a unique and various pattern. There are some findings indicating that the elements of colonial urban space significantly influence the city structure as well as those of the traditional ones. Therefore, understanding the urban space form in Java should include and put elements of both of traditional and colonial urban space as an integral part.

  5. MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF A SERIES OF AZOBENZENE-CONTAINING SIDE-ON LIQUID CRYSTALLINE TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Deng; Annie Br(u)let; Pierre-antoine Albouy; Patrick Keller; Xiao-gong Wang; Min-hui Li

    2012-01-01

    A series of azobenzene containing side-on liquid crystalline ABA triblock copolymers were investigated.This triblock series possesses the same central liquid crystal block B and various lengths of the amorphous block A.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),small angle X-rays and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) were used to study their morphologies.Aider annealing the samples over weeks at a temperature within the nematic temperature range of block B,different morphologies (disordered,lamellar,perforated layer and hexagonal cylinder) were observed by TEM.The alignment behavior of these azo triblock copolymers in the magnetic field for artificial muscle application,as well as the phase period and the order-disorder transition (ODT) were studied in situ by SANS.

  6. Morphology vs. taxonomy in the family Pandanaceae: a case study in the Javanese species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endarti Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since a large number of characters are now known for Freycinetia Gaudich. and Pandanus Parkinson species, it appears useful to consider their use in identifying plants from Java. Fieldwork carried out for this study has provided stronger foundation for understanding morphological variation within the species. This study was undertaken to have a better understanding on the morphology of the family in order to make a better species delimitation. Characters of habit, stem, leaves, auricles, bracts, peduncle and pedicel, inflorescence, staminate flowers (male, pistillate flowers (female, cephalia and berries were found useful in delimitation and identification of Javanese Freycinetia, while characters of habit, stem, prop root, marginal spine, leaves, bracts, inflorescentia, peduncle, staminate flowers (male, pistillate flowers (female, cephalia, drupes were found to be useful for distinguishing among species of Javanese Pandanus. 

  7. Use of a commercially available nucleating agent to control the morphological development of solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sharenko, Alexander

    2014-08-12

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. The nucleating agent DMDBS is used to modulate the crystallization of solution-processed small molecule donor molecules in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) devices. This control over donor molecule crystallization leads to a reduction in optimized thermal annealing times as well as smaller donor molecule crystallites, and therefore more efficient devices, when using an excessive amount of solvent additive. We therefore demonstrate the use of nucleating agents as a powerful and versatile processing strategy for solution-processed, small molecule BHJ OPVs. This journal is

  8. Distribution of Action Potential Duration and T-wave Morphology: a Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ryzhii, Elena; Ryzhii, Maxim; Wei, Daming

    2009-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of the action potential duration (APD) distribution and T-wave morphology taking into account the midmyocardial cells (M-cells) concept are described. To investigate the effect of M-cells we present a computer model in which ion channel action potential formulations are incorporated into three-dimensional whole heart model. We implemented inhomogeneous continuous action potential duration distribution based on different distributions of maximal slow delayed r...

  9. Study on the morphology and agroecology of creat (Andrographis panculata ness.) in various habitat

    OpenAIRE

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO; JODY MOENANDIR; SYAMSULBAHRI; KUSWANTO

    2007-01-01

    Raw material supply which still depends on nature has caused genetic erotion of medicinal plants. The objectives of the research were to study creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness.) morphology; and agroecology in many habitat for cultivated be medical substance. The research were conducted at three different locations, ie. at lowland ( 700 m asl.). The result showed that creat growth on 180 m – 861 m above sea level wit...

  10. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or mate...

  11. Study on Seed Morphology and Genetic Diversity of Jatropha curcas L. from Different Provenances

    OpenAIRE

    Junjiao Guan; Hong Yu; Jianhua Zhang; Roupeng Yang; Yuan-hong Fan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, is emerging as an alternative to petro-diesel. The present study aims at characterization of the seed morphology and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. from eight different provenances for providing support for the breeding and allocation of seed. Five traits were investigated, including hundred seed weight, seed length, width, lateral diameter, seed ...

  12. Morphology and hemodynamics during vascular regeneration in critically ischemic murine skin studied by intravital microscopy techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, R.; Merz, K.; Schlosser, S; Spanholtz, T; Contaldo, C; Stein, J V; Enzmann, V; Giovanoli, P.; Erni, D; Plock, J A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the understanding of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, new theories about the orchestration of these processes have emerged. The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo model that enables visualization of vascular regenerating mechanisms by intravital microscopy techniques in collateral arteriolar flap vascularity. METHODS: A dorsal skin flap (15 × 30 mm) was created in mice and fixed into a skinfold chamber to allow for assessment of morphology and microhemodynamics by ...

  13. Liver atrophy following portacaval shunt in normal rats: A morphologic and ultrastructural study

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljević Tatjana; Todorović Vera N.; Boričić Ivan V.; Šikić Branka

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine morphological and ultrastructural changes in the rat liver in an experimental model of chronic liver disease (end-to-side portacaval shunt). The surgical procedure providing an end-to-side portacaval shunt (PCS) was performed in Wistar rats. The liver and pancreas weights were determined 8 weeks after the operation, when liver histology and ultrastructural patterns of hepatocytes were examined. Body weights were not significantly different between t...

  14. DNA barcoding and morphological studies reveal two new species of waxcap mushrooms (Hygrophoraceae) in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Antony Ainsworth; Paul Cannon; Bryn Dentinger

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous diagnostics and documentation of fungal species are fundamental to their conservation. During the course of a species-level study of UK waxcap (Hygrophoraceae) diversity, two previously unrecognized species were discovered. We describe Gliophorus europerplexus sp. nov. and G. reginae sp. nov., respectively orange–brown and purple–pink waxcap mushrooms, from nutrient-poor grasslands in Britain. Both share some morphological features with specimens assigned to Gliophorus (=...

  15. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Lorio, S.; Kherif, F.; Ruef, A.; Melie-Garcia, L.; Frackowiak, R; Ashburner, J.; Helms, G.; Lutti, A.; Draganski, B.

    2016-01-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixe...

  16. Teratomas in central nervous system: A clinico-morphological study with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Meetu; Uppin Megha; Patibandla Mohana; Bhattacharjee Suchanda; Panigrahi Manas; Saradhi Vijay; Rani Jyotsna; Purohit A; Challa Sundaram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cranio-spinal axis teratomas are rare. This subset is interesting because symptoms can be varied, depending on the location. Histopathology is diagnostic; most of the lesions are benign. Rarely, malignancy develops in any of the somatic components. Aims: To study the demographic, clinico-morphological and follow-up data of central nervous system (CNS) teratomas. Materials and Methods: Cases diagnosed as mature or immature teratomas in the CNS over a 20-year period were included in...

  17. Anthropometric study of the Facial Morphology in a South-Eastern Nigerian Population

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Ewunonu; C.I.P. Anibeze

    2013-01-01

    The facial dimensions are among the most important cephalometric parameters used in the description of human morphology, identification of individuals and classification of races and sex. The aim of this study is to document facial parameters of Igbo people of South-Eastern Nigeria resident in Abakaliki Area of Ebonyi State. A randomly selected sample of 1000 subjects whose age-range falls within 12 years to 45 years were measured directly with a pair of metal spreading ca...

  18. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    OpenAIRE

    E.N.G. Vinhaes; Dolhnikoff, M; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    2002-01-01

    Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia). The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of the present study was to perform a quantita...

  19. Papillary renal cell carcinoma. A morphologic and cytogenetic study of 11 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, G

    1989-01-01

    Most renal cell carcinomas are characterized by constant loss of the 3p13-pter chromosome segment and a frequent gain of the 5q22-qter segment. A comparative histologic and cytogenetic investigation of large series of renal cell carcinomas now shows that purely papillary tumors differ from the more common nonpapillary form not only in their morphologic characteristic, but also in karyotype changes observed. All of the 11 papillary tumors of this study failed to show any rearrangement of the c...

  20. p53 Alterations in Human Skin : A Molecular Study Based on Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ling

    2001-01-01

    Mutation of the p53 gene appears to be an early event in skin cancer development. The present study is based on morphology and represents a cellular and genetic investigation of p53 alterations in normal human skin and basal cell cancer. Using double immunofluorescent labelling, we have demonstrated an increase in thymine dimers and p53 protein expression in the same keratinocytes following ultraviolet radiation. Large inter-individual differences in the kinetics of thymine dimer repair and ...

  1. Resolving cryptic species with morphology and DNA; thrips as a potential biocontrol agent of Brazilian peppertree, with a new species and overview of Pseudophilothrips (Thysanoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular and morphological evidence is presented to support the description of a second species of Pseudophilothrips in Brazil in association with Schinus terebinthifolius, an invasive weedy tree in North America. Pseudophilothrips is here recognized as a weakly defined genus comprising 13 describe...

  2. Safety assessment of new antithrombotic agents: lessons from the EXTEND study on ximelagatran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnelli, G; Eriksson, B I; Cohen, A T;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ximelagatran, the first oral direct thrombin inhibitor, was shown to be an effective antithrombotic agent but was associated with potential liver toxicity after prolonged administration. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The aim of the EXTEND study was to assess safety and efficacy of extended ...

  3. Anatomical and Morphological Characterization of the Nasopalatine Canal: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodricks, D; Gupta, A; Phulambrikar, T; Singh, S K; Sharma, B K; Agrawal, P

    2016-04-01

    The anterior maxilla, also called pre-maxilla, is an area frequently requiring surgical interventions. Rehabilitation of this area remains a complex restorative challenge. The most prominent anatomical structure within the anterior maxilla is the Nasopalatine Canal. Thorough knowledge about this anatomical structure plays an important role in the successful outcomes of surgical procedures. This retrospective study was done to evaluate the anatomy and morphology of the Nasopalatine Canal using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study included 125 subjects aged between 15 and 78 years who were divided into the following 5 groups: i) 15-30 years, ii) 30-45 years, iii) 45-60 years, iv) 60-75 years, v) ≥75 years in the Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India from January 2012 to January 2015. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed using a standard exposure and patient positioning protocol. The data of the CBCT images were sliced in three dimensions. Image planes on the three axes (X, Y, and Z) were sequentially analyzed for the location, morphology and dimensions of the Nasopalatine Canal. The correlation of age and gender with all the variables were evaluated. ANOVA and Z-test was used. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Males and females showed significant differences in the length of the canal and anterior bone width in the sagittal sections. Inverted L was identified as a new dimension to the morphological shape of Nasopalatine Canal in central Madhya Pradesh population. The present study highlighted important variability observed in the anatomy and morphology of the Nasopalatine Canal. PMID:27277370

  4. The study of crystallization and interfacial morphology in polymer/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Marilyn Lillith

    This study illustrates the ability of SWNT to nucleate and template polymer crystallization and orientation, and produce materials with improved properties and unique polymer morphologies. This research work focuses primarily on the physical interaction between single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and the flexible polymer system polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Polymer crystallization in the near vicinity of SWNT (interphase) has been studied to understand the capability of SWNT in influence polymer morphology in bulk films and fibers. Fibrillar crystallization was achieved by shearing PVA/SWNT dispersions and resulted in the formation of oriented PVA/SWNT fibers or ribbons, while PVA solutions produce unoriented fibers. PVA single crystals were grown in PVA solutions as well as PVA/SWNT dispersions over a period of several months at room temperature (25°C). PVA single crystal growth in PVA/SWNT dispersions is templated by SWNT, and these crystals show the presence of new morphologies for PVA. PVA single crystals of differing morphology were also grown at elevated temperatures, and show morphology dependant electron beam irradiation resistance. Gel-spinning was used to produce PVA, and PVA/SWNT fibers where, PVA crystallization in the bulk fiber was observed. With 1 wt% SWNT loading in PVA, the fiber tensile strength increased from 1.6 GPa for the control PVA to 2.6 GPa for PVA/SWNT. Analysis of this data suggests stress of up to ˜120 GPa on the SWNT. This is the highest reported stress on the SWNT to date and confirm excellent reinforcement and load transfer of SWNT in the PVA matrix. Raman spectroscopy data show high SWNT alignment in the fiber where the I0*/I90* ratio is measured to be 106. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to characterize polymer morphology near the polymer-SWNT interface for PVA/SWNT fibers. HR-TEM studies of Polymer/CNT composites show distinct morphological differences at the polymer-SWNT interface/interphase for

  5. A morphological study of molecularly imprinted polymers using the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique for producing polymers with applications in affinity-based separation, in biomimetic sensors, in catalysis, etc. This variety of uses relies upon the production of polymers with different affinities, specificities, sensitivities and loading capacities. Research into the development of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with new or improved morphologies - which involves modification of the polymerisation process - is therefore underway. This paper reports a comparative study of non-covalent MIPs synthesised by 'bulk' polymerisation using digoxin as template. These were synthesised under different conditions, i.e., changing the functional monomers employed (methacrylic acid or 2-vinylpyridine), the porogens (acetonitrile or dichloromethane) used, and by altering the volume of the latter. The polymerisation process was allowed to proceed either under UV light or in a thermostat-controlled waterbath. The surface morphology (was determined by scanning electron microscopy) and the ability of the different polymers to selectively rebind the template was then evaluated

  6. Habit and morphology study on the palm-based 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and its derivatives are hydroxyl fatty acids suitable to be used as multipurpose intermediates in the synthesis of personal care products and decorative cosmetics. In Malaysia, DHSA has been successfully produced from palm-based oleic acid, via epoxidation with per-formic acid followed with hydrolysis of the epoxide. The objective of this paper is to study the crystals of DHSA produced under different crystallization conditions. The crystal habit and morphology were observed in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results show that solvent type, solvent concentration and cooling mode affect the crystal habit but not the morphology. The DHSA crystals agglomerated into either sphere-like or plate-like habit structure while always maintaining the triclinic crystal system

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RELATION OF BED MORPHOLOGY WITH SURFACE FLOW IN MEANDER CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Alternate bars have the property that they migrate downstream whenever floods occur. However,in meander channels whose bend angles are larger than a critical value, the migration of bars can be suppressed, and the positions of bank erosion and flood attack also will be steady. In this study, the bed morphology in flume channels with bends of various lengths and angles is investigated at various flow discharges, and the relation of bed morphology to surface flow is investigated in detail using fluid measuring software. An effort is made to obtain guidelines for the plane shape design of meander channels. Based on the experimental results of bed topography and measurement of surface flow direction and velocity distribution, from the viewpoint of bank erosion and the concentration and dispersion of flood flow the most suitable plane shape for meandering channels is suggested through which the migration of alternate bars is suppressed.

  8. A morphological study of molecularly imprinted polymers using the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gpaniagua@pas.uned.es; Fernandez Hernando, Pilar [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Durand Alegria, J.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique for producing polymers with applications in affinity-based separation, in biomimetic sensors, in catalysis, etc. This variety of uses relies upon the production of polymers with different affinities, specificities, sensitivities and loading capacities. Research into the development of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with new or improved morphologies - which involves modification of the polymerisation process - is therefore underway. This paper reports a comparative study of non-covalent MIPs synthesised by 'bulk' polymerisation using digoxin as template. These were synthesised under different conditions, i.e., changing the functional monomers employed (methacrylic acid or 2-vinylpyridine), the porogens (acetonitrile or dichloromethane) used, and by altering the volume of the latter. The polymerisation process was allowed to proceed either under UV light or in a thermostat-controlled waterbath. The surface morphology (was determined by scanning electron microscopy) and the ability of the different polymers to selectively rebind the template was then evaluated.

  9. Surface morphology and composition studies in InGaN/GaN film grown by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Tao; Han Ping; Shi Yi; Zheng Youdou; Zhang Zhao; Liu Lian; Su Hui; Xie Zili; Zhang Rong; Liu Bin; Xiu Xiangqian; Li Yi

    2011-01-01

    InGaN filmsweredepositedon(0001)sapphiresubstrates with GaN buffer layers under different growth temperatures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.The In-composition of InGaN film was approximately controlled by changing the growth temperature.The connection between the growth temperature,In content,surface morphology and defect formation was obtained by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).Meanwhile,by comparing the SEM and AFM surface morphology images,we proposed several models of three different defects and discussed the mechanism of formation.The prominent effect of higher growth temperature on the quality of the InGaN films and defect control were found by studying InGaN films at various growth temperatures.

  10. Morphological study of Albanian words, and processing with NooJ

    CERN Document Server

    Piton, Odile

    2010-01-01

    We are developing electronic dictionaries and transducers for the automatic processing of the Albanian Language. We will analyze the words inside a linear segment of text. We will also study the relationship between units of sense and units of form. The composition of words takes different forms in Albanian. We have found that morphemes are frequently concatenated or simply juxtaposed or contracted. The inflected grammar of NooJ allows constructing the dictionaries of flexed forms (declensions or conjugations). The diversity of word structures requires tools to identify words created by simple concatenation, or to treat contractions. The morphological tools of NooJ allow us to create grammatical tools to represent and treat these phenomena. But certain problems exceed the morphological analysis and must be represented by syntactical grammars.

  11. A morphological study of the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the morphological variance in the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic (CT) images. In addition, we discuss the necessity of CT scanning as part of the preoperative assessment process for dental implantation, by comparing the results with the findings of panoramic radiography. Sixty patients examined using CT as part of the preoperative assessment for dental implantation were analyzed. Reconstructed CT images were used to evaluate the bone quality and cross-sectional bone morphology of the mandibular molar region. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) and X-ray density ratio of this region were assessed using panoramic radiography in order to analyze the correlation between the findings of the CT images and panoramic radiography. CT images showed that there was a decrease in bone quality in cases with high MCI. Cross-sectional CT images revealed that the undercuts on the lingual side in the highly radiolucent areas in the basal portion were more frequent than those in the alveolar portion. This study showed that three-dimensional reconstructed CT images can help to detect variances in mandibular morphology that might be missed by panoramic radiography. In conclusion, it is suggested that CT should be included as an important examination tool before dental implantation. (author)

  12. Morphological study of the localized growth of materials in dielectric barrier discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qing-Xun; Li Xue-Chen; Jiang Nan; Wang Long

    2004-01-01

    The localized growth of materials has been realized in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor in the mixture of acetylene and argon in previous work. In this paper, the morphology of the materials synthesized in the process is studied. The results indicate that the polymer's structure consists of three layers. The layer near the substrate is homogeneous with thickness of several micrometres; the middle layer is composed of dense bulges with height of about more than 10μm in average. The distance between two neighbouring bulges is about 230μm; the top layer is made up of a few large columns with the height up to 2mm, and with the average distance of about 3.5mm. The growth of the three layers corresponds to three types of discharge. The discharge mechanism is analysed through studying the morphology of the polymer. It can be deduced from the morphology that the first and second discharge phases should belong to the Townsend breakdown, and the last discharge phase should be explained on the basis of the streamer mechanism.

  13. Morphological studies in the buffalo as a contribution to biotechnological methodologies in the animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Pelagalli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The researchers in the morphological area of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Naples are long since carrying out investigations on the buffalo. This is due to the paucity of data in the literature of the field as well as scientific interest for many aspects of the biology of this species like the seasonality of the sexual cicle. The studies that have been done are numerous and regard many different fields as the chromosome map, spermatogenesis, histogenesis of the endocrine pancreas, blood circulation and innervation, and the structure and ultrastructure of several organs. In the present lecture, more recent and interesting results are reported regarding the blood circulation and peripheral innervation of several organs and the structure an ultrastructure of tracts of the digestive system. In particular, the following topics are presented: the evolution of the coronaric circle during the embryonic development; the hypophyseal ciculation; the morphology of sensitive corpuscles in the external genital organs and in the reticular groove. In addition, data regarding the structure, the ultrastructure of the stomach wall and the role of each mucosal layer in the stomach functions are reported. The results of these morphological studies costitute a scientific background which is essential in the field of the applicative biotechnology

  14. Morphological, Histological and Histochemical Study of the Lingual Salivary Glands of the Little Egret, Egretta garzetta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to study the morphological, histological and histochemical characterizations of the lingual salivary glands of the little egret, Egretta garzetta. The glands are composed of two posterior entities at the base of the tongue and one anterior entity on the dorsal surface of the free lingual part. These glands are made of mucoserous cells that elaborate sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but they are devoid of glycogen and neutral mucosubstances. The findings of the present study were compared with those reported for other birds in correlation with their phylogeny and feeding habits. (author)

  15. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  16. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, Aswathy E.; Priyamvada, Hema; Ravikrishna, R.; Després, Viviane R.; Biju, C. V.; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols, which are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere, are poorly characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Improved knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is essential to have a better understanding of their dispersion and long-range transport in the atmosphere and at the same time to assess their role as potential Ice Nuclei (IN). In the present work, possibly for the first time we report the morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from marine urban and high altitude continental regions in Southern India. The samples were collected using polycarbonate filter paper and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy-dispersive Spectra Detector (EDX/EDS). The observed bioaerosols exhibited great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world. At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols. Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments, and lot of other non-identified bio-particles were also observed constituting the remaining fraction. Further, the classification of fungal spores exhibited strong variability over this region. For example, fungal spores of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota class were seen in abundance in marine environment, while Ascomycota especially Cladosporium were seen in abundance in high altitude continental environment. Our findings also suggest that increase in diversity of bioaerosol particles at marine site appeared to coincide with precipitation. It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting environments. However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore

  17. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Emil Rekanović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Miloš Stepanović

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological character...

  18. A Study of The Local Toxicity of Agents Used for Variceal Injection Sclerotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, C. S.; Womack, C; Robson, K; Morris, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Injection sclerotherapy is widely used in the treatment of oesophageal varices. However, few studies have compared the local toxicity of sclerosant agents which may be important if serious local complications are to be avoided. In this study the depth of injury caused by submucosal injection of increasing concentrations of sodium tetradecyl sulphate, polidocanol, 5% ethanolamine oleate and 5% varicosid in rabbits stomach, has been compared by histopathological examination. Macroscopic ulcerat...

  19. Agent-Based simulation as a useful tool for the study of markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rouchier, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores diverse dimensions of the use of agent-based simulation used for the analysis of market dynamics. The literature that is studied is in majority related to economics theory, but can also be part of marketing studies. The main point in this reearch is the focus that authors put on learning, diffusion, imitation and bouded rationality. Markets are seen through several sub-divisions, such as: buyer-seller interpersonal relationship; views on the global chain, including consume...

  20. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99mTc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99mTc and the biological distribution of 99mTc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  1. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml(-1). The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta. PMID:27195934

  2. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  3. A study of the masticatory muscles morphology and function on asymmetric prognathism; Used by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Hirotoshi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Each case was measured to analyze the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount using Computed Tomography (CT) photos and P-A cephalogram. At the same time, the relation of morphology and function between the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount was analyzed to examine the function of masseter using electromyography. To determine the relation between morphology and function of masseter in asymmetric prognathism, 23 cases were chosen for the study from among 11 male and 12 female patients who were diagnosed as asymmetric prognathism. In asymmetric prognathism, both morphology and function in the mandibular malposition side were recognized to be larger than that in the cross sectional area of muscle side, on the examination of the cross sectional area of muscle and the activity of masseter. A highly significant and positive correlation was recognized in the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and the CT mandibular malposition amount which were examined by the CT photos. In the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and in the left and right difference of the activity of masseter, there was also a highly positive and significant correlation. (author) 58 refs.

  4. DNA barcoding and morphological studies reveal two new species of waxcap mushrooms (Hygrophoraceae in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Ainsworth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous diagnostics and documentation of fungal species are fundamental to their conservation. During the course of a species-level study of UK waxcap (Hygrophoraceae diversity, two previously unrecognized species were discovered. We describe Gliophorus europerplexus sp. nov. and G. reginae sp. nov., respectively orange–brown and purple–pink waxcap mushrooms, from nutrient-poor grasslands in Britain. Both share some morphological features with specimens assigned to Gliophorus (=Hygrocybe psittacinus. However, analysis of sequences of the nuclear ITS DNA barcode region from these and related taxa confirms the phylogenetic distinctness of these lineages. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the holotype of Hygrophorus perplexus, a North American species morphologically resembling G. europerplexus, is phylogenetically divergent from all our collections. It is likely that further collections of G. europerplexus will be revealed by sequencing European material currently filed under G. perplexus and its synonyms. However, two such collections in the Kew fungarium yielded sequences that clustered together but were divergent from those of G. europerplexus, G. perplexus and G. psittacinus and may represent a further novel taxon. By contrast, G. reginae is morphologically distinct and can usually be recognized in the field by its purplish viscid pileus and relatively stout, flexuose, pale stipe. It is named to commemorate the diamond jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in 2012 and the 60th anniversary of her coronation in 2013.

  5. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml‑1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  6. A study of the masticatory muscles morphology and function on asymmetric prognathism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each case was measured to analyze the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount using Computed Tomography (CT) photos and P-A cephalogram. At the same time, the relation of morphology and function between the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount was analyzed to examine the function of masseter using electromyography. To determine the relation between morphology and function of masseter in asymmetric prognathism, 23 cases were chosen for the study from among 11 male and 12 female patients who were diagnosed as asymmetric prognathism. In asymmetric prognathism, both morphology and function in the mandibular malposition side were recognized to be larger than that in the cross sectional area of muscle side, on the examination of the cross sectional area of muscle and the activity of masseter. A highly significant and positive correlation was recognized in the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and the CT mandibular malposition amount which were examined by the CT photos. In the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and in the left and right difference of the activity of masseter, there was also a highly positive and significant correlation. (author) 58 refs

  7. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  8. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Duranceau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1 and particle back diffusion term (k2 was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  9. Molecular dynamics study on effect of elongational flow on morphology of immiscible mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chau; Kalra, Vibha

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of elongational flow on structure and kinetics of phase separation in immiscible blends using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different blend systems have been investigated—binary blend of polymers and binary mixture of molecular fluids. The interaction potential parameters in both material systems were chosen to ensure complete phase-separation in equilibrium. We found that elongational flow, beyond a certain rate, significantly alters the steady state morphology in such immiscible mixtures. For the case of polymer blends, perpendicular lamellar morphology was formed under elongation rates (dot \\varepsilon) from 0.05 to 0.5 MD units possibly due to the interplay of two opposing phenomena—domain deformation/rupture under elongation and aggregation of like-domains due to favorable energetic interactions. The elongation timescale at the critical rate of transition from phase-separated to the lamellar structure (dot \\varepsilon = 0.05) was found to be comparable to the estimated polymer relaxation time, suggesting a cross-over to the elongation/rupture-dominant regime. Under strong elongational flow rate, dot \\varepsilon > 0.5, the formation of disordered morphology was seen in polymer blend systems. The kinetics of phase separation was monitored by calculating domain size as a function of time for various elongational flow rates. The domain growth along the vorticity-axis was shown to follow a power law, Rz(t) ˜ t α. A growth exponent, α of 1/3 for the polymer blend and 0.5-0.6 for the fluid molecular mixture was found under elongation rates from 0.005 to 0.1. The higher growth exponent in the fluid mixture is a result of its faster diffusion time scale compared to that of polymer chains. The steady state end-to-end distance of polymer chains and viscosity of the polymer blend were examined and found to depend on the steady state morphology and elongation rate.

