WorldWideScience

Sample records for agents electron spin

  1. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  2. New sensitive agents for detecting singlet oxygen by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, T; Sakurai, K; Oi, T; Obara, H; Ohya, H; Kamada, H

    1999-05-01

    Free radicals are well-established transient intermediates in chemical and biological processes. Singlet oxygen, though not a free radical, is also a fairly common reactive chemical species. It is rare that singlet oxygen is studied with the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique in biological systems, because there are few suitable detecting agents. We have recently researched some semiquinone radicals. Specifically, our focus has been on bipyrazole derivatives, which slowly convert to semiquinone radicals in DMSO solution in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide and oxygen. These bipyrazole derivatives are dimers of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and have anti-ischemic activities and free radical scavenging properties. In this work, we synthesized a new bipyrazole derivative, 4,4'-bis(1p-carboxyphenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxyl)-pyrazole, DRD156. The resulting semiquinone radical, formed by reaction with singlet oxygen, was characterized by ESR spectroscopy. DRD156 gave no ESR signals from hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide. DRD156, though, gives an ESR response with hypochlorite. This agent, nevertheless, has a much higher ability to detect singlet oxygen than traditional agents with the ESR technique. PMID:10381208

  3. Concepts in spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the future electronics.

  4. 5,5-Dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone-N-oxyl formation in electron spin resonance studies of electrolyzed NaCl solution using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as a spin trapping agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Silvia D; Daeschel, Mark A

    2005-06-15

    Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has recently generated much interest as a disinfectant in the food industry. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) is a spin trapping agent widely used in the electron spin resonance (ESR) characterization of oxygen-centered free radicals. The reaction between electrolyzed water, collected from the anode side of a two-chamber electrolyzer, and DMPO was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Addition of DMPO to EO water generated an ESR spectrum identical to that of 5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone-N-oxyl (DMPOX), suggesting that a compound from EO water oxidized DMPO with the formation of DMPOX. To further investigate the electrolytically generated compound that oxidized DMPO, aqueous solutions of different sodium salts (sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium iodide) with similar conductivities were electrolyzed. The DMPOX signal was not detected in the electrolyzed sodium citrate sample, suggesting that DMPOX formation in the electrolyzed NaCl sample might be due to an electrolytically generated chlorine species. A low DMPOX signal was also observed from the electrolyzed NaI sample, suggesting that a similar species obtained through the electrolysis of I- can also oxidize DMPO. Hypochlorous acid is proposed to oxidize the spin trap DMPO with the formation of DMPOX. In a neutral pH environment, electrolyzed water also oxidized DMPO to DMPOX. This is consistent with the DMPOX formation in the reaction of chlorine water (containing HOCl and Cl2) or sodium hypochlorite with DMPO. PMID:15941334

  5. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  6. Electron-spin dynamics induced by photon spins

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, S.; Bauke, H.; Keitel, C.; Grobe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Strong rotating magnetic fields may cause a precession of the electron's spin around the rotation axis of the magnetic field. The superposition of two counterpropagating laser beams with circular polarization and opposite helicity features such a rotating magnetic field component but also carries spin. The laser's spin density, that can be expressed in terms of the lase's electromagnetic fields and potentials, couples to the electron's spin via a relativistic correction to the Pauli equation....

  7. Highly efficient spin filtering of ballistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmuller, S. J.; Trypiniotis, T.; Cho, W. S.; Hirohata, A.; Lew, W. S.; Vaz, C. A.; Bland, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Spin dependent electron transport in hybrid Au/Co/Cu/NiFe/n-GaAs spin valve Schottky barrier structures was investigated using photoexcitation at various wavelengths. For excitation with the photon energy well above the Schottky barrier height we found a ˜2400% increase in helicity dependent photocurrent on switching the spin valve from parallel to antiparallel alignment. Our observations provide clear evidence for highly efficient spin filtering of spin polarized ballistic electrons.

  8. Spin Electronics in Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Felipe Tijiwa

    2011-12-01

    The work described in this thesis reflects a through investigation of spin-dependent transport through metallic nanoparticles, via tunnel junctions. Our devices consist of metallic nanoparticles embedded in an insulating matrix tunnel coupled to two metallic electrodes. At low temperatures, the small dimensions of the particles provide the necessary conditions to study the role played by discrete energy levels in the transport properties of these devices. In Chapter 1, a brief introduction to some of the relevant background topics related to this work, will be presented. Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of measurement procedures used on the experiments, and the adopted techniques for sample fabrication. In some of the devices presented here, the electrodes are made of ferromagnetic materials, which are used as source of spin-polarized current. The case where both electrodes are ferromagnetic, in a spin-valve configuration, will be discussed in Chapter 3, showing that spin accumulation mechanisms are responsible for the observed spin-polarized current. It will also be shown that the effect of an applied perpendicular magnetic field, relative to the magnetization orientation of the electrodes, indicates the suppression of spin precession in such small particles. Moreover, in the presence of an external non-collinear magnetic field, it is the local field "felt" by the particle that determines the character of the tunnel current. Even in samples where only one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic, spin-polarization of the tunnel current due to spin accumulation in the particle is observed. Asymmetries in the current-voltage (IV) characteristics as well as in the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of these devices will be presented in Chapter 4. Another type of device, which will be addressed in Chapter 5, consists of ferromagnetic nanoparticles coupled to normal-metal electrodes. The rich electronic structure as well as a complex set of relaxation mechanisms in these

  9. Spin dependent electron response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In two-dimensional (2d) electronic systems (realized, e.g., in semiconductor quantum wells), correlation effects are more pronounced than in the bulk. This manifests itself in a lower value of the density parameter rs, where the system freezes into a crystal. A precursor of this transition is a minimum in the plasmon dispersion, which even may re-appear below the particle-hole continuum at high frequencies. Based on the dynamic many body theory of E. Krotscheck's group we study the excitations of 2d partially spin-polarized electron liquids at various rs and wave vectors. QMC data from the literature are used as an input for computing the spin dependent response functions. (author)

  10. Electron spin from self interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author explores the possibility that the electron self-interaction is the origin of the spin and of the radiative effects of QED. The electron is conceived as a charged, massless, point particle with a quantum or stochastic, internal motion about its center of mass and bound by a self-interaction potential. The hydrodynamic equations of motion describing the electron in its center of mass frame are related to non-Markovian stochastic equations recently used to derive the Schroedinger equation. By averaging over this stochastic internal motion and identifying the energy with the rest mass energy, the angular momentum exhibits properties characteristic of spin. The electromagnetic self-interactions added to the Hamiltonian of the particle correct the g factor to yield the anomalous value (g-2)/2 ∼ 1159.7(2.3) X 10-6 in agreement with experiment. Calculations of other open-quotes radiativeclose quotes effects including the Lamb shift are presented. The results obtained are finite and suggest that the QED corrections attributed to radiative effects could be obtained classically, i.e., without second quantization and renormalization, by complementing the Dirac theory with this self-interaction mechanism. The g factor dependence on the external magnetic field of this and other spin models is compared with that of QED, showing that these theories can be tested by the present precision measurements of the g factor. 33 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Electron-spin dynamics induced by photon spins

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Sven; Keitel, Christoph H; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Strong rotating magnetic fields may cause a precession of the electron's spin around the rotation axis of the magnetic field. The superposition of two counterpropagating laser beams with circular polarization and opposite helicity features such a rotating magnetic field component but also carries spin. The laser's spin density, which can be expressed in terms of the laser's electromagnetic fields and potentials, couples to the electron's spin via a relativistic correction to the Pauli equation. We show that the quantum mechanical interaction of the electron's spin with the laser's rotating magnetic field and with the laser's spin density counteract each other in such a way that a net spin rotation remains with a precession frequency that is much smaller than the frequency one would expect from the rotating magnetic field alone. In particular, the frequency scales differently with the laser's electric field strength depending on if relativistic corrections are taken into account or not. Thus, the relativistic ...

  12. Electron-spin dynamics induced by photon spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Keitel, Christoph H.; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-10-01

    Strong rotating magnetic fields may cause a precession of the electron's spin around the rotation axis of the magnetic field. The superposition of two counterpropagating laser beams with circular polarization and opposite helicity features such a rotating magnetic field component but also carries spin. The laser's spin density, which can be expressed in terms of the laser's electromagnetic fields and potentials, couples to the electron's spin via a relativistic correction to the Pauli equation. We show that the quantum mechanical interaction of the electron's spin with the laser's rotating magnetic field and with the laser's spin density counteract each other in such a way that a net spin rotation remains with a precession frequency that is much smaller than the frequency one would expect from the rotating magnetic field alone. In particular, the frequency scales differently with the laser's electric field strength depending on whether relativistic corrections are taken into account or not. Thus, the relativistic coupling of the electron's spin to the laser's spin density changes the dynamics not only quantitatively but also qualitatively as compared to the nonrelativistic theory. The electron's spin dynamics are a genuine quantum mechanical relativistic effect.

  13. Spin, spin-orbit, and electron-electron interactions in mesoscopic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oreg, Yuval; Brouwer, P.W.; Waintal, X.; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    2001-01-01

    We review recent theoretical developments about the role of spins, electron-electron interactions, and spin-orbit coupling in metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. For a closed system, in the absence of spin-orbit coupling or of an external magnetic field, electron-electron interactions make it possible to have ground states with spin $S > 1/2$. We review here a theoretical analysis which makes predictions for the probability of finding various values of spin $S$ for an irregula...

  14. Microresonators for electron spin qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The traditional high-Q EPR resonators are optimized for large samples. For small samples and individual qubits, it is possible to design different resonators that have much better power handling properties, create less interference with other peripheral lines and, if they are used for detection, have better sensitivity. Other parameters being equal, the sensitivity of the resonator can be increased by minimizing its size and thus increasing the filling factor. In contrast to cavity type resonators, microcoils can be made much smaller than the operation wavelength. For this type of resonator, it has been established theoretically and experimentally that the sensitivity varies inversely with its linear dimensions. Moreover, the planar coil geometry is ideal to be manufactured in a small size by means of standard microtechnology. It also offers advantages for the excitation of electron spins in prototype quantum computer systems. High microwave power to the magnetic field conversion factor of the microresonator allows to achieve 24 ns L/2 - pulses with less than 20 mW of incident power. Within the QIPDDF-ROSES project, we are using such resonators to measure the EPR parameters of monolayer molecular films of N at C60 and for excitation of the single electron spin in a defect center in diamond. The microresonator prototypes consisting of a 200 μm planar microcoil tuned and matched at 14 GHz with distributed elements have been fabricated on Si substrate. The sensitivity tests with a DPPH samples resulted in the sensitivity value 10E9 spins/G/Hz1/2 at 300 K. The designed layouts of the microresonator can be scaled down up to a tens of micrometers, and with a different microwave coupling approach hundreds of nanometers could be achieved, allowing the operation frequency up to 100 THz (author)

  15. Optoelectronic spin memories of electrons in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2016-03-01

    We optically generate electron spins in semiconductors and apply an external magnetic field perpendicularly to them. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, pumped with a circularly polarized light, are performed to study the spin polarization and spin memory times in the semiconducting host. The measured spin polarization is found to be an exponential decay with the time delay of the probe. It is also found that the spin memory times, extracted from the polarization decays, enhance with the strength of the external magnetic field. However, at higher fields, the memory times get saturated to sub- μs because of the coupling for interacting electrons with the local nuclear field.

  16. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  17. Electron spin separation without magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanodevice capable of separating spins of two electrons confined in a quantum dot formed in a gated semiconductor nanowire is proposed. Two electrons confined initially in a single quantum dot in the singlet state are transformed into the system of two electrons confined in two spatially separated quantum dots with opposite spins. In order to separate the electrons' spins we exploit transitions between the singlet and the triplet state, which are induced by resonantly oscillating Rashba spin–orbit coupling strength. The proposed device is all electrically controlled and the electron spin separation can be realized within tens of picoseconds. The results are supported by solving numerically the quasi-one-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for two electrons, where the electron–electron correlations are taken into account in the exact manner. (paper)

  18. Spin effects in electron vortex states

    OpenAIRE

    Van Boxem, Ruben; Verbeeck, Jo; Partoens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The recent experimental realization of electron vortex beams opens up a wide research domain previously unexplored. The present paper explores the relativistic properties of these electron vortex beams, and quantifies deviations from the scalar wave theory. It is common in electron optics to use the Schrodinger equation neglecting spin. The present paper investigates the role of spin and the total angular momentum J(z) and how it pertains to the vortex states. As an application, we ...

  19. Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesenberg, Janus; Ardavan, A.; Briggs, G.A.D.;

    2009-01-01

    We propose to encode a register of quantum bits in different collective electron spin wave excitations in a solid medium. Coupling to spins is enabled by locating them in the vicinity of a superconducting transmission line cavity, and making use of their strong collective coupling to the quantized...

  20. Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Harriman, John E

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f

  1. Spin-electron acoustic soliton and exchange interaction in separate spin evolution quantum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics is generalized to include the Coulomb exchange interaction, which is considered as interaction between the spin-down electrons being in quantum states occupied by one electron. The generalized model is applied to study the non-linear spin-electron acoustic waves. Existence of the spin-electron acoustic soliton is demonstrated. Contributions of concentration, spin polarization, and exchange interaction to the properties of the spin electron acoustic soliton are studied.

  2. Spin-electron acoustic soliton and exchange interaction in separate spin evolution quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics is generalized to include the Coulomb exchange interaction, which is considered as interaction between the spin-down electrons being in quantum states occupied by one electron. The generalized model is applied to study the non-linear spin-electron acoustic waves. Existence of the spin-electron acoustic soliton is demonstrated. Contributions of concentration, spin polarization, and exchange interaction to the properties of the spin electron acoustic soliton are studied

  3. Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons: Spin-electron acoustic wave appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-03-01

    The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin

  4. Providing Reliable Agents for Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Straßer, Markus; Rothermel, Kurt; Maihöfer, Christian

    1998-01-01

    It is widely agreed that mobile agents in conjunction with WWW technology will provide the technical foundation for future electronic commerce. A prerequisite for the use of mobile agents in a commercial environment is, that agents have to be executed reliable, independent of communication and node failure. In this paper, we first present a recently proposed fault-tolerant protocol to ensure the exactly-once execution of an agent by monitoring the agents execut...

  5. Spin decomposition of the electron in QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangdong; Schäfer, Andreas; Yuan, Feng; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    We perform a systematic study on the spin decomposition of an electron in QED at one-loop order. It is found that the electron orbital angular momentum defined in Jaffe-Manohar and Ji spin sum rules agree with each other, and the so-called potential angular momentum vanishes at this order. The calculations are performed in both dimensional regularization and Pauli-Villars regularization for the ultraviolet divergences, and they lead to consistent results. We further investigate the calculations in terms of light-front wave functions and find a missing contribution from the instantaneous interaction in light-front quantization. This clarifies the confusing issues raised recently in the literature on the spin decomposition of an electron and will help consolidate the spin physics program for nucleons in QCD.

  6. Electron spin relaxation in graphene from a microscopic approach: Role of electron-electron interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin relaxation in graphene on a substrate is investigated from the fully microscopic kinetic spin Bloch equation approach. All the relevant scatterings, such as the electron-impurity, electron--acoustic-phonon, electron--optical-phonon, electron--remote-interfacial-phonon, as well as electron-electron Coulomb scatterings, are explicitly included. Our study concentrates on clean intrinsic graphene, where the spin-orbit coupling from the adatoms can be neglected. We discuss the effect...

  7. Quantum Computation and Spin Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    DiVincenzo, David P.; Burkard, Guido; Loss, Daniel; Sukhorukov, Eugene V.

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the connection between mesoscopic physics and quantum computing. After giving a bibliography providing a general introduction to the subject of quantum information processing, we review the various approaches that are being considered for the experimental implementation of quantum computing and quantum communication in atomic physics, quantum optics, nuclear magnetic resonance, superconductivity, and, especially, normal-electron solid state physics. We discuss five ...

  8. Electronic spin working mechanically (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Krive, I. V.; Kiselev, M. N.; Kulinich, S. I.; Parafilo, A. V.; Kikoin, K.; Jonson, M.

    2014-07-01

    A single-electron tunneling (SET) device with a nanoscale central island that can move with respect to the bulk source- and drain electrodes allows for a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling between the electrical current through the device and mechanical vibrations of the island. Although an electromechanical "shuttle" instability and the associated phenomenon of single-electron shuttling were predicted more than 15 years ago, both theoretical and experimental studies of NEM-SET structures are still carried out. New functionalities based on quantum coherence, Coulomb correlations and coherent electron-spin dynamics are of particular current interest. In this article we present a short review of recent activities in this area.

  9. Environmental effects on electron spin relaxation in N@C60

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, J J L; Ardavan, A; Porfyrakis, K; Lyon, S A; Briggs, G A D; Morton, John J. L.; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2006-01-01

    We examine environmental effects of surrounding nuclear spins on the electron spin relaxation of the N@C60 molecule (which consists of a nitrogen atom at the centre of a fullerene cage). Using dilute solutions of N@C60 in regular and deuterated toluene, we observe and model the effect of translational diffusion of nuclear spins of the solvent molecules on the N@C60 electron spin relaxation times. We also study spin relaxation in frozen solutions of N@C60 in CS2, to which small quantities of a glassing agent, S2Cl2 are added. At low temperatures, spin relaxation is caused by spectral diffusion of surrounding nuclear (35,37)Cl spins in the S2Cl2, but nevertheless, at 20 K, T2 times as long as 0.23 ms are observed

  10. Spin rotation for ballistic electron transmission induced by spin-orbit interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2002-01-01

    We study spin dependent electron transmission through one- and two-dimensional curved waveguides and quantum dots with account of spin-orbit interaction. We prove that for a transmission through arbitrary structure there is no spin polarization provided that electron transmits in isolated energy subband and only two leads are attached to the structure. In particular there is no spin polarization in the one-dimensional wire for which spin dependent solution is found analytically. The solution ...