  10. Study of the human encephalon morphology by computerized axial tomography in neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the middle of the last century, the study of the human encephalon morphology has been of great interest for the researchers. With the introduction of the computerized axial tomography in 1974, it was possible to expand the knowledge about this area and at the same time provide information on the structural lesions that are pathologies of great psychosocial repercussion like epilepsy and Parkinsonism. This paper used 90 tomographic studies on people aged 20-80 years. A series of linear measurements were made and statistically processed. The results showed variations in linear measurements among control, epileptic and Parkinsonian subjects

  11. Study on The Starch Granules Morphology of Local Varieties of Dioscorea hispida and Dioscorea alata

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah; Shofiyatul Mas'udah; Hendrian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is regarded as vital in the food industry, where granule size and shape determine its function and uses. One plant taxon that is widely known as a starch source is Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae), whose starch and protein content make it as healthy food. As the initial step to identify which varieties possess potential as starch sources, we conducted the study on starch granule morphology of some local varieties of D. hispida and D. alata. The aim of this study was to determine the shape and...

  12. Studies on morphological and magnetic properties of La1-xSrxMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Sr doped lanthanum manganites were synthesized by simple solution combustion technique and annealed at temperature 600 °C. All LSMO samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by XRD and SEM, respectively. The nanocrystalline nature of LSMO was studied by TEM. The effect of Sr doping on magnetic properties was studied by vibrating sample magnetometer and SQUID magnetometer. The minor change in saturation magnetization observed but the coercivity decreases first and then increases with increase in Sr content. The Curie temperature (Tc) increases from 275 K to 285 K for LSMO samples as x varies from 0.1 to 0.3.

  13. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGY OF CHROMIUM IN CHILLED Cu-0.14%-2.0%Cr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; Z.K.Fan

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of chromium in chilled Cu-Cr alloys with 0.14%-2.0% Cr has been studied. The results showed that eutectic Cr phase takes a fibrous shape, and pre-eutectic Cr is dendritic in the studied chilled Cu-Cr alloy. During solute treatment of the eutectic and super-eutectic Cu-Cr alloys, only part of chromium particles dissolved in copper phase,some fiber and dendritic chromium still remained. Forging before solute treatment can reduce the size of primary Cr particles, which benefits the aging structure.

  14. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nourian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the developments to the desired areas. Several models have been developed and evaluated for simulating urban land-use expansions. Despite the variety of the models, most of them have focused on simulating urban land-use expansions just around a city. Thus, the regional models that consider wider area are of primary importance.2- Theoretical basesIn this study a new agent-based model has been developed and implemented to simulate urban land-use expansion in Qazvin and Alborz regions of Qazvin state which have an area of 1620 square kilometers. In this model, land-use developers have been treated as agents that move in the landscape explicitly and assess the state of parcels for development. So, the environment of the model is raster. The agents are developed into five groups which have different aims. The agents may fall in competition to develop the same parcels. Moreover, due to the spatial essence of the problem, GIS were used to prepare the environment of agents’ movement and search and to aggregate and analyze the results.Two main steps can be recognized in this model: the Searching step and the Development step:Searching step: The agents are created and distributed in the districts. The selection of districts is probabilistic and is based on the primary probability of selection, assumed for districts. When agents go to the districts, at first they move randomly to the neighborhood of pre-developed areas. Wherever the agent starts its activities, it

  15. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till now, there is no consensus about appropriate contrast agents for use in clinical investigation in suspected perforation of the esophagus. Gastrografin, most widely used water soluble contrast agent, is less sensitive in detection of fistulous tract and can induce pulmonary edema, leading to death occasionally, if aspirated. Barium sulphate has been contraindicated without actual evaluation of its effect on mediastinum by experimental and clinical study. The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the type of tissue reaction and its severity in mediastinum and, as a result, to propose appropriate contrast agents in various clinical situations of suspected esophageal leakage. Barium sulphate, Hytrat, Gastrografin, Telebrix, Hexabrix, Amipaque, Niopam, and Ultravist were injected into mediastinum of 20 rats in each. The tissue reaction of injection sites were examined microscopically and graded according severity of inflammatory reaction with serial follow up from 1 day to 8 weeks after injection. The results are as follows, 1. Barium sulphate and Hytrast produced highly significant (p<0.01) tissue reaction compared to saline group and early inflammatory reaction was more severe in Hytrast. 2. Water soluble agents produced no significant reaction in mediastinum compared to saline control group and proved to be safe in the situation of leakage into mediastinum. 3. Injected barium caused no death during 8 week follow up in spite of large injected amount and histologically produced localized indolent granuloma after 4 weeks which is expected not to cause any delayed complications. In consideration of above results, superior physical characteristics of barium sulphate and drawbacks of Gastrografin, we concluded as follows. 1. For postoperative assessment of esophageal anastomosis, Barium sulphate is the contrast agent of choice

  16. Basic and clinical studies of sup(99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate for skeletal imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate (HMDP), a new skeletal scintigraphy agent, to detect the bone lesions, was investigated by comparing with sup(99m)Tc-Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP). No significant difference in blood clearance between HMDP and MDP was observed in 5 healthy volunteers. Any difference was not seen in the urinary excretion studies between these two agents. Inorder to estimate the uptake of these agents by bone, the count ratio of normal bone to soft tissue was obtained in 22 cases with HMDP and 23 with MDP by scintimetry. This data suggested that HMDP bone to soft tissue ratio was significantly higher than that of MDP. Although this ratio of HMDP was not significantly higher than that of MDP before first 1 hour after administration, the former became gradually higher than the latter, and difference was significant 2 hour after administration. Overall, HMDP image was judged to be slightly better than MDP in qualitatively grading by three independent observers. From these results it is concluded that HMDP is a useful skeletal imaging agent. (author)

  17. COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON THYMUS GLAND OF HUMAN AND PRIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Devi Raja Rajeswari,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: The comparative morphological and anatomical study on thymus was carried out in human and primate. The prenatal stage of Macaca radiata was selected for the present study. Study Design: Cross sectional analytical type of study. Place and Period of study: Department of Anatomy, Dr. A.L.M. PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chennai from July 1999 to June 2000. Materials: The comparative morphology and anatomy of thymus of human embryonic, 10 weeks, 15 weeks and prenatal foetuses, and monkey foetus was carried out. Methods: Comparative micro-anatomical study was done by paraffin processing method. The sections were stained as per the method published by Culling (1974. Results: In monkey foetus, the thymus gland is slightly elongated, whereas in human foetuses it is not elongated and oval in shape. The size of the thymus is larger in human foetuses than monkey foetus. In both cases cells are parenchymal in nature. Due to spatial organization in human foetuses, the lymphocytes aggregation is more in cortex than in medulla. In monkey foetus the lymphocyte aggregation is simpler in arrangement through spatial organization is much less.

  18. Study of morphology of oxide film formed on magnesium alloys in casting conditions (AZ91)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphology of surface oxide film formed during pouring of molten magnesium alloy has been investigated. Due to surface turbulence during casting, the oxide film necessarily makes folded cause in a dry surface to dry surface mode creating a double oxide film with the volume of air that can be encapsulated between folds of the film and this led to make gas bubbles or shrinkage cavities form. These kinds of oxides called new oxide films that form in a very short time during pouring. It seems to be one of the main reasons for dross-like defects. However, study of characterization and features of oxide film affected on prediction of final mechanical properties. The inner, un wetted surfaces of the doubled film representing an unbounded interface in the liquid and therefore, effectively constitute a crack. Samples for the study were prepared based on a technique in which an oxide metal sandwich was made by the bubble impingement technique, after impingement the contact areas of two adjacent and entrapped bubbles oxide-metal-oxide layer were selected for the study. Features such as thickness, size, morphology and chemical composition of the oxide film were studied using a scanning electron microscope. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was performed for detection of the composition of the oxide layers. Results showed that the morphology of the oxide film in molten of magnesium alloys is folded and quite rough included globally phases of magnesium oxide. Recently, researches showed that the morphology of the oxide film in aluminum alloys is different due to composition of base alloy. Magnesium alloys in liquid state due to high oxidation rate is sensitive to formation of oxide film. Thickness of the oxide film folds in magnesium alloys is 2-4 μm that in comparison to aluminum alloys are ten times higher. However, potential of casting defects is higher in Mg alloys. The contacting interface between impinged bubbles represents an elegant and powerful means for studying

  19. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish.Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological characteristics, the isolates were identified as Cladobotryum dendroides (Bulliard : Fries W. Gams & Hoozemans.

  20. Personality as predictor of customer service centre agent performance in the banking industry: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Blignaut

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Since service quality is an important differentiator in the banking industry, it is essential to select suitable customer service centre staff, particularly those who are responsible for handling queries from clients who hold significant lifetime value in this industry.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to identify personality traits, as measured by the Occupational Personality Questionnaire 32r (item response theory scored version, including the more parsimonious Big Five personality traits, that may act as job performance predictors for customer service centre (CSC agents in the banking industry.Motivation for the study: This study provides an exploratory investigation of whether specific personality traits differ amongst CSC agents in the banking industry, based on their job performance. No published research in this field could be identified.Research design, approach and method: Purposive sampling was used to collect data from the entire CSC agent base of a particular banking group (N = 89. Responses were analysed by means of quantitative techniques.Main findings and practical/managerial implications: Results indicate that parsimonious traits of personality, expressed as the Big Five personality traits, predict job performance. The importance of carefully selecting suitable job performance criteria for a specific environment, however, emerged as a critical issue in performance prediction.Contribution: The study focuses attention on the importance of CSC agents’ performance as frontline staff in the banking industry and identifying valid criteria for selecting the most suitable agents. Providing a one-contact point of service such as a CSC is a fairly new approach in the South African banking industry and this study provides an initial investigation of personality traits that may serve as job performance predictors in this environment.

  1. The labelling and animal study of tumor positive imaging agent 5-18F-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To synthesize and label a tumor positive imaging agent 18F-fluorouracil (FU) and the animal study on the product was also undertaken. Methods: 18F-FU was synthesized and labelled. Its biodistribution analysis was done on normal and tumor bearing nude mice. PET imaging was performed on normal and tumor bearing rabbits. Results: HPLC analysis and other quality control test results guaranteed the possibility of animal study and clinical usage of 18F-FU. Biodistribution analysis and PET imaging also demonstrated a high accumulation of the tracer in tumor tissue. Conclusion: 18F-FU is a kind of potential tumor positive imaging agents which can be used to assess the effects of chemotherapy

  2. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  3. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2016-01-08

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  4. A genome-wide association study identifies five loci influencing facial morphology in Europeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes--PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1--in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications.

  5. Study on N-acetylgucosaminyl transferase and the uptake of the correlated imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase(GnT) is related to the development of tumor and the cancer patients' prognosis by effecting the change of glucose's chain. Study on the transform of glycosyltransferase is benefit to the comprehension of the mechanism of biological behavior. The noninvasive diagnostic and treating methods of tumor will be provided along with the development of new imaging agent of tumor glucose analogue and its mechanism defined clearly. (authors)

  6. An Overview of Recent Progress in the Study of Distributed Multi-agent Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yongcan; Yu, Wenwu; Ren, Wei; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some main results and progress in distributed multi-agent coordination, focusing on papers published in major control systems and robotics journals since 2006. Distributed coordination of multiple vehicles, including unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles and unmanned underwater vehicles, has been a very active research subject studied extensively by the systems and control community. The recent results in this area are categorized into several directions, suc...

  7. Structure and Morphology Study of Cobalt Oxide Doped Silica Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasovean, Romana; Monteiro, Regina; Cherif, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt oxide doped silica films were synthesized by a dip-coating technique. Initial compounds were cobalt acetate Co(CH3COO)2ṡ4H2O and tetraethoxysilane Si(OC2H5)4. The chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The morphology analyses were carried out by means of atomic force microscopy. The average diameter of cobalt oxide dispersed particles increases with the molar ratio Co:Si and with the aging time of the initial colloidal solution.

  8. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, K.; Reales, G.; Smith, A. J.; Konka, E.; Palmen, J.; Quinto-Sanchez, M.; Acuña-Alonzo, V.; Jaramillo, C; Arias, W.; Fuentes, M; Pizarro, M.; Barquera Lozano, R.; Macín Pérez, G.; Gómez-Valdés, J.; Villamil-Ramírez, H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-14)). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage devel...

  9. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Reales, Guillermo; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Konka, Esra; Palmen, Jutta; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−14). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage developme...

  10. [The salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis Girard, 1857 (Serpentes, Colubridae). A morphological, morphometric and histological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R A; Contrera, M G; da Costa, J R; Petenusci, S O; Lima-Verde, J S

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, morphometrical and histochemical studies of the cell types in the salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis have been performed. It is concluded: 1) the acini of supra, infralabial and premaxillary glands are formed by mucous and mucoserous cells; the Duvernoy's gland by seromucous cells; 2) mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid; mucoserous cells show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals; seromucous cells of Duvernoy's gland show neutral mucosubstance and protein radicals. The acinar area, height of tubule and duct cells, and nuclear volume of acinar, tubule and duct cells were evaluated morphometrically. PMID:7181506

  11. Urban dynamics in the Flemish countryside: a comparative study on morphological patterns and local economy dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tempels, Barbara; Verbeek, Thomas; Pisman, Ann; Allaert, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The article examines two aspects of urbanisation in the rural areas of Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. On the one hand, the evolution of the built environment is studied in terms of built-up density and the corresponding morphological sprawl pattern, from the beginning of the 19th century up until now. On the other hand, the economy dynamics in the rural areas are investigated. This shift in economic activities can be seen as part of a broader urbanisation process, with aspects such a...

  12. SAXS study on the morphology of etched and un-etched ion tracks in apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzri A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural apatite samples were irradiated with 185 MeV Au and 2.3 GeV Bi ions to simulate fission tracks. The resulting track morphology was investigated using synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS measurements before and after chemical etching. We present preliminary results from the SAXS measurement showing the etching process is highly anisotropic yielding faceted etch pits with a 6-fold symmetry. The measurements are a first step in gaining new insights into the correlation between etched and unetched fission tracks and the use of SAXS as a tool for studying etched tracks.

  13. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or maternal willing. The abnormal development of primary leaflets of atrioventricular valves, retardation of fetus growth, abnormal position of organs including ectopic heart, and abnormal limbs development were observed.

  14. Fluorescence microscopic morphology and inhibition rate studies on apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells induced by 153Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells treated with irradiation by 153Sm-EDTMP was studied. The morphological changes in osteosarcoma cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that osteosarcoma cells exposed with 153Sm-EDTMP displayed significant nuclear fragmentation and marked pyknosis. With the prolongation of observing period, the membrane bound apoptotic bodies formation was observed. It should be noted, that with the lengthening of irradiation time by 153Sm-EDTMP, the inhibition rate of proliferation of osteosarcoma cells increased progressively

  15. Characterizing slope morphology using multifractal technique: a study from the western continental margin of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Haris, K.; Gokul, G.S.; Fernandes, W.A.; Kavitha, G.

    stream_size 57978 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Nat_Hazards_73_547a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Nat_Hazards_73_547a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1    Author version...: Nat. Hazards, vol.73(2); 2014; 547-565 Characterizing slope morphology using multifractal technique – a study from the western continental margin of India Bishwajit Chakraborty, S.M. Karisiddaiah, A.A.A. Menezes, K. Haris, G. S. Gokul, W...

  16. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF GALANTHUS WORONOWII LOZINSK. FROM AMARYLLIDACEAE JAUME ST-HIL. FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out morphological and anatomical studies of Galanthus woronowii L., we have revealed diagnosis indices of lamina, stem, bulb and root. The leaf is hypostomal, dorsoventral, stomatal apparatus of paracytic and anisocytic type. The stem has a fascicular structure, with aerenchyma. The root has primary structure, with tetrarch conductive system. The bulb has a fascicular structure of conductive system with characteristic parenchimal sheath of conductive fascicles

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae): studying morphological adaptations to aquatic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, María Soledad; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    The members of the Family Echinophthiriidae (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are unique among insects because they infest hosts with an amphibious lifestyle. During their evolution they developed morphological traits that are reflected in unique features. The SEM is a helpful tool to analyze them. Knowing in detail the external structure of these lice is the first step to understand the whole process that derived from the co-adaptation of lice and pinnipeds to the marine environment. For the first time, we studied the external structure of all stages of an echinophthiriid louse. The results are discussed in the light of their evolutionary, functional, and ecological implications. PMID:22503484

  19. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 0C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  20. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Smilja; Veselinović, Ljiljana; Lukić, Miodrag J; Karanović, Ljiljana; Bračko, Ines; Ignjatović, Nenad; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-08-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [00l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 °C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found. PMID:21659698

  1. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  2. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahnert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1–1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of differences in the optical cross sections and asymmetry parameters. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably

  3. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: Physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 μg/kg/day, 0.05 LD50) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition (∼ 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction (∼ 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures

  4. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  5. Morphological modelling of the response to a shipwreck - A case study at Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Fredsoe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf;

    2012-01-01

    A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport with a...

  6. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  7. Effect of external agent on chemiluminescence in bioassay sample - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is one of the important radio nuclide contributing about 30-35% of collective dose through internal exposure of plant personnel in Indian PHWRs. Internal dose is monitored by bioassay using liquid scintillation analyzer. There are some external agents that interfere with the tritium counting in urine sample of individuals. These external agents give rise to chemiluminescence in the sample, which may result in wrong interpretation of the counting rates. One such case was studied at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS)-3 and 4 in which urine sample of an individual indicated significantly high uptake of tritium whereas the person was not involved in any radioactive job. Investigation revealed that counts due to the sample were caused by chemiluminescence in the urine sample because of homeopathic drug, which the person was taking. (author)

  8. Study and implementation of the network management agent of telecommunication application server in NGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; He, Hui; Ni, Yuhua

    2013-03-01

    The telecommunication application server (AS) is an important part of the value-added service network in the next generation network(NGN) as the support platform. Remote, unified and secure management to a variety of services is implemented after the remote network management of the telecommunications application server. The network management system based on Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is decided to utilized to analyse and study the network managed objects in AS because of the integration of telecommunications networks and computer networks on the network management and convenient, economical and flexible features of SNMP protocol. The network management agent module of AS is designed and an example is illustrated the details of the model. Results indicate the good performance of the network management agent.

  9. Preclinical study of dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent 131I-epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the radioactivity distribution and the characteristic of imaging with dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent-epidepride. Methods: 131I-epidepride was prepared using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The authors chose SD rats to study the characteristics of 131I-epidepride distribution in vivo and in brain. Two rabbits were used in SPECT imaging. Dynamic acquisition was performed in one rabbit after rapid injection of 370 MBq 131I-epidepride, and time-activity curve was obtained with Region of Interesting (ROI) technique. The other rabbit had brain tomography imaging and whole body imaging according to the result of time-activity curve. Results: The radiolabeling yield (RLY) of 131I-epidepride with hydrogen peroxide was over 95%. In vivo, the uptake of heart and lung was the fastest, so was the clearance of the two organs. The clearance of 131I-epidepride from the body was mainly through liver, stomach and intestines. The striatum uptake was concentrated and stable, while the cerebellum clearance was rapid. Conclusion: The hydrogen peroxide method is simple and fast with high RLY. The striatum uptake is concentrated and stable. 131I-epidepride is an effective agent suitable for dopamine D2 receptor imaging and may be a promising agent for clinical application

  10. Study of combination treatment effect of the {sup 166}Ho and anticancer agents in-vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, S. M.; Choi, S. J.; Park, K. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    For the development of new controlled drug delivery systems, the application of combination therapy using radioisotopes and tumor static agents has drawn great attention. This study was designed to estimate the treatment effect of the combination therapy with Holmium ({sup 166}Ho) and tumor static agents. Ho-166 was produced at the KAERI using HANARO reactor. The drugs applied were Sunpla, Methotrexate and Doxorubicin. Human glioblastoma (T98G), adenocarcinoma (MKN45), hepatocellular (Hep3B), lung carcinoma (Calu6), ovary adenocarcinoma (NIH:OVCAR- 3) and rat glioma (C6) were used. The cell cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines determined by MTT assay. In the case where the chemotherapeutic agent was solely applied to the cell lines, the IC{sub 50} values wer e 2.4x10{sup -5}M of the Sunpla for MKN45 and 4.23x10{sup -6}M of the Doxorubicin for Calu6. The radioactivity of Ho-166 occurring 20% apoptosis was 10{mu}Ci. As for Sunpla and Doxorubicin, the value of IC20 was dependent on the cell lines used. The combination treatment of {sup 166}Ho and drug was to improve therapeutic success rate in T98G, MKN45, Hep3B, and Calu6. From this in vitro study it can be concluded that combining 166Ho radionuclide therapy and chemotherapy could enhance the effect of each in eliminating proliferating tumor cells.

  11. Pre-validation study for testing of avian viral vaccines for extraneous agents by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, L; Ottiger, H P

    2007-12-01

    The biological nature of vaccines imposes a permanent risk for contamination with extraneous agents. Therefore, testing of vaccines for freedom from extraneous agents is essential in the manufacturing process and quality control. Relevant methods for testing for extraneous agents of avian viral vaccines are specified in the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). Currently, most of these methods involve the use of embryonated eggs or chickens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used and suitable tool for the amplification and detection of extraneous nucleic acids. Different PCR assays have been developed for the application in routine testing of veterinary vaccines. However, before introduction of new methods in monographs of the Ph. Eur., they must undergo validation. Here we report about a pre-validation study performed in Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs). Diluted samples of avian infectious laryngotracheitis, avian infectious bronchitis and avian infectious bursal disease viruses have been analysed using standardised procedures and reagents. The study demonstrated that PCR methods can be transferred to other laboratories. The results also show that further work is warranted for full validation of the method. PMID:18413134

  12. Basic study for development of new tumor specific agents for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New tissue specific agents for neutron capture therapy was studied. Monoclonal labeled gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-MoAb) and porphyrin (ATN-10)-Gd-DTPA (Gd-ATN10) were studied as possible agents by using 9-L experimental brain tumor model. The tissue concentration were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer. Gd-MoAb showed persistent retention in the tumor on MRI, but tissue gadolinium concentration was not detectable in the tumor by ICP analyzer, while there was high accumulation of Gd-MoAb in the liver. Gd-ATN10 showed prolonged and high accumulation in the tumor up to 48 hours on MRI. Gadolinium concentration reached up to 9 ppm in the tumor by 0.02 mmol/kg administration, but it disappeared within 6 hours after administration. This dissociation between MRI and ICP analysis was due to separation of ATN-10 and Gd-DTPA. As conclusions, the porphyrin compounds are potential agents for delivering gadolinium or boron specific to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrinfic to the tumor tissue, thus further improvement such as more stable conjugation between porphyrin and Gd-DTPA is needed. (author)

  13. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Causal Agents of Dry and Wet Bubble Deseases of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus, bearing symptoms similar to those caused by Verticillium fungicola and Mycogone perniciosa, were observed during the screening of eight mushroom farms in Serbia in 2002 and 2003. Nine isolates, forming either appressed white or pale brown colonies on PDA medium, were recovered. The isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological, physiological and pathogenic characteristics, and by comparing them to V. fungicola var. fungicola and M. perniciosa isolates originating from United Kingdom, and V. fungicola var. aleophilum from the USA. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by casing inoculation, on which occasion symptoms of both dry and wet bubble disease were recorded. Five isolates were identified as Verticillium fungicola(Preuss Hassebrauk var. fungicola (W. Gams & Van Zaayen, and four as Mycogone perniciosa(Magnus Delacroix.

  14. Multifrequency studies of galaxies and groups. I. Environmental effect on galaxy stellar mass and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, A.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Teerikorpi, P.; Tempel, E.; Lietzen, H.; Einasto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. To understand the role of the environment in galaxy formation, evolution, and present-day properties, it is essential to study the multifrequency behavior of different galaxy populations under various environmental conditions. Aims: We study the stellar mass functions of different galaxy populations in groups as a function of their large-scale environments using multifrequency observations. Methods: We cross-matched the SDSS DR10 group catalog with GAMA Data Release 2 and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) data to construct a catalog of 1651 groups and 11 436 galaxies containing photometric information in 15 different wavebands ranging from ultraviolet (0.152 μm) to mid-infrared (22 μm). We performed the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies using the MAGPHYS code and estimate the rest-frame luminosities and stellar masses. We used the 1 /Vmax method to estimate the galaxy stellar mass and luminosity functions, and the luminosity density field of galaxies to define the large-scale environment of galaxies. Results: The stellar mass functions of both central and satellite galaxies in groups are different in low- and high-density, large-scale environments. Satellite galaxies in high-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope compared to low-density environments, independent of the galaxy morphology. Central galaxies in low-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope, but the difference disappears for fixed galaxy morphology. The characteristic stellar mass of satellite galaxies is higher in high-density environments and the difference exists only for galaxies with elliptical morphologies. Conclusions: Galaxy formation in groups is more efficient in high-density, large-scale environments. Groups in high-density environments have higher abundances of satellite galaxies, irrespective of the satellite galaxy morphology. The elliptical satellite galaxies are generally more massive in high-density environments. The stellar

  15. Producing morphologically complex words: An ERP study with children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Budd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A widely studied morphological phenomenon in psycholinguistic research is the plurals-inside-compounds effect in English, which is the avoidance of regular plural modifiers within compounds (e.g., *rats hunter. The current study employs event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the production of plurals-inside-compounds in children and adults. We specifically examined the ERP correlates of producing morphologically complex words in 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and adults, by recording ERPs during the silent production of compounds with plural or singular modifiers. Results for both children and adults revealed a negativity in response to compounds produced from regular plural forms when compared to compounds formed from irregular plurals, indicating a highly specific brain response to a subtle linguistic contrast. Although children performed behaviourally with an adult-like pattern in the task, we found a broader distribution and a considerably later latency in children's brain potentials than in adults’, indicating that even in late childhood the brain networks involved in language processing are subject to subtle developmental changes.

  16. Studies of corrosion morphologies by use of experiments and computer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Terje

    1997-12-31

    CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel is frequently encountered in the oil industry. This thesis studies the morphology of corroded metals and the dynamical evolution of corrosion attacks, especially pits and general corroded fronts, experimentally and by computerized simulation. Two experimental systems of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} bearing waters and aluminium in chloride containing electrolytes were used. Fractal geometry was used in analysing the corrosion patterns and found to be a fruitful technique. The position of the corroding fronts was obtained by destructive methods as well as non-destructive ones. To study fragile corrosion product layers or the corrosion process in situ, a grazing angle lighting technique was developed and found superior to other techniques. A computer model was developed that uses Monte Carlo technique to simulate the generation of localized pits and more general corroded front morphologies. A three-dimensional model and two versions of a two-dimensional model were developed. The three-dimensional model was used to provide incremental data of corroded volume and depth as a function of the simulation time. 185 refs., 97 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the pollen and the stomata, and the lower their number per unit area. The triploid strain produced the shortest plants and the lowest number of inflorescences, whereas the tetraploid strain had the largest leaves. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the strains, with a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and all of the morphological features examined.

  18. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems. PMID:16023332

  19. Study on Seed Morphology and Genetic Diversity of Jatropha curcas L. from Different Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiao Guan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, is emerging as an alternative to petro-diesel. The present study aims at characterization of the seed morphology and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. from eight different provenances for providing support for the breeding and allocation of seed. Five traits were investigated, including hundred seed weight, seed length, width, lateral diameter, seed length and width ratio. The genetic diversity of eight populations from different provenances was estimated using DALP method (5 primers. The results showed that seed morphology had significant variation among locations. Five DALP primers generated highly reproducible and stable DNA fragments. 219 of 244 loci were polymorphic, i.e., PPB was 89.75%. And POPGENE analysis indicated the total Nei’s gene diversity (H was 0.2878, the total Shannon's Information index (I was 0.4331, and the coefficient of Gene differentiation (Gst was 0.8200 among populations, namely 82.00% genetic variation occurring among populations and 20.00% remaining within population. It was suggested that a high level of genetic variation should be occur among the different populations of J. curcas. The high genetic differentiation among the populations could be caused by not only the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.1097 but also the genetic drift. The result indicates that the seed morphology among populations showed some certain differentiation. The eight populations had high level of genetic diversity and show apparent genetic differentiation. So that provenance selection has great potentiality.

  20. Morphologies of diblock copolymer confined in a slit with patterned surfaces studied by dissipative particle dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian; HUANG Yongmin; LIU Honglai; HU Ying

    2007-01-01

    Diblock copolymers with ordered mesophase structures have been used as templates for nano-fabrication.Unfortunately,the ordered structure only exists at micrometerscale areas,which precludes its use in many advanced applications.To overcome this disadvantage,the diblock copolymer confined in a restricted system with a patterned surface is proved to be an effective means to prohibit the formation of defects and obtain perfect ordered domains.In this work,the morphologies of a thin film of diblock copolymer confined between patterned and neutral surfaces were studied by dissipative particle dynamics.It is shown that the morphology of the symmetric diblock copolymer is affected by the ratio of the pattern period on the surface to the lamellar period of the symmetric diblock copolymer and by the repulsion parameters between blocks and wall particles.To eliminate the defects in the lamellar phase,the pattern period on the surface must match the lamellar period.The difference in the interface energy of different compartments of the pattern should increase with increasing film thickness.The pattern period on the surface has a scaling relationship with the chain length,which is the same as that between the lamellar period and the chain length.The lamellar period is also affected by the polydispersity of the symmetric diblock copolymer.The total period is the average of the period of each component multiplied by the weight of its volume ratio.The morphologies of asymmetric diblock copolymers are also affected by the pattern on the surface,especially when the matching period of the asymmetric diblock copolymer is equal to the pattern period,which is approximately equal to the lamellar period of a symmetric diblock copolymer with the same chain length.

  1. Pollen morphology of Prototulbaghia Vosa: A comparative palynological study of the Southern African Alliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andriessen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The  Southern  African  Alliaceae  Borkh.  is  represented  by  four genera (Allium L., Nothoscordum Kunth, Tulbaghia L. and Prototulbaghia Vosa and 28 species. The  pollen  morphology  of  the  endangered  monotypic  genus Prototulbaghia has  not  been described  before.  A  comparative  study  of  the  pollen  morphology  of Prototulbaghia  siebertii Vosa, Nothoscordum  borbonicum Kunth, Tulbaghia  simmleri P.Beauv.  and T.  violaceae Harv.  is presented in this article. Scanning electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy, were used to examine the pollen. The pollen morphology of the species can be described as perprolate and monosulcate, and the surface sculpture as reticulate and heterobrochate. However, the pollen of Prototulbaghia siebertii displays a unique characteristic as the grains are folded in their breadth with the tips touching, hence causing the grain to display a triangular and disulcate appearance. It might be possible to ascribe this fold to the process of harmomegathy or a still unknown event that occurs during the development of the pollen grain. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the cause of folding and whether it is a unique taxonomic  characteristic  of  this  genus,  and  if  it  could  be  of  evolutionary  significance  for the Alliaceae.

  2. Study of the morphology of corrosion features of natural graphite oxidised by dry and humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports a study which aimed at highlighting the morphology differences between corrosion features which affect flakes of natural graphite oxidised by dry air and by humid air. The study is based on observations made by optical and transmission electronic microscopy, this last one being performed on replicates. As the so-called 'Hennig' replicates did not result in a sufficient resolution of corrosion feature details, another method has been developed. Three classes of samples (in relationship with the rate of impurities present in samples) have been studied. Flakes have thus been sorted and each flake has then been oxidised at different wear rates. This highlights the influence of damages created by impurities in the lattice

  3. Study of DNA damage induced by dental bleaching agents in vitro Estudo de danos no DNA induzidos por agentes clareadores dentais in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental bleaching is a simple and conservative procedure for aesthetic restoration of vital and non-vital discolored teeth. Nevertheless, a number of studies have demonstrated the risk of tissue damage from the contact of these agents with the oral mucosa. In the current study, the genotoxic potential associated with exposure to dental bleaching agents was assessed by the single cell gel (comet assay in vitro. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells in vitro were exposed to six commercial dental bleaching agents (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed - Discus Dental; Nite White - Discus Dental; Magic Bleaching - Vigodent; Whiteness HP - FGM and Lase Peroxide - DMC. The results pointed out that all dental bleaching agents tested contributed to DNA damage as depicted by the mean tail moment, being the strongest effect observed with the highest dose of hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP and Lase Peroxide, at a 35% concentration. On the other hand, Magic Bleaching (Vigodent induced the lowest level of DNA breakage. Negative and positive controls displayed absence and presence of DNA-damaging, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that dental bleaching agents may be a factor that increases the level of DNA damage. A higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced higher noxious activities in the genome as detected by single cell gel (comet assay.Clareamento dental é um procedimento simples e conservador para restaurar esteticamente a cor de dentes vitais e não-vitais. Entretanto, alguns estudos têm demonstrado o risco de dano tecidual a partir do contato desses agentes com a mucosa bucal. Neste presente estudo, o potencial genotóxico associado à exposição aos agentes clareadores dentais foi avaliado pelo teste de células individualizadas em gel (teste do cometa in vitro. Células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO in vitro foram expostas a seis agentes clareadores dentais comercialmente disponíveis (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed

  4. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppstein, Margaret J., E-mail: Maggie.Eppstein@uvm.edu [Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Grover, David K.; Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Rizzo, Donna M. [School of Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. - Highlights: > We model consumer agents to study potential market penetration of PHEVs. > The model accounts for spatial, social, and media effects. > We identify interactions among potential leverage points that could inform policy. > Consumer access to expected lifetime fuel costs may enhance PHEV market penetration. > Increasing PHEV battery range has synergistic effects on fleet efficiency.

  5. Qualitative, quantitative and temporal study of cutting agents for cocaine and heroin over 9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Bonadio Pont, Federica; Garcia Gongora, Juan Manuel; Gasté, Laëtitia; Esseiva, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Forensic laboratories mainly focus on the qualification and the quantitation of the illicit drug under analysis as both aspects are used for judiciary purposes. Therefore, information related to cutting agents (adulterants and diluents) detected in illicit drugs is limited in the forensic literature. This article discusses the type and frequency of adulterants and diluents detected in more than 6000 cocaine specimens and 3000 heroin specimens, confiscated in western Switzerland from 2006 to 2014. The results show a homogeneous and quite unchanging adulteration for heroin, while for cocaine it could be characterised as heterogeneous and relatively dynamic. Furthermore, the results indicate that dilution affects more cocaine than heroin. Therefore, the results provided by this study tend to reveal differences between the respective structures of production or distribution of cocaine and heroin. This research seeks to promote the systematic analysis of cutting agents by forensic laboratories. Collecting and processing data related to the presence of cutting agents in illicit drug specimens produces relevant information to understand and to compare the structure of illicit drug markets. PMID:26448535

  6. Agent-based modelling as scientific method: a case study analysing primate social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Joanna J; Ando, Yasushi; Lehmann, Hagen

    2007-09-29

    A scientific methodology in general should provide two things: first, a means of explanation and, second, a mechanism for improving that explanation. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a method that facilitates exploring the collective effects of individual action selection. The explanatory force of the model is the extent to which an observed meta-level phenomenon can be accounted for by the behaviour of its micro-level actors. This article demonstrates that this methodology can be applied to the biological sciences; agent-based models, like any other scientific hypotheses, can be tested, critiqued, generalized or specified. We review the state of the art for ABM as a methodology for biology and then present a case study based on the most widely published agent-based model in the biological sciences: Hemelrijk's DomWorld, a model of primate social behaviour. Our analysis shows some significant discrepancies between this model and the behaviour of the macaques, the genus used for our analysis. We also demonstrate that the model is not fragile: its other results are still valid and can be extended to compensate for these problems. This robustness is a standard advantage of experiment-based artificial intelligence modelling techniques over analytic modelling. PMID:17434852

  7. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2](where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: ησ = Σσ'M = 1ησησ'(ησρσ'→σ-σ'ρσ→σ').Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin)σ', M is the number of opinions and σ'→σ' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion σ being convinced by another agent with opinion σ'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabasi-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  8. Speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents used in cancer chemoprevention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Marianne; Paulin, H.; Moesgaard, S.; Reid, M.; Rayman, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents from multiple manufacturers from several time points. Sources of selenized yeast included Nutrition 21 (San Diego, CA), which supplied the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) Trial from 1981......-1996; Cypress Systems (Fresno, CA; 1997-1999); and Pharma Nord (Vejle, Denmark; 1999-2000), which supplied the Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Trial pilot studies. The low-molecular-selenium species were liberated from the samples by proteolytic hydrolysis followed by separation by...

  9. Stereomicroscopic study of the human tooth caries: clinical and morphological correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Roxana; Vasile, Liliana; Marchese, Cristian; Sava-Rosianu, Ruxandra

    2012-06-01

    Objectives: Stereomicroscopy allows a three-dimensional study of the images and of laterality at superior quality in comparison with other methods. Those advantages are given by the large examination fields and the wide work distances. The adding of the clinical and morphological data at the results gathered with stereomicroscopy and the stereo micrometry is useful in order to appreciate the deepness and the widening of the carious process, and the necessity to reconsider the therapeutically strategy. Materials and methods: During 2009-2011 the study material was represented by 10 surgically removed impacted third molars, and by 20 premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes, with closed and macroscopically apparently integer surfaces. 13 premolars with different degrees of carious affectation and periodontal lesions, which were surgically extracted without trauma, were also selected. The in situ measurements at the occlusal site were realized through the utilization of a fluorescent laser device - DIAGNOdent. The basic principles in stereomicroscopy stood at the base of the obliquely and circularly coaxial illumination techniques, one with optical alignment adjustment of the optical microscope and mechanical adjustment for the optimal illumination and micrometry. The Olympus Microscope SZ ×7 and an Olympus camera with 2,5 × digital zoom and a 3× optical zoom has been used to study the samples in stereomicroscopy and through polarized light it. Results: The DiagnoDent measured the following data: out of 43 apparently healthy teeth, 18 presented values between 2 and 13 (D1), 13 showed values between 14 and 24 (D2), 12 measured values over 24 (D3). After the histological examination in stereomicroscopy and in the polarized light: 25 teeth were healthy, 10 presented caries extended in dental enamel and 8 presented dentinal caries. Stereomicroscopy has allowed the morphological study, the color absorption, the appreciation of the lesions' deepness and substance

  10. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  11. The Gelation Ability and Morphology Study of Organogel System Based on Calamitic Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gelation property of a series of LMOG bearing hydrazide and azobenzene groups, namely, N-4-(alkoxyphenyl-N′-4-[(4-methoxyphenylazophenyl] benzohydrazide (BNBC-n, n=8,12,14, has been systematically studied in this work. The obtained results demonstrate that the gelling ability in organic solvents is significantly influenced by the length of terminal alkoxy chain. In different organic solvents, it is hard to observe the organogel formation for BNBC-8 molecule. On the contrary, the organogelators BNBC-12 and BNBC-14 bearing longer terminal chains have shown great ability to gel organic solvents to form stable organogels. The critical gelation concentration for BNBC-12 reaches as low as 5.3 × 10−3 M, which can be considered as a supergelator. It has been manifested that the aggregation morphology of organogel strongly depends on the nature of the gelling solvents and the length of the terminal alkoxy chain. The gelation of BNBC-n provides an easy method for the preparation of multidimensional structure and manipulation of morphology from ribbons, hollow tube fiber to 3D net-like structure in different solvents. The cooperation of hydrogen bonding, π-π interaction, and Van der Waals force is suggested to be the main contribution to this self-assembled structure.

  12. Influence of Zn incorporation in CdS: Structural and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Fu, M.; Mitra, P.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, cadmium zinc sulfide (CdxZn1-xS) alloy compounds have been paid much attention in the fields of opto-electronics, particularly in photovoltaic devices. In this report, the structural, morphological and optical properties of Cdx Zn1-x S films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), which is a very attractive method for low-cost and large-area solar cell applications, has been presented. The as-grown layers were characterized using XRD, EDAX, FESEM, TEM and UV-vis spectrophotometers. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and SAED measurement reveals a dominant cubic structure with a minor hexagonal phase for high zinc content films. EDAX analysis shows nearly stoichiometric films with cadmium excess. Close packed and less dissociated surface morphology was observed in the Cdx Zn1-x S ternary thin films with lower Zn2+ content than the higher Zn2+ content one. Agglomeration of nanocrystals for high zinc content films results in enhanced absorption. The mean grain size of Cd0.5 Zn0.5 S calculated from TEM image is ~15 nm. Optical absorption study exhibits a distinct blue shift in band gap energy with enhancement of zinc content in the film.

  13. A high-frequency study of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect morphology in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Prokhorov, D A; Akahori, T; Million, E T; Nagataki, S; Yoshikawa, K

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency, high-resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is an important technique to study the complex structures of the atmospheres of merging galaxy clusters. Such observations are sensitive to the details of the electron spectrum. We show that the morphology of the SZ intensity maps in simulated galaxy clusters observed at 345 GHz, 600 GHz, and 857 GHz are significantly different because of SZ relativistic corrections. These differences can be revealed by high-resolution imaging instruments. We calculate relativistically corrected SZ intensity maps of a simulated, massive, merging galaxy cluster and of the massive, merging clusters 1E0657-558 (the Bullet Cluster) and Abell 2219. The morphologies of the SZ intensity maps are remarkably different between 345 GHz and 857 GHz for each merging cluster. We show that high-resolution imaging observations of the SZ intensity maps at these frequencies, obtainable with the LABOCA and HERSCHEL-SPIRE instruments, allow to fully exploit the astroph...

  14. Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

  15. Age-dependent changes in cat masseter nerve: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, M H; Engelhardt, J K; Adinolfi, A M; Chirwa, S S

    1992-07-24

    The present study was undertaken to determine the manner in which aging affects the function and structure of the masseter nerve in old cats. Electrophysiological data demonstrated a significant decrease in the conduction velocity of the action potential in old cats compared with that observed in adult cats. Light microscopic analyses revealed an age-dependent decrease in axon diameter. Electron microscopic observations of the masseter nerve in the aged cats revealed a disruption of the myelin sheaths and a pronounced increase in collagen fibers in the endoneurium and perineurium. These morphological changes are discussed and then related to the decrease in conduction velocity which was observed in the electrophysiological portion of this study. PMID:1521161

  16. Cluster Morphology-Polymer Dynamics Correlations in Sulfonated Polystyrene Melts: Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-04-01

    Reaching exceptionally long times up to 500 ns in equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations studies, we have attained a fundamental molecular understanding of the correlation of ionomer clusters structure and multiscale dynamics, providing new insight into one critical, long-standing challenge in ionic polymer physics. The cluster structure in melts of sulfonated polystyrene with Na+ and Mg2 + counterions are resolved and correlated with the dynamics on multiple length and time scales extracted from measurements of the dynamic structure factor and shear rheology. We find that as the morphology of the ionic clusters changes from ladderlike for Na+ to disordered structures for Mg2 + , the dynamic structure factor is affected on the length scale corresponding to the ionic clusters. Rheology studies show that the viscosity for Mg2 + melts is higher than for Na+ ones for all shear rates, which is well correlated with the larger ionic clusters' size for the Mg2 + melts.

  17. Morphological study of ternary Ni-Cu-P alloys by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternary electroless Ni-Cu-P alloy films were deposited by using nickel sulphate (B1)- and nickel chloride (B2)-based alkaline baths. Alloy films were characterized for their structure, morphology, chemical composition and microhardness. A single broad peak was obtained in XRD for both B1 and B2 films and the calculated grain sizes are 1.6 and 1.9 nm, respectively. Optical microscopic examination of the deposited coatings revealed a less nodular structure for B2-based coatings. SEM micrographs showed that films were smooth and nodular. Compositional analysis made on these deposits using EDX and the chemical state identification by XPS showed that the coatings are almost identical. AFM studies showed that the deposits from B2 bath are comparatively smoother with less nodular structure. Microhardness measurements and potentiodynamic polarization studies in 3.5% NaCl solution showed that both deposits have similar properties

  18. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20-21, D-10098 Berlin (Germany); Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J. [Department of General Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Klinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C. [Department of Juvenile Rheumatology, II. Kinderklinik, Krankenhaus Berlin Buch, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7{+-}2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7{+-}2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ``open`` from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.) With 10 figs., 30 refs.

  19. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asra Anjum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, pathologists and obstetricians. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 50 placentae which were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the department of Anatomy, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, during the period of 2 years. The morphological variations of placenta, the size, shape, weight and attachment of umbilical cord with its blood vessels were observed, recorded and photographed. The prime objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the morphological alterations of placenta and umbilical cord in pregnancy. Results and Conclusion: In the current study, the majority of the placentae showed round shape, few placentae with oval and irregular and with an accessory lobe in single placenta. The current study also includes variations in insertion of umbilical cords was eccentric in majority, central, marginal and velamentous in a few. Pregnancy induced hypertension significantly affects the placenta by reducing weight and it does not have any significant effect on the shape of placenta, umbilical cord insertion and number of cotyledons on maternal surface. The placenta is the most accurate record of the infants prenatal experience.

  20. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  1. An agent-based simulation model to study accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pai; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-03-01

    Creating accountable care organizations (ACOs) has been widely discussed as a strategy to control rapidly rising healthcare costs and improve quality of care; however, building an effective ACO is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders (payers, providers, patients) with their own interests. Also, implementation of an ACO is costly in terms of time and money. Immature design could cause safety hazards. Therefore, there is a need for analytical model-based decision-support tools that can predict the outcomes of different strategies to facilitate ACO design and implementation. In this study, an agent-based simulation model was developed to study ACOs that considers payers, healthcare providers, and patients as agents under the shared saving payment model of care for congestive heart failure (CHF), one of the most expensive causes of sometimes preventable hospitalizations. The agent-based simulation model has identified the critical determinants for the payment model design that can motivate provider behavior changes to achieve maximum financial and quality outcomes of an ACO. The results show nonlinear provider behavior change patterns corresponding to changes in payment model designs. The outcomes vary by providers with different quality or financial priorities, and are most sensitive to the cost-effectiveness of CHF interventions that an ACO implements. This study demonstrates an increasingly important method to construct a healthcare system analytics model that can help inform health policy and healthcare management decisions. The study also points out that the likely success of an ACO is interdependent with payment model design, provider characteristics, and cost and effectiveness of healthcare interventions. PMID:24715674

  2. Study of tea polyphenol as a reversal agent for carcinoma cell lines' multidrug resistance (study of TP as a MDR reversal agent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine MDR1 expression product P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and study the effect and mechanism of tea polyphenol (TP) in reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) in carcinoma cell lines. Immunocytochemical method was used for qualitative detection of Pgp. A comparative study of cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversion effect was made by MTT assay for tea polyphenol and quinidine in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr cell lines. The multidrug resistance reversion effect and mechanism were studied by measuring the uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the carcinoma cell lines. (1) The Pgp overexpression in MCF-7/Adr cells was found to be strong positive, while the Pgp expression of MCF-7 was negative. (2) Although both tea polyphenol and quinidine could not remarkably change the toxicity of adriamycin to MCF-7, they could improve the sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr to adriamycin. The reversion index of tea polyphenol and quinidine was 3 and 10 respectively. (3) The cellular uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was remarkably lower in MCF-7/Adr than in MCF-7. The uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited a 4, 13, 16 fold increase in the presence of 200, 400 and 500 μg/ml of tea polyphenol respectively. The uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited only a 4-fold increase in the presence of 200 μM of quinidine. Immunocytochemistry can detect P-glycoprotein expression level qualitatively. Tea polyphenol is not only an anti-tumor agent, but also a multidrug resistant modulator similar to quinidine. The multidrug resistance reversion mechanism of tea polyphenol seems to be its inhibition of the activity of P-glycoprotein. Tea polyphenol has the advantage of very low toxicity in tumor treatment

  3. Study of tea polyphenol as a reversal agent for carcinoma cell lines' multidrug resistance (study of TP as a MDR reversal agent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Aizhi E-mail: zhuaizhi@263.net; Wang Xiangyun; Guo Zhenquan

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine MDR1 expression product P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and study the effect and mechanism of tea polyphenol (TP) in reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) in carcinoma cell lines. Immunocytochemical method was used for qualitative detection of Pgp. A comparative study of cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversion effect was made by MTT assay for tea polyphenol and quinidine in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr cell lines. The multidrug resistance reversion effect and mechanism were studied by measuring the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in the carcinoma cell lines. (1) The Pgp overexpression in MCF-7/Adr cells was found to be strong positive, while the Pgp expression of MCF-7 was negative. (2) Although both tea polyphenol and quinidine could not remarkably change the toxicity of adriamycin to MCF-7, they could improve the sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr to adriamycin. The reversion index of tea polyphenol and quinidine was 3 and 10 respectively. (3) The cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin was remarkably lower in MCF-7/Adr than in MCF-7. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited a 4, 13, 16 fold increase in the presence of 200, 400 and 500 {mu}g/ml of tea polyphenol respectively. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited only a 4-fold increase in the presence of 200 {mu}M of quinidine. Immunocytochemistry can detect P-glycoprotein expression level qualitatively. Tea polyphenol is not only an anti-tumor agent, but also a multidrug resistant modulator similar to quinidine. The multidrug resistance reversion mechanism of tea polyphenol seems to be its inhibition of the activity of P-glycoprotein. Tea polyphenol has the advantage of very low toxicity in tumor treatment.

  4. Study on Surface Morphology of GaN Growth by MOCVD on GaN/Si(111) Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The surface morphology of GaN grown by MOCVD on GaN/Si template was studied. Rough morphology and deep pinhole defects on some surface areas of the samples were observed and studied. The formation of rough morphology is possibly related to Ga-Si alloy produced due to poor thermal stability of template at high temperature. The deep pinhole defects generated are deep down to the surface of MBE-grown GaN/Si template. The stress originated from the large thermal expansion coefficient difference between GaN and Si may be related to the formation of the pinhole defects. The surface morphology of the GaN can be improved by optimizing the GaN/Si template and decreasing the growth temperature.