  11. Electron-Spin Filters Would Offer Spin Polarization Greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2009-01-01

    A proposal has been made to develop devices that would generate spin-polarized electron currents characterized by polarization ratios having magnitudes in excess of 1. Heretofore, such devices (denoted, variously, as spin injectors, spin polarizers, and spin filters) have typically offered polarization ratios having magnitudes in the approximate range of 0.01 to 0.1. The proposed devices could be useful as efficient sources of spin-polarized electron currents for research on spintronics and development of practical spintronic devices.

  12. Methodological considerations of electron spin resonance spin trapping techniques for measuring reactive oxygen species generated from metal oxide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min Sook; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ah Young; Song, Mi Ryoung; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jun Sung

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated on the surfaces of nanomaterials are important for understanding their toxicity and toxic mechanisms, which are in turn beneficial for manufacturing more biocompatible nanomaterials in many industrial fields. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful tool for detecting ROS formation. However, using this technique without first considering the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and proper conditions of the spin trapping agent (such as incubation time) may lead to misinterpretation of the resulting data. In this report, we suggest methodological considerations for ESR as pertains to magnetism, sample preparation and proper incubation time with spin trapping agents. Based on our results, each spin trapping agent should be given the proper incubation time. For nanomaterials having magnetic properties, it is useful to remove these nanomaterials via centrifugation after reacting with spin trapping agents. Sonication for the purpose of sample dispersion and sample light exposure should be controlled during ESR in order to enhance the obtained ROS signal. This report will allow researchers to better design ESR spin trapping applications involving nanomaterials.

  13. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (stawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet (aH ∼30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, raspberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time. (author)

  14. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  15. Energy relaxation in the spin-polarized disordered electron liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    The energy relaxation in the spin-polarized disordered electron systems is studied in the diffusive regime. We derived the quantum kinetic equation in which the kernel of electron-electron collision integral explicitly depends on the electron magnetization. As the consequence, the inelastic scattering rate is found to have non-monotonic dependence on the spin polarization of the electron system.

  16. Electron-spin dynamics in elliptically polarized light waves

    OpenAIRE

    Bauke, H.; Ahrens, S.; Grobe, R.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the coupling of the spin angular momentum of light beams with elliptical polarization to the spin degree of freedom of free electrons. It is shown that this coupling, which is of similar origin as the well-known spin-orbit coupling, can lead to spin precession. The spin-precession frequency is proportional to the product of the laser-field's intensity and its spin density. The electron-spin dynamics is analyzed by employing exact numerical methods as well as time-dependent pert...

  17. On agent-mediated electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    He, M.; Jennings, N. R.; Leung, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyzes the state of the art of agent-mediated electronic commerce (e-commerce), concentrating particularly on the business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) aspects. From the consumer buying behavior perspective, agents are being used in the following activities: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering, and negotiation. The roles of agents in B2B e-commerce are discussed through the business-to-business tran...

  18. Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion and spin-polarization filtering in electron beams

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi E.; Marrucci L.; Grillo V.; Santamato E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the design of a space-variant Wien filter for electron beams that induces a spin half-turn and converts the corresponding spin angular momentum variation into orbital angular momentum of the beam itself by exploiting a geometrical phase arising in the spin manipulation. When applied to a spatially coherent input spin-polarized electron beam, such a device can generate an electron vortex beam, carrying orbital angular momentum. When applied to an unpolarized input beam, the proposed...

  19. Spin Echo of a Single Electron Spin in a Quantum Dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppens, F.H.L.; Nowack, K.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report a measurement of the spin-echo decay of a single electron spin confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. When we tip the spin in the transverse plane via a magnetic field burst, it dephases in 37 ns due to the Larmor precession around a random effective field from the nuclear spins in the h

  20. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging

  1. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-02-23

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.

  2. Spin Effects in Collisions of Electrons with Atoms and Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical work on spin-dependent electron-atom and electron-molecule collisions is reviewed. The spin is involved in such collisions by explicit spin-dependent interactions such as the spin-orbit interaction of the continuum electron (Mott scattering) but also by exchange, which, in conjunction with the Pauli principle, gives rise to observable spin exchange effects. We present results for Mn and Na atoms and experiments in which electron dichroism with chiral molecules has been studied.

  3. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, T.B.; Alkemade, F.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of the market, s

  4. Anomalous organic magnetoresistance from competing carrier-spin-dependent interactions with localized electronic and nuclear spins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Harmon, N. J.; Sahin-Tiras, K.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Flatté, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new regime for low-field magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors, in which the spin-relaxing effects of localized nuclear spins and electronic spins interfere. The regime is studied by the controlled addition of localized electronic spins to a material that exhibits substantial room-temperature magnetoresistance ($\\sim 20$\\%). Although initially the magnetoresistance is suppressed by the doping, at intermediate doping there is a regime where the magnetoresistance is insensit...

  5. Spin dependent 2D electron scattering by nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2D scattering problem of an electron by a magnetized nanoparticle is solved in the Born approximation with account of the dipole-dipole interaction of the magnetic moments of electron and nanomagnet. The scattering amplitudes in this problem are the two-component spinors. They are obtained as functions of the electron spin orientation, the electron energy and show anisotropy in scattering angle. The initially polarized beam of electrons scattered by the nanomagnet consists of electrons with no spin flipped and spin flipped. The majority of electrons with no spin flipped are scattered by small angles. The majority electrons with spin flipped are scattered in the vicinity of the scattering angles π/2 and 3π/2. This can be used as one more method of controlling the spin currents. - Research highlights: → The artificial namomagnets with gigantic magnetic moments strongly interact with spins of electrons. → In 2D geometry this interaction controls the electron-nanomagnet scattering. → The scattering amplitudes are two-component spinors. → The scattering lengths depend on orientation of magnetic moment of the nanomagnet, the electron spin, and the scattering angle. → This dependence can be used for controlling the spin currents.

  6. Spin polarized electrons produced by strong field ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    We show that ionization of noble gas atoms by strong infrared circularly polarized laser field under standard exerimental conditions can yield electrons with up to 100% spin polarization in energy resolved measurements. Spin polarization arises due to the interplay of the electron-core entanglement and the sensitivity of ionization in circularly polarized fields to the sense of electron rotation in the initial state.

  7. Resonance fluorescence and electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yong

    2009-11-18

    The work presented in this dissertation contains the first observation of spin-resolved resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot and its application of direct measurement of electron spin dynamics. The Mollow triplet and the Mollow quintuplet, which are the hallmarks of resonance fluorescence, are presented as the non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved resonance fluorescence spectrum, respectively. The negligible laser background contribution, the near pure radiative broadened spectrum and the anti-bunching photon statistics imply the sideband photons are background-free and near transform-limited single photons. This demonstration is a promising step towards the heralded single photon generation and electron spin readout. Instead of resolving spectrum, an alternative spin-readout scheme by counting resonance fluorescence photons under moderate laser power is demonstrated. The measurements of n-shot time-resolved resonance fluorescence readout are carried out to reveal electron spin dynamics of the measurement induced back action and the spin relaxation. Hyperfine interaction and heavy-light hole mixing are identified as the relevant mechanisms for the back action and phonon-assistant spin-orbit interaction dominates the spin relaxation. After a detailed discussion on charge-spin configurations in coupled quantum dots system, the single-shot readout on electron spin are proposed. (orig.)

  8. Electron Spin Relaxation in Intrinsic Bulk InP Semiconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Guohong

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin dynamics is studied by time resolved pump probe reflectivity (TRPPR) technique using the co- and counter-circularly polarized femtosecond pulses in intrinsic bulk Indium Phosphide (InP) crystal at room temperature and 70 K. The reflectivity change from bleaching into absorption enhancement is observed with increasing pump photon energy. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of the spin sensitive band filling and band gap renormalization effects. Although electron spin relaxation process at room temperature is much faster than that at 70K, carrier density dependence of electron spin relaxation shows similar tendency. With increasing carrier density, the electron spin relaxation time increases initially and then decreases after reaching a maximum value. Our experimental results agree well with the recent theoretical prediction and D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is considered as a dominating contribution to the electron spin relaxation in intrinsic bulk InP semiconductor.

  9. Electron-spin dynamics in elliptically polarized light waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Heiko; Ahrens, Sven; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the coupling of the spin angular momentum of light beams with elliptical polarization to the spin degree of freedom of free electrons. It is shown that this coupling, which is of similar origin as the well-known spin-orbit coupling, can lead to spin precession. The spin-precession frequency is proportional to the product of the laser field's intensity and its spin density. The electron-spin dynamics is analyzed by employing exact numerical methods as well as time-dependent perturbation theory based on the fully relativistic Dirac equation and on the nonrelativistic Pauli equation that is amended by a relativistic correction that accounts for the light's spin density.

  10. Electron-spin dynamics in elliptically polarized light waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bauke, Heiko; Grobe, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the coupling of the spin angular momentum of light beams with elliptical polarization to the spin degree of freedom of free electrons. It is shown that this coupling, which is of similar origin as the well-known spin-orbit coupling, can lead to spin precession. The spin-precession frequency is proportional to the product of the laser-field's intensity and its spin density. The electron-spin dynamics is analyzed by employing exact numerical methods as well as time-dependent perturbation theory based on the fully relativistic Dirac equation and on the nonrelativistic Pauli equation that is amended by a relativistic correction that accounts for the light's spin density.

  11. Pumped Spin-Current in Single Quantum Dot with Spin-Dependent Electron Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Song; Du, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Spin-dependent electron temperature effect on the spin pump in a single quantum dot connected to Normal and/or Ferromagnetic leads are investigated with the help of master equation method. Results show that spin heat accumulation breaks the tunneling rates balance at the thermal equilibrium state thus the charge current and the spin current are affected to some extent. Pure spin current can be obtained by adjusting pumping intensity or chemical potential of the lead. Spin heat accumulation of certain material can be detected by measuring the charge current strength in symmetric leads architectures. In practical devices, spin-dependent electron temperature effect is quite significant and our results should be useful in quantum information processing and spin Caloritronics.

  12. Pumped Spin-Current in Single Quantum Dot with Spin-Dependent Electron Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Song; Du, Xiaohong

    2016-05-01

    Spin-dependent electron temperature effect on the spin pump in a single quantum dot connected to Normal and/or Ferromagnetic leads are investigated with the help of master equation method. Results show that spin heat accumulation breaks the tunneling rates balance at the thermal equilibrium state thus the charge current and the spin current are affected to some extent. Pure spin current can be obtained by adjusting pumping intensity or chemical potential of the lead. Spin heat accumulation of certain material can be detected by measuring the charge current strength in symmetric leads architectures. In practical devices, spin-dependent electron temperature effect is quite significant and our results should be useful in quantum information processing and spin Caloritronics.

  13. Spin Squeezing of Atomic Ensembles via Nuclear-Electronic Spin Entanglement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernholz, Thomas; Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate spin squeezing in a room temperature ensemble of ≈1012 cesium atoms using their internal structure, where the necessary entanglement is created between nuclear and electronic spins of each individual atom. This state provides improvement in measurement sensitivity beyond the standard...... quantum limit for quantum memory experiments and applications in quantum metrology and is thus a complementary alternative to spin squeezing obtained via interatom entanglement. Squeezing of the collective spin is verified by quantum state tomography....

  14. Development of a spin polarized low energy electron diffraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A V; Roy, Arnab; Kumar, P S Anil; Kirschner, J

    2016-02-01

    We have designed and constructed a spin polarized low energy electron diffraction system working in the reflected electron pulse counting mode. This system is capable of measuring asymmetries due to spin-orbit and exchange interactions. Photoemission from a strained GaAs/GaAsP super lattice is used as the source of spin polarized electrons. Spin-orbit asymmetry is evaluated for Ir(100) single crystal at various energies. Subsequently, exchange asymmetry has been evaluated on 40 monolayer Fe deposited on Ir(100). This instrument proves to be useful in understanding structure and magnetism at surfaces. PMID:26931865

  15. Adapting a compact Mott spin polarimeter to a large commercial electron energy analyzer for spin-polarized electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Jing; Lee, Jae-Yong; Suen, Jih-Shih; Mulhollan, G. A.; Andrews, A. B.; Erskine, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    A modified Rice University-type compact Mott spin polarimeter operating at 20 kV is adapted to a large commerical hemispherical electron energy analyzer. Normal energy analyzer functions are preserved via a retractable channeltron in the polarimeter acceleration column. In the spin-detection mode, the polarimeter permits analysis of two orthogonal transverse spin-polarization components. Electron trajectory analysis is used to optimize polarimeter lens column voltages in both normal and spin-detection modes. Performance levels are established by experiments and significantly improved spin-detection efficiency is shown to be accessible by changes in the polarimeter collection solid angle.

  16. EPR and DNP Properties of Certain Novel Single Electron Contrast Agents Intended for Oximetric Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, J. H.; Laursen, I; Leunbach, I.;

    1998-01-01

    examined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 9.5 mT in water, isotonic saline, plasma, and blood at 23 and 37°C. The relaxivities of the agents are about 0.2–0.4 mM−1s−1and the DNP enhancements extrapolate close to the......Parameters of relevance to oximetry with Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) have been measured for three single electron contrast agents of the triphenylmethyl type. The single electron contrast agents are stable and water soluble. Magnetic resonance properties of the agents have been...... than 1 μT in water at room temperature. The longitudinal electron spin relaxation rate is calculated from the DNP enhancement curves. The oxygen broadening in water is about 50 μT/mM O2at 37°C. These agents have good properties for oximetry with OMRI....

  17. Symmetry breaking effects on spin and electronic transport in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Asmar, Mahmoud M; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2015-01-01

    The decoration of graphene samples with adatoms or nanoparticles leads to the enhancement of spin-orbit interactions as well as to the introduction of symmetry-breaking effects that could have drastic effects on spin and electronic transport phenomena. We present an analysis based on symmetry considerations and examine the impact on the scattering matrix for graphene systems containing defects that enhance spin-orbit interactions, while conserving the electronic total angular momentum. We sho...

  18. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.

  19. Kerr-Newman electron as spinning soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measurable parameters of the electron indicate that its background should be described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution. Spin/mass ratio of the electron is extreme large, and the black hole horizons disappear, opening a topological defect of spacetime -- the Kerr singular ring of the Compton size, which may be interpreted as a closed fundamental string to the low energy string theory. The singular and twosheeted structure of the corresponding Kerr space has to be regularized, and we consider the old problem of regular source of the KN solution. As a development of the earlier Keres-Israel-Hamity-L\\'opez model, we describe the model of smooth and regular source forming a gravitating and relativistically rotating soliton based on the chiral field model and the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. The model reveals some new remarkable properties: 1) the soliton forms a relativistically rotating bubble of the Compton radius, which is filled by the oscillating Higgs field in pseudo-vacuum state, 2) boundary of the ...

  20. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  1. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ya [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: weijiang@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Centre for mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yi, Lin [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  2. Universal Synchronous Spin Rotators for Electron-Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Chevtsov, Pavel; Krafft, Geoff; Zhang, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides mathematics and physics considerations concerning a special class of electron spin manipulating structures for future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) projects. These structures, which we call Universal Synchronous Spin Rotators (USSR), consist of a sequence of standard basic spin manipulating elements or cells built with two solenoids and one bending magnet between them. When integrated into the ring arcs, USSR structures do not affect the central particle orbit, and their spin transformation functions can be described by a linear mathematical model. In spite of being relatively simple, the model allows one to design spin rotators, which are able to perform spin direction changes from vertical to longitudinal and vice versa in significant continuous intervals of the electron energy. This makes USSR especially valuable tools for EIC nuclear physics experiments.

  3. Polarization Measurement of Spin-Polarized Electrons by Optical Electron Polarimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hai-Bing; PANG Wen-Ning; LIU Yi-Bao; SHANG Ren-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ The polarization of spin-polarized electrons, produced from a new GaAs spin-polarized electron source, is determined by an optical electron polarimeter. The He 3 3p → 23S1 (388.9nm) transition is used for the optical electron polarimetry. The structure and performance of the experimental setup of spin-polarized electron source and optical electron polarimeter are described. The result of polarization of 30.8% averaged spin-up and spindown polarized electrons is obtained and presented.

  4. Spin-flip induction of Fano resonance upon electron tunneling through atomic-scale spin structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val' kov, V. V., E-mail: vvv@iph.krasn.ru; Aksenov, S. V., E-mail: asv86@iph.krasn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Kirensky Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Ulanov, E. A. [Siberian State Aerospace University (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The inclusion of inelastic spin-dependent electron scatterings by the potential profiles of a single magnetic impurity and a spin dimer is shown to induce resonance features due to the Fano effect in the transport characteristics of such atomic-scale spin structures. The spin-flip processes leading to a configuration interaction of the system's states play a fundamental role for the realization of Fano resonance and antiresonance. It has been established that applying an external magnetic field and a gate electric field allows the conductive properties of spin structures to be changed radically through the Fano resonance mechanism.

  5. Quantum rings as electron spin beam splitters

    OpenAIRE

    Foldi, Peter; Kalman, Orsolya; Benedict, Mihaly G.; Peeters, F. M

    2005-01-01

    Quantum interference and spin-orbit interaction in a one-dimensional mesoscopic semiconductor ring with one input and two output leads can act as a spin beam splitter. Different polarization can be achieved in the two output channels from an originally totally unpolarized incoming spin state, very much like in a Stern-Gerlach apparatus. We determine the relevant parameters such that the device has unit efficiency.

  6. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  7. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  8. EPR and DNP Properties of Certain Novel Single Electron Contrast Agents Intended for Oximetric Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, J. H.; Laursen, I; Leunbach, I.; Ehnholm, G.; Wistrand, L.-G.; Petersson, J. S.; Golman, K.