  5. a Study of the Morphology of Pmda-Oda Polyimide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Craig Douglas

    This research examines how the morphology of PMDA -ODA polyimide films varies as a condition of production and post-imidization treatments. These films were produced using chemical and thermal imidization techniques. The PMDA-ODA films were studied using four different techniques. Optical anisotropy, density and wide and small-angle x-ray scattering measurements were made. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction was used to examine the short-range nature of the ordering while small-angle x-ray scattering was used for long-period spacing and void studies. This research shows that the morphology of PMDA -ODA films depends on the method of imidization. The chemically imidized PMDA-ODA varies from the thermally imidized films. The chemically imidized films are more in-plane and out-of -plane anisotropic which is a result of the lateral stress applied to the film during imidization. These commercially prepared films (Du Pont Kapton^circler) are cast on a high-speed conveyor which applies the stress to the polyamic acid precursor. The thermally imidized films, in contrast, are cast onto glass plates which does not subject them to the same degree of stress. The chemically imidized films also had larger void sizes ( ~35 A compared to ~ 25A) and smaller void fractions. The stresses applied to Kapton^circler resulted in the enlargement of the voids during imidization. For Kapton^circler, the lower void fractions in the thinner films resulted both from the thickness of the film which allowed voids to escape more easily and the larger ordered domains in these samples. The PMDA-ODA films were also thermally treated and soaked in water. The water immersion studies helped to prove the existence of the voids within the films. Although most of the thermal treatments had some effect on the polyimide films, these effects are small at lower temperatures. Upon annealing at temperatures of 450 ^circC, this film experienced a major change in morphology. In addition to degradation of the material

  6. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  7. Crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) with acetaminophen--a study on solubility, spherulitic growth, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Gogos, Costas

    2013-11-01

    A simple, sensitive, efficient, and novel method analyzing the number of spherulitic nuclei was proposed to estimate the solubility of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). At high crystallization temperature (323 K), 10% APAP-PEO had the same low number of spherulitic nuclei as pure PEO, indicating that APAP and PEO were fully miscible. At low crystallization temperature (303 K), the number of nuclei for 10% APAP-PEO was significantly higher, suggesting that APAP was oversaturated and therefore recrystallized and acted as a nucleating agent. Based on the results obtained, the solubility of APAP in PEO is possibly between the concentration of 0.1% and 1% at 303 K. The spherulitic growth rate G of PEO was found to decrease with increasing APAP concentration, suggesting that APAP is most likely functioning as a chemical defect and is either rejected from or included in the PEO crystals during chain folding. APAP could possibly locate in the inter-spherulitic, inter-fibrillar, inter-lamellar, or intra-lamellar regions of PEO. At 323 K, the morphology of 10% APAP-PEO is more dendritic than spherulitic with large unfilled space in between dendrites and spherulites, which is a sign of one or the combination of the four modes of segregation. An extensive spherulitic nucleation and growth kinetics study using the classical theoretical relationships, for example, the Hoffman-Lauritzen (HL) and Avrami theories, was conducted. Both microscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis yielded similar values for the nucleation constant Kg as well as the fold surface free energy σe and work of chain folding q. The values of σe and q increased with APAP concentration, indicating that the chain folding of PEO was hindered by APAP. PMID:23562611

  8. The revascularization of pedicle skin flaps in pigs: a functional and morphologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional and morphologic changes occurring during the revascularization of pedicle flaps have been investigated in the skin of pigs. The skin flaps, 16 cm long by 4 cm wide, were based on a row of segmental vessels arising from the internal mammary artery. Comparative measurements were made in flapped and normal skin. The inherent blood supply in the pedicle of the flap was unable to maintain the whole of the flap in a viable state. Flap viability was ascertained at surgery by the use of the intravital dye Disulphine blue. Injections of the dye after surgery gave a less accurate prediction of viability than when dye was injected prior to surgery. Revascularization between the flap and surrounding skin was evident 3 to 4 days postoperatively at the distal, most hypoxic part of the viable flap. The whole flap had a collateral vascular supply 7 to 10 days after surgery. Isotope clearance studies showed that the greatest functional changes occurred in the distal third of the viable flap, where, after initially slowing, the clearance rate became faster than in normal skin (day 5). Potassium extraction studies indicated similar changes. However, an increase in the red-cell volume on day 1 suggested that vascular shunting was occurring. The results of the morphologic studies indicated a correlation between the number of blood vessels per unit area, the thickness of the dermis, and the recorded functional changes. Seven days after surgery, when isotope clearance rates were very rapid, there was a significant increase in the vascular density and dermal thickness

  9. Study on folate receptor PET imaging agent 18F-flurophenethyl folate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at synthesizing an 18F-labelled folate derivative that can be used as folate-receptor induced tumor PET imaging agent. Under the optimal reaction and testing specification formulated during the cold-labeling experiments, 18F labeling of folic acid was achieved in three steps of 18F pre-labeling,bromination and esterification. The receptor binding property of the newly-synthesized folate radio-derivative was studied through β-lactoglobulin binding test. Tumor-bearing nude mice injected with the new compound were used to study whether the derivative can accumulate within tumor issue. Preliminary studies in vitro and in vivo showed that this new PET agent still possessed receptor binding qualities of folic acid. 18F-flurophenethyl folate remained good affinity and specificity with β-lactoglobulin. Accumulation of activities in tumor tissues was found in tumor-bearing nude mice. A new folate receptor ligand: 18F-flurophenethyl folate was synthesized,with high yield and good stability. Since the pre-labeling method was used, the fluorine labeling was not directly imposed upon folic acid.In this way, the structure destruction, which happens in high temperature reaction of folic acid, can be avoided. The synthesized folate derivative remained the binding structural quality of folic acid and could bind with the folate-binding protein: β-lactoglobulin. Through the folate receptors located on tumor tissues, 18F-flurophenethyl folate accumulated in the tumor tissue, exhibiting its potential as a tumor PET imaging agent. (authors)

  10. Morphological Diversity of the Rod Spherule: A Study of Serially Reconstructed Electron Micrographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available Rod spherules are the site of the first synaptic contact in the retina's rod pathway, linking rods to horizontal and bipolar cells. Rod spherules have been described and characterized through electron micrograph (EM and other studies, but their morphological diversity related to retinal circuitry and their intracellular structures have not been quantified. Most rod spherules are connected to their soma by an axon, but spherules of rods on the surface of the Mus musculus outer plexiform layer often lack an axon and have a spherule structure that is morphologically distinct from rod spherules connected to their soma by an axon. Retraction of the rod axon and spherule is often observed in disease processes and aging, and the retracted rod spherule superficially resembles rod spherules lacking an axon. We hypothesized that retracted spherules take on an axonless spherule morphology, which may be easier to maintain in a diseased state. To test our hypothesis, we quantified the spatial organization and subcellular structures of rod spherules with and without axons. We then compared them to the retracted spherules in a disease model, mice that overexpress Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, to gain a better understanding of the rod synapse in health and disease.We reconstructed serial EM images of wild type and DscamGoF (gain of function rod spherules at a resolution of 7 nm in the X-Y axis and 60 nm in the Z axis. Rod spherules with and without axons, and retracted spherules in the DscamGoF retina, were reconstructed. The rod spherule intracellular organelles, the invaginating dendrites of rod bipolar cells and horizontal cell axon tips were also reconstructed for statistical analysis.Stereotypical rod (R1 spherules occupy the outer two-thirds of the outer plexiform layer (OPL, where they present as spherical terminals with large mitochondria. This spherule group is highly uniform and composed more than 90% of the rod spherule population. Rod

  11. Studies on pore morphology of titanium and its oxide by small angle neutron scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Tripathy; A K Patra; P U Sastry

    2008-11-01

    Titanium metal bodies have been prepared from the sintered powder compacts of TiO2 by a novel molten salt electrochemical approach, known as FFC Cambridge process. The phase and compositional characterizations of both Ti and TiO2 have been carried out by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphologies of sintered TiO2 pellet and the metallic Ti pellet, obtained after electrochemical reduction have been studied by SANS over a scattering wave vector q range of 0.003–3.5 nm-1 using a double crystal diffractometer and a pin-hole collimated SANS instrument. In the case of reduced metal pellet, average pore size was found to be larger than that of the oxide pellet as the voids left behind after the oxygen atoms left the oxide matrix, could not coalesce.

  12. Morphology, surface topography and optical studies on electron beam evaporated MgO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Chowdhury; J Kumar

    2006-10-01

    Electron beam evaporated thin films of MgO powder synthesized by burning of magnesium ribbon in air and sol–gel technique are studied for their microstructure (SEM), surface topography (AFM), and optical transmission behaviour (UV-visible spectroscopy). MgO thin films are shown to be either continuous or have mesh like morphology. The bar regions are believed to be of magnesium hydroxide formed due to absorption of moisture. Their AFM images exhibit columnar/pyramidal/truncated cone structure, providing support to the 3D Stranski–Krastanov model for film growth. Further, they are shown to have high transmittance (∼90%) in the wavelength range 400–600 nm, but absorb radiation below 350 nm substantially giving signature of a band transition.

  13. Morphological study of Sr2CeO4 blue phosphor with fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological and spectroscopic studies of Sr2CeO4 blue phosphor in the form of fine particles prepared from a powdered multi-component precursor, via a combustion method, are reported. Samples were also prepared through a solid-state reaction and from a polymeric precursor for comparison. Citric acid or glycine as fuels in the combustion method lead to a mixture which is heated at 950 deg C for 4 h, resulting in spheroidal particles with a diameter between 250-550 nm. Samples from the polymeric precursor result in spheroidal particles (350-550 nm) and from the solid-state reaction in irregular particles (∼ 5 μm). Therefore, the combustion method is adequate for preparation of Sr2CeO4 in the form of spherical fine particles. (author)

  14. Morphological study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2007-05-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine of opossums Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis albiventris, and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The isolate used in this study was from L. crassicaudata and it was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy showed the fine morphological features of the trophozoites: the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the axostyle and posterior flagellum. In addition, we described spherical forms that are probably pseudocysts. Our data will contribute to a better understanding of surface structures in T. didelphidis. PMID:17252276

  15. A study on the Morphology and Phytochemistry of Hyoscyamus reticulatus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ghassemi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. (Solanaceaeis a plant containing hyoscyamine and scopolamine which is of interest due to its potential conversion to pharmaceutically valuable tropane alkaloids (1."nin this study, H.reticulatus L. was collected from the Bakhtiari province.This plant is found wild in most areas of Iran (2."nThe plant was examined botanically and phytochemicaliy. Morphological as well as microscopical characteristics of the piant was examined and some differences distinguished form H. niger (e.g.shape and number of stomata and glandular trichomes(3."nHyoscyamine and scopolamine were isolated from the plant and their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques."nThe quantitative determinations of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were performed by titrimetry and UV spectroscopy methods (4."nThe quantitative estimation of hyoscyamine and scopolamine gave the following results:"nHyoscyamine 0.031% Scopolamine 0.025%

  16. Clinical, morphologic, and chemical studies on copper toxicosis of Bedlington Terriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D C; Sternlieb, I; Gilbertson, S R

    1979-08-01

    In a study of 90 Bedlington Terriers, 68 had a defect that resulted in the accumulation of toxic excesses of copper in the liver. Concentrations of copper were 5 to 50 times that of clinically normal mongrel dogs. The bulk of this excess copper was sequestered in lysosomes. When copper concentrations exceeded 2,000 micrograms/g dry liver, progressive signs of functional and morphologic disturbance appeared as focal hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, and ultimately cirrhosis. The disorder, which appears to be inherited, could only be diagnosed by liver biopsy. It was latent for many years in some dogs but led early in life to acute or chronic hepatic disease and death in others. PMID:500453

  17. Morphological and spectral study of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Karapetian, E. L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.

    2007-10-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Observatory using the VAGR multiaperture spectrograph. Isophotes of monochromatic images of the Hα, [NII] λ6584, and [SII] λ6717 lines are constructed. Densifications I and II are found to rotate with north-south oriented axes of rotation. The two densifications (“knots”) have all the kinematic and spectral properties of individual galaxies. It is assumed that Kaz 139 and the densifications I and II were ejected from the nucleus of Kaz 460 at different times, with Kaz 139 probably having been ejected first, although they may all have been ejected simultaneously with different velocities. Along with Kaz 460, these objects form a physical group of galaxies and, at the same time, are a consequence of the activity of the nucleus of Kaz 460.

  18. STUDIES ON MISCIBILITY AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BLENDS OF LC COPOLYESTER AND PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ping; CHEN Shouxi; SHEN Deyan; YING Xinfang; JIN Yongze; LU Daohui

    1988-01-01

    The morphology of a special blend system composed of liquid crystalline aromatic random copolyester (LCP) and semiflexible polyester PET over the whole composition range has been studied by means of polarized microscope, density measurement, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Based on the microscopic observation, it is found that under suitable mechanical mixing condition, LCP may be rather homogeneously dispersed in the PET matrix, with the middle composition range of the contents of LCP at 30-70 wt % the anisotropic and isotropic phase segregation appears. while with LCP contents over 80 wt% the blends exhibit wholly anisotropic. The DSC thermographs of the melt-pressed and quenched films show single Tg, Tcc and Tm. Tg increases with increasing content of LCP and ap. proaches to the Tg of pure LCP. The experimental results indicate that the two components of this blend system are miscible, there exist some specific interactions between them.

  19. Environmental TEM study of the dynamic nanoscaled morphology of NiO/YSZ during reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Agersted, Karsten; Hansen, Karin Vels;

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of a metal oxide is often a critical preparation step for activating catalytic behaviour. This study addresses the reduction process of NiO in pure form and in a composite of NiO/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in hydrogen relevant for solid oxide electrochemical cells by comparing...... results from environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature dependent reduction profiles obtained from TGA confirm an inhibitive effect from YSZ on the NiO reduction. The ETEM images show the growth of Ni in decaying NiO and reveal the...... nanoscale morphological changes such as pore formation in NiO above 280°C and densification and collapse of the pore structures above 400°C. The accelerated Ni front in NiO illustrates the auto catalysis of the reaction. A rapid temperature ramping from room temperature to 780°C in hydrogen in 1 second...

  20. Liver atrophy following portacaval shunt in normal rats: A morphologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Tatjana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to examine morphological and ultrastructural changes in the rat liver in an experimental model of chronic liver disease (end-to-side portacaval shunt. The surgical procedure providing an end-to-side portacaval shunt (PCS was performed in Wistar rats. The liver and pancreas weights were determined 8 weeks after the operation, when liver histology and ultrastructural patterns of hepatocytes were examined. Body weights were not significantly different between the groups 8 weeks after the operation. Liver weight was significantly lower in PCS rats than in control and sham operated (SHAM rats. The same was observed when liver weight was expressed as a percentage of body weight. Pancreas weight was significantly greater in PCS than in control and SHAM rats. Liver histology in rats with PCS showed glycogen depletion and sinusoidal dilatation around the hepatic vein. Kupffer's cells were filled with haemosiderin. The hepatocytes surrounding the portal space exhibited degenerative and microvesicular fatty changes. Multiplication of the biliary ductules in the portal space was present. Atrophy of hepatocytes occurred in other parenchymal zones and apoptopic hepatocytes were seen more frequently in rats with PCS. The ultrastructural characteristics of hepatocyte cell lesions in rats with PCS at the end point of our experiment included reduction and fragmentation of rough endoplasmic reticulum with destroyed or dilated cisternae and few polysomes accompanied by proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present study suggests that end-to-side PCS in rats causes liver atrophy and that the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the hepatocytes partially explain the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities.

  1. Bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: an electrophysiological, behavioral, morphological and mechanistic study in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Carozzi

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations

  2. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental materials, in general, are tested in different animal models prior to their clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group. Ten animals (control were untreated. The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell counting in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. The counting of fibroblasts was also performed. Scores were attributed to the odontoblastic layer and to vascular changes. The tertiary dentin area and the pulp chamber central area were histomorphometrically measured. Data were compared by the analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05. Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the occlusal third of the coronal pulp until the time of 15 min for both concentrations of bleaching gels. In 30 and 45 min groups of each concentration, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, a reduction in the pulp chamber central area and an enlargement of tertiary dentin area were observed without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extra coronal bleaching showed to be adequate for bleaching protocols studies, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and in the tooth structure caused by different concentrations and periods of application of bleaching agents.

  3. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CINTRA, Luciano Tavares Angelo; BENETTI, Francine; FERREIRA, Luciana Louzada; RAHAL, Vanessa; ERVOLINO, Edilson; JACINTO, Rogério de Castilho; GOMES, João Eduardo; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental materials in general are tested in different animal models prior to the clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents, by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and Methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals were untreated (control). The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated through histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell count in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. Fibroblasts were also counted. Scores were attributed to odontoblastic layer and vascular changes. Tertiary dentin area and pulp chamber central area were measured histomorphometrically. Data were compared by analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the coronal pulp occlusal third up to the 15-min application groups of each bleaching gel. In the groups exposed to each concentration for 30 and 45 min, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, reduction on the pulp chamber central area and enlargement of the tertiary dentin area were observed, without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extracoronal bleaching showed to be adequate for studies of bleaching protocols, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and tooth structure caused by different concentrations and application periods of bleaching agents. PMID:27119766

  4. Study of drug utilization, morbidity pattern and cost of hypolipidemic agents in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh P. Patel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the extent of use and costs of lipid-lowering agents are not widely available. Our aim was to study the drug utilization and morbidity pattern, cost of different hypolipidemic drugs along with the risk assessment for coronary heart disease. Methods: After approval of protocol by the Institutional Review Board, an observational, prospective study was carried out in 300 patients using NCEP and ATP III Guidelines-2002 for evaluation of presence or absence of risk factors for coronary heart diseases. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 16.0and WHO Core Drug Prescribing Indicators. Results: Patient’s morbidity pattern revealed that 62%, 49.3%, 28% suffered from ischemic heart disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus respectively. On risk assessment, 48%, 13.3% patients had borderline and high level of total cholesterol respectively; 42%, 22.7% had borderline and high triglyceride levels respectively; 71.1% men and 62% women had low HDL cholesterol levels while 17.3%, 6% and 2.7% patients had borderline high, high and very high level of LDL cholesterol levels respectively. Frequency of prescriptions was atorvastatin (82%, rosuvastatin (9.3% and simvastatin (4.7% among the most frequently prescribed statins drug group. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 7.34. Drugs prescribed by generic name and from essential drugs list was 24.96% and 71.81% respectively. Mean cost of hypolipidemic agents/prescription/day was 10.74 (±1.96 Indian Rupees with rosuvastatin being the costliest. Conclusion: Rational use of hypolipidemic agents with an increasing trend of statins prescriptions will significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality from coronary heart diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 470-475

  5. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  6. Epidermal changes in heat and electrically injured pig skin: a light microscopic study of the sequences in morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, H K; Danielsen, L; Nielsen, O; Aalund, O; Nielsen, K G; Karlsmark, T; Genefke, I K

    1982-09-01

    Biopsies were obtained from heat and electrically exposed pig skin at different at different times after exposure, in order to describe the morphological sequences in heat and electrically injured skin. The work is part of a series of studies in which it is investigated whether morphological methods can be used in disclosing electrical torture. Epidermal changes in heat lesions differed from those of electrical lesions in all experiments. Heat lesions typically showed a detached epidermis with fibrillar or granular cytoplasm. In older lesions the epidermis appeared concrete. Electrical lesions showed an attached epidermis with small defects, a white, homogeneous cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei and curled, clumped keratin. The electrical lesions were rejected at day 4 or 5. The number of characteristic morphological changes in epidermis decreased with the age of the lesions. It is concluded that epidermal electrical lesions differ in morphology from heat lesions and that it is possible to evaluate the age of the lesions. PMID:7148451

  7. A morphological and morphometric study of jugular foramen in dry skulls with its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Jugular foramen of human skull is one of the most interesting foramina. It is a complex bony canal, numerous vital structures, including nerves and vessels are transmitted through it. Most of the intracranial and extra cranial lesions of posterior cranial fossa might affect the structures in jugular foramen in addition to intrinsic abnormalities. As the neurosurgeons have become courageous in approaching this area, so there is a need to become familiar with this area. Hence, the present study was done to examine the anatomy of jugular foramen, including its morphological features and dimensions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 50 dried skulls. 100 jugular foramina were studied on both right and left side of skulls. The length, width of jugular foramen and width and depth of jugular fossa were measured using vernier calipers. Presence of dome, complete and incomplete septation was also looked for. Results: The mean right and left anteroposterior diameter, latero-medial diameter, area, jugular fossa width, depth in our study was 11.22, 16.52, 187.34, 6.83, 11.58 mm and 9.52, 16.02, 153.2, 5.69, 11.13 mm. Dome was present in jugular foramen in 74% on the right side and 58% on the left side. Complete septation in jugular foramen is seen in 44% on the right side and 42% on the left side. Conclusion: This study will help the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region.

  8. Morphological, Micoscopical Studies and Elemental analysis of Polygonum Chinese L. and Rhoeo discolor Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, two selected medicinal plants, namely Polygonum chinense L. (Mahaga-Kyansit) and Rhoeo discolor Hance. (Mi-gwin-gamon) are collected from Dawei District. In this paper, the outstanding features of selected plants, microscopical characters and elemental analysis of these leaves are also presented.In morphological studies of Mahaga-kyansit, herbs, swollen at nodes, black-coloured patches present at central portion of leaf blade, ochreate stipules. The inflorescences are terminally corymbose. The ovary trigonous-ovoid, stigma trifixed. In microscopical studies, stomata anomocytic. The cuticle is striation on both surface. In transverse section of midrib, the vascular bundles are collateral, about 8-10 numbers in basal, one was larger than the other bundles, 2numbers in middle regions and 1 bundle in apical regions. Calcium oxalate crystals (Rosette) are present in the parenchymatous cells. In the present study, the Migwin-gamon are rosette-forming succulent herbs. The leaves are crowded, upright, the upper surface green, the lower surface rich reddish-purple. The inflorescences are axillary, boat-shaped. Flowers involucres bracts. The androecium are stamens 6, often clothed wIth moniliform hairs, anthers often with and expanded or variously modified connective. The gynaecium are carpel 3,, trilocular, stigma capitate. In the microscopical studies, the leaves are isobilateral leaf. The stomata are tetracytic type. Lower epidermis cells larger than the upper one and stoma in the lower epidermis. Crystal of tetragonal system form (Prism) present in the mesophyll cells.

  9. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  10. Noun Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Santazilia, Ekaitz

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the Basque noun morphology, which sets out the noun paradigm of historical Basque and the structure of its NP, and then goes on to list the explanations proposed so far for every aspect concerning the formation of that paradigm: first the number/definiteness axis, and then the individual cases, classifying these into primary cases (grammatical and local), secondary cases (those built upon the allative and the genitive), and pseudo-flectional morphemes or non-cases.

  11. Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of glyphosate tolerance in Mexican Cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara de la Cruz, Ricardo; Barro, Francisco; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José Alfredo; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, glyphosate-tolerant legumes have been used as cover crops for weed management in tropical areas of Mexico. Mexican cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.) is an innate glyphosate-tolerant legume with a potential as a cover crop in temperate areas of the country. In this work, glyphosate tolerance was characterized in two Mexican cologania (a treated (T) and an untreated (UT)) populations as being representatives of the species, compared in turn to a glyphosate-susceptible hairy fleabane (S) (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.) population. Experiments revealed that T and UT Mexican cologania populations had a higher tolerance index (TI), and a lower shikimic acid accumulation and foliar retention than the hairy fleabane S population. Absorption and translocation, leaf morphology and metabolism studies were only carried out in the Mexican cologania T population and the hairy fleabane S population. The latter absorbed 37% more (14)C-glyphosate compared to the Mexican cologania T at 96 h after treatment (HAT). Mexican cologania T translocated less herbicide from the treated leaf to the remainder of the plant than hairy fleabane S. The Mexican cologania T presented a greater epicuticular wax coverage percentage than the hairy fleabane S. This morphological characteristic contributed to the low glyphosate absorption observed in the Mexican cologania. In addition, the Mexican cologania T metabolized glyphosate mainly into AMPA, formaldehyde and sarcosine. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance observed in Mexican cologania is mainly due to the poor penetration and translocation of glyphosate into the active site, and the high glyphosate degradation into non-toxic substances. PMID:26646239

  12. Root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a Gujarati population - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. Methods : One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. Results: The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1% had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89% had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%. One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4% and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%. Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%, oval in 72 teeth (52.17% and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%. According to Vertucci′s classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%, Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%, 5 teeth (3.62%, 4 teeth (2.89%, 24 teeth (17.39%, and 1 tooth (0.72% respectively. Conclusion: Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

  13. Insights on the Study of Nafion Nanoscale Morphology by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yakovlev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nafion is one of the most common materials used for polyelectrolyte membranes and is the standard to which novel materials are compared. In spite of great interest in Nafion’s nanostructure, it is still a subject of controversy. While multiple research efforts have addressed Nafion’s morphology with Transmission Electron Microscopy, the results of these efforts have often been inconsistent and cannot satisfactorily describe the membrane structure. One of the reasons for differences in the reported results is the lack of sufficient control over the damage caused by electron beam irradiation. In this work, we describe some aspects of damage in the material that have a strong influence on the results. We show that irradiation causes mass loss and phase separation in the material and that the morphologies that have been observed are, in many cases, artifacts caused by damage. We study the effect of the sample temperature on damage and show that, while working at low temperature does not prevent damage and mass loss, it slows formation of damage-induced artifacts to the point where informative low-dose images of almost undamaged material may be collected. We find that charging of the sample has a substantial effect on the damage, and the importance of charge neutralization under irradiation is also seen by the large reduction of beam induced movement with the use of an objective aperture or a conductive support film. To help interpret the low-dose images, we can apply slightly higher exposures to etch away the hydrophobic phase with the electron beam and reveal the network formed by the hydrophilic phase. Energy loss spectroscopy shows evidence that fluorine removal governs the beam damage process.

  14. The use of artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of economic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, V.; Slagle, J.R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The concepts of {open_quote}knowledge{close_quote} and {open_quote}rationality{close_quote} are of central importance to fields of science that are interested in human behavior and learning, such as artificial intelligence, economics, and psychology. The similarity between artificial intelligence and economics - both are concerned with intelligent thought, rational behavior, and the use and acquisition of knowledge - has led to the use of economic models as a paradigm for solving problems in distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) and multi agent systems (MAS). What we propose is the opposite; the use of artificial intelligence in the study of economic markets. Over the centuries various theories of market behavior have been advanced. The prevailing theory holds that an asset`s current price converges to the risk adjusted value of the rationally expected dividend stream. While this rational expectations model holds in equilibrium or near-equilibrium conditions, it does not sufficiently explain conditions of market disequilibrium. An example of market disequilibrium is the phenomenon of a speculative bubble. We present an example of using artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of speculative bubbles.

  15. Comparative study of gum arabic and PVP as stabilizing agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use Colloidal metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles have received a great attention, due in part to their specific properties and potential applications. Control of size and uniformity of nanoparticles is important to prevent aggregation. High-molecular-weight polymers were used as stabilizer agents. Natural polymers, such as gum Arabic, are used as stabilizer because of capping nanoparticles behavior and present advantages such as solubility, non- toxicity and its compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Previous studies showed that the hydrophilic group of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) caused repulsion on gold nanoparticles surface because steric interactions with polymer, for this reason this kind of polymers could be used as stabilizer agent. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles with PVP and gum Arabic using gamma radiation. The results obtained by samples analysis using UV-Visible showed that the gamma irradiation doses influenced the nanoparticles formation by PVP but that is not the case with the GA, because for smaller quantity of Arabic gum in different doses produced and stabilized nanoparticles. The samples were observed for 20 days and showed stability. We have obtained preliminary results showed that the use of radiation is applicable to the formation of gold nanoparticles. (author)

  16. Functionality study of santalin as tyrosinase inhibitor: A potential depigmentation agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hridya, Hemachandran; Amrita, Anantharaman; Mohan, Sankari; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Dakshinamurthy, Thirumal Kumar; Doss, George Priya; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-01

    Excessive melanin production leads to hyperpigmentation disorders which results in distressing aesthetic values. Though there are some synthetic depigmentation agents available it has been reported to possess cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. Hence there is a need for the development of safe and non toxic natural tyrosinase inhibitors. Here we report the role of santalin, the chief constituent of Pterocarpus santalinus in inhibition of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Santalin inhibited tyrosinase activity dose dependently. Inhibitory kinetic studies revealed mixed type of inhibition with reversible mechanism. Santalin was found to interact with the fluorophore amino acid residue of tyrosinase. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra showed the binding of santalin to tyrosinase which induced the loss of secondary helical structure. Molecular docking result suggested that santalin interact with the catalytic core of tyrosinase through strong hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding. The results of in vitro studies showed santalin inhibited melanogenesis through down regulation of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 without any cytotoxic effects towards B16F0 melanoma cells. Therefore, our results suggested that santalin possesses anti-tyrosinase activity, which could be utilized as a safe depigmentation agent in the cosmetic field for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorder. PMID:26828288

  17. Drug use pattern of antidepressant agents in psychiatric patients – A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksha Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a major public health problem. It causes clinically significant distress, impairment of social, occupational or other important areas of function. Objective: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of antidepressant agents in patients attending psychiatry OPD at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method: A prospective study was carried out at psychiatry outpatient department (OPD at VS General Hospital for 6 months. Patients who were prescribed any of the antidepressant medications irrespective of clinical indication either as monotherapy or in combination with other psychotherapeutic agents were included in the study. Result: Total 455 patients were enrolled for 6 months. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was the most common diagnosis (85.93%. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs was the most commonly prescribed drug group (56.7% followed by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs (46.8%. Amongst TCAs, imipramine was most frequently prescribed drug (65.89% followed by sertraline (56.8% among the SSRIs. Both the TCAs and newer antidepressants were prescribed with equal frequencies. Conclusion: Amongst antidepressants most frequently prescribed medication was imipramine followed by sertraline.

  18. Comparative evaluation between 20% EDTA-S & Ornidazole gel as root biomodification agent ASEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant V Khairnar, NilkanthMhaske, NeelimaRajhans, NikeshN Moolya, Sudeep HM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It should be well understood that the root surface receptiveness to clot formation & initial periodontal wound healing decides the nature of the connective tissue attachments. This study was carried out to assess the initial wound healing events after the application of 20% EDTA-S & Ornidazole gel and assess the formation of fibrin network following blood. Material& Method: Thirty multi-rooted teeth indicated for extraction due to periodontal disease were selected & divided into group A (20%EDTA-S, group B (Ornidazole gel (1% W/V, group C (7.4pH phosphate buffer saline, group D (20%EDTA-S+ Blood, group E (Ornidazole gel+ Blood, group F (7.4pH phosphate buffer saline+ Blood. Following root planning, the root surface was cut using diamond disc under copious irrigation. Samples from each group were subjected for root conditioning agent application by passive method. Specimens were then subjected to scanning electron microscopic study. Smear layers removal were analysed by Sampaia et al index. Results: 20%EDTA-S removed the smear layer better than ornidazole gel. Fibrin network formation was seen with specimen treated with 20% EDTA-S + Blood. Conclusion: Use of 20% EDTA-S as root conditioning agent has a beneficial effect on initial wound healing events, which are important for periodontal regenerative therapies.

  19. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  20. Comparative study of gum arabic and PVP as stabilizing agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andressa A.; Leal, Jessica; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: andressa_alvess@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Use Colloidal metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles have received a great attention, due in part to their specific properties and potential applications. Control of size and uniformity of nanoparticles is important to prevent aggregation. High-molecular-weight polymers were used as stabilizer agents. Natural polymers, such as gum Arabic, are used as stabilizer because of capping nanoparticles behavior and present advantages such as solubility, non- toxicity and its compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Previous studies showed that the hydrophilic group of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) caused repulsion on gold nanoparticles surface because steric interactions with polymer, for this reason this kind of polymers could be used as stabilizer agent. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles with PVP and gum Arabic using gamma radiation. The results obtained by samples analysis using UV-Visible showed that the gamma irradiation doses influenced the nanoparticles formation by PVP but that is not the case with the GA, because for smaller quantity of Arabic gum in different doses produced and stabilized nanoparticles. The samples were observed for 20 days and showed stability. We have obtained preliminary results showed that the use of radiation is applicable to the formation of gold nanoparticles. (author)

  1. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  2. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. - Highlights: → We model consumer agents to study potential market penetration of PHEVs. → The model accounts for spatial, social, and media effects. → We identify interactions among potential leverage points that could inform policy. → Consumer access to expected lifetime fuel costs may enhance PHEV market penetration. → Increasing PHEV battery range has synergistic effects on fleet efficiency.

  3. The preclinical pharmacological study of dopamine transporter imaging agent [99mTc]TRODAT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacological characteristics of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 as an imaging agent for dopamine transporter. Methods: (1) The quality control of one-vial formulation produced in China. (2) Biodistribution in rats. (3) Imaging in normal and hemi-Parkinsonian model monkeys. Results: (1) The radiochemical purity of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 was about 79.9% evaluated by TLC. It was stable for 2.5 hours at room temperature. (2) The clearance of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in the blood of rats was fast. The major portion of radioactivity was excreted by hepatobiliary system. (3) The brain uptake was moderate. But the agent had high-affinity binding to DAT which was highly concentrated in striatal area and there was no specific uptake in cerebellum. The ratio of ST/CB was high. (4) Pretreatment with haloperidol, a non-competing ligand, did not result in any significant change in the level of striatal uptake. (5) The distribution pattern as well as the brain regional uptake of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 did not display any significant difference between male and female rats at 60 min post-injection. (6) Monkeys' SPECT images clearly displayed the normal uptake and the pathologic changes in striatal area at 3 hours post-injection. The semi-quantitative analysis, ST/CB ratio, could reveal the specific uptake value for [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in reflecting the numeral and functional changes in DAT. Conclusion: [99mTc]TRODAT-1 labeled by one-vial formulation of China can be the imaging agent of DAT in clinical study. It proves to be effective and promising radiopharmaceuticals in vivo assessment of the loss of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disease

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SKULL OF THE NILE CROCODILE (CROCODYLUS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Shaker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Present study provides with more anatomical information on the structure and form of the bones forming the cranium of the Nile crocodile helps in understanding the interpretation of X ray images and surgical affection of the crocodile heads. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on six heads of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The heads were removed from their bodies and prepared by hot water maceration technique. The bones of the skull were studied separately and identified by using a specific acrylic color for each bone. Results: The cranium of the crocodile composed of the cranial bones and the facial bones. The crocodile had four paired paranasal sinuses; the antorbital, the vomerine bullar, the pterygopalatine bullar and the pterygoid sinuses. The mandible of crocodile formed from six fused bones (articular, angular, suprangular, coronoid, splenial and dentary. The X ray images were applied for identifying the paranasal sinuses which their contribution to the morphological organization of the head. Conclusion: Results show a bony variation between the crocodile, mammals and also the birds that paves the way to the comparative anatomical and radiological studies.

  5. Soil evolution in spruce forest ecosystems: role and influence of humus studied by morphological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chersich S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the role and the mutual influences of humus and soil in alpine spruce forest ecosystems we studied and classified 7 soil - humic profiles on the 4 main forestry dynamics: open canopy, regeneration, young stand, tree stage. We studied the role of humification process in the pedologic process involving soils and vegetations studing humic and soil horizons. Study sites are located at an altitude of 1740 m a.s.l near Pellizzano (TN, and facing to the North. The parent soil material is predominantly composed of morenic sediments, probably from Cevedale glacier lying on a substrate of tonalite from Presanella (Adamello Tertiary pluton. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. The characteristics observed in field were correlated with classical chemical and physical soil analyses (MIPAF 2000. In order to discriminate the dominant soil forming process, the soils were described and classified in each site according to the World Reference Base (FAO-ISRIC-ISSS 1998. Humus was described and classified using the morphological-genetic approach (Jabiol et al. 1995. The main humus forms are acid and they are for the greater part Dysmoder on PODZOLS. The main pedogenetic processes is the podzolization, locally there are also hydromorphic processes. We associate a definite humus form with a pedological process at a particular step of the forest evolution. We concluded thath the soil study for a correct pedological interpretation must take count of the characteristics of the humic epipedon.

  6. Thermal, crystallinity and morphological studies of the filled RBD palm kernel oil polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of RBD palm kernel oil (PKO) polyurethane polyol and the polyurethane foam has well been documented. However, less study has been put in discovering the thermal properties and crystallinity of the foam. It is also an initiative to investigate the effect of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sorbitol as fillers in the polyurethane (PU) foam to these properties. Thermogravimetric (TGA) investigation of the PKO PU foam was performed to study their decompositions. The semi-crystalline nature of EFB-filled PU was confirmed by x-ray diffratogram and DSC thermogram of glass transition temperature, Tg. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the unfilled PU showed a broad amorphous halo, indicative of absence of crystallinity in the polymer, which has been explained as due to strong hydrogen bonding in the hard phase. Overall crystallinity decreases with an increase in the polyester content in agreement with the XRD results. The crystallinity however, increases with the inclusion of EFB in the polyurethane system. This study was followed by the observation of the surface morphologies of the PKO PU foam with and without fillers. The scanning electron micrographs verified the finding on the improved k-factor values. (Author)

  7. THE CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 75 CASES OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Salman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is of significant public health importance to India. Oral cancer will remain a major health problem and efforts towards early detection , and prevention will reduce this burden. A premalignant lesion is a disease , syndrome , or finding that , if left untreated , may lead to cancer. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence , clinical and morphological profile of oral premalignant lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Clinical material for present study comp rises 75 cases with oral premalignant lesions. The parame ters studied were types of oral premalignant lesions , age distribution , sex distribution , the local habits of addiction and the sites of involvement. RESULTS : Maximum number of cases was between 21 - 3 0 years of age. The sex incidence was more in males with the ratio of 9:1. Out of total 75 cases , 64% cases were of oral submucous fibrosis , 17.3% cases were of leukoplakia , 8% cases of erythroplakia , 6.6% cases of traumatic dental ulcer and 4% cases of li chen planus. In cases of oral submucous fibrosis , betel nut chewing was the commonest habit (89.5%. In cases of Lichen planus no addictions were found. Buccal mucosa was the commonest site involved in premalignant lesions. CONCLUSION: Premalignant lesions are seen mainly in early adulthood. The number of cases is increased due to adverse oral habits. Its prevalence can be reduced if awareness is created among such patients. This study mandates close cooperation between dentist and ENT surgeons.

  8. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of zinc doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared successfully by hydrothermal route on large scale having different doping concentration of zinc from 0 to 0.20%. The calcined nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for structural and morphological studies. XRD analyses reveal that the nanoparticles of these doping concentrations are polycrystalline in nature and existed as tetragonal rutile structure, SEM study of images confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, and spherical nanoparticles. The particles size of the nanoparticles was calculated by Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 9-21 nm. The presence of dopant (i.e. zinc) and formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles are confirmed by EDX and FTIR study. The gas sensing properties of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated for various concentrations of methanol, ethanol and acetone at different operating temperatures and it has been found that with doping concentration of zinc (x = 0.20%) shows the maximum response 78% to methanol, 65% to ethanol and 62% to acetone respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit for a concentration of 100 ppm of each gases.

  9. Stability and aging studies of lead sulfide quantum dot films: Photoabsorption, morphology, and chemical state characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of colloidal PbS quantum dot (QD) films deposited on glass substrates was studied over a short term and a long term periods, when left unprotected in air under ambient conditions. Two deposition approaches were used, traditional solvent deposition method (SDM) and supercritical fluid CO2 deposition (SFD). To track possible changes to the QDs over time, near infrared (NIR) spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and optical microscopy, were employed. Evidence points towards initial oxidation-induced shrinking of the active QD volume causing a blue shift of the absorption over the first four months, and then experiencing competition from oxidation and sintering/ripening of the QDs, resulting in a red shift. The presented studies have important consequences for the long term reliability of light emitters based on PbS QDs. - Highlights: • The optical and morphological stability of colloidal PbS QD films deposited on glass substrates was characterized. • Optical microscopy, TEM, NIR, XPS and XRD were used to characterize the QD films. • Two QD deposition approaches were compared: traditional solvent deposition and supercritical fluid CO2 deposition. • The study examined the QD stability over a short term and a long term periods. • The PbS QD characteristics were found to be affected by two simultaneous processes, oxidation and sintering/ripening

  10. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  11. Percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents for severe blunt hepatic trauma: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jie; Lv, Faqin; Li, Wenxiu; Zhang, Huiqin; Luo, Yukun; An, Lichun [Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Ultrasound, Beijing (China); Li, Tanshi [Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can stop hemorrhage from severe hepatic trauma. Eighteen dogs were impacted by a miniature impactor to create blunt hepatic trauma. Fourteen with appropriate liver lesions were divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). In the treatment group, hemocoagulase atrox and {alpha}-cyanoacrylate were respectively injected into the injury sites and transected micro-vessels under the guidance of CEUS. In the control group, normal saline was injected into the injury sites. CEUS and CT were performed at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after the focal injection. Surviving animals were killed on the 21st day for pathologic examination. All animals of the treatment group survived. Three dogs of the control group died in the first 24 h. In the treatment group, CEUS and CT demonstrated that hepatic lesions became smaller gradually from the 3rd to the 21st day after injection. The focal injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of CEUS can stop hemorrhage from hepatic trauma of grade III{proportional_to}IV or IV. During the period of 3 weeks, no side effect was found. (orig.)

  12. Percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents for severe blunt hepatic trauma: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate whether percutaneous injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can stop hemorrhage from severe hepatic trauma. Eighteen dogs were impacted by a miniature impactor to create blunt hepatic trauma. Fourteen with appropriate liver lesions were divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). In the treatment group, hemocoagulase atrox and α-cyanoacrylate were respectively injected into the injury sites and transected micro-vessels under the guidance of CEUS. In the control group, normal saline was injected into the injury sites. CEUS and CT were performed at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after the focal injection. Surviving animals were killed on the 21st day for pathologic examination. All animals of the treatment group survived. Three dogs of the control group died in the first 24 h. In the treatment group, CEUS and CT demonstrated that hepatic lesions became smaller gradually from the 3rd to the 21st day after injection. The focal injection of hemostatic agents under the guidance of CEUS can stop hemorrhage from hepatic trauma of grade III∝IV or IV. During the period of 3 weeks, no side effect was found. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary experiment of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography to detect dual agents for biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Takeda, T; Yuasa, T; Hasegawa, Y; Wu, J; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Hyodo, K; Dilmanian, F A; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T

    2001-05-01

    The simultaneous observation of various information, such as blood flow, tissue metabolism and distribution of receptors, is quite important in order to understand the functional state of biomedical objects. The simultaneous detectability of contrast agents by fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) with synchrotron radiation is examined in this study. The system consisted of a silicon (111) double-crystal monochromator, an X-ray slit system, a scanning table, a PIN diode, a highly purified germanium detector and an X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The monochromatic X-ray beam energy was adjusted to 37.0 keV and collimated into a pencil beam of 1 x 1 mm. The fluorescent spectra of the K alpha lines for iodine and xenon were detected simultaneously. FXCT could image the distribution of both iodine and xenon agents in a phantom clearly and the contrast ratio was significantly better than that of transmission X-ray computed tomography images. PMID:11486409

  14. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa Linn. as an antifungal agent in plant tissue culture studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Upendra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Culturing the individual plant cells, tissues (explants and organs in laboratory or in vitro on synthetic media (MS media under aseptic conditions is a usual process in plant tissue culture studies. The medium is rich in nutrients, also supports the growth of variety of microorganisms especially bacteria and fungi, which causecontamination of the medium, though the media is sterilized by autoclaving. During the process of cooling and transferring the media, the chances of fungal contamination remain high. This is avoided to the maximum extent following the good laboratory practices. A novel means could be incorporating turmeric, a well -known antifungal agent, into the media. In the present study, attempts were made to avoid fungal contamination using the media with various concentration of turmeric powder. Results of the investigation revealed that turmeric powder used at the concentrations of 0.8 g/L and 1.0 g/L in the media resulted in appreciable control of fungal contamination.

  15. Study on a new nano-dispersing agent and its effect for increasing suspension ability of alcohol-based coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    A study for further improving the suspension rate of alcohol-based coatings using a new nano-dispersing agent has been presented in this paper. The results of experiments show that the new nano-dispersing agent should be used in combination with organic auxiliary agent which significantly increases the suspension effect of alcohol-based coatings. By the methods, the suspension rates of 99%, 98%, 96% and 94% can be achieved at 2h, 2h, 48h and 72h, respectively. These alcohol-based coatings have characters of higher strength, lower gas evolution, better brush ability and no blister after ignition.

  16. Thermal Analysis, Structural Studies and Morphology of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen

    Spider silk is a remarkable natural block copolymer, which offers a unique combination of low density, excellent mechanical properties, and thermal stability over a wide range of temperature, along with biocompatibility and biodegrability. The dragline silk of Nephila clavipes, is one of the most well understood and the best characterized spider silk, in which alanine-rich hydrophobic blocks and glycine-rich hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating a functional block copolymer with potential uses in biomedical applications such as guided tissue repair and drug delivery. To provide further insight into the relationships among peptide amino acid sequence, block length, and physical properties, in this thesis, we studied synthetic proteins inspired by the genetic sequences found in spider dragline silks, and used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study thermal, structural and morphological features. To obtain a fuller understanding of the thermal dynamic properties of these novel materials, we use a model to calculate the heat capacity of spider silk block copolymer in the solid or liquid state, below or above the glass transition temperature, respectively. We characterize the thermal phase transitions by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). We also determined the crystallinity by TMDSC and compared the result with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). To understand the protein-water interactions with respect to the protein amino acid sequence, we also modeled the specific reversing heat capacity of the protein-water system, Cp(T), based on the vibrational, rotational and translational motions of protein amino acid residues and water molecules. Advanced thermal analysis methods using TMDSC and TGA show two glass transitions were observed in all samples during heating. The low temperature glass transition, Tg(1), is related to

  17. Separating Morphologically Similar Pollen Types Using Basic Shape Features from Digital Images: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Holt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: One of the many advantages offered by automated palynology systems is the ability to vastly increase the number of observations made on a particular sample or samples. This is of particular benefit when attempting to fully quantify the degree of variation within or between closely related pollen types. Methods: An automated palynology system (Classifynder has been used to further investigate the variation in pollen morphology between two New Zealand species of Myrtaceae (Leptospermum scoparium and Kunzea ericoides that are of significance in the New Zealand honey industry. Seven geometric features extracted from automatically gathered digital images were used to characterize the range of shape and size of the two taxa, and to examine the extent of previously reported overlap in these variables. Results: Our results indicate a degree of overlap in all cases. The narrowest overlap was in measurements of maximum Feret diameter (MFD in grains oriented in polar view. Multivariate statistical analysis using all seven factors provided the most robust discrimination between the two types. Discussion: Further work is required before this approach could be routinely applied to separating the two pollen types used in this study, most notably the development of comprehensive reference distributions for the types in question.

  18. Separating morphologically similar pollen types using basic shape features from digital images: A preliminary study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Katherine A.; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: One of the many advantages offered by automated palynology systems is the ability to vastly increase the number of observations made on a particular sample or samples. This is of particular benefit when attempting to fully quantify the degree of variation within or between closely related pollen types. • Methods: An automated palynology system (Classifynder) has been used to further investigate the variation in pollen morphology between two New Zealand species of Myrtaceae (Leptospermum scoparium and Kunzea ericoides) that are of significance in the New Zealand honey industry. Seven geometric features extracted from automatically gathered digital images were used to characterize the range of shape and size of the two taxa, and to examine the extent of previously reported overlap in these variables. • Results: Our results indicate a degree of overlap in all cases. The narrowest overlap was in measurements of maximum Feret diameter (MFD) in grains oriented in polar view. Multivariate statistical analysis using all seven factors provided the most robust discrimination between the two types. • Discussion: Further work is required before this approach could be routinely applied to separating the two pollen types used in this study, most notably the development of comprehensive reference distributions for the types in question. PMID:25202650

  19. Palate morphology of bruxist children with mixed dentition. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, C C; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Peláez-Vargas, A; Ferrario, V F

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse quantitatively palatal morphology in bruxist and non-bruxist children with mixed dentition. Twenty-three children with mixed dentition were classified as bruxist according to their anxiety level, audible occlusal sounds related by the parents and signs of temporomandibular disorders; 23 children were control subjects matched for gender, age, and dental formula. The maxillary dental arches of all subjects were reproduced from alginate impressions cast in dental stone with a standardized technique. The casts were digitalized and mathematical equations were used to obtain the form of the palate in the sagittal, frontal and horizontal planes. Bruxist children had a statistically significant longer palate in the sagittal plane than control children; palatal shape differed especially in correspondence of the third, fourth and fifth teeth, bruxist children showing a relatively higher palate than control children. In this pilot study, sagittal plane differences in the palate between bruxist and non-bruxist children matched for age and gender were found. Further investigations are needed to understand better the clinical implications of the findings. Results should be taken into account in the diagnosis of the occlusal development in children with parafunctions to prevent future abnormalities: a bruxist child may have bigger dental arches than a normal child. PMID:18405271

  20. STM study of morphology and electron transport features in cytochrome c and nanocluster molecule monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, G B; Belovolova, L V; Gubin, S P; Khanin, V V; Obydenov, A Yu; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A N; Soldatov, E S; Trifonov, A S

    2002-01-01

    The morphology and electron tunneling through single cytochrome c and nanocluster Pt(5)(CO)(7)[P(C(6)H(5))](4) molecules organized as monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on graphite substrate have been studied experimentally using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy techniques with sub-nanometer spatial resolution in a double barrier tunnel junction configuration STM tip-monomolecular film-conducting substrate at ambient conditions. STM images of the films revealed globular structures with characteristic diameters (approximately 3.5 nm for the protein molecule and approximately 1.2 nm for the nanocluster). The spectroscopic study by recording the tunneling current-bias voltage (I-V) curves revealed tunneling I-V characteristics with features as steps of different width and heights that are dependent on the STM tip position over the molecule in the monolayer, giving evidence for sequential discrete electron-tunneling effects with the combination of the single electron Coulomb-charging energy and the electronic energy level separation (molecular spectrum) in such immobilized metalloprotein and nanocluster structures that can be of interest for the development of bioelectronic and hybrid functional nanosystems. PMID:11786369

  1. Study of T-wave morphology parameters based on Principal Components Analysis during acute myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivo, Fabricio Hugo; Arini, Pedro David

    2011-12-01

    Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities can be detected by Principal Components Analysis of the T-wave. In this work we studied the efect of signal averaging on the mean value and reproducibility of the ratio of the 2nd to the 1st eigenvalue of T-wave (T21W) and the absolute and relative T-wave residuum (TrelWR and TabsWR) in the ECG during ischemia induced by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Also, the intra-subject and inter-subject variability of T-wave parameters have been analyzed. Results showed that TrelWR and TabsWR evaluated from the average of 10 complexes had lower values and higher reproducibility than those obtained from 1 complex. On the other hand T21W calculated from 10 complexes did not show statistical diferences versus the T21W calculated on single beats. The results of this study corroborate that, with a signal averaging technique, the 2nd and the 1st eigenvalue are not afected by noise while the 4th to 8th eigenvalues are so much afected by this, suggesting the use of the signal averaged technique before calculation of absolute and relative T-wave residuum. Finally, we have shown that T-wave morphology parameters present high intra-subject stability.

  2. Morphological abnormalities of rabbit spermatozoa studied by scanning electron microscope and quantified by light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, G; Fausto, A M; Morera, P

    1996-01-01

    Rabbit spermatozoa morphological abnormalities were examined to establish criteria for judging the quality of ejaculates. Ten New Zealand White bucks, aged 9 months and weighing 4.3 +/- 0.2 kg, were placed in a climatic chamber for 3 weeks at +20 degrees C and 70% RH. Sperm was collected three times a week using an artificial vagina. The use of a scanning electron microscope (from x 2000 to x 15,000) in this study produced an illustrated guide for the classification of abnormalities. Mean percentage quantitative values studied by light microscope (x 400) observation were: 18.2% total abnormalities, 2.9% head abnormalities, 13.6% tail abnormalities and 1.7% broken spermatozoa. Variability was very high (CV 35.7, 54.0, 45.3 and 32.5%, respectively); consequently, each ejaculate should be analysed before use for artificial insemination. Among the different tail abnormalities observed, the most frequent were coiled tails, 9.1%, cytoplasmic droplets, 2.4%, bent tails, 1.3% and swollen tails, 0.5%. PMID:8987108

  3. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data.Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  4. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL VARIATION IN THE Calophyllum brasiliense WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Favorable silvicultural and technological characteristics of the species Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. have led to the emergence of commercial plantations. Scientific literature offers only medium and general data on some variables of this species, not reporting specific variables prior to the time of the study, such as age, spacing, among others, perhaps because the wood is mostly from native forests. Given the knowledge gap regarding the characterization of guanandi wood, the aim of this work was to quantitatively study: (i the morphological structural variation of the wood cells, and (ii the distinction between juvenile and mature wood, for the species from a pure plantation, whose growth history are known. Five specimens were sampled, within a population of 135 trees, with 13 years of age and 4.0 x 2.5 m spacing. The results indicated average values of 1134, 21.02, 12.88 and 4.07 μm for the length, width, and diameter of the lumen and mean wall fiber thickness, respectively. 13-years-old guanandi wood was characterized as juvenile.

  5. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  6. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  7. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, S; Boumis, P; Monteiro, H; Gonçalves, D R; Redman, M P; Williams, S

    2016-01-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of $\\sim$19,400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 $M_{\\odot}$ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] $\\lambda 5200$ and [O I] $\\lambda 6300$ emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme Type-I PNe. The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/H$\\alpha$ vs. [S II]/H$\\alpha$ diagnostic diagram, where sho...

  8. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  9. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Jo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models.

  10. The Study of Isolated Bacteria Application for Bioremediation Agent of Uranium Radionuclide in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of the isolated bacteria on the Low Level Uranium Waste as uranium bioremediation agent in the environment has been studied. The objective of this research is to study the possibility of isolated bacteria to be used on uranium remediation process. The isolation of uranium resistance bacteria was carried out on the selective medium SBS containing 10 mg/l uranium, incubated at 37°C until the growth was visible. Selection of binding uranium bacteria was carried out based on their ability to grow on liquid medium containing various concentration of uranium that shacked on 120 rpm speed. The isolated bacteria with the highest specific growth rate constant (μ) were selected for biochemical characterization and identification by matching profile method. The result of this research showed that three selected isolate bacteria were able to grow well on liquid SBS medium until 100 mg/l uranium concentration. The identification results showed that two of them were suspected belong to the genus Pseudomonas and one isolates belong to the genus of Bacillus. The uranium reduction studied was performed by growing up the isolated bacteria on the SBS liquid medium that containing 40 mg/l uranium. Bacterial growth were measured by weighted of bacterial biomass and uranium concentration were measured by spectrophotometer. The research result showed that the selected isolates bacteria may applicable for bioremediation agent because of their ability to grow well on liquid SBS medium and their ability on uranium concentration reduction. The efficiency of reduction by Pseudomonas in the isolated bacteria one were 78.51 % and in the isolated bacteria three were 91.47 % , and Bacillus in the isolate bacteria six were 52.73%. (author)

  11. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY ON INCIDENCE AND MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF ANAEMIA IN INHABITANTS OF KATIHAR, BIHAR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Available studies on prevalence of Nutritional Anaemia in India showed that 65% infants and toddlers, 60% children 1-6 years of age, 80% adolescent girls and 85% pregnant women were anaemic. Hence, this study was planned in the subjects visiting Katihar Medical College and Hospital. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To estimate the incidence of anaemia in inhabitants of Katihar. 2. To assess the morphological types of anaemia in different groups of people in this population. 3. To find out the association between anaemia and various socio-demographic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present longitudinal study was carried out between December 2009 and mid August 2011. Using ‘Estimation setup technique’ with anaemia proportion taken as 40% with level of significance 5% and absolute allowable error 7%, the inflated sample size was 197 and was rounded off to 200. These subjects were selected using convenience sampling. Statistical methods adopted to address the objectives were frequencies, proportions, contingency coefficient and Chi-square test for proportion. RESULTS In the present study, Microcytic, hypochromic anaemia (41.5% was the most common type in both males and females. Highest incidence of anaemia in the present series was in the age group of 21-30 years being 37%. Incidence of anaemia was 62% in females and 38% in males. In present study, 130 cases (65% were among vegetarians and 90 cases (45% were among non-vegetarians; 76% cases were of low income group and 24% were middle income group. The commonest presenting symptoms were general weakness and tiredness (84%.