    1998-01-01

    Parameters of relevance to oximetry with Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) have been measured for three single electron contrast agents of the triphenylmethyl type. The single electron contrast agents are stable and water soluble. Magnetic resonance properties of the agents have been e...... than 1 μT in water at room temperature. The longitudinal electron spin relaxation rate is calculated from the DNP enhancement curves. The oxygen broadening in water is about 50 μT/mM O2at 37°C. These agents have good properties for oximetry with OMRI.......Parameters of relevance to oximetry with Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) have been measured for three single electron contrast agents of the triphenylmethyl type. The single electron contrast agents are stable and water soluble. Magnetic resonance properties of the agents have been...... dipolar limit. The agents have a single, narrow EPR line, which is analyzed as a Voigt function. The linewidth is measured as a function of the agent concentration and the oxygen concentration. The concentration broadenings are about 1–3 μT/mM and the Lorentzian linewidths at infinite dilution are less...

  9. Nondestructive measurement of electron spins in a quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, T.; Vink, I. T.; Willems van Beveren, L.H.; Koppens, F. H. L.; Tranitz, H. P.; Wegscheider, W.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2006-01-01

    We propose and implement a nondestructive measurement that distinguishes between two-electron spin states in a quantum dot. In contrast to earlier experiments with quantum dots, the spins are left behind in the state corresponding to the measurement outcome. By measuring the spin states twice within a time shorter than the relaxation time T1, correlations between the outcomes of consecutive measurements are observed. They disappear as the wait time between measurements becomes comparable to T...

  10. Ballistic electron magnetic microscopy on epitaxial spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, E.; Vancea, J.; Back, C. H.

    2007-02-01

    The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope has been used as an injector of hot electrons or hot holes into a spin valve epitaxially grown on n-GaAs67P33 . Spin-dependent transport of injected and hole excited electrons has been studied in an external magnetic field at room temperature. Significant variations in the collector current due to the spin-dependent inelastic decay of the hot charge carriers have been measured for parallel and antiparallel configurations of the magnetization of the individual layers. We found magnetocurrent effects on the order of 600% and relative large transmission values compared to other ballistic electron magnetic microscopy studies. In addition, we investigated the excitation of electron-hole pairs with its subsequent electron transport in the spin valve and found a magnetocurrent effect with positive sign.

  11. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27432560

  12. The temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance with three-magnon splittings

    OpenAIRE

    NAKATA, KOUKI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the Schwinger–Keldysh formalism, we have closely investigated the temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance. We have clarified that three-magnon splittings excite non-zero modes of magnons and characterize the temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance.

  13. Quantum Computing in Silicon with Donor Electron Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michelle

    2014-03-01

    Extremely long electron and nuclear spin coherence times have recently been demonstrated in isotopically pure Si-28 making silicon one of the most promising semiconductor materials for spin based quantum information. The two level spin state of single electrons bound to shallow phosphorus donors in silicon in particular provide well defined, reproducible qubits and represent a promising system for a scalable quantum computer in silicon. An important challenge in these systems is the realisation of an architecture, where we can position donors within a crystalline environment with approx. 20-50nm separation, individually address each donor, manipulate the electron spins using ESR techniques and read-out their spin states. We have developed a unique fabrication strategy for a scalable quantum computer in silicon using scanning tunneling microscope hydrogen lithography to precisely position individual P donors in a Si crystal aligned with nanoscale precision to local control gates necessary to initialize, manipulate, and read-out the spin states. During this talk I will focus on demonstrating electronic transport characteristics and single-shot spin read-out of precisely-positioned P donors in Si. Additionally I will report on our recent progress in performing single spin rotations by locally applying oscillating magnetic fields and initial characterization of transport devices with two and three single donors. The challenges of scaling up to practical 2D architectures will also be discussed.

  14. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2007-08-01

    Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport, supercurrent transport has also been observed. Graphene might also be a promising material for spintronics and related applications, such as the realization of spin qubits, owing to the low intrinsic spin orbit interaction, as well as the low hyperfine interaction of the electron spins with the carbon nuclei. Here we report the observation of spin transport, as well as Larmor spin precession, over micrometre-scale distances in single graphene layers. The `non-local' spin valve geometry was used in these experiments, employing four-terminal contact geometries with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes making contact with the graphene sheet through a thin oxide layer. We observe clear bipolar (changing from positive to negative sign) spin signals that reflect the magnetization direction of all four electrodes, indicating that spin coherence extends underneath all of the contacts. No significant changes in the spin signals occur between 4.2K, 77K and room temperature. We extract a spin relaxation length between 1.5 and 2μm at room temperature, only weakly dependent on charge density. The spin polarization of the ferromagnetic contacts is calculated from the measurements to be around ten per cent.

  15. Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Worasak Prarokijjak; Bumned Soodchomshom

    2015-01-01

    Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (}/2), where N={1, 2, 3, . . .}. It is said that for N>1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers.

  16. Block-Spin Approach to Electron Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Monthoux, P.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an expansion of the ground state wavefunction of quantum lattice many-body systems in a basis whose states are tensor products of block-spin wavefunctions. We demonstrate by applying the method to the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain that by selecting the most important many-body states the technique affords a severe truncation of the Hilbert space while maintaining high accuracy.

  17. Dynamical Coulomb blockade and spin-entangled electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Recher, Patrik; Loss, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    We consider the production of mobile and nonlocal pairwise spin-entangled electrons from tunneling of a BCS-superconductor (SC) to two normal Fermi liquid leads. The necessary mechanism to separate the two electrons coming from the same Cooper pair (spin-singlet) is achieved by coupling the SC to leads with a finite resistance. The resulting dynamical Coulomb blockade effect, which we describe phenomenologically in terms of an electromagnetic environment, is shown to be enhanced for tunneling...

  18. Nanometer-scale probing of spin waves using single electron spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a new approach to exploring magnetic excitations in correlated-electron systems, based on single electronic spins in atom-like defects diamond known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers. We demonstrate the power of this approach by detecting spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc with nanoscale spatial sensitivity over a broad range of frequencies and magnetic fields. We show how spin-wave resonances can be exploited for on-chip amplification of microwave magnetic fields, allowing strongly increased spin manipulation rates and single-spin magnetometry with enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show the possibility to detect the magnetic spin noise produced by a thin (~ 30 nm) layer of a patterned ferromagnet. For the interpretation of our results, we develop a general framework describing single-spin stray field detection in terms of a filter function sensitive mostly to spin fluctuations with wavevector ~ 1 / d , where d is the NV-ferromagnet distance. Our results pave the way towards quantitative and non-perturbative detection of spectral properties in nanomagnets, establishing NV center magnetometry as an emergent probe of collective spin dynamics in condensed matter.

  19. Generalized theory of spin fluctuations in itinerant electron magnets: Crucial role of spin anharmonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper critically overviews the recent developments of the theory of spatially dispersive spin fluctuations (SF) in itinerant electron magnetism with particular emphasis on spin-fluctuation coupling or spin anharmonicity. It is argued that the conventional self-consistent renormalized (SCR) theory of spin fluctuations is usually used aside of the range of its applicability actually defined by the constraint of weak spin anharmonicity based on the random phase approximation (RPA) arguments. An essential step in understanding SF in itinerant magnets beyond RPA-like arguments was made recently within the soft-mode theory of SF accounting for strong spin anharmonicity caused by zero-point SF. In the present paper we generalize it to apply for a wider range of temperatures and regimes of SF and show it to lead to qualitatively new results caused by zero-point effects. - Highlights: • We review the spin-fluctuation theory of itinerant electron magnets with account of zero-point effects. • We generalize the existing theory to account for different regimes of spin fluctuations. • We show that zero-point spin fluctuations play a crucial role in both low- and high-temperature properties of metallic magnets. • We argue that a new scheme of calculation of ground state properties of magnets is needed including zero-point effects

  20. Generalized theory of spin fluctuations in itinerant electron magnets: Crucial role of spin anharmonicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solontsov, A., E-mail: asolontsov@mail.ru [Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, N.L. Dukhov Research Institute for Automatics, 22 Suschevskaya Street, Moscow 127055 (Russian Federation); State Center for Condensed Matter Physics, 6/3 Street M. Zakharova, Moscow 115569 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The paper critically overviews the recent developments of the theory of spatially dispersive spin fluctuations (SF) in itinerant electron magnetism with particular emphasis on spin-fluctuation coupling or spin anharmonicity. It is argued that the conventional self-consistent renormalized (SCR) theory of spin fluctuations is usually used aside of the range of its applicability actually defined by the constraint of weak spin anharmonicity based on the random phase approximation (RPA) arguments. An essential step in understanding SF in itinerant magnets beyond RPA-like arguments was made recently within the soft-mode theory of SF accounting for strong spin anharmonicity caused by zero-point SF. In the present paper we generalize it to apply for a wider range of temperatures and regimes of SF and show it to lead to qualitatively new results caused by zero-point effects. - Highlights: • We review the spin-fluctuation theory of itinerant electron magnets with account of zero-point effects. • We generalize the existing theory to account for different regimes of spin fluctuations. • We show that zero-point spin fluctuations play a crucial role in both low- and high-temperature properties of metallic magnets. • We argue that a new scheme of calculation of ground state properties of magnets is needed including zero-point effects.

  1. Foucault's pendulum, a classical analog for the electron spin state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Rebecca A.

    Spin has long been regarded as a fundamentally quantum phenomena that is incapable of being described classically. To bridge the gap and show that aspects of spin's quantum nature can be described classically, this work uses a classical Lagrangian based on the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum as an analog for the electron spin state in an external magnetic field. With this analog it is possible to demonstrate that Foucault's pendulum not only serves as a basis for explaining geometric phase, but is also a basis for reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured electron spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  2. Spin flips in cyclotron emission by an electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melrose, D.B.; Russell, K. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-01-11

    The spin dependence of cyclotron emission is treated using the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation; the Schroedinger-Pauli theory is inadequate because of the importance of spin-orbit coupling, which is an intrinsically relativistic effect. Only the choice of the magnetic moment as the spin operator is physically acceptable; all other spin operators precess at a rate comparable with or in excess of cyclotron transition rates. The spin-flip (s=1{yields}-1) transition rate is smaller than the non-spin-flip of the order B/B{sub c} (B{sub c}=4.4x10{sup 9} T), and the reverse spin-flip (s=-1{yields}+1) transition rate is smaller by a further factor of order (B/B{sub c}){sup 2}, implying that it is strongly forbidden. It is shown that there is a preference for electrons with spin s=1 initially in a high Landau level, n>>1, to relax to the ground state, s=-1, n=0, by stepwise jumps to the lowest Landau level for s=1 and then making the spin-flip transition to s=-1, rather than making the spin-flip transition from a higher Landau level, and that this preference increases with decreasing B/B{sub c}. (author)

  3. Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions in excited He atoms induced by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections σ and the corresponding Maxwellian rate coefficients have been calculated for spin-allowed and spin-forbidden n-n' transitions between excited states with the principal quantum number, n, n'=2,3 and 4 in He induced by electron impact. Calculations have been performed using the Coulomb-Born approximation with exchange (CBE) in the partial wave representation with orthogonalized wavefunctions of the initial and final states for the incident electron energies from threshold up to 2000 eV for spin-allowed transitions (ΔS=0) and up to 200 eV for spin-forbidden (intercombination, ΔS=1) transitions where the corresponding cross sections are still relatively large. The fitting parameters for σ and of spin-allowed transitions have been calculated as well. The results are compared with experimental data and other calculations available. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have...... a significant effect on the coherent spin dynamics of the radicals. It is generally assumed that evolutionary pressure has led to protection of the electron spins from irreversible loss of coherence in order that the underlying quantum dynamics can survive in a noisy biological environment. Here, we address...

  5. Spin-dependent electron transport in nanoscale samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yaguang

    In this thesis, we describe the research in which we use metallic nanoparticles to explore spin-dependent electron transport at nanometer scale. Nanoscale samples were fabricated by using a state of the art electron beam lithography and shadow evaporation technique. We have investigated spin relaxation and decoherence in metallic grains as a function of bias voltage and magnetic field at low temperatures (down to ˜30mK). At low temperatures, the discrete energy levels within a metallic nanoparticle provides a new means to study the physics of the spin-polarized electron tunneling. We describe measurements of spin-polarized tunneling via discrete energy levels of single Aluminum grain. Spin polarized current saturates quickly as a function of bias voltage, which demonstrates that the ground state and the lowest excited states carry spin polarized current. The ratio of electron-spin relaxation time (T1) to the electron-phonon relaxation rate is in quantitative agreement with the Elliot-Yafet scaling, an evidence that spin-relaxation in Al grains is driven by the spin-orbit interaction. The spin-relaxation time of the low-lying excited states is T1 ≈ 0.7 mus and 0.1 mus in two samples, showing that electron spin in a metallic grain could be a potential candidate for quantum information research. We also present measurements of mesoscopic resistance fluctuations in cobalt nanoparticles at low temperature and study how the fluctuations with bias voltage, bias fingerprints, respond to magnetization-reversal processes. Bias fingerprints rearrange when domains are nucleated or annihilated. The domain wall causes an electron wave function-phase shift of ˜5 pi. The phase shift is not caused by the Aharonov-Bohm effect; we explain how it arises from the mistracking effect, where electron spins lag in orientation with respect to the moments inside the domain wall. The dephasing length at low temperatures is only 30 nm, which is attributed to the large magnetocrystalline

  6. Spin Relaxation in GaAs: Importance of Electron-Electron Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gionni Marchetti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study spin relaxation in n-type bulk GaAs, due to the Dyakonov–Perel mechanism, using ensemble Monte Carlo methods. Our results confirm that spin relaxation time increases with the electronic density in the regime of moderate electronic concentrations and high temperature. We show that the electron-electron scattering in the non-degenerate regime significantly slows down spin relaxation. This result supports predictions by Glazov and Ivchenko. Most importantly, our findings highlight the importance of many-body interactions for spin dynamics: we show that only by properly taking into account electron-electron interactions within the simulations, results for the spin relaxation time—with respect to both electron density and temperature—will reach good quantitative agreement with corresponding experimental data. Our calculations contain no fitting parameters.

  7. Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) and its recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) is a method to observe magnetic domain structures at a ferromagnetic sample surface. It detects the spin-polarization of the secondary electrons from a ferromagnetic sample and the magnetization vector at the originating point of the secondary electrons is deduced. This principle has brought us several excellent capabilities such as high spatial resolution and magnetization vector analysis. This technique has been applied for various magnetic materials and devices since it was developed thirty years ago, and still has been continuously extending its functions and challenging to open new fields for magnetic domain observation. In this article, recent results of spin SEM are introduced after brief explanation of the principle and the key components of the instrument. (author)

  8. Spin-polarizing interferometric beam splitter for free electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dellweg, Matthias M

    2016-01-01

    A spin-polarizing electron beam splitter is described which relies on an arrangement of linearly polarized laser waves of nonrelativistic intensity. An incident electron beam is first coherently scattered off a bichromatic laser field, splitting the beam into two portions, with electron spin and momentum being entangled. Afterwards, the partial beams are coherently superposed in an interferometric setup formed by standing laser waves. As a result, the outgoing electron beam is separated into its spin components along the laser magnetic field, which is shown by both analytical and numerical solutions of Pauli's equation. The proposed laser field configuration thus exerts the same effect on free electrons like an ordinary Stern-Gerlach magnet does on atoms.

  9. Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction and Birefringent Electron Optics in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron optics exploits the analogies between rays in geometrical optics and electron trajectories, leading to interesting insights and potential applications. Graphene, with its two-dimensionality and photon-like behavior of its charge carriers, is the perfect candidate for the exploitation of electron optics. We show that a circular gate-controlled region in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction in graphene may indeed behave as a Veselago electronic lens but with two different indi...

  10. Intramembrane Polarity by Electron Spin Echo Spectroscopy of Labeled Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucci, Rosa; Guzzi, Rita; Marsh, Derek; Sportelli, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The association of water (D2O) with phospholipid membranes was studied by using pulsed-electron spin resonance techniques. We measured the deuterium electron spin echo modulation of spin-labeled phospholipids by D2O in membranes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine with and without 50 mol% of cholesterol. The Fourier transform of the relaxation-corrected two-pulse echo decay curve reveals peaks, at one and two times the deuterium NMR frequency, that arise from the dipolar hyperfine interaction of the deuterium nucleus with the unpaired electron spin of the nitroxide-labeled lipid. For phosphatidylcholine spin-labeled at different positions down the sn-2 chain, the amplitude of the deuterium signal decreases toward the center of the membrane, and is reduced to zero from the C-12 atom position onward. At chain positions C-5 and C-7 closer to the phospholipid headgroups, the amplitude of the deuterium signal is greater in the presence of cholesterol than in its absence. These results are in good agreement with more indirect measurements of the transmembrane polarity profile that are based on the 14N-hyperfine splittings in the conventional continuous-wave electron spin resonance spectrum. PMID:12547783

  11. Gate-controlled electron spins in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay [M2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L3C5 (Canada); Melnik, Roderick [M2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L3C5 and Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Bonilla, Luis L. [Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes, Spain and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    In this paper we study the properties of anisotropic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) formed in the conduction band in the presence of the magnetic field. The Kane-type model is formulated and is analyzed by using both analytical and finite element techniques. Among other things, we demonstrate that in such quantum dots, the electron spin states in the phonon-induced spin-flip rate can be manipulated with the application of externally applied anisotropic gate potentials. More precisely, such potentials enhance the spin flip rates and reduce the level crossing points to lower quantum dot radii. This happens due to the suppression of the g-factor towards bulk crystal. We conclude that the phonon induced spin-flip rate can be controlled through the application of spin-orbit coupling. Numerical examples are shown to demonstrate these findings.