  12. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE BONDING EFFICACY OF SIXTH, SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GENERATION BONDING AGENTS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Joseph

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare In-vitro the micro tensile bond strength of sixth generation (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, Japan, seventh generation (Adper Easy One, 3 M ESPE, Germany and eighth generation ((Futurabond DC, Voco, Germany dentin bonding agents. Twenty freshly extracted caries free, unrestored human molars were selected. The occlusal surfaces were ground flat; divided into four groups of five each according to the bonding agent applied and covered with composite resin (10 mm in height. The teeth were sectioned into one mm thick specimens with a cross sectional area of 1 mm square in hard tissue microtome and subjected to tensile force in a universal testing machine. The highest strength was seen in 8th generation bonding agent (Futura bond DC, Voco, Germany 34.9332 MPa followed by 6th generation bonding agent 32.3477 MPa (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray dental, Japan and the 7th generation agent 31.8826 MPa (Adper Easy One, 3M ESPE, Germany respectively. The eighth generation dentin bonding agent appeared to be more advantageous in bonding than sixth and seventh generation dentin bonding agents.

  13. Structural, thermal and morphological studies of magnesium substituted-lithium manganese oxide spinels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coexistence of two phases having space groups of Fd3m and P4332 in the Mg-doped LiMn2O4 spinel is being reported for the first time in this article. Mg-doped LiMn2O4 powders have been synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as a chelating agent. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies show that the crystal structure of LiMgxMn2-xO4 for x332 are found to coexist in the compound for x=0.25. The structure becomes single-phase cubic spinel with space group P4332 for x>0.25. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows that particle size of various synthesized powders ranges from 100 to 350 nm. Particle size decreases with increase in Mg content. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG) studies show an exponential decay relationship between Mg-doping content and the decomposition temperature to form nonstoichiometry (LiMgxMn2-xO4-δ) in air atmosphere. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows increase in the number of vibrational bands with increase in Mg content, which indicates ordering of the ions in the case of ordered spinel structure, and consequent reduction of the space group symmetry from Oh7 to O7.

  14. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE BONDING EFFICACY OF SIXTH, SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GENERATION BONDING AGENTS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Joseph; Chakravarthy Yadav; Kumar Satheesh; Raju Rahna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare In-vitro the micro tensile bond strength of sixth generation (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, Japan), seventh generation (Adper Easy One, 3 M ESPE, Germany) and eighth generation ((Futurabond DC, Voco, Germany) dentin bonding agents. Twenty freshly extracted caries free, unrestored human molars were selected. The occlusal surfaces were ground flat; divided into four groups of five each according to the bonding agent applied and covered with composite resin (10 m...

  15. Using FLAME Toolkit for Agent-Based Simulation: Case Study Sugarscape Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have used agent-based models to understand how individuals interact and behave in various political, ecological and economic scenarios. Agent-based models are ideal for understanding such models involving interacting individuals producing emergent phenomenon. Sugarscape is one of the most famous examples of a social agent-based model which has been used to show how societies grow in the real world. This paper builds on the Sugarscape model, using the Flexible Large scale Age...

  16. Preparation and animal studies of 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop 99Tcm labelled dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging agent 99Tcm-(2β-[N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl) ethylenediamin] methyl, 3β-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane (TRODAT-1) for evaluating changes of DAT in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: TRODAT-1 was synthesized from cocaine by stepwise reactions adding two aminoethanethiol units. Using SnCl2 as reducing agent, and in the presence of Naglucoheptonate, 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 was prepared. Animal studies have been performed in rats and normal monkeys. Results: The structure of TRODAT-1 was confirmed by IR, 1HNMR and MS. Radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 was over 90%, and stable for 24 h at room temperature. The partition coefficient in octanol and buffer was 132 and 154 at pH 7.0 and 7.4 respectively. Biodistribution displayed relatively low uptake in rat brain (0.28 and 0.12% ID/org at 2 min and 60 min post injection, respectively), but high uptake in liver (16.7% ID/organ at 60 min), steady uptake in kidney (maintained 3% ID/organ). The major radioactivity was excreted by hepatobiliary systems. The distribution in rat's brain showed that striatal uptake were 0.193, 0.189, 0.142 and 0.136% ID/g at 2, 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively. The ratios of striatal to cerebellar, striatal to hippocampal and striatal to cortical were 4.45 2.55 and 3.15 at 120 min post injection, respectively. Brain image studies in monkeys indicated that TRODAT was uptake and retained in the basal ganglia, where containing DAT abundantly. Ratio of regional brain uptakes of striatum/cerebellum was 1.56 as measured by SPECT imaging at 120 min. Conclusions: Above results showed the stable, neutral and lipophilic complex 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 can cross the blood brain barrier, and be selectively concentrated by the striatal area, where containing DAT abundantly. High quality images of monkeys were also obtained. It suggested that 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 may be a promising agent for clinical application

  17. Agent-based simulation of pedestrian behaviour in closed spaces: a museum case study

    CERN Document Server

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Inturri, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Andrea; Ignaccolo, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians at the very fine scale, while moving along the streets, in open spaces or inside a building, simulation modelling becomes an essential tool. In these spatial environments, in the presence of unusual demand flows, simulation requires the ability to model the local dynamics of individual decision making and behaviour, which is strongly affected by the geometry, randomness, social preferences, local and collective behaviour of other individuals. The dynamics of people visiting and evacuating a museum offers an excellent case study along this line. In this paper we realize an agent-based simulation of the Castello Ursino museum in Catania (Italy), evaluating its carrying capacity in terms of both satisfaction of the visitors in regime of normal fruition and their safety under alarm conditions.

  18. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs

  19. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-07-20

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. Study on Plant Morphological Traits and Production Characteristics of Super High-Yielding Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Xue; XIE Fu-ti; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; ZHU Qian; LI Jie; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; YU Cui-mei; LI Chun-hong; YAO Xing-dong

    2013-01-01

    Super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14, soybean cultivars from Ohio in the United States, and the common soybean cultivars from Liaoning Province, China, with similar geographic latitudes and identical pod-bearing habits were used as the study materials for a comparison of morphological traits and production characteristics to provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of improved super high-yielding soybean cultivars. Using a randomized block design, different soybean cultivars from the same latitude were compared under conventional and unconventional treatments for their production characteristics, including morphological traits, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis rate, and dry matter accumulation. The specific characteristics of the super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14 were analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of Liaodou 14 was significantly lower than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, whereas the number of its main-stem nodes was higher than that of the cultivars from Ohio or Liaoning. A high pod density was observed in Liaodou 14 under conventional treatments. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments, the branch number of Liaodou 14 was markedly higher than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, and its branch length and leaf inclination angle were significantly higher than those of common cultivars from Liaoning or Ohio. Only small changes in the leaf inclination angle were observed in Liaodou 14 treated with conventional or unconventional methods. Under each treatment, Liaodou 14 exhibited the lowest amplitude of reduction in SPAD values and net photosynthesis rates from the grain-filling to ripening stages;the cultivars from Ohio and the common cultivars from Liaoning exhibited more significant reductions. Liaodou 14 reached its peak LAI later than the other cultivars but maintained its LAI at a higher level for a longer duration. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments

  1. A radiographic study on the morphology of the maxillary sinus in adolescents and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was radiographic analysis of the morphology of maxillary sinus in adolescents and adults. In order to analyze the morphology of maxillary sinus in view point of anteroposterior width of medial wall, vertical distance between antral floor and nasal floor level, anterior extension, distance between antral floor and maxillary 1st molar apex, and types of lower border of maxillary sinus, specialized maxillary projection and periapical view with paralleling technique was taken. The author examined orthopantomograms and intraoral standard views taken from 400 adolescents and adults ranged 15-65 years-old. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The antero-posterior width of medial wall of maxillary sinus was 32.80 mm in 15-19 year-old group, 33.86 mm in 20-24 year-old group, 34.09 mm in 25-29 year-old group, and 33.67 mm in 30-65 year-old group, and left maxillary sinus was somewhat smaller than the right. 2. The vertical distance between antral floor and nasal floor level was 8.49 mm in 15-19 year-old group, 9.05 mm i n 20-24 year-old group, 8.95 mm in 25-29 year-old group, and 8.32 mm in 30-65 year-old group. 3. The order of anterior extension of maxillary sinus were distal half of canine, mesial half of canine, mesial half of 1st premolar, and distal half of 1st premolar. 4. The distance between antral floor and maxillary 1st molar were 4.36 mm in 15-19 year-old group, 4.77 mm in 20-24 yea r-old group, 3.58 mm in 25-29 year-old group, and 2.33 mm in 30-65 year-old group. 5. The order of the types of lower border of maxillary sinus were entire downward type, close type, partially downward type, waving type, separating type, and indistinct. In the types of antral floor, there was a tendency to increase the separating type with age.

  2. The preclinical pharmacological study of dopamine transporter imaging agent 18F-FP-β-CIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaomin; CHEN Zhengping; WANG Songpei; TANG Jie; LIN Yansong; ZHU Zhaohui; FANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    The paper is to study pharmacologic characteristics of 18F-FP-β-CIT (18F-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β- carbomethoxy-3β- (4-iodophenyl)nortropane) as an imaging agent for dopamine transporter. The radiochemical purity of 18F-FP-β-CIT in aqueous solution was over 95% after standing at room temperature for 4h. Biodistribution displayed rapid uptake in rat brain (1.375 %ID/organ at 5min and 0.100 %ID/organ at 180 min) and the striatal uptake was 1.444,0.731, 0.397, 0.230 and 0.146 %ID/g at 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min, respectively. The values of striatum/cerebellum,striatum/frontal cortex and striatum / hippocampus in rat's brain at 30 min were 3.38, 2.17 and 2.40 respectively. The uptake in striatum can be blocked by β-CFT, suggesting that 18F-FP-β-CIT binds to DAT peculiarly. The compound was rapidly cleared from monkey's blood. The striatal uptake was bilaterally decreased in the left-sided lesioned PD rats, compared with normal control. Brain PET imaging studies in normal monkey showed that 18F-FP-β-CIT was concentrated in striatum. The test of undue toxicity showed that the dose received by mice was 1250 times as by human, which indicates that 18F-FP-β-CIT is very safe. So 18F-FP-β-CIT is a promising PET imaging agent for DAT with safety and validity.

  3. Contrast agent comparison for three-dimensional micro-CT angiography: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Mitchell J; Perriman, Diana M; Neeman, Teresa; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    Barium sulfate and lead oxide contrast media are frequently used for cadaver-based angiography studies. These contrast media have not previously been compared to determine which is optimal for the visualisation and measurement of blood vessels. In this study, the lower limb vessels of 16 embalmed Wistar rats, and four sets of cannulae of known diameter, were injected with one of three different contrast agents (barium sulfate and resin, barium sulfate and gelatin, and lead oxide combined with milk powder). All were then scanned using micro-computed tomography (CT) angiography and 3-D reconstructions generated. The number of branching generations of the rat lower limb vessels were counted and compared between the contrast agents using ANOVA. The diameter of the contrast-filled cannulae, were measured and used to calculate the accuracy of the measurements by comparing the bias and variance of the estimates. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients. There was no significant difference (mean difference [MD] 0.05; MD 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.83 to 0.93) between the number of branching generations for barium sulfate-resin and lead oxide-milk powder. Barium sulfate-resin demonstrated less bias and less variance of the estimates (MD 0.03; standard deviation [SD] 1.96 mm) compared to lead oxide-milk powder (MD 0.11; SD 1.96 mm) for measurements of contrast-filled cannulae scanned at high resolution. Barium sulfate-resin proved to be more accurate than lead oxide-milk powder for high resolution micro-CT scans and is preferred due to its non-toxicity. This technique could be applied to any embalmed specimen model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27075920

  4. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapa, Rafal Z., E-mail: rz.slapa@gmail.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A. [Endocrinology Department, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Bielanski Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Migda, Bartosz [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Otto, Maciej [Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, First Faculty of Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowski, Wiesław S. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients.

  5. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients

  6. Reading the bed morphology of a mountain stream: a geomorphometric study on high-resolution topographic data

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    S. Trevisani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution topographic data expand the potential of quantitative analysis of the earth surface, improving the interpretation of geomorphic processes. In particular, the morphologies of the channel beds of mountain streams, which are characterised by strong spatial variability, can be analysed much more effectively with this type of data. In the present study, we analysed the aerial LiDAR topographic data of a headwater stream, the Rio Cordon (watershed area: 5 km2, located in the Dolomites (north-eastern Italy. The morphology of the channel bed of Rio Cordon is characterised by alternating step pools, cascades, and rapids with steps. We analysed the streambed morphology by means of ad hoc developed morphometric indices, capable of highlighting morphological features at a high level of spatial resolution. To perform the analysis and the data interpolation, we carried out a channel-oriented coordinate transformation. In the new coordinate system, the calculation of morphometric indices in directions along and transverse to the flow direction is straightforward. Three geomorphometric indices were developed and applied as follows: a slope index computed along the whole width of the channel bed, directional variograms computed along the flow direction and perpendicular to it, and local anomalies, calculated as the difference between directional variograms at different spatial scales. Directional variograms in the flow direction and local anomalies have proven to be effective at recognising morphologic units, such as steps, pools and clusters of large boulders. At the spatial scale of channel reaches, these indices have demonstrated a satisfactory capability to outline patterns associated with boulder cascades and rapids with steps, whereas they did not clearly differentiate between morphologies with less marked morphological differences, such as step pools and cascades.

  7. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  8. Morphological study of dynamic culture of thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in constructing tissue engineering complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanfeng; Xu, Feixiang; Guo, Bin; Ma, Jianchao; Zhao, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    ABSTACT The purpose of this study is to research the morphologies and functional characteristics of the cell-scaffold complex in vitro constructed under dynamic culture conditions. BMSCs were isolated from the long bones of Fischer344 rats, and performed in vitro amplification to the third generation as seed cells, together with thermosensitive collagen hydrogel (TCH) as cell adhesion matrix, and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) as scaffold, to construct cell-scaffold complex. The cell-scaffold complexes in the experiment group and the control group were then performed dynamic culture and static culture. After 7 d of in vitro culture, the complexes in the 2 groups were performed gross observation and SEM; meanwhile, the total DNA content in the complex was detected on D0,1,3, and 7 of culture. After cultured using these 2 ways, collagen could both wrap the PLLA scaffold, forming dense film-like structures on the PLLA surface. The total DNA contents in the cell-scaffold complex of the experiment group on D1,3, and 7 were significantly higher than the control group (P constructed complex extracellular matrix had good biocompatibility, and dynamic culture could promote the distribution of BMSCs on the surface and inside the structure, thus promoting cell proliferation, so it could be used for the in vitro construction of tissue engineering complex. PMID:27459597

  9. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  10. Assessment of morphological changes and DNA quantification: An in vitro study on acid-immersed teeth

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    K Sowmya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acid immersion of victim′s body is one of the methods employed to subvert identification of the victim, and hence of the perpetrator. Being hardest and chemically the most stable tissue in the body, teeth can be an important forensic investigative medium in both living and nonliving populations. Teeth are also good reservoirs of both cellular and mitochondrial DNA; however, the quality and quantity of DNA obtained varies according to the environment the tooth has been subjected to. DNA extraction from acid-treated teeth has seldom been reported. Aims: The objectives of the present study were to assess the morphological changes along with DNA recovery from acid-immersed teeth. Materials and Methods: Concentrated hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid were employed for tooth decalcification. DNA was extracted on an hourly basis using phenol-chloroform method. Quantification of extracted DNA was done using a spectrophotometer. Results: Results showed that hydrochloric acid had more destructive capacity compared to other acids. Conclusion: Sufficient quantity of DNA was obtainable till the first 2 hours of acid immersion and there was an inverse proportional relation between mean absorbance ratio and quantity of obtained DNA on an hourly basis.

  11. Morphological study on the olfactory systems of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the olfactory system of a semi-aquatic turtle, the snapping turtle, has been morphologically investigated by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. The nasal cavity of snapping turtle was divided into the upper and lower chambers, lined by the sensory epithelium containing ciliated and non-ciliated olfactory receptor neurons, respectively. Each neuron expressed both Gαolf, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the odorant receptors, and Gαo, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the type 2 vomeronasal receptors. The axons originating from the upper chamber epithelium projected to the ventral part of the olfactory bulb, while those from the lower chamber epithelium to the dorsal part of the olfactory bulb. Despite the identical expression of G-protein α-subunits in the olfactory receptor neurons, these two projections were clearly distinguished from each other by the differential expression of glycoconjugates. In conclusion, these data indicate the presence of two types of olfactory systems in the snapping turtle. Topographic arrangement of the upper and lower chambers and lack of the associated glands in the lower chamber epithelium suggest their possible involvement in the detection of odorants: upper chamber epithelium in the air and the lower chamber epithelium in the water. PMID:27059760

  12. Photoluminescence, ellipsometric, optical and morphological studies of sprayed Co-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençyılmaz, O.; Atay, F.; Akyüz, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, undoped and cobalt (Co)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films were successfully produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique at low temperature (350°C). The optical and surface properties were investigated as a function of Co content. The optical parameters (thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient) were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and it was seen that the refractive index and extinction coefficient values of Co-doped ZnO films decreased slightly depending on the increasing of Co doping. For investigation, the transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the films, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PL spectroscopy were used at room temperature. The transmittance spectra show that transmittance values decreased and Co+2 ions substitute Zn+2 ions of ZnO lattice. The optical band gap values decreased from 3.26 eV to 2.85 eV with the changing of Co content. The results of PL spectra exhibit the position of the different emission peaks unchanged but the intensity of peaks increased with increasing Co doping. Also, the surface properties of the films were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and these results indicated that the surface morphology and roughness values were prominently changed with Co doping.

  13. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  14. Three-Dimensional Imaging Using Microcomputed Tomography For Studying Gaharu Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Khair'iah; Masschaele, Bert; Bin Awang, Mat Rasol; Abdullah, Mohd. Zaid; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Bin Hj Khalid, Mohd Ashhar

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrates the potential application of the high resolution X-ray micro-CT technique in the analysis of internal structure in Gaharu wood. Gaharu or internationally, Agar wood, is known for its fragrant resinous wood. The hardware device used in this study was an X-ray micro-CT scanner at Center of Tomography (UGCT), CT facility in Ghent University, Belgium. This technique allows the 3D investigation of the internal structure of the wood in a non-destructive way. Most of the data analysis was done with the software VG Studio Max and MATLAB. Here we present some preliminary results from three-dimensional images from a piece of high grade Gaharu. Micro-CT images of the specimens were obtained at 7 μm resolution. Besides a clear distinction between pores and material, some bright white areas occur in the reconstruction images. Not only the volume visualization is helpful, morphological parameters of open-pores and dark resins are calculated from these 3D data set. The micro-CT technique is a valid support for evaluating the pores structure and resin distribution in Gaharu.

  15. Morphological study of human sweat ducts for the investigation of THz-wave interaction (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.

  16. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells exposed to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes in mitochondria induced by X-irradiation in normal murine mammary gland cells were studied with a live-cell microscopic imaging technique. Mitochondria were visualised by staining with a specific fluorescent probe in the cells, which express fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator 2 (Fucci2) probes to visualise cell cycle. In unirradiated cells, the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria was about 20 % of the total cells through observation period (96 h). In irradiated cells, the population with fragmented mitochondria significantly increased depending on the absorbed dose. Particularly, for 8 Gy irradiation, the accumulation of fragmentation persists even in the cells whose cell cycle came to a stand (80 % in G1 (G0-like) phase). The fraction reached to a maximum at 96 h after irradiation. The kinetics of the fraction with fragmented mitochondria was similar to that for cells in S/G2/M phase (20 %) through the observation period (120 h). The evidences show that, in irradiated cells, some signals are continually released from a nucleus or cytoplasm even in the G0-like cells to operate some sort of protein machineries involved in mitochondrial fission. It is inferred that this delayed mitochondrial fragmentation is strongly related to their dysfunction, and hence might modulate radiobiological effects such as mutation or cell death. (authors)

  17. Study on the morphology and agroecology of creat (Andrographis panculata ness. in various habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Raw material supply which still depends on nature has caused genetic erotion of medicinal plants. The objectives of the research were to study creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness. morphology; and agroecology in many habitat for cultivated be medical substance. The research were conducted at three different locations, ie. at lowland ( 700 m asl.. The result showed that creat growth on 180 m – 861 m above sea level with environmental conditions : temperature 20.320C – 26.930C, relative humidity 78% - 87%, perticipation 2053.2 mm/ year – 3555.6 mm/ year. The creat can growth on soil mineral that contains N medium, P low, K medium, Mg low, Ca verylow until low ,C organic low until medium, and pH less acid until acid. The heihgt plant of creat in middleland is the highest of in lowland and upland, that also leaf of creat. The flower, fruit, and root of creat as good as in the habitat various. The highest andrographolid contain in middleland (2.27%, whereas in lowland (1.37% and upland (0.89%.

  18. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA-15 by co-condensation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H K Charan; G Ranga Rao

    2015-05-01

    The 3d transition metals were incorporated into SBA-15 matrix by co-condensation synthesis method. Very low concentrations of metals were introduced into silica framework by maintaining the metal to silica ratio in the synthesis gel at 0.01. The difference in hydrolysis rates of metal and silica precursors have led to textural modifications while demonstrating the structural integrity akin to pristine SBA-15. The physicochemical properties obtained offer some insights into the P123 micelle aggregation and mechanism of formation of silica network in the presence of metal salts under similar synthesis conditions of pure SBA-15. The metal doping into SBA-15 leads to increased pore diameters. Higher lattice constants (a0) observed in these samples are attributed to the increased pore wall thickness. The significant retention of the hexagonal mesostructure seen in LXRD indicates diminutive influence of metal salts at lower concentrations.Macroscopic morphologies studied by SEM show the formation of spheres along with conventional fibre-like rods.

  19. Morphological studies in a model for dengue-2 virus infection in mice

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main difficulties in studying dengue virus infection in humans and in developing a vaccine is the absence of a suitable animal model which develops the full spectrum of dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is our proposal to present morphological aspects of an animal model which shows many similarities with the dengue infection in humans. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with non-neuroadapted dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Histopathological and morphometrical analyses of liver tissue revealed focal alterations along the infection, reaching wide-ranging portal and centrolobular veins congestion and sinusoidal cell death. Additional ultrastructural observations demonstrated multifocal endothelial injury, platelet recruitment, and alterated hepatocytes. Dengue virus antigen was detected in hepatocytes and in the capillar endothelium of the central lobular vein area. Liver function tests showed high levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase enzyme activity. Lung tissue showed interstitial pneumonia and mononuclear cells, interseptal oedema, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of the bronchiolar epithelial cells. DENV-2 led to a transient inflammatory process, but caused focal alterations of the blood-exchange barrier. Viremia was observed from 2nd to 11th day p.i. by isolation of DENV-2 in C6/36 mosquito cell line inoculated with the supernatant of macerated liver, lung, kidney, and cerebellum tissues of the infected mice.

  20. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  1. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

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    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  2. A study on morphology of maxillary sinus by using the orthopantomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in order to analyse the morphology of maxillary sinus on orthopantomogram. The author analysed the anterior-posterior width of mesial wall, the extension of anterior margin in maxillary sinus and the interrelation between the root apex of maxillary 1st molar and sinus floor. The films consisted of 514 orthopantomograms divided into three groups ranging the 3rd decade, 4th and 5th decade and 6th decade. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The mean dimensions of the anterior-posterior width of mesial wall were 43.81 ± 4.55 mm for male and 43.80 ± 4.49 mm for female in the right of maxillary sinus, 43.75 ± 4.74 mm for male and 43.37 ± 3.92 mm for female. 2. With age, the dimensional change of the anterior-posterior width of mesial wall in maxillary sinus was not observed. 3. The extension order of anterior margin of the maxillary sinus was distal to canine side, 1st premolar mesial side, canine mesial side, and 1st premolar distal side. 4. In the distance between the root apex of upper 1st molar and the maxillary sinus floor, the degree of closeness was more increased in the older-aged group than in the younger-aged group.

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia

  4. Thermoporometry study of coagulation bath temperature effect on polyacrylonitrile fibers morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Meso-porosity of wet-spun polyacrylonitrile fibers was characterized by thermoporometry. → The shape of fibers cross-section altered from bean to circular with coagulation temperature. → The average pore size and pore volume of the fibers increased with coagulation temperature. - Abstract: The effect of coagulation bath temperature on the morphology of wet-spun polyacrylonitrile fibers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and thermoporometry, a calorimetric technique based on lowering liquid triple point temperature inside the pores. Fibers were fabricated at two coagulation bath temperatures of 5 oC and 60 oC. The shape of nascent fibers cross-section transforms from bean to circular and pore size increases with coagulation temperature. Porosity parameters including average pore size and pore size distribution, pore volume and internal surface area were determined by thermoporometry. The average pore size and pore volume of the fibers increase with coagulation temperature. Low heating rate of 0.1 oC/min during thermoporometry measurements is the key parameter to ensure that test conditions are close to equilibrium. This study shows that thermoporometry can be employed to characterize closed meso-porosity of wet-spun fibers inaccessible by other standard porosimetry methods.

  5. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence

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    Matthias Augustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx+ oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species.

  6. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES IN SOME IPOMOEA LINN. SPECIES USING POLLEN AND FLOWER MORPHOLOGY

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    Olatunde R. OLADUNJOYE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted in search of constant morpho-anatomical characters to aid the identification and classification of commonly encountered Ipomoea species in south west Nigeria. Flower and pollen morphology as important repository of constant characters formed the focus of the investigation. Whole flowers were dissected to expose the carpel and stamens for study. For pollen study, after soaking in de-ionized water, the anthers were collected and crushed, stained and placed on a glass slide by needle for observation under light microscope. The lengths of styles and filament all varied in the seven species, highest length in styles was recorded in Ipomoea hederifolia (37.0-38.5mm while the minimum was recorded in Ipomoea vagans (16.5-19.0mm. United bract into a boat-shaped, doubly acuminate involucre distinguished Ipomoea involucrata from the remaining six species with free bracts. Pollen grains were found to be radially symmetrical; circular in outline, sculpture were echinate, circular aperture, pores equidistantly distributed, oblate, speriodal and oblate-spheriodal. Largest pollen size was recorded in Ipomoea aquatica (60.2-62.5µm, suggesting a less derived position whereas the minimum size (30.7-31.4µm was observed in Ipomoea hederifolia. The maximum spine length was recorded in Ipomoea involucrate (8.3-9.6µm and minimum was recorded in Ipomoea hederifolia (3.3-4.0µm. The phylogenetic tree resulting from cluster analysis suggests that the alien species I. aserifolia and I. carnea are sisters to the other native Ipomoea species. As the number of species increases, synapomorphies decrease whereas increased synapomorphies are associated with decreasing number of species.While both I. aserifolia and I. carnea may have naturalized, they represent new records for the Flora of West Tropical Africa.

  7. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S'-bis(N,N-dimethylthiourea-κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33-7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95-7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON LUMBOSACRAL TRANSITIONAL VERTEBRA IN ADULT INDIAN SACRA AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuri Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (Sacralization is the fusion of 5Th lumber vertebra with the first segment of the sacrum it may be complete or incomplete. In complete sacralization body of the 5Th lumber vertebra completely fuses with the sacrum, where as in incomplete sacralisation shows a well defined joint line between the transverse process and the sacrum. Both forms may be either unilateral or bilateral. Such kind of abnormalities are importance while reporting the X ray, CT and MRI films, during surgical procedures at the Lumbosacral region and making a differential diagnosis for the low back ache patients. Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the incidence and morphological study of Sacralization (Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in adult Indian sacra and its clinical significance. This study was carried out on 150 dry human sacra irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery-Calicut. It was observed that out of 150 sacra, 57 (38% sacra showed sacralization. Out of 57 sacralized bones, 38 (25.33% bones showed bilateral sacralization, whereas 19 (12.67% bones showed unilateral sacralization. Such Lumbosacral transitional vertebra may increase the ricks of Disc bulge / herniation or pseudarthrosis (nonunions with the ilium, degenerative sclerosis around the false joint, compression of lumber nerve roots, low back pain, and false administration of epidural or intradural anaesthetics in lumbosacral region. Its sound knowledge is not only enlightening for the orthopaedic surgeons, also vital for the clinical anatomists, forensic experts and morphologists

  9. Spectral, morphological and antibacterial studies of β-cyclodextrin stabilized silver - Chitosan nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, N.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial properties and characterization of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) stabilized silver - chitosan nanocomposite (Ag-Cts NCs). An effective and eco-friendly technique for the synthesis of Ag-Cts NCs in the presence of a strong stabilizing agent β-CD is described. The well formed nanocomposites were characterized by the Ultraviolet Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDS), Atomic force microscope (AFM), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Zeta potential measurement (ZP). The results confirmed that the poly dispersed Ag-Cts NCs are less than 15 nm in size with spherical shape and show good stability. The antibacterial activity was also investigated and β-CD coated Ag-Cts NCs showed a promising bacterial activity against gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) micro-organism.

  10. Morphological and allozyme studies of small terrestrial snails (Opeas sp., Subulina sp. and Huttonella bicolor) collected from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, M S; Yap, C K; Tan, S G; Jambari, H A

    2006-01-01

    Shell morphological characters and allozyme electrophoresis were used to study the relationships among six geographical populations of land snails collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Allozyme electrophoresis was used to study the genetic variations to complement the morphological features studied that included shell lengths, numbers of whorls and shell colour. Ten loci coding for six enzymes (MDH, LAP, ALP, PGM, G6PDH and EST) could be reliably scored in samples from the six populations studied. The dendrogram showed two major clusters with one cluster comprising Subulinidae populations from Perak, Selangor, Johor, Terengganu and Pahang while the other cluster included only the Streptaxidae Huttonella bicolor (red) population. The Subulinidae populations were grouped into two subclusters: one subcluster included the Subulina sp. populations from Perak, Selangor an Johor while the other subcluster included the Opeas sp. populations from Terengganu and Pahang. Morphological features can identify the different families and therefore they can complement the allozyme genetic studies on the land snail populations. Like other reports in the literature, our results also underline the importance of a genetic approach in conjunction with a morphological approach, for discriminating land snail species. The present results suggest that small land snails, which were similar in colour but different in sizes, were not of the same family/genus. PMID:16523665

  11. CO - INDUCTION : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIDAZOLAM KETAMINE AND PROPOFOL AS COINDUCING AGENTS TO PROPOFOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : “Co - induction” refers to the administration of a small dose of a sedative or anaesthetic agent prior to the induction of anesthesia, with the aim of achieving more specific ‘target’ responses, while minimizing side effects. Although Propofol is a very po pular IV induction agent, it causes various adverse effects like hypotension and apnoea and it is expensive. So the present study was designed to find whether the concept of co - induction can be used to overcome the above mentioned short comings of Propofol induction. AIM: To compare the effectiveness and evaluate the use of midazolam, ketamine and propofol as co - inducing agents to propofol for general anesthesia. DESIGN : A Prospective Randomized Double blind study was planned. METHOD S : 100 adult patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 aged between 18 – 50 yrs. undergoing elective general, orthopedic or gynecological surgeries under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into four groups of 25 each: Group SP: received normal saline 3 ml IV as co - induction agent. Grou p MP: received inj. Midazolam 0.03mg \\ kg IV Group KP: received inj. Ketamine 0.3mg \\ kg IV . Group PP: received inj. Propofol 0.4mg \\ kg IV (auto - co - induction . All patients received inj. Pentazocine 0.3 mg \\ kg IV followed by blinded pretreatment with either sali ne 3ml IV, (group SP - control, inj.Midazolam.0.03mg \\ kg IV (group M, Inj. Ketamine 0.3mg \\ kg IV (group KP or inj. Propofol 0.4mg \\ kg IV (group PP. Two min later induction was done with inj Propofol until loss of verbal contact or resistance to placement of facemask. Total induction dose of Propofol, associated haemodynamic parameters (HR, MAP at 1min interval for five min after induction and occurrence of significant apnoea (>20 sec or Spo2 < 90% were recorded. The obtained data was analyzed using Chi - squa re test and Students “t” test. RESULTS & CONCLUSION : The mean induction dose of propofol was 1.31mg \\ kg, 1.39mg

  12. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on endometrium, tuber mucosa, and peritoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the tissue reactions of various water-soluble and oil-based contrast agents on the endometrium, salpingeal mumosa, and peritoneum. Thirty-three rabbits were used for evaluating the histologic reactions of uterine endometrium, salpinx, and peritoneum. Hysterosalpingography(HSG) was underwent in these rabbits by used Lipiodol, Hexabrix, Rayvist. Ultravist-300, Ultravist-370, and normal saline. Pathologic results were obtained in each of the six groups from the uterine endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum without knowledge of the contrast agent used and time interval from HSG. Mild inflammations were observed in the endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum during the first week of HSG in all rabbits in which water-soluble contrast agents were used. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of inflammation among the groups using various contrast agents, the group with oil-based contrast agent(Lipiodol) showed delayed absorption of contrast agent in the peritoneum, frequent intravasation, fat granuloma, peritoneal adhesion, or uterine infarction. Our results suggest that water-soluble contrast agents can be used safely for HSG, but the use of oil-based contrast agent is questional in safety and should be avoid in patients with tubal obstruction, salpingitis, or endometritis

  13. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on endometrium, tuber mucosa, and peritoneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, In Ae; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Dae Young; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    To compare the tissue reactions of various water-soluble and oil-based contrast agents on the endometrium, salpingeal mumosa, and peritoneum. Thirty-three rabbits were used for evaluating the histologic reactions of uterine endometrium, salpinx, and peritoneum. Hysterosalpingography(HSG) was underwent in these rabbits by used Lipiodol, Hexabrix, Rayvist. Ultravist-300, Ultravist-370, and normal saline. Pathologic results were obtained in each of the six groups from the uterine endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum without knowledge of the contrast agent used and time interval from HSG. Mild inflammations were observed in the endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum during the first week of HSG in all rabbits in which water-soluble contrast agents were used. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of inflammation among the groups using various contrast agents, the group with oil-based contrast agent(Lipiodol) showed delayed absorption of contrast agent in the peritoneum, frequent intravasation, fat granuloma, peritoneal adhesion, or uterine infarction. Our results suggest that water-soluble contrast agents can be used safely for HSG, but the use of oil-based contrast agent is questional in safety and should be avoid in patients with tubal obstruction, salpingitis, or endometritis.

  14. Experimental and clinical study on interventional therapy with scleroticcomplex agents for hepatic cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang An; Xi Xian Yao; Shu Lin Jiang; Dong iai Cui

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of sclerotic complex agents (SCA) on the gallbladder wall of hybrid rabbits, andits therapeutic effect in hepatic cysts.METHODS The SCA containing tetracycline and dexamethasone was injected into the gallbladder of rabbitsto compare its action with those of normal saline and absolute ethylalcohol on the gallbladder wall. Thetherapeutic effects of SCA and absolute ethylalcohol on hepatic cysts were observed.RESULTS Abnormal changes were not found in the tissue cells of gallbladder in normal saline group. Butin absolute ethylalcohol group, a large amount of oozing fluid and blood appeared, the absorption processwas slow, and the fibrous tissue proliferated scarcely. In SCA group, there was less oozing fluid, no blood inthe gallbladder, and the absorption was active and the fibrous tissues grow obviously. In clinical practice,SCA possesses much advantage in the treatment of hepatic cysts, by which the cysts closed promptly, theexudation reduced from early stimulation, and no relapse occurred. The cure rates at the third, sixth,twelfth and twenty-fourth month were 65.1%, 96.2%, 98.1%, and 99.1% respectively; while in thecontrol group were 10.8%, 36.0%, 67.6% and 88.3% respectively. The difference was significant(P<0.01, <0.01, <0.01, <0.05). After the observation for 24 months, no relapse occurred in the SCAgroup, but 7 (6.3%) cases relapsed in control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The sclerotic agents should be used in sequence, i. e., a high concentration wasadministered to reduce and destroy the epithelium of the cysts, and to promote fiber tissue adhesion and thenthe remaining drug was used to stimulate epithelium to absorb the exudation. This combined regimen wasproved to be an ideal and effective method for treating hepatic cysts clinically.

  15. Study of a proactive agent in a multichannel environment: The X-CAMPUS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Sassi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of intelligent devices that compose our environment is their capability to perceive and collect relevant information (context awareness in order to assist users in their daily tasks. However, these tasks evolve frequently and require dynamic and evolutionary systems (context-aware systems to improve intelligent devices skills according to user's context. Some context-aware systems are described in the literature, but most of them have extremely tight coupling between the semantic used in the application and sensors used to obtained the data for this semantic interpretation. The objective of our research is to study and implement a proactive approach able to use existing sensors and to create dynamically human-machine conversational situations when needed. The system presented in this paper is named X-CAMPUS (eXtensible Conversational Agent for Multichannel Proactive Ubiquitous Services. It aims to assist user in his/her daily tasks thanks to its ability to perceive the state of the environment and interact effectively according to the user's needs. In this paper we describe our approach for proactive intelligent assistance and we illustrate it through some scenarios showing that according to a given multi-parameters context, our X-CAMPUS agent notifies the user via personalized messages (e.g., suggestion of restaurants according to menus and users' preferences across the most appropriate channel (instant messaging, e-mail or SMS and the most appropriate modality (text, gesture or voice. Then, we discuss our quantitative results, based on four principal hypotheses in order to evaluate our system's capability to manage many users simultaneously with different contextual information. We argue and we show that the proactive assistance is very relevant in complex situations with various criteria to take into account (user's profile, location, task, etc..

  16. Do coxibs reduce prescription of gastroprotective agents? Results of a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Andrea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxibs are claimed to be cost-effective drugs and reduced prescription of gastroprotective agents is assumed to be one of their major benefits. Real life prescription of these drugs may be substantially different than that considered in pharmacoeconomic analyses or claimed by drug companies, yet. Our objective was to evaluate whether coxibs were associated with reduced prescription of gastro-protective agents (GPAs, specifically proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers and misoprostol compared to non selective NSAIDs. Methods A record-linkage study was performed using 2001 outpatient prescription data from the province of Modena (about 632,000 inhabitants, in Northern Italy. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of GPA prescription for coxib and non-selective NSAID adult users (> 14 years. Three categories of users were further investigated: "acute", "chronic and "incident or new". Main outcome measures were same-day co-prescription and 30 days prescription of GPAs in coxibs and non selective NSAIDs users. To limit selection bias, data were adjusted for age, sex, DDD of coxibs and non selective NSAIDs received during 2001, DDD of GPAs and (for non-incident users DDD of NSAIDs received during the previous 4 years Results Same day co-prescription rates were similar considering the overall population and "acute" users. Chronic coxibs users instead showed higher co-prescription rates than chronic NSAIDs users (OR = 1.2, p Conclusion Assumptions made in pharmacoeconomic analyses on coxibs (lower GPA prescription associated with coxibs use may be overly optimistic. Claims made through cost-effectiveness data should be carefully interpreted, and mechanisms for attributing drug prices revised accordingly.

  17. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and chemical distinction – A case study from India and its implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambalika Niyogi; Jayanta K Pati; Suresh C Patel; Dipak Panda; Shiv K Patil

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides first report of silica-rich anthropogenic spherules of varying colour, shape, size, surface texture and chemical composition found in road-deposited sediments (RDS) of Allahabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Morphological details and lithophile elemental composition of the silica-rich spherules are compared to microtektites and impact spherules from India to demonstrate their striking morphological similarities and chemical variability. This study suggests the need to use spherule data carefully while assigning an impact origin to spherule-finds or spherule-bearing lithological horizons.

  18. Studies on seed morphology, anatomy, dormancy and germination in Desmodium gangeticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010 Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC. commonly known as Shalparni is a sub-tropical perennial spreading herb that grows in dry hilly areas, belongs to the family Fabaceae. This plant has unique medicinal value in Ayurveda. Information on various aspects of seed is lacking, as this information is vitally important for re-generation of plants as well as for ex-situ conservation of seeds in seed banks. Therefore, studies were conducted on seed morphology, anatomy, dormancy, germination and seed storage behaviour of the taxa with the aim to understand the above parameters for examining the feasibility of its ex-situ conservation in seed banks. Freshly harvested seed samples of D. gangeticum were procured from Zhandu Foundation, Gujrat. The seeds were examined for morphological and anatomical parameters. The seeds are bean shaped, smooth, creamish white in colour and measures 2.5 x 1.5 x 3.4 mm (length x width x thickness. Thousand seed weight is 1.5 gm. Seeds are non endospermic with small bent axile type embryo. Germination studies were conducted on top of the paper method by incubating the seeds in different temperatures. Preliminary germination studies revealed that most of the seeds remain ungerminated, due to physical dormancy as the seeds did not imbibe water. Therefore, several pre-treatments like hot water, dry heat, H2SO4 scarification for different duration were given prior to germination. Perusal of the data reveals that all the seed pre-treatments showed increase in percent germination compared to the control (with no treatment and scarification by H2SO4 for 20 minutes was proved to be the best among all the treatments giving 92% of germination. Optimum temperature for germination was 250C; time taken for germination was 8 days. Physical

  19. Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic agents: a prospective study in a teaching hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankesh Barnwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antipsychotic drugs have propensity to produce side effects like extrapyramidal syndrome, hyperglycemia, lipid abnormalities and weight gain. As data from India related to this aspect are scarce, this study was carried out.Aims and Objectives: To study metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs using biochemical parameters and to compare metabolic effects of different antipsychotic agents.Materials and methods: This was a prospective study of patients attending the psychiatry outpatient department from September 2007 to May 2008. Each patient enrolled was followed up for 12weeks or less till the antipsychotics were prescribed. Body weight,fasting blood glucose, fasting lipid profile were recorded at baseline and at subsequent visits.Results: Out of 45 patients, 33 completed the study. Bipolar disorder (31% was the most frequent diagnosis followed by brief psychotic disorder (22%, schizophrenia (20% and others.Olanzapine was the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drug (56% followed by risperidone (24% and haloperidol (20%. 84% received single antipsychotic drug. After 12weeks of therapy all antipsychotics caused significant weight gain (p<0.001, olanzapine caused significant rise in fasting blood glucose (p<0.001 and serum cholesterol (p<0.001. All antipsychotics caused significant rise in serum triglyceride level (p<0.01 Conclusion: All antipsychotics can cause significant abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Selection of antipsychotics, particularly the newer ones requires consideration of co morbidities like obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias. During antipsychotic drug therapy periodic monitoring for metabolic abnormalities is advisable.

  20. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Study on the E-commerce platform based on the agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ruixue; Qin, Lishuan; Gao, Yinmin

    2011-10-01

    To solve problem of dynamic integration in e-commerce, the Multi-Agent architecture of electronic commerce platform system based on Agent and Ontology has been introduced, which includes three major types of agent, Ontology and rule collection. In this architecture, service agent and rule are used to realize the business process reengineering, the reuse of software component, and agility of the electronic commerce platform. To illustrate the architecture, a simulation work has been done and the results imply that the architecture provides a very efficient method to design and implement the flexible, distributed, open and intelligent electronic commerce platform system to solve problem of dynamic integration in ecommerce. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the architecture of electronic commerce platform system, and the approach how Agent and Ontology support the electronic commerce platform system.

  2. Study on structural characteristics and adsorption performance of ultrasonic treated Mn-containing sulfur transfer agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiyu Jiang; Jiling Zhang; Lei Zhang; Qinfang Zhang; Guihua Hou; Ning Xu

    2014-01-01

    To prepare manganese-containing spinel sulfur transfer agent with acid peptization, ultrasonic wave is used for the first time to modify the structure of sulfur transfer agent in this work. Mini fixed bed reactor was used to investigate the effect of ultrasonic power, time and temperature on the structure and oxidation adsorption performance of sulfur transfer agent and the adsorption kinetics and mechanism of SO2 were analyzed. SEM, TEM, XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques were employed to characterize and analyse the function of sulfur transfer agent. The results indicated that manganese-containing spinel is a kind of promising sulfur transfer agent and exhibits higher sulfur capacity and desulfurization degree under the selected conditions of the ultrasonic wave power of 60%, and with the treatment period for 3 h at a temperature of 60◦C.

  3. Study on Multi Agent-Based Large Scope Distributed Software Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYinghui; LIUYu; ZHANGShikun

    2004-01-01

    Large scope distribution software technology will be a mainstream technology of software development for coming years. But Large scope distribution software development means high software complexity and expensive expenditure. Software architecture acts as blueprint of software system and turns into one of the determinant factor for development~ especially for large scope software in distribution environment. This paper analyzes the flexibility and suitability of software agent to construct LSSA (Large scope software architecture), then ADALSS(Agent-based distributed architecture of large scope software) based on agent federation is presented, and ADALSS mechanism is illustrated as well. Concerning implementation, a layer model of ADALSS based on interface is described. It will be a dominant pattern for future large scope software development to regard each agent as an object and to combine this agent object with ADALSS model.

  4. Sublimation of ice-tholins mixtures: A morphological and spectro-photometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Jost, Bernhard; Carrasco, Nathalie; Szopa, Cyril; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Sublimation, the direct transition from solid to gas phase, is a process responsible for shaping and changing the reflectance properties of many Solar System surfaces. In this study, we have characterized the evolution of the structure/texture and of the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral reflectance of surfaces made of water ice mixed with analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, named tholins, under low temperature (water ice sublimated, we observed in situ the formation of a sublimation lag deposit made of a water-free porous (>90% porosity) network of organic filaments on top of the ice. The temporal evolution of the tholins and water ice spectral features (reflectance at the absorption bands wavelengths, red slope, from 0.40 to 1.90 μm) are analyzed throughout the sublimation of the samples. We studied how different mixtures of tholins with water (0.1 wt.% tholins as coating or inclusions within the water particles), and different ice particle sizes (4.5 ± 2.5 or 67 ± 31 μm) influence the morphological and spectral evolutions of the samples. The sublimation of the ice below the mantle produces a gas flow responsible for the ejection of mm to cm-sized fragments of the deposit in outbursts-like events. The results show remarkable differences between these samples in term of mantle structure, speed of mantle building, rates and surface area of mantle ejections. These data provide useful references for interpreting remote-sensing observations of icy Solar System surfaces, in particular the activity of comet nuclei where sublimation of organic-rich ices and deposition of organic-dust particles likely play a major role. Consequently, the data presented here could be of high interest for the interpretation of Rosetta, and also New Horizons, observations.

  5. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  6. Reproductive studies in ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. stockes; Rubiaceae: pollen development and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out the reproductive studies on Brazilian accessions of ipecac, Psychotria ipecacuanha. It presented heterostyly, with brevistylous and longistylous flowers. The pollen development was observed from the sections of the anthers embedded in resin. Anther development was normal as usually observed in dicotyledones, displaying four layers: outer epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and inner tapetum. The pollen was bicellular and filled with starch at the microspore stage. Pollen morphology was studied using SEM, which showed pollen polymorphism within and between the two floral morphs. Five types of pollen with reticulate or perforate exine were identified. The characteristics showed that the sexual process was as important as the vegetative propagation for the reproduction of this species.Foram realizados estudos reprodutivos em acessos brasileiros de poaia, Psychotria ipecacuanha. Poaia apresenta heterostilia, com flores brevistilas e longistilas. O desenvolvimento do pólen foi estudado em cortes de anteras embebidas em resina. O desenvolvimento da antera seguiu o padrão normal para as dicotiledôneas, a qual apresentou quatro camadas: epiderme, endotécio, camada média, e tapete, a mais interna. O pólen apresentou-se bicelular e preenchido com amido no estágio de micrósporo. A morfologia do pólen foi estudada utilizando-se MEV. Foi observado polimorfismo polínico dentro e entre as duas formas florais. Foram identificados cinco tipos de grãos de pólen, com exina reticulada ou perfurada. Em seu hábitat natural, sabe-se que essa espécie apresenta propagação por multiplicação vegetativa, mas as características estudadas demonstraram que o mecanismo sexuado é tão importante para a reprodução dessa espécie quanto à propagação vegetativa.

  7. Morphological study of the maxillary sinus using three-dimensional reconstruction of the tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphological study of the maxillary sinus using the computerized three-dimensional reconstruction of the tomographic images was made. Materials of this study were 86 adult dry skulls of the Second Department of Oral Anatomy of Fukuoka Dental College. The results were as follows: 1. A tomographic apparatus which could select varius X-ray tube shifts was used. The hypocycloidal shift was the best for the tomography of the maxillary sinus. 2. In the tomographs of the maxillary sinus, the images of some sections in the maximum cross-section area presented real shapes. However, the images of other sections were indistinct and influenced by the shape of the maximum cross-section. 3. Reconstruction of the tomographic images of the maxillary sinus by computer made it easy and precise to recognize the three-dimensional image. 4. The dimensions in the maximum cross-section of the maxillary sinus of the 86 adult dry skulls obtained from the reconstructed three-dimensional images were 4.59 ± 1.26 cm2 in frontal, 5.21 ± 1.36 cm2 in transversal and 8.09 ± 1.82 cm2 in sagittal tomographs. The majority of the skulls were symmetry, and a few were asymmetry in correlation between the right and left side sinuses. 5. According to the reconstructed three-dimensional images the shapes of the maxillary sinus of the 86 adult dry skulls were classified into 10 types in frontal, 4 types in transversal and 8 types in sagittal tomographs. The most familiar shape was triangular in frontal, trapezoidal in sagittal and triangular in transversal tomographs. 6. The dimension and shape of the maxillary sinus had no correlation with the frontal width of the nasal cavity. (author)

  8. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda N Shrikhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is associated with atherosclerosis. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to study the association between Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and C-reactive protein (CRP with AMI. Materials and Methods: This group-matched case-control study was carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study compared the risk of occurrence of AMI (outcome if subjects were ever-infected with H. pylori or C. pneumoniae; and their CRP positivity (exposure. Incident cases of myocardial infarctions in a tertiary care hospital were included as cases. Results: The study recruited 265 cases and 265 controls and detected an odds ratio (OR of 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-3.70 and an OR of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.71-3.65 for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori, respectively. Raised CRP levels had an OR of 3.85 (95% CI: 2.54-5.87. Conclusion: Although our study indicates the role of infections in the etiology of AMI in study population, the relative public health impact of these agents in the overall prevalence of AMI needs urgent research attention.

  9. BIODEGRADATION, MORPHOLGICAL, AND FTIR STUDY OF RATTAN POWDER-FILLED NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF FILLER LOADING AND A SILANE COUPLING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komethi Muniandy,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (NR composites were prepared by the incorporation of rattan (Calamus Manan powder at filler loadings in the range of 0 to 30 phr into a natural rubber matrix with a laboratory size two roll mill. The particle size of rattan powder was less than 180 µm. The biodegradation of the rattan powder-filled natural rubber (NR composites were investigated as a function of filler loading and a silane coupling agent. A soil burial test was carried out for six months, and the degradation of the NR compound and the NR composites was evaluated through tensile testing. Morphological properties were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM to evaluate the degradation of the samples after six months of soil exposure. The results indicate that the tensile strength, elongation at break, and stress at 100% elongation (M 100 all decreased after soil burial testing due to the biological attack by microbes onto the sample. Improvement in tensile properties was seen with the addition of the silane coupling agent due to better adhesion between the rattan filler and the rubber matrix. The deterioration in tensile properties due to the biodegradation process was confirmed by SEM and FTIR studies.

  10. Geosimulation of urban growth and demographic decline in the Ruhr: a case study for 2025 using the artificial intelligence of cells and agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Stenger, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    The Ruhr is an "old acquaintance" in the discourse of urban decline in old industrialized cities. The agglomeration has to struggle with archetypical problems of former monofunctional manufacturing cities. Surprisingly, the image of a shrinking city has to be refuted if you shift the focus from socioeconomic wealth to its morphological extension. Thus, it is the objective of this study to meet the challenge of modeling urban sprawl and demographic decline by combining two artificial intelligent solutions: The popular urban cellular automaton SLEUTH simulates urban growth using four simple but effective growth rules. In order to improve its performance, SLEUTH has been modified among others by combining it with a robust probability map based on support vector machines. Additionally, a complex multi-agent system is developed to simulate residential mobility in a shrinking city agglomeration: residential mobility and the housing market of shrinking city systems focuses on the dynamic of interregional housing markets implying the development of potential dwelling areas. The multi-agent system comprises the simulation of population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking city agglomerations. Both models are calibrated and validated regarding their localization and quantification performance. Subsequently, the urban landscape configuration and composition of the Ruhr 2025 are simulated. A simple spatial join is used to combine the results serving as valuable inputs for future regional planning in the context of multifarious demographic change and preceding urban growth.

  11. Study on Different Types of Sizing Agents for Carbon Fiber%不同种类碳纤维上浆剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席玉松; 李艳华; 陈秋飞; 张国良; 李怀京

    2011-01-01

    实验并讨论了几种不同类型上浆剂对碳纤维复合材料的影响。分别从乳液稳定性、复合材料力学性能、表面形貌和冲击断面形貌进行考察,结果表明:聚丙烯醇乳液上浆剂稳定性好,经其处理后的碳纤维复合材料力学性能优异,其界面结合能力强。%The different types of sizing agents on the impact of carbon fiber composite materials were studied in this paper. The stability of emulsion, mechanical properties of composite materials, surface morphology and frac- ture surface were discussed. The results shows that polyvinyl alcohol emulsion sizing agent has an excellent stabil- ity, the carbon fiber composite has a good mechanical performance, and strong interfacial bonding.