  12. Frenkel electron and a spinning body in a curved background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a variational formulation of a particle with spin in a curved space-time background. The model is based on a singular Lagrangian which provides equations of motion, a fixed value of spin and Frenkel condition on spin-tensor. Comparing our equations with those of Papapetrou we conclude that the Frenkel electron in a gravitational field has the same behavior as a rotating body in the pole-dipole and leading-spin approximation. Due to constraints presented in the formulation, position space is endowed with a noncommutative structure induced by the spin of the particle. Therefore, the model provides a physically interesting example of a noncommutative particle in a curved background

  13. Gate-controlled electron spins in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the properties of anisotropic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) formed in the conduction band in the presence of the magnetic field. The Kane-type model is formulated and is analyzed by using both analytical and finite element techniques. Among other things, we demonstrate that in such quantum dots, the electron spin states in the phonon-induced spin-flip rate can be manipulated with the application of externally applied anisotropic gate potentials. More precisely, such potentials enhance the spin flip rates and reduce the level crossing points to lower quantum dot radii. This happens due to the suppression of the g-factor towards bulk crystal. We conclude that the phonon induced spin-flip rate can be controlled through the application of spin-orbit coupling. Numerical examples are shown to demonstrate these findings

  14. Tuning Electron Spin States in Quantum Dots by Spin-Orbit Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; CHENG Fang

    2011-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the influence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and Dresselhaus spin- orbit interaction (DSOI) on electron spin states, electron distribution and the optical absorption of a quantum dot.Our theoretical results show that the interplay between RSOI and DSOI results in an effective periodic potential, which consequently breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the quantum dot behave like two laterally coupled quantum dots.In the presence of RSOI and/or DSOI the spin is no longer a conserved quantity and its magnitude can be tuned by changing the strength of RSOI and/or DSOI.By reversing the direction of the perpendicular electric field, we can rotate the spatial distribution.This property provides us with a new way to control quantum states in a quantum dot by electrical means.

  15. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM 14N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM 14N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging

  16. Foucault's Pendulum, Analog for an Electron Spin State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The classical Lagrangian that describes the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum presents an interesting analog to an electron's spin state in an external magnetic field. With a simple modification, this classical Lagrangian yields equations of motion that directly map onto the Schrodinger-Pauli Equation. This analog goes well beyond the geometric phase, reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  17. Strong mechanical driving of a single electron spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfuss, A.; Teissier, J.; Neu, E.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Maletinsky, P.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum devices for sensing and computing applications require coherent quantum systems, which can be manipulated in fast and robust ways. Such quantum control is typically achieved using external electromagnetic fields, which drive the system’s orbital, charge or spin degrees of freedom. However, most existing approaches require complex and unwieldy gate structures, and with few exceptions are limited to the regime of weak coherent driving. Here, we present a novel approach to coherently drive a single electronic spin using internal strain fields in an integrated quantum device. Specifically, we employ time-varying strain in a diamond cantilever to induce long-lasting, coherent oscillations of an embedded nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre spin. We perform direct spectroscopy of the phonon-dressed states emerging from this drive and observe hallmarks of the sought-after strong-driving regime, where the spin rotation frequency exceeds the spin splitting. Furthermore, we employ our continuous strain driving to significantly enhance the NV’s spin coherence time. Our room-temperature experiments thereby constitute an important step towards strain-driven, integrated quantum devices and open new perspectives to investigate unexplored regimes of strongly driven multilevel systems and exotic spin dynamics in hybrid spin-oscillator devices.

  18. Spin-charge interplay in electronic liquid crystals: fluctuating spin stripe driven by charge nematic

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Kai; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2009-01-01

    We study the interplay between charge and spin ordering in electronic liquid crystalline states with a particular emphasis on fluctuating spin stripe phenomena observed in recent neutron scattering experiments\\cite{Hinkov2008, Haug2009}. Based on a phenomenological model, we propose that charge nematic ordering is indeed behind the formation of temperature dependent incommensurate inelastic peaks near wavevector $(\\pi,\\pi)$ in the dynamic structure factor of YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+y}$. We strengt...

  19. Local spin dynamics with the electron electric dipole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Soga, Kota; Senami, Masato; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    The local spin dynamics of the electron is studied from the viewpoint of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron in the framework of the quantum field theory. The improvements of the computational accuracy of the effective electric field (Eeff) for the EDM and the understanding of spin precession are important for the experimental determination of the upper bound of the EDM. Calculations of Eeff in YbF (2Σ1 /2 ), BaF (2Σ1 /2 ), ThO (3Δ1 ), and HF+ (2Π1 /2 ) are performed on the basis of the restricted active space configuration interaction approach by using the four-component relativistic electronic structure calculation. The spin precession is also discussed from the viewpoint of local spin torque dynamics. We show that a contribution to the torque density for the spin is brought into by the EDM. Distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and torque densities induced by external fields in the above molecules are calculated and a property related with large Eeff is discussed.

  20. Influences of spin accumulation on the intrinsic spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, SQ; Ma, X.; Hu, L.; Tao, R.

    2004-01-01

    In a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the external electric field may cause a spin Hall current in the direction perpendicular to the electric field. This effect was called the intrinsic spin Hall effect. In this paper, we investigate the influences of spin accumulation on this intrinsic spin Hall effect. We show that due to the existence of boundaries in a real sample, the spin Hall current generated by the intrinsic spin Hall effect will cause spin accumulation ...

  1. Electron spins in reduced dimensions. ESR spectroscopy on semiconductor heterostructures and spin chain compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipps, Ferdinand

    2011-08-31

    Spatial confinement of electrons and their interactions as well as confinement of the spin dimensionality often yield drastic changes of the electronic and magnetic properties of solids. Novel quantum transport and optical phenomena, involving electronic spin degrees of freedom in semiconductor heterostructures, as well as a rich variety of exotic quantum ground states and magnetic excitations in complex transition metal oxides that arise upon such confinements, belong therefore to topical problems of contemporary condensed matter physics. In this work electron spin systems in reduced dimensions are studied with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a method which can provide important information on the energy spectrum of the spin states, spin dynamics, and magnetic correlations. The studied systems include quasi onedimensional spin chain materials based on transition metals Cu and Ni. Another class of materials are semiconductor heterostructures made of Si and Ge. Part I deals with the theoretical background of ESR and the description of the experimental ESR setups used which have been optimized for the purposes of the present work. In particular, the development and implementation of axial and transverse cylindrical resonant cavities for high-field highfrequency ESR experiments is discussed. The high quality factors of these cavities allow for sensitive measurements on {mu}m-sized samples. They are used for the investigations on the spin-chain materials. The implementation and characterization of a setup for electrical detected magnetic resonance is presented. In Part II ESR studies and complementary results of other experimental techniques on two spin chain materials are presented. The Cu-based material Linarite is investigated in the paramagnetic regime above T>2.8 K. This natural crystal constitutes a highly frustrated spin 1/2 Heisenberg chain with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearestneighbor interactions. The ESR data

  2. Electrical Control, Read-out and Initialization of Single Electron Spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiei, M.

    2013-01-01

    An electron, in addition to its electric charge, possesses a small magnetic moment, called spin. The spin of an electron can point parallel (spin-up) or antiparallel (spin-down) to the magnetic field. These two states are analogous to zero and one of the logical bit in current digital electronic dev

  3. Spin dynamics of electron beams in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments using high energy beams of spin polarized, charged particles still prove to be very helpful in disclosing a deeper understanding of the fundamental structure of matter. An important aspect is to control the beam properties, such as brilliance, intensity, energy, and degree of spin polarization. In this context, the present studies show various numerical calculations of the spin dynamics of high energy electron beams in circular accelerators. Special attention has to be paid to the emission of synchrotron radiation, that occurs when deflecting charged particles on circular orbits. In the presence of the fluctuation of the kinetic energy due to the photon emission, each electron spin moves non-deterministically. This stochastic effect commonly slows down the speed of all numeric estimations. However, the shown simulations cover - using appropriate approximations - trackings for the motion of thousands of electron spins for up to thousands of turns. Those calculations are validated and complemented by empirical investigations at the electron stretcher facility ELSA of the University of Bonn. They can largely be extended to other boundary conditions and thus, can be consulted for new accelerator layouts.

  4. Separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons with spin-orbit interaction and extraordinary wave spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, Pavel A.; Trukhanova, Mariya Iv.

    2016-01-01

    To consider a contribution of the spin-orbit interaction in the extraordinary wave spectrum we derive a generalization of the separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics. Applying corresponding nonlinear Pauli equation we include Fermi spin current contribution in the spin evolution. We find that the spectrum of extraordinary waves consists of three branches: two of them are well-known extraordinary waves and the third one is the spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW). Earlier SEAWs have been c...

  5. Spin and Orbital Rotation of Electrons and Photons via Spin-Orbit Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Cody; Raymer, Michael; van Enk, Steven

    2010-03-01

    We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, its spin angular momentum (SAM) and its orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact. Remarkably, we find that the dynamics resulting from this spin- orbit interaction are quantitatively described by a single expression applying to both electrons and photons. This leads to the prediction of several novel rotational effects: the spatial or time evolution of either particle's spin/polarization vector is controlled by its OAM quantum number, or conversely, its spatial wavefunction is controlled by its SAM. We show that the common origin of these effects in electrons and photons is a universal geometric phase. We demonstrate how these phenomena can be used to reversibly transfer entanglement between the SAM and OAM degrees of freedom of two-particle states.

  6. Effect of nuclear spins on the electron spin dynamics in negatively charged InP quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatiev, I. V.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Maruyama, W.; Pal, B.; Masumoto, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of polarized photoluminescence of the negatively charged InP quantum dots in weak magnetic field is studied experimentally. Effect of both the nuclear spin fluctuations and the dynamical nuclear polarization on the electron spin orientation is observed.

  7. Quantum computing by optical control of electron spins

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, W.; Liu, RB; Sham, LJ

    2010-01-01

    We review the progress and main challenges in implementing large-scale quantum computing by optical control of electron spins in quantum dots (QDs). Relevant systems include self-assembled QDs of III-V or II-VI compound semiconductors (such as InGaAs and CdSe), monolayer fluctuation QDs in compound semiconductor quantum wells, and impurity centres in solids, such as P-donors in silicon and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The decoherence of the electron spin qubits is discussed and variou...

  8. Electronic measurement of strain effects on spin transport in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Lan; Tinkey, Holly; Appelbaum, Ian

    Spin transport in silicon is limited by the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which is driven by scattering between degenerate conduction band valleys. Mechanical strain along a valley axis partially breaks this degeneracy, and will ultimately quench intervalley spin relaxation for transitions between states on orthogonal axes. Using a custom-designed and constructed strain probe, we study the effects of uniaxial compressive strain along the direction on ballistic tunnel junction devices used to inject spin-polarized electrons into silicon. The effects of strain-induced valley splitting will be presented and compared to our theoretical model. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N000141410317, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECCS-1231855, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-13-1-0013, and the Maryland NanoCenter.

  9. Exploring the Single Atom Spin State by Electron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Teng, Po-Yuan; Chiu, Po-Wen; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-11-13

    To control the spin state of an individual atom is an ultimate goal for spintronics. A single atom magnet, which may lead to a supercapacity memory device if realized, requires the high-spin state of an isolated individual atom. Here, we demonstrate the realization of well isolated transition metal (TM) atoms fixed at atomic defects sparsely dispersed in graphene. Core-level electron spectroscopy clearly reveals the high-spin state of the individual TM atoms at the divacancy or edge of the graphene layer. We also show for the first time that the spin state of single TM atoms systematically varies with the coordination of neighboring nitrogen or oxygen atoms. These structures can be thus regarded as the smallest components of spintronic devices with controlled magnetic behavior. PMID:26613462

  10. Spin-Polarized Electrons: Generation and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current progress in experimental and theoretical investigations of polarized electron emission from semiconductor heterostructures as well as in the development of photoemitters of highly polarized electrons is reviewed. Special attention is paid to the problems of the optimal choice of the photocathode structure, kinetics in the band bending region, and emission current and charge limitations in the case of intense optical pumping. Examples of the application of highly-polarized electron sources in medium- and high-energy physics and in the investigation of surface magnetism are discussed

  11. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field vμ, which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs

  12. All-electric spin control in interference single electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarini, Andrea; Begemann, Georg; Grifoni, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Single particle interference lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The archetypal double-slit experiment(1) has been repeated with electrons in vacuum(2,3) up to the more massive C(60) molecules.(4) Mesoscopic rings threaded by a magnetic flux provide the solid-state analogues.(5,6) Intramolecular interference has been recently discussed in molecular junctions.(7-11) Here we propose to exploit interference to achieve all-electrical control of a single electron spin in quantum dots, a highly desirable property for spintronics(12-14) and spin-qubit applications.(15-19) The device consists of an interference single electron transistor,(10,11) where destructive interference between orbitally degenerate electronic states produces current blocking at specific bias voltages. We show that in the presence of parallel polarized ferromagnetic leads the interplay between interference and the exchange interaction on the system generates an effective energy renormalization yielding different blocking biases for majority and minority spins. Hence, by tuning the bias voltage full control over the spin of the trapped electron is achieved. PMID:19719108

  13. Spin polarization effects in low-energy elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes experiments on the role of spin polarization in elastic electron scattering. Chapter I introduces the topic and in chapter II elastic scattering of 10-50 eV electrons from Ar and Kr in the angular range between 400 and 1100 is studied. Noble gases have been chosen as targets in view of their relative theoretical simplicity. Below 25 eV scattered intensities measured by various authors exhibit severe disagreements. However, in the entire energy range, the spin polarization results can reasonably well be used to point out the shortcomings of the available theoretical data. The main topic of chapter III is the first attempt to determine the magnitude of a polarization phenomenon - in elastic electron scattering from the optically active camphor molecule - of which the existence has recently been predicted qualitatively from the absence of parity symmetry in such molecules. Besides these studies on gaseous targets the author has initiated a scattering experiment on crystal surfaces, using spin polarized electrons. Within the framework of this project a large new experimental arrangement has been built up. It consists of a spin polarized electron source and a LEED scattering chamber. Design, construction and test results, showing the usefulness of the set-up, are described in the last chapter. (Auth.)

  14. Sample heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohashi, Teruo; Motai, Kumi

    2013-08-01

    A sample-heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed and used for microscopic magnetization analysis at temperatures up to 500°C. In this system, a compact ceramic heater and a preheating operation keep the ultra-high vacuum conditions while the sample is heated during spin SEM measurement. Moreover, the secondary-electron collector, which is arranged close to the sample, was modified so that it is not damaged at high temperatures. The system was used to heat a Co(1000) single-crystal sample from room temperature up to 500°C, and the magnetic-domain structures were observed. Changes of the domain structures were observed around 220 and 400°C, and these changes are considered to be due to phase transitions of this sample. PMID:23349241

  15. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  16. A Shopping Model in Agent-mediated Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zeng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As the development of Internet, electronic commerce technology in which agent takes the role of medium is becoming more and more popular recently. It accentuates how to make use of agent technology to enhance the automation and efficiency of shopping in the Internet and businessman’s selling process. However, today’s first generation shopping agent systems are limited to comparing product usually on price instead of their full range of attribute and don’t reflect the customer’s actual purchase preference. For these limitations, we propose a new shopping model for electronic commerce based on the agent technology and elaborate how to analyze and design the agent system. Based on the agent technology, the combination of a multi-attribute evaluation model and preference evaluation model is presented. Finally, an experimental prototype system for car shopping on IBM’s Aglets is developed for demonstrating the proposed shopping model above.

  17. Electron spin resonance investigations on polycarbonate irradiated with U ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance investigations on polycarbonate irradiated with uranium ions are reported. The dependence of the resonance line parameters (line intensity, line width, double integral) on penetration depth and dose is studied. The nature of free radicals induced in polycarbonate by the incident ions is discussed in relation with the track structure. The presence of severe exchange interactions among free radicals is noticed

  18. Electron Spin Precession for the Time Fractional Pauli Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nasrolahpour, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we aim to extend the application of the fractional calculus in the realm of quantum mechanics. We present a time fractional Pauli equation containing Caputo fractional derivative. By use of the new equation we study the electron spin precession problem in a homogeneous constant magnetic field.

  19. Electron-spin resonance and Rabi oscillations on helium nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Superfluid helium nanodroplets provide a versatile substrate for cooling atoms and molecules and, if desired, assemble weakly bound complexes. Electron-spin resonance (ESR) is a versatile probe of the electronic environment in radicals and, via spin tags, in ESR-silent species. We demonstrate the first application of ESR to doped helium nanodroplets and exploit the scheme of optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). We measure sharp, hyperfine-resolved, ESR spectra of single K and Rb atoms isolated on He nanodroplets. The shift of the ESR lines with respect to free atoms directly reflects the distortion of the valence-electron wavefunction due to the He nanodroplet. We are able to follow this change as a function of droplet size. The observation of Rabi oscillations indicates a long decoherence time and demonstrates our ability to perform coherent manipulation of the spin. We are currently constructing a high-temperature pickup source, based on electron bombardment, to extend the method to transition metal atoms with high spin-multiplicity. (author)

  20. Coherence and control of a single electron spin in a quantum dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppens, F.H.L.

    2007-01-01

    An electron does not only have an electric charge, but also a small magnetic moment, called spin. In a magnetic field, the spin can point in the same direction as the field (spin-up) or in the opposite direction (spin-down). However, the laws of quantum mechanics also allow the spin to exist in both

  1. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-05-14

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have a significant effect on the coherent spin dynamics of the radicals. It is generally assumed that evolutionary pressure has led to protection of the electron spins from irreversible loss of coherence in order that the underlying quantum dynamics can survive in a noisy biological environment. Here, we address this question for a structurally characterized model cryptochrome expected to share many properties with the putative avian receptor protein. To this end we combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, Bloch-Redfield relaxation theory and spin dynamics calculations to assess the effects of spin relaxation on the performance of the protein as a compass sensor. Both flavin-tryptophan and flavin-Z˙ radical pairs are studied (Z˙ is a radical with no hyperfine interactions). Relaxation is considered to arise from modulation of hyperfine interactions by librational motions of the radicals and fluctuations in certain dihedral angles. For Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 1 (AtCry1) we find that spin relaxation implies optimal radical pair lifetimes of the order of microseconds, and that flavin-Z˙ pairs are less affected by relaxation than flavin-tryptophan pairs. Our results also demonstrate that spin relaxation in isolated AtCry1 is incompatible with the long coherence times that have been postulated to explain the disruption of the avian magnetic compass sense by weak radiofrequency magnetic fields. We conclude that a cryptochrome sensor in vivo would have to differ dynamically, if not structurally, from isolated AtCry1. Our results clearly mark the limits of the current hypothesis and lead to a better understanding of the operation of radical pair magnetic sensors

  2. Photon-assisted electronic and spin transport in a junction containing precessing molecular spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Milena; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    We study the ac charge and -spin transport through an orbital of a magnetic molecule with spin precessing in a constant magnetic field. We assume that the source and drain contacts have time-dependent chemical potentials. We employ the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions method to calculate the spin and charge currents to linear order in the time-dependent potentials. The molecular and electronic spins are coupled via exchange interaction. The time-dependent molecular spin drives inelastic transitions between the molecular quasienergy levels, resulting in a rich structure in the transport characteristics. The time-dependent voltages allow us to reveal the internal precession time scale (the Larmor frequency) by a dc conductance measurement if the ac frequency matches the Larmor frequency. In the low-ac-frequency limit the junction resembles a classical electric circuit. Furthermore, we show that the setup can be used to generate dc-spin currents, which are controlled by the molecular magnetization direction and the relative phases between the Larmor precession and the ac voltage.

  3. Designing Electronic Markets for Defeasible-based Contractual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Groza, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The design of punishment policies applied to specific domains linking agents actions to material penalties is an open research issue. The proposed framework applies principles of contract law to set penalties: expectation damages, opportunity cost, reliance damages, and party design remedies. In order to decide which remedy provides maximum welfare within an electronic market, a simulation environment called DEMCA (Designing Electronic Markets for Contractual Agents) was developed. Knowledge ...

  4. Spin-Mediated Consciousness Theory Possible Roles of Oxygen Unpaired Electronic Spins and Neural Membrane Nuclear Spin Ensemble in Memory and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, H; Hu, Huping; Wu, Maoxin

    2002-01-01

    We postulate that consciousness is connected to quantum mechanical spin since said spin is embedded in the microscopic structure of spacetime and may be more fundamental than spacetime itself. Thus, we theorize that consciousness is connected with the fabric of spacetime through spin. That is, spin is the "pixel" and "antenna" of mind. The unity of mind is achieved by non-local means within the pre-spacetime domain interfaced with spacetime. Human mind is possible because of the particular structures and dynamics of our brain postulated working as follows: The unpaired electronic spins of highly lipid-soluble and rapidly diffusing oxygen molecules extract information from the dynamical neural membranes and communicate said information through strong spin-spin couplings to the nuclear spin ensemble in the membranes for consciousness-related quantum statistical processing which survives decoherence. In turn, the dynamics of the nuclear spin ensemble has effects through spin chemistry on the classical neural act...

  5. Self-spin-controlled rotation of spatial states of a Dirac electron in a cylindrical potential via spin orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, C. C.; Reeb, D.; Raymer, M. G.

    2008-10-01

    Solution of the Dirac equation predicts that when an electron with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) propagates in a cylindrically symmetric potential, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom interact, causing the electron's phase velocity to depend on whether its spin angular momentum (SAM) and OAM vectors are oriented parallel or anti-parallel with respect to each other. This spin-orbit splitting of the electronic dispersion curves can result in a rotation of the electron's spatial state in a manner controlled by the electron's own spin z-component value. These effects persist at non-relativistic velocities. To clarify the physical origin of this effect, we compare solutions of the Dirac equation to perturbative predictions of the Schrödinger-Pauli equation with a spin-orbit term, using the standard Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian. This clearly shows that the origin of the effect is the familiar relativistic spin-orbit interaction.

  6. Investigations of ionomers by electron spin resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Sueleymanoglu, N

    1999-01-01

    through direct diffusion and ligand making manner. Cu''+ sup + and Mn''+''+ ion adsorption properties of Polyn (N-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone/Itaconic acid) P(VP/IA) hydrogels that were prepared to be used to remove some environmental agents from water were investigated and teh similarity of the structure which was formed by the adsorption of metal ions by hydrogels with so called ionomers was examined. For this purpose, the hydrogels that were formed with 2ml vinyl pyrrolidone (VP) aqueous solutions of 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24g itaconic acid with 1 ml of distilled water and exposed to 6''0''Co gamma source were used. The adsorbed quantity of Cu''+''+ ions in hydrogels was determined with UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and adsorption isotherms of hydrogels were formed. The shapes of the lines showed that the adsorption of metal ions by hydrogels was in accordance with the multilayer physical adsorption isoterms. Same isotherms were also obtained by the relative intensity values ESR spectra. DSC study was carr...

  7. Quantum computing by optical control of electron spins

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ren-Bao; Sham, L J

    2010-01-01

    We review the progress and main challenges in implementing large-scale quantum computing by optical control of electron spins in quantum dots (QDs). Relevant systems include self-assembled QDs of III-V or II-VI compound semiconductors (such as InGaAs and CdSe), monolayer fluctuation QDs in compound semiconductor quantum wells, and impurity centers in solids such as P-donors in silicon and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The decoherence of the electron spin qubits is discussed and various schemes for countering the decoherence problem are reviewed. We put forward designs of local nodes consisting of a few qubits which can be individually addressed and controlled. Remotely separated local nodes are connected by photonic structures (microcavities and waveguides) to form a large-scale distributed quantum system or a quantum network. The operation of the quantum network consists of optical control of a single electron spin, coupling of two spins in a local nodes, optically controlled quantum interfacing betwe...

  8. Hybrid optical-electrical detection of donor electron spins with bound excitons in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C C; Urdampilleta, M; Ross, P; Gonzalez-Zalba, M F; Mansir, J; Lyon, S A; Thewalt, M L W; Morton, J J L

    2015-05-01

    Electrical detection of spins is an essential tool for understanding the dynamics of spins, with applications ranging from optoelectronics and spintronics, to quantum information processing. For electron spins bound to donors in silicon, bulk electrically detected magnetic resonance has relied on coupling to spin readout partners such as paramagnetic defects or conduction electrons, which fundamentally limits spin coherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical detection of donor electron spin resonance in an ensemble by transport through a silicon device, using optically driven donor-bound exciton transitions. We measure electron spin Rabi oscillations, and obtain long electron spin coherence times, limited only by the donor concentration. We also experimentally address critical issues such as non-resonant excitation, strain, and electric fields, laying the foundations for realizing a single-spin readout method with relaxed magnetic field and temperature requirements compared with spin-dependent tunnelling, enabling donor-based technologies such as quantum sensing. PMID:25799326

  9. Using a two-electron spin qubit to detect electrons flying above the Fermi sea

    OpenAIRE

    Thalineau, R.; Wieck, A. D.; Bäuerle, C.; Meunier, T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the capacitive coupling between a two-electron spin qubit and flying electrons propagating in quantum Hall edge channels. We demonstrate that the qubit is an ultrasensitive and fast charge detector with the potential to allow single shot detection of a single flying electron. This work opens the route towards quantum electron optics at the single electron level above the Fermi sea.

  10. Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the SEAWs.

  11. Effects of the electron-electron interaction in the spin resonance in 2D systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtopenko, S. S., E-mail: sergey.krishtopenko@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.

  12. Long-term Dynamics of the Electron-nuclear Spin System of a Semiconductor Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Merkulov, I. A.; Alvarez, G; Yakovlev, D. R.; Schulthess, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    A quasi-classical theoretical description of polarization and relaxation of nuclear spins in a quantum dot with one resident electron is developed for arbitrary mechanisms of electron spin polarization. The dependence of the electron-nuclear spin dynamics on the correlation time $\\tau_c$ of electron spin precession, with frequency $\\Omega$, in the nuclear hyperfine field is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the highest nuclear polarization is achieved for a correlation time close to the perio...

  13. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Stern, M.; Zhou, X.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Julsgaard, B.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ˜0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  14. Spin Chains and Electron Transfer at Stepped Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, J; Erwin, S C; Claessen, R; Schäfer, J

    2016-04-13

    High-index surfaces of silicon with adsorbed gold can reconstruct to form highly ordered linear step arrays. These steps take the form of a narrow strip of graphitic silicon. In some cases-specifically, for Si(553)-Au and Si(557)-Au-a large fraction of the silicon atoms at the exposed edge of this strip are known to be spin-polarized and charge-ordered along the edge. The periodicity of this charge ordering is always commensurate with the structural periodicity along the step edge and hence leads to highly ordered arrays of local magnetic moments that can be regarded as "spin chains." Here, we demonstrate theoretically as well as experimentally that the closely related Si(775)-Au surface has-despite its very similar overall structure-zero spin polarization at its step edge. Using a combination of density-functional theory and scanning tunneling microscopy, we propose an electron-counting model that accounts for these differences. The model also predicts that unintentional defects and intentional dopants can create local spin moments at Si(hhk)-Au step edges. We analyze in detail one of these predictions and verify it experimentally. This finding opens the door to using techniques of surface chemistry and atom manipulation to create and control silicon spin chains. PMID:26974012

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using a direct current-SQUID magnetometer directly coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toida, Hiraku; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Zhu, Xiaobo; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate electron spin polarization detection and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using a direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) magnetometer. Our target electron spin ensemble is directly bonded to the dc-SQUID magnetometer that detects electron spin polarization induced by an external magnetic field or EPR in a micrometer-sized area. The minimum distinguishable number of polarized spins and sensing volume of the electron spin polarization detection and the EPR spectroscopy are estimated to be ˜106 and ˜10-10 cm3 (˜0.1 pl), respectively.

  16. Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel K.; Feng, Guanru; Rahimi, Robabeh; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40 MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1 / T2∗) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2 % , which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies.

  17. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF SPIN-POLARIZED SECONDARY ELECTRONS FROM IRON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. Sun; Z.J. Ding; H.M Li; K. Salma; Z.M. Zhang; W.S. Tan

    2005-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model considering the electron spin direction and spin asymmetry has been developed. The energy distribution of the secondary electron polarization and the primary energy dependence of the polarization from Fe are studied. The simulation results show that:(1) the intensity of the spin-up secondary electrons is larger thanvthat of thevspin-down secondary electrons, suggesting the secondary electrons are spin polarized; (2) the spin polarization of secondary electrons with nearly zero kinetic energy is higher than the average valance spin polarization, Pb=27% for Fe. With increasing kinetic energy, the spin polarization of the secondary electrons decreases to the value of Pb remaining constant at higher kinetic energies;(3) the spin polarization increases with an increase in the primary energy and reaches a saturation value at higher primary energy in both the Monte Carlo simulation and experimental results.

  18. Temperature dependence of intra-stack defect spin-conduction-electron spin interaction in fluoranthene and perylene radical cation salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance line-width anisotropy and intensity are analysed for the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors (fluoranthene)2PF6 and (perylene)2PF6·2/3 tetrahydrofurane in the metallic phase above the Peierls transition temperature. Based on the bottleneck model of relaxation, the temperature dependence of the intra-stack exchange constant between conduction-electron spins and localized defect spins is derived and discussed

  19. Suppression of electron spin decoherence of the diamond NV center by a transverse magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Chang S.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Butler, Mark C.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Seltzer, Scott J.; Liu, Ren-Bao; Pines, Alexander; Bajaj, Vikram S.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the spin decoherence of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond can be suppressed by a transverse magnetic field if the electron spin bath is the primary decoherence source. The NV spin coherence, created in "a decoherence-free subspace" is protected by the transverse component of the zero-field splitting, increasing the spin-coherence time about twofold. The decoherence due to the electron spin bath is also suppressed at magnetic fields stronger than ~25 gauss when appli...

  20. Spin dependent electron transport through a magnetic resonant tunneling diode

    OpenAIRE

    Havu, Paula; Tuomisto, Noora; Vaananen, Riikka; Puska, Martti J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron transport properties in nanostructures can be modeled, for example, by using the semiclassical Wigner formalism or the quantum mechanical Green's functions formalism. We compare the performance and the results of these methods in the case of magnetic resonant-tunneling diodes. We have implemented the two methods within the self-consistent spin-density-functional theory. Our numerical implementation of the Wigner formalism is based on the finite-difference scheme whereas for the Green...

  1. High spin polarization at the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the progress made in 1992 towards increasing the vertical electron beam polarization at HERA. Utilizing harmonic spin-orbit corrections and beam tuning, the vertical polarization has been increased from 15% to nearly 60% at a beam energy of 26.7 GeV. The long-term reproducibility of the polarization is excellent. Measurements of the build-up time and the energy dependence of the polarization are also described. (orig.)

  2. A capacitive probe for Electron Spin Resonance detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Dolci, David; Carlà, Marcello; Mannini, Matteo; Piuzzi, Barbara; Caneschi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    The use of the magnetic field associated with Maxwell displacement current in a capacitor is proposed for the detection of Electron Spin Resonance. A probe based on this concept is realized and successfully tested with CW radio-frequency in the band going from 200 MHz to 1 GHz with a DPPH sample. A significant increase of Signal to Noise Ratio is observed while increasing the frequency.

  3. Producing Radical-Free Hyperpolarized Perfusion Agents for In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Using Spin-Labeled Thermoresponsive Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian; Mishkovsky, Mor; Junk, Matthias J N; Münnemann, Kerstin; Comment, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) provides a way to tremendously improve the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Once the spins are hyperpolarized by dissolution DNP, the radicals used as polarizing agents become undesirable since their presence is an additional source of nuclear spin relaxation and their toxicity might be an issue. This study demonstrates the feasibility of preparing a hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]2-methylpropan-2-ol (tert-butanol) solution free of persistent radicals by using spin-labeled thermoresponsive hydrophilic polymer networks as polarizing agents. The hyperpolarized (13) C signal can be detected for up to 5 min before the spins fully relax to their thermal equilibrium. This approach extends the applicability of spin-labeled thermoresponsive hydrogel to the dissolution DNP field and highlights its potential as polarizing agent for preparing neat slowly relaxing contrast agents. The hydrogels are especially suited to hyperpolarize deuterated alcohols which can be used for in vivo perfusion imaging. PMID:27184565

  4. Controlling the Spin Polarization of the Electron Current in a Semimagnetic Resonant-Tunneling Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Beletskii, N. N.; Berman, G. P.; Borysenko, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The spin filtering effect of the electron current in a double-barrier resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) consisting of ZnMnSe semimagnetic layers has been studied theoretically. The influence of the distribution of the magnesium ions on the coefficient of the spin polarization of the electron current has been investigated. The dependence of the spin filtering degree of the electron current on the external magnetic field and the bias voltage has been obtained. The effect of the total spin polariza...

  5. The S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A source of polarized electrons has been installed at the superconducting 130 MeV Darmstadt electron linac S-DALINAC. Polarized electrons are generated by irradiating a GaAs cathode with pulsed Ti:Sapphire and diode lasers and preaccelerated to 100 keV. A Wien filter and 100 keV Mott polarimeter are used for spin manipulation and polarization measurement and various beam diagnostic elements are installed. To measure the beam polarization downstream of the superconducting injector linac a 5-10 MeV Mott polarimeter and a Compton-transmission polarimeter have been developed. We report on the status of the polarized electron source and foreseen experiments.

  6. The S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the superconducting 130 MeV Darmstadt electron linac S-DALINAC a source of polarized electrons has been installed. Pulsed Ti:Sapphire and diode lasers illuminate a superlattice-GaAs cathode, producing polarized electrons preaccelerated to 100 keV. A Wien filter and Mott polarimeter are used for spin manipulation and polarization measurement. Downstream of the superconducting injector linac a 5-10 MeV Mott polarimeter has been installed. A Moeller polarimeter behind the main linac has been designed for energies between 50 and 130 MeV, and additional Compton-transmission polarimeters will be installed for online polarization monitoring. Photo-fission measurements of different uranium isotopes have been carried out and an active target setup is under investigation. We report on the status and performance of the source of polarized electrons and currently planned experiments with polarized beams.

  7. Possibility of introducing spin into attoscience with spin-polarized electrons produced by a bichromatic circularly polarized laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the electrons, produced in strong-bicircular-field-induced above-threshold ionization of inert-gas atoms, have a large spin asymmetry if the ions exhibit fine-structure splitting. For a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counterrotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies ω and 2 ω , the spin-asymmetry parameter changes rapidly with the electron energy. Since the electron-parent-ion rescattering in a counterrotating bicircular field is characterized on the attosecond time scale, this spin asymmetry may introduce the spin degree of freedom into attoscience. We show that the high-energy backward and low-energy forward scattered electrons, which are produced on the scale of a fraction of the laser cycle, exhibit spin asymmetry.

  8. Electron ionization and spin polarization control of Fe atom adsorbed graphene irradiated by a femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dong [Laser Micro/Nano Fabrication Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Jiang, Lan, E-mail: jianglan@bit.edu.cn [Laser Micro/Nano Fabrication Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Feng; Li, Xin [Laser Micro/Nano Fabrication Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Qu, Liangti [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States)

    2015-10-23

    We investigate the structural properties and ionized spin electrons of an Fe–graphene system, in which the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the generalized gradient approximation is used. The electron dynamics, including electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization, is described for Fe atom adsorbed graphene under femtosecond laser irradiation. The theoretical results show that the electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization are sensitive to the laser parameters, such as the incident angle and the peak intensity. The spin polarization presents the maximum value under certain laser parameters, which may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons. - Highlights: • The structural properties of Fe–graphene system are investigated. • The electron dynamics of Fe–graphene system under laser irradiation are described. • The Fe–graphene system may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons.