  12. Study on morphology of subacromial bony spur using three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is a procedure required for rotator cuff tears and impingement syndrome, but the amount of bone to be removed and range of decompression depend on the surgery performed. We reviewed the morphology of bony spur using three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT). The subjects were 27 cases operated on for rotator cuff tears from October 2008 to July 2009. We took CT images of all cases preoperatively. We classified the morphology of bony spurs into four groups according to size and investigated the characteristics. The bony spur was found to elongate to the coracoid process and show double floor-like configuration inwards. Moreover, when the bony spur size increases, the duration of the disease also increases. In addition, there was a tendency for the size of rotator cuff tears to grow large except in trauma cases. 3DCT can capture the morphological characteristics of subacromial bony spurs and provide useful information in ASD. (author)

  13. Effects of some pharmacological agents on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, I; Saray, A; Gurlek, A; Sevin, K; Sabuncuoglu, B T

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have been conducted to improve the survival of venous flaps. As a result of these studies, although various survival mechanisms were raised, none obtained satisfactory information. Venous stasis, and the resultant venous thrombosis, is a factor that decreases the survival of venous flaps. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two antiinflammatory agents, etodolac and etofenamate, on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps. In this study, 35 male New Zealand white rabbits (3,500-4,000 g) (70 ears) were used. Perichondrocutaneous flaps, 3 x 4.5 cm in size, were designed and raised, keeping the central veins intact in the middle of venous flap. Central arteries and nerves were ligated and transected both proximally and distally, to prepare unipedicled venous flaps. A silicone sheet was placed between the cartilage tissue and flap, to prevent blood flow and revascularization beneath. The subjects were divided into seven groups, consisting of five rabbits (10 ears). In the negative control group (group I), the single vascular pedicle of venous flaps, central veins were ligated and flaps sutured into their own place as the composite graft. In the positive control group (group II), after venous flaps were prepared, normal saline, 0.2 mL, was given subcutaneously. In the first of five experimental groups (group III), unfractionated heparin (100 U/day) was given subcutaneously. In the second experimental group (group IV), etodolac (5 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously. In the third experimental group (group V), etophenamate (5 mg/kg/day) was given orally through a feeding tube. In the fourth experimental group (group VI), parnaparin (5 anti-Xa U/kg/day) was given subcutaneously. In the fifth experimental group (group VII), nadroparin (5 anti-Xa U/kg/day) was given subcutaneously, about 7 days postoperatively. At the eighth postoperative day, surviving areas of venous flaps were measured, and the results were evaluated by Kruskal

  14. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H. [Churchill Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Alvey, Christopher [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Greenslade, Tessa [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gooding, Mark [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom); Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Mark I. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Franks, Stephen [Imperial College (Hammersmith Campus), Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London (United Kingdom); Golding, Stephen J. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm{sup 3}. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10{sup -16}; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm{sup 3} [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm{sup 3} [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10{sup -7}; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10{sup -6}; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10{sup -5}). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  15. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm3. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10-16; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm3 [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm3 [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10-7; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10-6; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10-5). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  16. [Leather dust and sensitizing agents. A study on occupational indoor allergenic pollution in shoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, Angelo Mario; Del Frate, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to ascertain a possible pollution by allergenic Mites in 15 samples of leather dust belonging to occupational environments of 4 Italian shoes factories. All dosages were both performed by a quantitative immunologic and ELISA method (Indoor Biotechnology Lmd) and a semi-quantitative colorimetric method (Aclotest Lofarma) and the results were compared according to a five steps risk-evaluation. In all factories allergenic components of Mites were documented. The highest concentration of Der p1 and Der f 1 in dust was 15,4 mcg/g, while allergens prevailed around the working-places, where discards of leather usually were collected. Moulds were studied in 29 samples of 9 shoes factories, adopting specific cultures. In all but one occupational environment moulds were present and taxa of Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium were prevalent, spores of them have known allergenic propert. Besides the identification, quantitative levels were not planned in this study. Dermatophytes were absent, while four taxa of Keratinophylic non allergenic moulds were observe. When leather dust are disperded in occupational environments a risk due to allergenic agents as secondary contamination must be carefully considered. Such a risk, according to our results, may be classified as "intermediate for allergenic Mites" and temptatively "light for allergenic moulds". Such a risk might be carefully considered for legal and preventive purposes and also monitored by occupational healthcare professionals. PMID:22697032

  17. Feasibility Study of Passive Aerosol Sampler for Bio-Agent Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, G

    2003-03-05

    We propose to establish the feasibility of a passive aerosol sampler for bio-agent collection through laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. The passive sampler, unlike the typical active sampler, does not require pumps and complex fixtures, and thereby allows for large-scale field monitoring not possible with current active samplers. We plan to conduct experiments using model (both biological and non-biological) aerosols generated in an instrumented test chamber and compare the particles collected on various passive samplers to conventional filter samplers, commercial aerosol measuring instruments and to conventional surface swipes. Theoretical analysis will be used to design prototype passive samplers and to compare experimental results with theory. A successful feasibility study will be used to seek outside funding for applications that will greatly enhance current LLNL programs such as NARAC's atmospheric dispersal modeling, NAI's programs in bioagent monitoring in public locations and fixed sampling stations, and EPD's environmental monitoring and decontamination research. In addition, the feasibility study will position us favorably for responding to new calls for proposals by NIH and EPA for large scale environmental studies.

  18. Effect of antithrombotic agents on the patency of PTFE-Covered stents in the inferior vena cava: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of stenosis of polytetrafluororethylene (PTFE)-covered stents in the venous system.Methods: Spiral Z stents covered with PTFE (PTFE-covered stents) were placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 34 dogs. Nineteen dogs, used as a control group, were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Fifteen dogs, previously given antithrombotic agents [cilostazol (n=5), warfarin potassium (n=5), cilostazol plus warfarin potassium (n=5)] were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and then examined angiographically and histopathologically. The effect of the antithrombotic agents was compared between groups.Results: The patency rate of the antithrombotic agent group was 93% (14/15), which was higher than the control group rate of 63% (12/19). The mean stenosis rate of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was lower at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the mean stenosis rate in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly lower than the control group (Tukey's test, p < 0.05). The mean neointimal thickness of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was thinner at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the thickness of the neointima in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly decreased when compared with the control group (Tukey's test p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, endothelialization in the antithrombotic agent group tended to be almost identical to that in the control group.Conclusion: The present study suggests that administration of an antithrombotic agent is an effective way of preventing the stenosis induced by a neointimal thickening of PTFE-covered stents in the venous system.

  19. Effect of Antithrombotic Agents on the Patency of PTFE-Covered Stents in the Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of stenosis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents in the venous system. Methods: Spiral Z stents covered with PTFE (PTFE-covered stents) were placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 34 dogs. Nineteen dogs, used as a control group, were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Fifteen dogs, previously given antithrombotic agents [cilostazol (n= 5), warfarin potassium (n= 5), cilostazol plus warfarin potassium (n= 5)] were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and then examined angiographically and histopathologically. The effect of the antithrombotic agents was compared between groups. Results: The patency rate of the antithrombotic agent group was 93% (14/15), which was higher than the control group rate of 63% (12/19). The mean stenosis rate of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was lower at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the mean stenosis rate in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly lower than the control group (Tukey's test, p < 0.05). The mean neointimal thickness of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was thinner at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the thickness of the neointima in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly decreased when compared with the control group (Tukey's test p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, endothelialization in the antithrombotic agent group tended to be almost identical to that in the control group. Conclusion: The present study suggests that administration of an antithrombotic agent is an effective way of preventing the stenosis induced by a neointimal thickening of PTFE-covered stents in the venous system

  20. Pollen morphology of genus Rubus L., Part II. Introductory studies on the Malesian species of subgenus Micranthobatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tomlik-Wyremblewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on pollen morphology of 6 Malesian Rubus species are presented (R. clementis, R. cordiformis, R. diclinis, R. megacarpus, R. novoguineensis and R. royenii var. ikilimbu. The examination has been made by SEM for the first time and also by LM. Detailed descriptions of the pollen grains are given. The pollen grains are small, isopolar and trizonocolporate. Ornamentation is generally classified as striate, although with some modifications. A striate-reticulate pattern has been observed in only one species (R. cordiformis. A rugulate-striate pattern represents R. novoguineensis. The typical striate patterns differed in form, width and orientation of the muri are observed in R. clementis, R. diclinis, R. megacarpus, R. royenii var. ikilimbu. The tectum perforations are clearly observed in R. clementis, R. diclinis, R. megacarpus, R. royenii var. ikilimbu. The relation between the species has also been disscused. Pollen morphological studies confirmed partly the systematic concept. Rubus megacarpus, R. cordiformis, R. novoguineensis show completely different patterns and can not be regarded as closely related species; Rubus clementis has its own striate pattern, which resembles the pollen morphological type of R. lucens (not included in this study. Rubus diclinis and R. royenii var. ikilimbu have almost the same type of pollen morphology.

  1. Compact Galactic Planetary Nebulae: A HST/WFC3 Morphological Catalog, and a Study of their Role in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We present the images of a \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\textit{HST}/WFC3) snapshot program of angularly compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), acquired with the aim of studying their size, evolutionary status, and morphology. PNe that are smaller than $\\sim4\\arcsec$ are underrepresented in most morphological studies, and today they are less well studied than their immediate evolutionary predecessors, the pre-planetary nebulae. The images have been acquired in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda5007$, which is commonly used to classify the PN morphology, in the UV continuum with the aim of detecting the central star unambiguously, and in the $I-$band to detect a cool stellar companion, if present. The sample of 51 confirmed PNe exhibits nearly the full range of primary morphological classes, with the distribution more heavily weighted toward bipolar PNe, but with total of aspherical PNe almost identical to that of the general Galactic sample. A large range of microstructures is evident in our sample as w...

  2. Incompatibility of water soluble contrast media and intravascular pharmacologic agents: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of low osmolar and nonionic contrast media in clinical practice, radiologists have enjoyed increased clinical application along with other advantages such as improvement of patient comfort and safety. Recently, radiologists have introduced many intravascular pharmacologic agents to improve diagnostic quality and patient safety. Shortly after the introduction of these agents, however, it was observed that a precipitate results when a certain pharmacologic agent is mixed with a low osmolar contrast media. These observations have prompted testing of several other drugs used for incompatibility with contrast media. To verify these reports and to investigate other medications not previously tested, the authors analyzed mixtures of contrast agents and medications in vitro and observed them for visible precipitates after operating the high-speed centrifuge. The results were as fallows: The contrast media that produced incompatibilities with some pharmacologic agents were ioxaglate, diatrizote, and iothalamate in the order of frequency. The contrast media that produced no precipitate were iopromide and ioxithalamate. The pharmacologic agents that produced precipitate with some contrast media were Papaverine, Benadryl, Protamine, Cimetidine, Regitin, and Gentamicin. Therefore, we recommend that caution should be taken to recognize incompatibilities and avoid them when intravascular pharmacologic agents of any kind may be incompatible

  3. A study on reproducibility of three-dimensional measurement for an evaluation of craniofacial morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials including facial and oral pictures, frontal and lateral cephalograms, dental casts and CT are essential for orthodontic diagnosis with orthognathic surgery. Although a three-dimensional analysis has been prevalent in diagnosing patients with dentofacial deformity, little information is available as to the definition and reproducibility of the measurement points when conducting a three-dimensional analysis using CT. This study was therefore designed to evaluate reproducibility of three-dimensional landmarks defined on the multiplaner reconstruction (MPR) images. Seven presurgical CT data obtained from seven orthognathic patients (4 females and 3 males) were selected. Two orthodontists independently repeated the identification of 44 landmarks defined twice on the MPR image with the reference plane of the Frankfurt horizontal plane (FH plane) using DICOM viewer Exavision Lite (Ziosoft, Tokyo). The significance of intra-examiner and inter-examiner errors was assessed using ANOVA, and reproducibility of landmarks was evaluated by the standard deviation (SD) value of measurement error. While no significant differences were found in intra-examiner measurement values, a significant difference was identified in inter-examiner measurement values at 39 coordinates among 132 coordinates; 10, 15, and 14 coordinates were found in X-, Y- and Z-coordinates, respectively. Reproducibility of ramus posterior point (Ar), Gonion (Go) and greater palatine foramen were particularly poor. However, reproducibility of landmarks adopted was considered enough for the analysis of maxillofacial morphology since the SDs of those landmarks were small as compared to voxel size. In case the FH plane is set as the reference plane, much more reproducible measurement landmarks may be selected without an influence of changes in head posture. (author)

  4. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety ‘BioR-231’ and ‘Hooghly Local’, respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  5. A study of morphological aspects of cystic echinococcosis in sheep in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchedda, Margherita; Seu, Valter; Capra, Salvatore; Caredda, Alessia; Pani, Sergio Pino; Lochi, Pier Giorgio; Bortoletti, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the morphological and structural aspects of hydatid cysts recovered from sheep raised in southern Sardinia during two surveys conducted over the 20 years since the last control attempt at the end of the 1980s. In the first study carried out during 1995-1997, a few years after the last control attempt, a total of 10,334 cysts were examined, recovered from 1029 infected sheep out of a total of 1375 inspected (prevalence 74.84%). In the second survey, conducted ten years later during the period 2005-2010 in the absence of specific control measures, a total of 6249 cysts were recovered from 916 parasitized sheep out of the 1414 examined (prevalence 64.78%). Cysts were grouped into 5 different types: "Unilocular", "Multisepted", "Calcified", "Caseous", "Hyperlaminated". Unilocular: fertile, consist of a single fluid-filled cavity; multisepted: generally sterile, fluid filled, with cavity divided into spheroidal chambers (3-dozen); calcified: sterile, small, with internal chambers almost virtual due to the thickening of internal septa; caseous: sterile, the cavity filled with a thick yellowish matrix; hyperlaminated: sterile, with a virtual cavity filled with extensively folded and overlapping sheets of hyperproduced laminated tissue. A thorough knowledge and the precise characterization of each type of lesion, making it possible to establish detailed parameters for cyst classification, appears very useful for the harmonization of data collection. From a surveillance and control perspective it is proposed that, in addition to other relevant epidemiological information, data from meat inspection be further improved, including morpho-functional indications about cyst type. PMID:27060775

  6. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  7. In vivo hepatic uptake inhibition study of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Meyoung Kon [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States)

    1998-07-01

    We have previously reported that the hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin was not affected by coinjecting bilirubin in mice whereas the uptake of Tc-99m-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) was inhibited (Kim et al. J Nucl Med, 38 : 50 p, 1997). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin or Tc-99m-DISIDA could be inhibited by biotin and biocytin. The Balb/c mice (female, 20g, n=5-8) were injected i.v. with the hepatobiliary agents alone (15-22 MBq/20-40 {mu}g) or together with inhibitors at two doses (14 and 28 mg/kg). For pharmacokinetic studies, images were acquired at 10-sec intervals for 20 min using a gamma camera equipped with a pin-hole collimator (d= 1 mm), starting immediately after intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic parameters, peak liver/heart ratio (Rmax) and hepatic half clearance time (HCT), were calculated from liver and heart time-acitivity curves from regions-of-interest. Dynamic images showed rapid hepatic uptake inhibition was characterized by persistent high blood background. These qualitative scintigraphic findings were reflected in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin without inhibitor coinjection showed Rmax of 9.3 and HCT of 383 sec. These parameters did not change significantly when bilirubin or biotin was coinjected, but did change significantly (P<0.05) for biocytin only at the higher dose: 52% decrease in HCT. In contrast, the parameters for Tc-99m-DISIDA (Rmax of 9.2 and HCT of 258 sec) were greatly affected (P<0.01) by biotin (79% decrease in Rman and 2-fold increase in HCT) even at 14 mg/kg concentration. We concluded that Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin is less sensitive to inhibition by bilirubin, biotin, and biocytin than Tc-99m-DISIDA. Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin appears to be a promising hepatobiliary imaging agent for hepatic function studies and may also be a useful tool to investigate the hepatic uptake mechanism of biotin derivatives in vivo.

  8. In vivo hepatic uptake inhibition study of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported that the hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)-biocytin was not affected by coinjecting bilirubin in mice whereas the uptake of Tc-99m-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) was inhibited (Kim et al. J Nucl Med, 38 : 50 p, 1997). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin or Tc-99m-DISIDA could be inhibited by biotin and biocytin. The Balb/c mice (female, 20g, n=5-8) were injected i.v. with the hepatobiliary agents alone (15-22 MBq/20-40 μg) or together with inhibitors at two doses (14 and 28 mg/kg). For pharmacokinetic studies, images were acquired at 10-sec intervals for 20 min using a gamma camera equipped with a pin-hole collimator (d= 1 mm), starting immediately after intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic parameters, peak liver/heart ratio (Rmax) and hepatic half clearance time (HCT), were calculated from liver and heart time-acitivity curves from regions-of-interest. Dynamic images showed rapid hepatic uptake inhibition was characterized by persistent high blood background. These qualitative scintigraphic findings were reflected in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin without inhibitor coinjection showed Rmax of 9.3 and HCT of 383 sec. These parameters did not change significantly when bilirubin or biotin was coinjected, but did change significantly (P<0.05) for biocytin only at the higher dose: 52% decrease in HCT. In contrast, the parameters for Tc-99m-DISIDA (Rmax of 9.2 and HCT of 258 sec) were greatly affected (P<0.01) by biotin (79% decrease in Rman and 2-fold increase in HCT) even at 14 mg/kg concentration. We concluded that Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin is less sensitive to inhibition by bilirubin, biotin, and biocytin than Tc-99m-DISIDA. Tc-99m-MAG3-biocytin appears to be a promising hepatobiliary imaging agent for hepatic function studies and may also be a useful tool to investigate the hepatic uptake mechanism of biotin derivatives in vivo

  9. A contrast study on different gasifying agents of underground coal gasification at Huating Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zuo-tang; HUANG Wen-gang; ZHANG Peng; XIN Lin

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the technological parameter of underground coal gasification (UCG), the experimental results of air gasification, air-steam gasification, oxygen-enrichment steam gasification, pure oxygen steam gasification and two-stage gasification were studied contrastively based on field trial at the Huating UCG project. The results indicate that the average low heat value of gas from air experiment is the lowest (4.1 MJ/Nm3) and the water gas from two-stage gasification experiment is the highest (10.72 MJ/Nm3). The gas productivity of air gasification is the highest and the pure oxygen steam gasification is the lowest. The gasification efficiency of air gasification, air-steam gasification, oxygen-enriched steam gasification, pure oxygen steam gasification and two-stage gasification is listed in ascending order, ranging from 69.88% to 84.81%. Described a contract study on results of a field test using steam and various levels of oxygen enrichment of 21%, 32%, 42% and 100%. The results show that, with the increasing of O2 content in gasifying agents, the gas caloricity rises, and the optimal O2 concentration range to increase the gas caloricity is 30%~40%. Meanwhile, the consumption of O2 and steam increase, and the air consumption and steam decomposition efficiency fall.

  10. Study on endophytic bacteria for bioactive compound production use as plant protection agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microbes are microbes which live symbiotically inside the plant tissue. The potential of those microbes were studied for many purposes such as industrial and agriculture. The purpose of this research was to study the potential of endophytic microbes for bioactive compound production as plants protection agent. From 238 bacteria isolates tested, it were identified that 44 bacteria were against the Xanthomonas campestris, 49 isolates against Pseudomonas solanacearum, 28 isolates against Colletotricum gloeosporioides, 18 isolates against Fusarium oxysporum, 19 isolates against Xanthomonas campestris and Pseudomonas solanacearum, 6 isolates against X. campestris and C. gloeosporioides, four isolates against X. campestris and F. oxysporum, two isolates against P. solanacearum and F. oxysporum, seven isolates against C. gloeosporioides and F. oxysporum, five isolates againt X. campestris, P. solanacearum and C. gloeosporioides. Fermentation process was conducted to collect the bioactive compound against pathogen. Isolates HL.50B.106 could produce bioactive compound against C. gloeosporioides, and F. oxysporum, isolates HL.13B.21 against X. campestris and P. solanacearum, isolates Hl.12B.19 against X. campestris, P. solanacearum and C. gloeosporioides. Thin layer chromatography analysis showed specific spot, different from standard (media. Spot was purple in color after sprayed with CeSO4. Rf value of HL.50B.106 extract were 0.51 and 0.53 (fraction 1 and 2, 0.62 and 0.64 (fraction 3 and 4.

  11. Molecular Modeling Studies of Thiophenyl C-Aryl Glucoside SGLT2 Inhibitors as Potential Antidiabetic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh C. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A QSAR study on thiophenyl derivatives as SGLT2 inhibitors as potential antidiabetic agents was performed with thirty-three compounds. Comparison of the obtained results indicated the superiority of the genetic algorithm over the simulated annealing and stepwise forward-backward variable method for feature selection. The best 2D QSAR model showed satisfactory statistical parameters for the data set (r2=0.8499, q2=0.8267, and pred_r2=0.7729 with four descriptors describing the nature of substituent groups and the environment of the substitution site. Evaluation of the model implied that electron-rich substitution position improves the inhibitory activity. The good predictive 3D-QSAR models by k-nearest neighbor (kNN method for molecular field analysis (MFA have cross-validated coefficient q2 value of 0.7663 and predicted r2 value of 0.7386. The results have showed that thiophenyl groups are necessary for activity and halogen, bulky, and less bulky groups in thiophenyl nucleus enhanced the biological activity. These studies are promising for the development of novel SGLT2 inhibitor, which may have potent antidiabetic activity.

  12. Reflective and Agentive Functions of Narrative Writing: a Qualitative Study on the Narratives of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-06-01

    There is a lively debate in the literature on reflective processes and on the necessity to view them as consisting with differing levels of complexity. Within a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, we present a conceptualization on reflective processes which distinguishes between reflection and reflectivity and articulates their relationship with narrative devices.The study analyzes 224 narratives of critical events written by 77 underachieving university students that took part in group training courses during the INSTALL European project.The corpus was subjected to a qualitative analysis of narrative function, with the aim of detecting narrative functions of reflection, reflectivity and agency, the latter being considered as an interconnected construct to the reflective process.The functions were discussed both on the basis of how the narrators reacted to the discontinuity in their self-image caused by the critical event, and based upon different types of narrative coherence (chronological, causal, thematic, autobiographical).The results highlighted that narratives with a reflection function, attribute the discontinuity generated by the event to the self, and show a causal coherence; those whose function is reflectivity interpret the discontinuity attributing it to the self in relation to others and present a thematic coherence; those of agency ascribe the discontinuity to a potential selves in action, and are characterized by an autobiographical coherence.The implications of the study will be discussed with reference to the value of narrative writing in promoting reflective-agentive processes. PMID:26264763

  13. Costs of managing anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents during hemodialysis: a time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Brigitte; Doss, Sheila; DE Cock, Erwin; Del Aguila, Michael A; Nissenson, Allen R

    2008-10-01

    Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) presents a significant time and cost burden in the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a prospective, observational, activity-based costing study to estimate the health care personnel time and resulting direct medical costs associated with administering epoetin 3 times weekly to patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. The study was conducted at 5 US hemodialysis centers. The personnel time and costs were derived from time and motion observations. Predicted time and cost savings were modeled for switching patients to once-monthly ESA therapy. Patients also completed a survey questionnaire to assess their level of CKD knowledge and information needs. Total per-patient-per-year (PPPY) time expended on anemia management with epoetin averaged 608 minutes (range 512-915 minutes), with an average PPPY cost of $548 (range $342-$651). Use of a once-monthly ESA, compared with epoetin, could decrease average PPPY time expenditure by 79% (127 minutes [range 96-173 minutes]) and reduce PPPY costs by 81% ($104 [range $79-$136]). The patient questionnaire reported insufficient education on CKD. Use of a once-monthly ESA to correct anemia in dialysis patients may provide substantial time, resource, and cost savings compared with current treatment practices. PMID:19090867

  14. Syntax and Morphology in Language Attrition: A Study of Five Bilingual Expatriate Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela

    1995-01-01

    Explores the attrition of different aspects of Swedish grammar. Empirical data from bilingual expatriate students are compared to data from monolingual Swedish aphasic patients. The students' noun phrase morphology had undergone attrition, but not their word order. For the aphasics, word order attrition was combined with unaffected noun phrase…

  15. The study of retained austenite morphology in low-carbon silico manganese steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of a retained austenite morphology in low-carbon steels of a chemical composition of 0.2% C, 1.5% Mn, and 1.5% Si are presented. The microstructure of retained austenite after martensitic transformation in samples quenched from austenite region, dual phase region and suggested isothermal bainitic transformation were analysed. (author)

  16. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

  17. The Size and Morphological Study of Spherical Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Bučko, M.; Tihlaříková, Eva; Krajčovič, T.; Gemeiner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 1697-1698. ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : PEC * ESEM * polymers * morphology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia;

    2012-01-01

    common DNA variants and normal variation in human facial morphology. Our results also suggest that the high heritability of facial phenotypes seems to be explained by a large number of DNA variants with relatively small individual effect size, a phenomenon well known for other complex human traits, such...

  19. The effect of antimicrobial agents on bond strength of orthodontic adhesives: a meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, A S P; Collares, F M; Leitune, V C B; Samuel, S M W

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives aim to reduce white spot lesions' incidence in orthodontic patients, but they should not jeopardizing its properties. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to answer the question whether the association of antimicrobial agents with orthodontic adhesives compromises its mechanical properties and whether there is a superior antimicrobial agent. PubMed and Scopus databases. In vitro studies comparing shear bond strength of conventional photo-activated orthodontic adhesives to antimicrobial photo-activated orthodontic adhesives were considered eligible. Search terms included the following: orthodontics, orthodontic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, bactericidal, adhesive, resin, resin composite, bonding agent, bonding system, and bond strength. The searches yielded 494 citations, which turned into 467 after duplicates were discarded. Titles and abstracts were read and 13 publications were selected for full-text reading. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. The global analysis showed no statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. In the subgroup analysis, only the chlorhexidine subgroup showed a statistically significant difference, where the control groups had higher bond strength than the experimental groups. Many studies on in vitro orthodontic bond strength fail to report test conditions that could affect their outcomes. The pooled in vitro data suggest that adding an antimicrobial agent to an orthodontic adhesive system does not influence bond strength to enamel. It is not possible to state which antimicrobial agent is better to be associated. PMID:26257400

  20. Morphological study on small molecule acceptor-based organic solar cells with efficiencies beyond 7% (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Yan, He

    2015-10-01

    Despite the essential role of fullerenes in achieving best-performance organic solar cells (OSCs), fullerene acceptors have several drawbacks including poor light absorption, high-cost production and purification. For this reason, small molecule acceptor (SMA)-based OSCs have attracted much attention due to the easy tunability of electronic and optical properties of SMA materials. In this study, polymers with temperature dependent aggregation behaviors are combined with various small molecule acceptor materials, which lead to impressive power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.3%. The morphological and aggregation properties of the polymer:small molecule blends are studied in details. It is found that the temperature-dependent aggregation behavior of polymers allows for the processing of the polymer solutions at moderately elevated temperature, and more importantly, controlled aggregation and strong crystallization of the polymer during the film cooling and drying process. This results in a well-controlled and near-ideal polymer:small molecule morphology that is controlled by polymer aggregation during warm casting and thus insensitive to the choice of small molecules. As a result, several cases of highly efficient (PCE between 6-7.3%) SMA OSCs are achieved. The second part of this presentation will describe the morphology of a new small molecule acceptor with a unique 3D structure. The relationship between molecular structure and morphology is revealed.