  9. Electron ionization and spin polarization control of Fe atom adsorbed graphene irradiated by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the structural properties and ionized spin electrons of an Fe–graphene system, in which the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the generalized gradient approximation is used. The electron dynamics, including electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization, is described for Fe atom adsorbed graphene under femtosecond laser irradiation. The theoretical results show that the electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization are sensitive to the laser parameters, such as the incident angle and the peak intensity. The spin polarization presents the maximum value under certain laser parameters, which may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons. - Highlights: • The structural properties of Fe–graphene system are investigated. • The electron dynamics of Fe–graphene system under laser irradiation are described. • The Fe–graphene system may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons

  10. Generation of a spin-polarized electron beam by multipole magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Grillo, Vincenzo [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Santamato, Enrico [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Napoli (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    The propagation of an electron beam in the presence of transverse magnetic fields possessing integer topological charges is presented. The spin–magnetic interaction introduces a nonuniform spin precession of the electrons that gains a space-variant geometrical phase in the transverse plane proportional to the field's topological charge, whose handedness depends on the input electron's spin state. A combination of our proposed device with an electron orbital angular momentum sorter can be utilized as a spin-filter of electron beams in a mid-energy range. We examine these two different configurations of a partial spin-filter generator numerically. The results of this analysis could prove useful in the design of an improved electron microscope. - Highlights: • Theory of generating spin-polarized electron beams. • Interacting electron vortex beams with space-variant magnetic fields. • Bohr–Pauli impossibility of generating spin-polarized free electrons.

  11. Charge, current and spin densities of a two-electron system in Russell-Saunders spin-orbit coupled eigenstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuel, K.; de Châtel, P. F.; Amani, Salah

    2002-04-01

    Charge, current and spin densities are calculated for a two-electron system, maintaining the explicit form of the wave functions, in terms of Slater determinants. The two-electron Russell-Saunders spin-orbit coupled eigenstates | L, S, J, MJ> are expressed as four-component spinors, and the operators of the above densities as 4×4 matrices. The contributions of various one-electron states to these densities are identified.

  12. Spin Orbit Induced Electronic Structure and Magnetotransport in WTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David J.; Pan, Minghu; Yan, Jiaqiang; Yang, Biao; Zang, Yunyi; Zhang, Junjie; He, Ke; Wu, Menghao; Zhao, Yanfei; Mandrus, David; Wang, Jian; Xue, Qikun; Chi, Lifeng; Li, Qing

    We report electronic structure studies of WTe2, which shows an XMR behavior and is non-centrosymmetric. We find a spin-orbit split semimetallic band structure with a different Fermi surface topology than that initially reported, including Rashba split bands with Fermi surface around the zone center. The metallic properties are not one dimensional and are best described in terms of an anisotropic 3D metal with compensating low carrier density Fermi surfaces. The spin texture and transport is discussed as the origin of the XMR effect and in particular is consistent with the geometry in which the XMR effect is observed and its angle dependence. Work supported by DOE through the Computational Synthesis of Materials Software Project.

  13. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  14. Separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons with spin-orbit interaction and extraordinary wave spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    To consider a contribution of the spin-orbit interaction in the extraordinary wave spectrum we derive a generalization of the separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics. Applying corresponding nonlinear Pauli equation we include Fermi spin current contribution in the spin evolution. We find that the spectrum of extraordinary waves consists of three branches: two of them are well-known extraordinary waves and the third one is the spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW). Earlier SEAWs have been considered in the electrostatic limit. Here we include the electromagnetic effects in their spectrum at the propagation perpendicular to the external magnetic field. We find that the SEAW spectrum considerably changes at the account of transverse part of electric field. We obtain that the separate spin evolution modifies spectrum of the well-known extraordinary waves either. A change of the extraordinary wave spectrum due to the spin-orbit interaction is obtained as well.

  15. Correlations between spin accumulation and degree of time-inverse breaking for electron gas in solid

    OpenAIRE

    Zayets, Vadym

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that the electron spin may not be conserved after a spin-independent scattering. This fact strongly limits the validity of the classical model of spin-up/spin-down bands, which has been used for description of magnetic properties of conduction electrons. It is shown that it is possible to divide all conduction electrons into two group distinguished by their symmetry for time reversal. The number of electrons in each group is conserved after a spin-independent scattering. This make...

  16. Detection of nanoscale electron spin resonance spectra demonstrated using nitrogen-vacancy centre probes in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L. T.; Kehayias, P.; Simpson, D. A.; Jarmola, A.; Stacey, A.; Budker, D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) describes a suite of techniques for characterizing electronic systems with applications in physics, chemistry, and biology. However, the requirement for large electron spin ensembles in conventional ESR techniques limits their spatial resolution. Here we present a method for measuring ESR spectra of nanoscale electronic environments by measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of a single-spin probe as it is systematically tuned into resonance with the target electronic system. As a proof of concept, we extracted the spectral distribution for the P1 electronic spin bath in diamond by using an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centres, and demonstrated excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. As the response of each nitrogen-vacancy spin in this experiment is dominated by a single P1 spin at a mean distance of 2.7 nm, the application of this technique to the single nitrogen-vacancy case will enable nanoscale ESR spectroscopy of atomic and molecular spin systems.

  17. Agent Technologies in the Electronic Classroom: Some Pedagogical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Carolyn

    The use of intelligent software agents within computer mediated learning environments has become an important focus of research and development in both AI and educational contexts. Some of the roles envisaged and implemented for these electronic entities involve direct interactions with students, participating in the "social" dimension of the…

  18. Spin polarization of low-energy electrons interacting with solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of spin polarization of low-energy electrons interacting with solid surfaces are reviewed. Special attention is paid to describing the methodology of obtaining beams of polarized electrons, methods of analyzing the spin state of the electrons in a beam, and also to the method of spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental study of the energy, angular, and temperature-dependences of the spin polarization of electrons scattered by solid surfaces, and of the effect of adsorption on the polarization of electrons for nonmagnetic and magnetic surfaces. Experiments to study the spin polarization of inelastically scattered electrons are described. In conclusion the prospects of studies involving analysis of the spin state of emitted and scattered electrons are pointed out

  19. Electronic Spin Tunneling in the Binding of Carbon - to Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstman, Bernard Scott

    1981-11-01

    A non-adiabatic quantum tunneling process is investigated as the mechanism for effecting the electronic spin change of the hemoglobin's iron upon the binding of carbon monoxide. As the carbon monoxide approaches there is a spin state change in the Fe('2+) from S = 2 to S = 0. The Born -Oppenheimer approximation can be used to separate the recombination of the CO to the iron in the heme at low temperatures into a nuclear tunneling and an electronic tunneling. Based upon the spin change of the Fe as well as the size of the tunneling matrix element and the energy splitting of the two states in the transition region, we assume the reaction to be a non-adiabatic electronic Landau-Zener state to state tunneling. The tunneling involves a spin change of the Fe and thus a spin-orbit interaction is used as the perturbation that couples the S = 2 and S = 0 manifolds. Since the matrix element for the transition is due to spin-orbit coupling the size of the matrix element can be changed, and hence the tunneling rate, by changing the spin magnetic sublevel of the initially CO unbound Fe. This is accomplished by applying a strong magnetic field of approximately 100 000 gauss which will tend to align the Fe spin at low enough temperature. The L vector will be affected only slightly by the external magnetic field since the Zeeman effect on the orbital levels is much smaller (10('-2)) than that of the internal crystal field of the molecule. Hence the crystal field of the heme determines the L quantization axis in each local heme coordinate system. Thus in a random oriented distribution of hemes frozen in place we expect faster CO recombination for those hemes who have their L vector aligned in the direction of the magnetic field than for those hemes whose L vector is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Hemoglobin has a strong absorption band at 436 nm when CO is bound. This absorption is also orientation dependent for the absorption is predominantly for light polarized in the plane

  20. Nuclear spin induced collapse and revival shape of Rabi oscillations of a single electron spin in diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xin; Liu Dong-Qi; Pan Xin-Yu

    2011-01-01

    A collapse and revival shape of Rabi oscillations in an electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy centre has been observed in diamond at room temperature.Because of hyperfine interaction between the host 14N nuclear spin and the nitrogen-vacancy centre electron spin,different orientations of the 14N nuclear spins lead to a triplet splitting of the transition between ground state (ms =0) and excited state (ms =1).The manipulation of the single electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centre is achieved by using a combination of selective microwave excitation and optical pumping at 532 nm.Microwaves can excite three transitions equally to induce three independent nutations and the shape of Rabi oscillations is a combination of the three nutations.

  1. Flux-vector model of spin noise in superconducting circuits: Electron versus nuclear spins and role of phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForest, S.; de Sousa, Rogério

    2015-08-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and other superconducting circuits are limited by intrinsic flux noise with spectral density 1 /fα with α nuclear spins under several different assumptions. The noise power is shown to be dominated by surface electron spins near the wire edges, with bulk lattice nuclear spins contributing ˜5 % of the noise power in aluminum and niobium wires. We consider the role of electron spin phase transitions, showing that the spin-spin correlation length (describing, e.g., the average size of ferromagnetic spin clusters) greatly impacts the scaling of flux noise with wire geometry. Remarkably, the flux-noise power is exactly equal to zero when the spins are polarized along the flux-vector direction, forming what we call a poloidal state. Flux noise is nonzero for other spin textures, but gets reduced in the presence of correlated ferromagnetic fluctuations between the top and bottom wire surfaces, where the flux vectors are antiparallel. This demonstrates that engineering spin textures and/or intersurface correlation provides a method to reduce flux noise in superconducting devices.

  2. Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Kosaka, Hideo; Shigyou, Hideki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g-factors of electrons and light holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum media converter betwe...

  3. Force detected electron spin resonance at 94 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Paul A S; Smith, Graham M

    2007-01-01

    Force detected electron spin resonance (FDESR) detects the presence of unpaired electrons in a sample by measuring the change in force on a mechanical resonator as the magnetization of the sample is modulated under magnetic resonance conditions. The magnetization is coupled to the resonator via a magnetic field gradient. It has been used to both detect and image distributions of electron spins, and it offers both extremely high absolute sensitivity and high spatial imaging resolution. However, compared to conventional induction mode ESR the technique also has a comparatively poor concentration sensitivity and it introduces complications in interpreting and combining both spectroscopy and imaging. One method to improve both sensitivity and spectral resolution is to operate in high magnetic fields in order to increase the sample magnetization and g-factor resolution. In this article we present FDESR measurements on the organic conductor (fluoranthene)(2)PF(6) at 3.2 T, with a corresponding millimeter-wave frequency of 93.5 GHz, which we believe are the highest field results for FDESR reported in the literature to date. A magnet-on-cantilever approach was used, with a high-anisotropy microwave ferrite as the gradient source and employing cyclic saturation to modulate the magnetization at the cantilever fundamental frequency. PMID:17503940

  4. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Danon, Jeroen; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2007-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at small frequency mismatch the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the stable states the field accurately tunes the electron spin splitting to resonance. In this state the nuclear field fluctuations are strongly suppressed and nuclear spin relaxation is accelerated.

  5. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot: Theoretical Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2008-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the stable states, the field accurately tunes the electron spin splitting to resonance. In this state, the nuclear field fluctuations are strongly suppressed, and nuclear spin relaxation is accelerated.

  6. Electronic and spin properties of hole point contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Zuelicke, U.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the effect of a tuneable lateral confinement on two-dimensional hole systems realised in III-V semiconductor heterostructures. Based on the 4x4 Luttinger description of the valence band, we have calculated quasi-onedimensional (quasi-1D) hole subband energies and anisotropic Lande g-factors. Confinement-induced band mixing results in the possibility to manipulate electronic and spin properties of quasi-1D hole states over a much wider range than is typically poss...

  7. Electron spin resonance of Er3+ in YBiPt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments at 4.15 K of Er3+ in YBiPt show that Er3+ is in a site of cubic local symmetry, with a Γ(3)8 ground state and an overall crystal field splitting of ∝85(10) K. We inferred from the spectra the existence of lattice distortions at the rare-earth (RE) site. These results may help in understanding the heavy-fermion system YbBiPt, which has the same structure as YBiPt. (orig.)

  8. Electron spin resonance study of NiO antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of antiferromagnetic nanoparticle NiO specimens have been investigated as a function of temperature at x-band (microwave) frequencies. Below the nominal Neel temperature, the x-band resonances arising from the bulk antiferromagnets, including NiO particles with diameters greater than 100 A, all vanish due to the emergence of large molecular exchange fields. The ESR resonance signals of 60 A antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, however, persist to the lowest temperatures. These nanoparticle resonance lines shift to lower fields rapidly as the temperature is decreased, while the lineshapes broaden and distort

  9. Electron spin resonance as a method of dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating is closely related to thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The principle and procedures of ESR are described together with the application to archaeological materials excavated at Petralona cave in Greece. Atomic models of defects responsible for TL and ESR in calcite are discussed. The age is deduced from the archaeological dose, the total dose of the natural radiation determined by ESR signal intensities, and from the dose rate. The ages by ESR dating are compared with those by TL and 14C dating and also by U-Th dating. The applications to geological and anthropological materials are described with main emphasis on cave deposits. (author)

  10. Electron spin resonance in the study of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of electron spin resonance in the study of both natural and synthetic diamond is reviewed in this article. A brief survey of the physical significance of the constants in the spin Hamiltonian, as well as experimental technique, is given. The review then deals in some detail with the various nitrogen centres found in diamond, treating exchange-interaction, Jahn-Teller and relaxation effects associated with these centres. Acceptor impurities and transition-ion impurities are briefly discussed. The rest of the review is then devoted to centres created by irradiation, subsequent heat treatment, mechanical deformation and ion implantation. The spin Hamiltonian parameters of these centres are tabled and the results are discussed within the framework of the defect molecule approach. In conclusion, the correlation between optical effects and the ESR measurements in the case of four defect centres are discussed in some detail as this seems to be a powerful method of testing the various models suggested for the observed defects. It is hoped that the tables given of the observed centres found in diamond up to the present will be useful to researchers in this field. 155 references. (author)

  11. Local electron-electron interaction strength in ferromagnetic nickel determined by spin-polarized positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreass; Böni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Benea, Diana; Chioncel, Liviu; Ebert, Hubert; Minár, Jan; Vollhardt, Dieter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    We employ a positron annihilation technique, the spin-polarized two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), to measure the spin-difference spectra of ferromagnetic nickel. The experimental data are compared with the theoretical results obtained within a combination of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the many-body dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We find that the self-energy defining the electronic correlations in Ni leads to anisotropic contributions to the momentum distribution. By direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental results we determine the strength of the local electronic interaction U in ferromagnetic Ni as 2.0 ± 0.1 eV.

  12. Nonlocal Nuclear Spin Quieting in Quantum Dot Molecules: Optically Induced Extended Two-Electron Spin Coherence Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Colin M; Ross, Aaron M; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S; Sham, L J; Steel, Duncan G

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations. PMID:27563998

  13. Nonlocal Nuclear Spin Quieting in Quantum Dot Molecules: Optically Induced Extended Two-Electron Spin Coherence Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Colin M.; Ross, Aaron M.; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, Duncan G.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations.

  14. Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Hideo; Shigyou, Hideki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g factors of electrons and light-holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum media converter between flying photon qubits and stationary electron-spin qubits in semiconductors. PMID:18352739

  15. Hot electron spin attenuation lengths of bcc Fe34Co66-Room temperature Magnetocurrent of 1200%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate spin-dependent hot electron transport through metallic epitaxial spin valves by ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM). By variation of the thickness of one of the ferromagnetic layers we determine the spin dependent attenuation lengths which reflect hot electron transport along the vicinity of the [1 0 0]-axis of the bcc Fe34Co66 lattice. The majority spin attenuation length is more than 6 times larger than that of the minority spins within the measured energy interval of 1.3 up to 2 eV above the Fermi level. Consequently a Magnetocurrent effect exceeding 1200% accompanied by a monotonic bias voltage behavior is observed at room temperature.

  16. Local spin torque induced by electron electric dipole moment in the Ybf molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Senami, Masato; Ogiso, Yoji; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we show the modification of the equation of motion of the electronic spin, which is derived by the quantum electron spin vorticity principle, by the effect of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM). To investigate the new contribution to spin torque by EDM, using first principle calculations, we visualize distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and local spin torque density of the YbF molecule on which the static electric field and magnetic field are applied at t = 0.

  17. Local spin torque induced by electron electric dipole moment in the YbF molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Senami, Masato; Ogiso, Yoji; Tachibana, Akitomo [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    In this study, we show the modification of the equation of motion of the electronic spin, which is derived by the quantum electron spin vorticity principle, by the effect of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM). To investigate the new contribution to spin torque by EDM, using first principle calculations, we visualize distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and local spin torque density of the YbF molecule on which the static electric field and magnetic field are applied at t = 0.

  18. Polarization in elastic electron scattering from spin 1/2 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D.H., E-mail: dj@math.lmu.de [Mathematics Institute, University of Munich, Theresienstrasse 39, 80333 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-17

    The spin asymmetry in the scattering of highly relativistic spin-polarized electrons from inert nuclei is calculated by means of a coherent superposition of the electric and magnetic transition amplitudes. The potential scattering is treated with the help of a phase shift analysis while the elastic magnetic scattering is described within the Born approximation. With the exception of longitudinally spin-polarized electrons, the spin asymmetry is generally found to be reduced when magnetic scattering is taken into account. Predictions are made for 20-100 MeV electrons scattering from the spin 1/2 nuclei {sup 1}H, {sup 19}F, {sup 31}P and {sup 207}Pb.

  19. Millisecond Coherence Time in a Tunable Molecular Electronic Spin Qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozny, Joseph M; Niklas, Jens; Poluektov, Oleg G; Freedman, Danna E

    2015-12-23

    Quantum information processing (QIP) could revolutionize areas ranging from chemical modeling to cryptography. One key figure of merit for the smallest unit for QIP, the qubit, is the coherence time (T 2), which establishes the lifetime for the qubit. Transition metal complexes offer tremendous potential as tunable qubits, yet their development is hampered by the absence of synthetic design principles to achieve a long T 2. We harnessed molecular design to create a series of qubits, (Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1), (Ph4P)2[V(β-C3S5)3] (2), (Ph4P)2[V(α-C3S5)3] (3), and (Ph4P)2[V(C3S4O)3] (4), with T 2s of 1-4 μs at 80 K in protiated and deuterated environments. Crucially, through chemical tuning of nuclear spin content in the vanadium(IV) environment we realized a T 2 of ∼1 ms for the species (d 20-Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1') in CS2, a value that surpasses the coordination complex record by an order of magnitude. This value even eclipses some prominent solid-state qubits. Electrochemical and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal variation in the electronic influence of the ligands on the metal ion across 1-4. However, pulsed measurements indicate that the most important influence on decoherence is nuclear spins in the protiated and deuterated solvents utilized herein. Our results illuminate a path forward in synthetic design principles, which should unite CS2 solubility with nuclear spin free ligand fields to develop a new generation of molecular qubits. PMID:27163013

  20. Interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order in two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-05

    Decoupling spin and charge transports in solids is among the many prerequisites for realizing spin electronics, spin caloritronics, and spin-Hall effect. Beyond the conventional method of generating and manipulating spin current via magnetic knob, recent advances have expanded the possibility to optical and electrical method which are controllable both internally and externally. Yet, due to the inevitable presence of charge excitations and electrical polarizibility in these methods, the separation between spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons remains a challenge. Here we propose and formulate an interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order as a new emergent phase of matter. We show that when some form of inherent spin-splitting via Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling renders two helical Fermi surfaces to become significantly nested, a Fermi surface instability arises. To lift this degeneracy, a spontaneous symmetry breaking spin-orbit density wave develops, causing a surprisingly large quasiparticle gapping with chiral electronic states, with no active charge excitations. Since the staggered spin-orbit order is associated with a condensation energy, quantified by the gap value, destroying such spin-orbit interaction costs sufficiently large perturbation field or temperature or de-phasing time. BiAg2 surface state is shown to be a representative system for realizing such novel spin-orbit interaction with tunable and large strength, and the spin-splitting is decoupled from charge excitations.

  1. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  2. Characterization of hyperfine interaction between an NV electron spin and a first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Rama Koteswara; Suter, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attractive properties for a number of quantum technologies that rely on the spin angular momentum of the electron and the nuclei adjacent to the center. The nucleus with the strongest interaction is the 13C nuclear spin of the first shell. Using this degree of freedom effectively hinges on precise data on the hyperfine interaction between the electronic and the nuclear spin. Here, we present detailed experimental data on this interaction, together with an analysis that yields all parameters of the hyperfine tensor, as well as its orientation with respect to the atomic structure of the center.

  3. Detection of single electron spin resonance in a double quantum dota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppens, F. H. L.; Buizert, C.; Vink, I. T.; Nowack, K. C.; Meunier, T.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Spin-dependent transport measurements through a double quantum dot are a valuable tool for detecting both the coherent evolution of the spin state of a single electron, as well as the hybridization of two-electron spin states. In this article, we discuss a model that describes the transport cycle in this regime, including the effects of an oscillating magnetic field (causing electron spin resonance) and the effective nuclear fields on the spin states in the two dots. We numerically calculate the current flow due to the induced spin flips via electron spin resonance, and we study the detector efficiency for a range of parameters. The experimental data are compared with the model and we find a reasonable agreement.

  4. Quadrupolar and anisotropy effects on dephasing in two-electron spin qubits in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzem, Tim; McNeil, Robert P. G.; Mol, Jan-Michael; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the decoherence of electron spins in semiconductors due to their interaction with nuclear spins is of fundamental interest as they realize the central spin model and of practical importance for using them as qubits. Interesting effects arise from the quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins with electric field gradients, which have been shown to suppress diffusive nuclear spin dynamics and might thus enhance electron spin coherence. Here we show experimentally that for gate-defined GaAs quantum dots, quadrupolar broadening of the nuclear Larmor precession reduces electron spin coherence by causing faster decorrelation of transverse nuclear fields. However, this effect disappears for appropriate field directions. Furthermore, we observe an additional modulation of coherence attributed to an anisotropic electronic g-tensor. These results complete our understanding of dephasing in gated quantum dots and point to mitigation strategies. They may also help to unravel unexplained behaviour in self-assembled quantum dots and III-V nanowires.

  5. Understanding and controlling spin-systems using electron spin resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Mathew

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) posses multi-level energy structures with properties that make them attractive candidates for implementation into quantum information technologies. However there are some major hurdles that need to be overcome if these systems are to be used as the fundamental components of an eventual quantum computer. One such hurdle is the relatively short coherence times these systems display which severely limits the amount of time quantum information can remain encoded within them. In this dissertation, recent experiments conducted with the intent of bringing this technology closer to realization are presented. The detailed knowledge of the spin Hamiltonian and mechanisms of decoherence in SMMs are absolutely essential if these systems are to be used in technologies. To that effect, experiments were done on a particularly promising SMM, the complex K6[VIV15AsIII 6O42(H2O)] · 8H2O, known as V15. High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed on this system at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The resulting spectra allowed for detailed analysis of the V15 spin Hamiltonian which will be presented as well as the most precise values yet reported for the g-factors of this system. Additionally, the line widths of the ESR spectra are studied in depth and found to reveal that fluctuations within the spin-orbit interaction are a mechanism for decoherence in V15. A new model for decoherence is presented that describes very well both the temperature and field orientation dependences of the measured ESR line widths. Also essential is the ability to control spin-states of SMMs. Presented in this dissertation as well is the demonstration of the coherent manipulation of the multi-state spin system Mn2+ diluted in MgO by means of a two-tone pulse drive. Through the detuning between the excitation and readout radio frequency pulses it is possible to select the number of photons involved in a Rabi oscillation as well as increase

  6. Conserved Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Current in a Two-Dimensional Electron System with Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-orbit Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Chih-Meng; Guo, G. Y.

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) Hall effect in a high mobility two-dimensional electron system with Rashba and Dresselhuas spin-orbit coupling by introducing both the spin and OAM torque corrections, respectively, to the spin and OAM currents. We find that when both bands are occupied, the spin Hall conductivity is still a constant (i.e., independent of the carrier density) which, however, has an opposite sign to the previous value. The spin Hall conductivit...

  7. Electron spin echo of Cu(2+) in the triglycine sulfate crystal family (TGS, TGSe, TGFB): electron spin-lattice relaxation, Debye temperature and spin-phonon coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijewski, S; Goslar, J; Hoffmann, S K

    2006-07-01

    The electron spin-lattice relaxation of Cu(2+) has been studied by the electron spin echo technique in the temperature range 4.2-115 K in triglycine sulfate (TGS) family crystals. Assuming that the relaxation is due to Raman relaxation processes the Debye temperature Θ(D) was determined as 190 K for TGS, 168 K for triglycine selenate (TGSe) and 179 K for triglycine fluoroberyllate (TGFB). We also calculated the Θ(D) values from the sound velocities derived from available elastic constants. The elastic Debye temperatures were found as 348 K for TGS, 288 K for TGSe and 372 K for TGFB. The results shown good agreement with specific heat data for TGS. The elastic Θ(D) are considerably larger than those determined from the Raman spin-lattice relaxation. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We propose to use a modified expression describing two-phonon Raman relaxation with a single variable only (Θ(D)) after elimination of the sound velocity. Moreover, we show that the relaxation data can be fitted using the elastic Debye temperature value as a constant with an additional relaxation process contributing at low temperatures. This mechanism can be related to a local mode of the Cu(2+) defect in the host lattice. Electron paramagnetic resonance g-factors and hyperfine splitting were analysed in terms of the molecular orbital theory and the d-orbital energies and covalency factors of the Cu(gly)(2) complexes were found. Using the structural data and calculated orbital energies the spin-phonon coupling matrix element of the second-order Raman process was calculated as 553 cm(-1) for TGS, 742 cm(-1) for TGSe and 569 cm(-1) for TGFB. PMID:21690828

  8. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: lwliu2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  9. Field-assisted spin-polarized electron transport through a single quantum well with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron transport through a single-quantum-well semiconductor heterostructure with spin—orbit coupling. The splitting of the asymmetric Fano-type resonance peaks due to the Dresselhaus spin—orbit coupling is found to be highly sensitive to the direction of the incident electron. The splitting of the Fano-type resonance induces the spin-polarization dependent electron current. The location and the line shape of the Fano-type resonance can be controlled by adjusting the energy and the direction of the incident electron, the oscillation frequency, and the amplitude of the external field. These interesting features may be used to devise tunable spin filters and realize pure spin transmission currents. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Model for ballistic spin-transport in ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas/ferromagnet structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapers, T; Nitta, J; Heersche, HB; Takayanagi, H

    2002-01-01

    The spin dependent conductance of a ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas ferromagnet structure is theoretically examined in the ballistic transport regime. It is shown that the spin signal can be improved considerably by making use of the spin filtering effect of a barrier at the ferromagnet two

  11. Electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy (and electron spin-echo envelope modulation spectroscopy) in bioinorganic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Brian M.

    2003-01-01

    This perspective discusses the ways that advanced paramagnetic resonance techniques, namely electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, can help us understand how metal ions function in biological systems.

  12. Thermal creation of electron spin polarization in n-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conversion of heat into a spin-current in electron doped silicon can offer a promising path for spin-caloritronics. Here, we create an electron spin polarization in the conduction band of n-type silicon by producing a temperature gradient across a ferromagnetic tunnel contact. The substrate heating experiments induce a large spin signal of 95 μV, corresponding to 0.54 meV spin-splitting in the conduction band of n-type silicon by Seebeck spin tunneling mechanism. The thermal origin of the spin injection has been confirmed by the quadratic scaling of the spin signal with the Joule heating current and linear dependence with the heating power

  13. Site directed spin labelling and pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (double electron-electron resonance) of force activation in muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent development of site specific spin labelling and advances in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) have established spin labelling as a viable structural biology technique. Specific protein sites or whole domains can be selectively targeted for spin labelling by cysteine mutagenesis. The secondary structure of the proteins is determined from the trends in EPR signals of labels attached to consecutive residues. Solvent accessibility or label mobility display periodicities along the labelled polypeptide chain that are characteristic of β-strands (periodicity of 2 residues) or α-helices (3.6 residues). Low-resolution 3D structure of proteins is determined from the distance restraints. Two spin labels placed within 60-70 A of each other create a local dipolar field experienced by the other spin labels. The strength of this field is related to the interspin distance, ∝ r-3. The dipolar field can be measured by the broadening of the EPR lines for the short distances (8-20 A) or for the longer distances (17-70 A) by the pulsed EPR methods, double electron-electron resonance(DEER) and double quantum coherence (DQC). A brief review of the methodology and its applications to the multisubunit muscle protein troponin is presented below

  14. Suppression of Direct Spin Hall Currents in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jian-Wen; HU Liang-Bin; ZHANG Zhen-Xi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Based on the Heisenberg equations of motion for the electron orbital and spin degrees of freedom in two-dimensional electronic systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, we show that an ac electric field can cause an ac spin Hall current in such a system. In contrast to some previous theoretical prediction, the spin Hall current will be suppressed completely in the dc limit. We argue that the suppression of dc spin Hall currents in such a system is actually a much natural result of the dynamic spin evolution due to the combined action of a dc external electric field and the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling.

  15. Possible Roles of Neural Electron Spin Networks in Memory and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, H P

    2004-01-01

    Spin is the origin of quantum effects in both Bohm and Hestenes quantum formulism and a fundamental quantum process associated with the structure of space-time. Thus, we have recently theorized that spin is the mind-pixel and developed a qualitative model of consciousness based on nuclear spins inside neural membranes and proteins. In this paper, we explore the possibility of unpaired electron spins being the mind-pixels. Besides free O2 and NO, the main sources of unpaired electron spins in neural membranes and proteins are transition metal ions and O2 and NO bound/absorbed to large molecules, free radicals produced through biochemical reactions and excited molecular triplet states induced by fluctuating internal magnetic fields. We show that unpaired electron spin networks inside neural membranes and proteins are modulated by action potentials through exchange and dipolar coupling tensors and spin-orbital coupling and g-factor tensors and perturbed by microscopically strong and fluctuating internal magnetic...

  16. Strain dependent electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Buß, J. H.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J. [Arbeitsgruppe Spektroskopie der kondensierten Materie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Schupp, T.; Zado, A.; As, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    The electron spin dynamics under variable uniaxial strain is investigated in bulk cubic GaN by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. Spin relaxation is found to be approximately independent of the applied strain, in complete agreement with estimates for Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation. Our findings clearly exclude strain-induced relaxation as an effective mechanism for spin relaxation in cubic GaN.

  17. Identification of irradiated chicken meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)

  18. Electron spin resonance of copper labelled myoglobin crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of sperm whale met mioglobin were doped with Cu2+ by immersion in a satured solution of NH3(SO4) containing diluted Cu(SO4). Angular variations of the EPR espectra were measured in the planes: ab, ac* and bc* (c* is an axis perpendicular to the ab plane of the monoclinic crystal). A fitting using a spin Hamiltonian with axial symmetry calculated up to second order gives the EPR hyperfine constants g = (2.328+-0.002), g = (2.069+-0.002), A = (162+-3) gauss and A = (20+-3) gauss. The parallel axis makes an angle of (390 +- 20) with the crystaline b axis. A super hyperfine spectra was evidenciated in a perpendicular direction associated with gxx or gyy. This splitting may be attributed to a spread of a wavefunction of the unpaired electron over one nitrogene of the imidazole ring of the Histidine A10 in Mb: Cu2+

  19. Electron Transfer Reactions: Generalized Spin-Boson Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Merkli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mathematically rigorous analysis of a generalized spin-boson system for the treatment of a donor-acceptor (reactant-product) quantum system coupled to a thermal quantum noise. The donor/acceptor probability dynamics describes transport reactions in chemical processes in presence of a noisy environment -- such as the electron transfer in a photosynthetic reaction center. Besides being rigorous, our analysis has the advantages over previous ones that (1) we include a general, non energy-conserving system-environment interaction, and that (2) we allow for the donor or acceptor to consist of multiple energy levels lying closely together. We establish explicit expressions for the rates and the efficiency (final donor-acceptor population difference) of the reaction. In particular, we show that the rate increases for a multi-level acceptor, but the efficiency does not.

  20. Electron spin resonance intercomparison studies on irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of intercomparison studies organized by the Community Bureau of Reference on the use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the identification of irradiated food are presented. A qualitative intercomparison was carried out using beef and trout bones, sardine scales, pistachio nut shells, dried grapes and papaya. A quantitative intercomparison involving the use of poultry bones was also organized. There was no difficulty in identifying meat bones, dried grapes and papaya. In the case of fish bones there is a need for further kinetic studies using different fish species. The identification of pistachio nut shells is more complicated and further research is needed prior to the organization of a further intercomparison. Laboratories were able to distinguish between chicken bones irradiated in the range 1 to 3 KGy or 7 to 10 KGy although there was a partial overlap between the results from different laboratories

  1. Electron Spin Resonance Imaging Utilizing Localized Microwave Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Ikeya, Motoji

    1990-02-01

    A method for two-dimensional electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging utilizing a localized microwave field is presented with an application of the image processing technique. Microwaves are localized at the surface of a sample by placing a sample in contact with a pinholed cavity wall. A two-dimensional ESR image can be obtained by scanning the sample in contact with the cavity. Some ESR images which correspond to distribution of natural radiation damages and paramagnetic impurities in carbonate fossils of a crinoid and an ammonite are presented as applications in earth science. Resolution of a raw ESR image is restricted by the diameter of the hole (1 mm). Higher resolution of 0.2 mm is obtained by using a deconvolution algorithm and instrument function for the hole. Restored images of a test sample of DPPH and of a fossil crinoid are presented.

  2. Evaluation of spin labeled tartaric and galactaric diamides as potential MRI contrast enhancing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaric diamide (4) and Galactaric diamide (7) were synthesized for evaluation as potential contrast enhancing agents for MRI. These compounds (10 mM) elicited excellent spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxations of protons in water and plasma. Compound 7 possessed an insufficient solubility (10 mM) to be further considered for studies in animals models. In contrast, compound 4 exhibited a high solubility in water (220 mM) and human plasma. The reducibility of the compound 4 was assayed in vitro using rat kidney and liver homogenates. The rates for 4 were found to be between those for PCA (8) and TES (9), two extensively investigated mononitroxyls. The pharmacokinetics of 4 were investigated in vivo on blood and urine samples of dogs using EPR and HPLC methodologies. The metabolic pathway of 4 gives only one metabolite, the diamagnetic reduced form of 4. During the first 4 hours 50% of 4 is exerted. The clearance of 4 from blood is rapid and higher than that of TES. The non-ionic 4 might then be useful in medicinal research using animal models but it can not be adapted at present to clinical use because of instrumental time constraints

  3. Extraordinary waves in two dimensional electron gas with separate spin evolution and Coulomb exchange interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamics analysis of waves in two-dimensional degenerate electron gas with the account of separate spin evolution is presented. The transverse electric field is included along with the longitudinal electric field. The Coulomb exchange interaction is included in the analysis. In contrast with the three-dimensional plasma-like mediums the contribution of the transverse electric field is small. We show the decrease of frequency of both the extraordinary (Langmuir) wave and the spin-electron acoustic wave due to the exchange interaction. Moreover, spin-electron acoustic wave has negative dispersion at the relatively large spin-polarization. Corresponding dispersion dependencies are presented and analyzed.

  4. Impurity color centers in quartz and trapped electron dating - Electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmorris, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of impurity-related electron-hole traps that are known to be sensitive to ionizing radiations. Electron spin resonance (ESR) equivalent natural doses were determined for the Al hole trap in virgin specimens; the doses agreed with estimates based on published data for the Ge electron trap. The 0.17 deg/sec 180 and 300 C thermoluminescence (TL) peaks in natural specimens were found to have activation energies approximately correct for the Ge trap. The 300 C peak was also found to be correlated with annealing of the Ge electron resonance in gamma-irradiated, step-annealed specimens. Although the 300 C peak occurs in virgin specimens, the corresponding natural Ge electron resonance was not observed.

  5. Induced spin filtering in electron transmission through chiral molecular layers adsorbed on metals with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Joel; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Nitzan, Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Recent observations of considerable spin polarization in photoemission from metal surfaces through monolayers of chiral molecules were followed by several efforts to rationalize the results as the effect of spin-orbit interaction that accompanies electronic motion on helical, or more generally strongly curved, potential surfaces. In this paper we (a) argue, using simple models, that motion in curved force-fields with the typical energies used and the characteristic geometry of DNA cannot account for such observations; (b) introduce the concept of induced spin filtering, whereupon selectivity in the transmission of the electron orbital angular momentum can induce spin selectivity in the transmission process provided there is strong spin-orbit coupling in the substrate; and (c) show that the spin polarization in the tunneling current as well as the photoemission current from gold covered by helical adsorbates can be of the observed order of magnitude. Our results can account for most of the published observations that involved gold and silver substrates; however, recent results obtained with an aluminum substrate can be rationalized within the present model only if strong spin-orbit coupling is caused by the built-in electric field at the molecule-metal interface.

  6. The spin and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron in stochastic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that the zitterbewegung induced on a harmonically bound electron by the zero-point radiation field accounts for the spin of the electron. Assuming that the measurement of a spin projection may be taken into account phenomenologically by considering the action of only the subensemble of the zero-point field with the corresponding circular polarization, the theory gives a satisfactory account of both the spin projection and the anomalous magnetic moment. (orig.)

  7. Spin and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron in stochastic electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, A.; de la Pena, L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica)

    1981-11-23

    It is proposed that the zitterbewegung induced on a harmonically bound electron by the zero-point radiation field accounts for the spin of the electron. Assuming that the measurement of a spin projection may be taken into account phenomenologically by considering the action of only the subensemble of the zero-point field with the corresponding circular polarization, the theory gives a satisfactory account of both the spin projection and the anomalous magnetic moment.

  8. Electron spin resonance in thin film silicon after low temperature electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, O. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Photovoltaics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); National Science Center-Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, 61108, Kharkov (Ukraine)], E-mail: o.astakhov@fz-juelich.de; Finger, F.; Carius, R.; Lambertz, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Photovoltaics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Petrusenko, Yu.; Borysenko, V.; Barankov, D. [National Science Center-Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, 61108, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-07-16

    Paramagnetic defects in amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H) with various structure compositions and doping levels were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Samples were prepared by PECVD. The defect density was varied with 2 MeV electron bombardment at 100 K and stepwise annealing in the range of 80 K-433 K. In intrinsic material the spin density of the dominant ESR signal, presumably originating from dangling bonds (db), increases by up to 3 orders of magnitude after irradiation. In doped {mu}c-Si:H material the pronounced conduction electron (CE) resonance disappears after irradiation and is replaced by the db resonance like in the irradiated intrinsic material. Generally the initial spin density and the line shape can be restored upon annealing at 433 K. Additional features at g-values of g {approx} 2.010 and g {approx} 2.000 in the ESR spectra are observed after irradiation together with the strongly enhanced Si db line at about g = 2.004-2.005. These features decrease rapidly on the first annealing steps and cannot be observed after the final annealing stage.

  9. Electronic spin transport in bilayer and single layer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tsung-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Graphene has drawn plenty of attention since its discovery in 2004. Due to its excellent properties, such as long spin relaxation length and gate-tunable spin transport, graphene is expected to be a potential candidate for spintronics applications. In this thesis, the systematic study of the spin relaxation mechanisms in bilayer and single layer graphene is presented. Graphene-based spin valve devices in four-terminal non-local geometry are fabricated for the investigation of the charge and s...

  10. Investigations on resolution enhancement in EPR by means of electron spin echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin echo technique has been applied in four types of experiments: the measurement of electric field induced shifts of the EPR line; the detection of electron spin echo ENDOR; a relaxation measurement and the measurement of hyperfine interactions via the nuclear modulation effect. (Auth.)

  11. Hysteresis loops of spin-dependent electronic current in a paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear properties of the spin-dependent electronic transport through a semiconductor resonant tunnelling diode with a paramagnetic quantum well are considered. The spin-dependent Wigner–Poisson model of the electronic transport and the two-current Mott’s formula for the independent spin channels are applied to determine the current–voltage curves of the nanodevice. Two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops are found in the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current. The physical interpretation of these two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops is given based on the analysis of the spin-dependent electron densities and the potential energy profiles. The differences between the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current allow us to explore the changes of the spin polarization of the current for different electric fields and determine the influence of the electronic current hysteresis on the spin polarization of the current flowing through the paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode. (paper)

  12. Hysteresis loops of spin-dependent electronic current in a paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, P.; Spisak, B. J.; Wołoszyn, M.; Adamowski, J.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear properties of the spin-dependent electronic transport through a semiconductor resonant tunnelling diode with a paramagnetic quantum well are considered. The spin-dependent Wigner-Poisson model of the electronic transport and the two-current Mott’s formula for the independent spin channels are applied to determine the current-voltage curves of the nanodevice. Two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops are found in the current-voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current. The physical interpretation of these two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops is given based on the analysis of the spin-dependent electron densities and the potential energy profiles. The differences between the current-voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current allow us to explore the changes of the spin polarization of the current for different electric fields and determine the influence of the electronic current hysteresis on the spin polarization of the current flowing through the paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode.

  13. Electronic agents on the Internet: A new way to satisfy the consumer?

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Sylvie; Wallet-Wodka, Déborah

    2003-01-01

    International audience Our purpose in this article is to present the concept of electronic agent used in e-commerce and its impact on consumer satisfaction. Electronic agents represent the future of electronic business. They help the consumers in an environment where all the information is available but hard to deal with. We try to study the electronic agent in a consumer decision process perspective and to examine the different sort of agents depending on their relationships with vendors ...

  14. Towards quantum optics and entanglement with electron spin ensembles in semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Wal, Caspar H. van der; Sladkov, Maksym

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a technique and a material system that enable the controlled realization of quantum entanglement between spin-wave modes of electron ensembles in two spatially separated pieces of semiconductor material. The approach uses electron ensembles in GaAs quantum wells that are located inside optical waveguides. Bringing the electron ensembles in a quantum Hall state gives selection rules for optical transitions across the gap that can selectively address the two electron spin states. Lon...

  15. Universal enhancement of the optical readout fidelity of single electron spins

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, M; Beck, J; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Precise readout of spin states is crucial for any approach towards physical realization of a spin-based quantum computer and for magnetometry with single spins. Here, we report a new method to strongly improve the optical readout fidelity of electron spin states associated with single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The signal-to-noise ratio is enhanced significantly by performing conditional flip-flop processes between the electron spin and the nuclear spin of the NV center's nitrogen atom. The enhanced readout procedure is triggered by a short preparatory pulse sequence. As the nitrogen nuclear spin is intrinsically present in the system, this method is universally applicable to any nitrogen-vacancy center.

  16. Detection of spin-resolved electronic structures from a buried ferromagnetic layer utilizing forward Mott scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved hard X-ray photoemission (HAXPES) for a buried FeNi alloy film. By utilizing the forward Mott scattering in a Au layer on FeNi, our spin-resolved HAXPES method does not require a standard spin detector and allows us to use the multi-channel electron detection system for the high-efficient electron detection as used in conventional photoemission spectroscopy. A combination of the forward Mott scattering and multi-channel detection leads us to measure a clear spin polarization as well as spin-resolved majority and minority states in the Fe 2p core-level spectra without using the standard spin detector. This method enables us to measure spin-resolved core-level spectra for buried ferromagnetic materials

  17. Spinning Carbon Nanotube Nanothread under a Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schulz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanothread with a diameter as small as one hundred nanometers was manufactured under a scanning electron microscope. Made directly from carbon nanotubes, and inheriting their superior electrical and mechanical properties, nanothread may be the world’s smallest man-made fiber. The smallest thread that can be spun using a bench-top spinning machine is about 5 microns in diameter. Nanothread is a new material building block that can be used at the nanoscale or plied to form yarn for applications at the micro and macro scales. Preliminary electrical and mechanical properties of nanothread were measured. The resistivity of nanothread is less than 10−5 Ω∙m. The strength of nanothread is greater than 0.5 GPa. This strength was obtained from measurements using special glue that cures in an electron microscope. The glue weakened the thread, thus further work is needed to obtain more accurate measurements. Nanothread will have broad applications in enabling electrical components, circuits, sensors, and tiny machines. Yarn can be used for various macroscale applications including lightweight antennas, composites, and cables.

  18. Spin-orbit coupling, electron transport and pairing instabilities in two-dimensional square structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharian, Armen N.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun; Palandage, Kalum; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2016-05-01

    Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.

  19. Electronic route to stabilize nanoscale spin textures in itinerant frustrated magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reja, Sahinur; van den Brink, Jeroen; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-04-01

    We unveil novel spin textures in an itinerant fermion model on a frustrated triangular lattice in the limit of low electronic density. Using hybrid Monte Carlo simulations on finite clusters we identify two types of nanoscale spin textures in the background of 120∘ order: (i) a planar ferromagnetic cluster, and (ii) and a noncoplanar cluster with spins oriented perpendicular to the 120∘ plane. Both these textures lead to localization of the electronic wave functions and are in turn stabilized by the concomitant charge modulations. The noncoplanar spin texture is accompanied by an unusual scalar chirality pattern. A well defined electric charge and magnetic moment associated with these textures allow for their easy manipulation by external electric and magnetic fields—a desirable feature for data storage. We identify a localization-delocalization behavior for electronic wave functions which is unique to frustrated magnets and propose a general framework for stabilizing similar spin textures in spin-charge coupled systems.

  20. Spin eigen-states of Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremko, Alexander, E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Brizhik, Larissa, E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Loktev, Vadim, E-mail: vloktev@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Peremohy av., 37, Kyiv, 03056 (Ukraine)

    2015-10-15

    Dirac equation for electrons in a potential created by quantum well is solved and the three sets of the eigen-functions are obtained. In each set the wavefunction is at the same time the eigen-function of one of the three spin operators, which do not commute with each other, but do commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian. This means that the eigen-functions of Dirac equation describe three independent spin eigen-states. The energy spectrum of electrons confined by the rectangular quantum well is calculated for each of these spin states at the values of energies relevant for solid state physics. It is shown that the standard Rashba spin splitting takes place in one of such states only. In another one, 2D electron subbands remain spin degenerate, and for the third one the spin splitting is anisotropic for different directions of 2D wave vector.

  1. Electron beam radiation of resin luting agents - a cytotoxic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of three resin luting agents rely x luting cement, rely x luting 2 cement, and clearfil SA luting agent on human dental pulp cells before and after electron beam irradiation. Growth and maintenance of cell cultures of human pulp cells was done in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The test samples were divided into two categories based on radiation exposure, irradiated category and non-radiated category. Samples in Irradiated category were exposed to electron beam radiation after dose standardisation (Microtron, Electron Beam Accelerator, Microtron Centre, Mangalore University). The dose of radiation used was 200 Gy. Two subgroups of radiated category were made. In 1st sub-group (containing 18 samples), all the 3 luting cements will be placed in sterile packets and irradiated without mixing the two components. In 2nd sub-group (containing 18 samples), all the 3 luting cements will be mixed separately, placed in sterile packets and exposed to electron-beam radiations. Samples in non radiated category were also made 2 groups. In 1st sub-group (containing 18 samples), all the 3 luting cements will be placed in sterile teflon moulds and kept in a humid chamber at 37℃ without mixing the two components. In 2nd sub-group (containing 18 samples), all the 3 the luting cements will be mixed separately, placed in sterile teflon moulds and kept in a humid chamber at 37℃. All the samples were subjected to MTT assay and spectrophotometric analysis and their cytotoxicity was assessed. (author)

  2. Scattering of spin-polarized electron in an Aharonov Bohm potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilov, V. R.; Ho, Choon-Lin

    2008-05-01

    The scattering of spin-polarized electrons in an Aharonov-Bohm vector potential is considered. We solve the Pauli equation in 3 + 1 dimensions taking into account explicitly the interaction between the three-dimensional spin magnetic moment of electron and magnetic field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross section are obtained for spin-polarized electron scattered off a flux tube of small radius. It is also shown that bound electron states cannot occur in this quantum system. The scattering problem for the model of a flux tube of zero radius in the Born approximation is briefly discussed.

  3. Scattering of spin-polarized electron in an Aharonov--Bohm potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khalilov, V R

    2007-01-01

    The scattering of spin-polarized electrons in an Aharonov--Bohm vector potential is considered. We solve the Pauli equation in 3+1 dimensions taking into account explicitly the interaction between the three-dimensional spin magnetic moment of electron and magnetic field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross section are obtained for spin-polarized electron scattered off a flux tube of small radius. It is also shown that bound electron states cannot occur in this quantum system. The scattering problem for the model of a flux tube of zero radius in the Born approximation is briefly discussed.

  4. Time-bin state transfer to electron spin coherence in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Hideo; Inagaki, Takahiro; Hitomi, Ryuta; Izawa, Fumishige; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Edamatsu, Keiichi [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Rikitake, Yoshiaki [Sendai National College of Technology, Sendai 989-3128 (Japan); Imamura, Hiroshi [Nanosystem Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that a coherent superposition state of two temporally separated optical pulses, called a time-bin state, can be transferred to that of up/down electron spins in a semiconductor by synchronizing the time separation to the precession period of either electrons or holes. The time-bin transfer scheme does not require polarization mode degeneracy and can map the time-bin state to the electron spin state that is not accessible directly using only polarization. The scheme offers a new approach for quantum interfaces between photons and electron spins.

  5. High-efficiency spin-resolved and spin-integrated electron detection: Parallel mounting on a hemispherical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Larsson, K.; Brookes, N. B.

    1999-11-01

    We have mounted a compact 25 kV mini-Mott spin polarimeter on a commercial high-throughput hemispherical electron analyzer with a double purpose: to maximize the polarization detection and to preserve the original efficiency of the spectrometer in the spin-integrated measurements. We have thus replaced the 16-anode microchannel-plate detector with a 12-anode microsphere-plate detector in parallel with a Rice University retarding Mott spin polarimeter. Passing from one detection mode to the other is quick and easy. The transfer optics from the analyzer exit slit to the scattering target of the polarimeter allows the full potential of both the electron analyzer and the spin detector to be exploited. The expected effective Sherman function (Seff=0.17) and figure of merit (η0≅1.4×10-4) are found in the spin-resolved mode, and only 25% of the original efficiency is lost in the spin-integrated acquisitions.

  6. Induction-Detection Electron Spin Resonance with Sensitivity of 1000 Spins: En Route to Scalable Quantum Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Aharon; Shklyar, Roman; Twig, Ygal

    2013-01-01

    Spin-based quantum computation (QC) in the solid state is considered to be one of the most promising approaches to scalable quantum computers. However, it faces problems such as initializing the spins, selectively addressing and manipulating single spins, and reading out the state of the individual spins. We have recently sketched a scheme that potentially solves all of these problems5. This is achieved by making use of a unique phosphorus-doped 28Si sample (28Si:P), and applying powerful new electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques for parallel excitation, detection, and imaging in order to implement QCs and efficiently obtain their results. The beauty of our proposed scheme is that, contrary to other approaches, single-spin detection sensitivity is not required and a capability to measure signals of ~100-1000 spins is sufficient to implement it. Here we take the first experimental step towards the actual implementation of such scheme. We show that, by making use of the smallest ESR resonator constructed to ...

  7. Increase of spin dephasing times in a 2D electron system with degree of initial spin polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D.; Korn, T.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2008-03-01

    We report on time-resolved Faraday/Kerr rotation measurements on a high-mobility 2D electron system. A variable initial spin polarization is created in the sample by a circularly polarized pump pulse, and the spin polarization is tracked by measuring the Faraday/Kerr rotation of a time-delayed probe pulse. By varying the pump intensity, the initial spin polarization is changed from the low-polarization limit to a polarization degree of several percent. The observed spin dephasing time increases from less than 20 ps to more than 200 ps as the initial spin polarization is increased. To exclude sample heating effects, additional measurements with constant pump intensity and variable degree of circular polarization are performed. The results confirm the theoretical prediction by Weng and Wu [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 075312] that the spin dephasing strongly depends on the initial spin polarization degree. The microscopic origin for this is the Hartree-Fock term in the Coulomb interaction, which acts as an effective out-of plane magnetic field.

  8. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  9. Inverse Spin Hall Effect and Anomalous Hall Effect in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Peter; Raimondi, Roberto; Gorini, Cosimo

    2010-01-01

    We study the coupled dynamics of spin and charge currents in a two-dimensional electron gas in the transport diffusive regime. For systems with inversion symmetry there are established relations between the spin Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect and the inverse spin Hall effect. However, in two-dimensional electron gases of semiconductors like GaAs, inversion symmetry is broken so that the standard arguments do not apply. We demonstrate that in the presence of a Rashba type of spin-orbit...

  10. Complete snake and rotator schemes for spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to maintain spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings, some generalized Siberian Snake scheme may be required to make the spin tune almost independent of energy and thus avoid depolarizing resonances. The practical problem of finding such schemes that, at reasonable technical effort, can be made to work over large energy ranges has been addressed before and is here revisited in a broadened view and with added new suggestions. As a result, possibly optimum schemes for electron rings (LEP) and proton rings are described. In the proposed LEP scheme, spin rotation is devised such that, at the interaction points, the spin direction is longitudinal as required for experiments. (orig.)

  11. Electron spin and the origin of Bio-homochirality I. Extant enzymatic reaction model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I tentatively put forward a new hypothesis that the emergence of a single chiral form of biomolecules in living organisms is specifically determined by the electron spin state during their enzyme-catalyzed synthesis processes. Specifically speaking, the electrons released from the coenzyme NAD(P)H of amino acid synthase are heterogeneous in spin states; however, when they pass through the chiral alpha-helix structure of the enzymes to the site of amino acid synthesis at the other end of the helix, their spin states are filtered and polarized, producing only spin up electrons; once the spin-polarized electrons participate in the reductive reaction between alpha-oxo acid and ammonia, only L-amino acids are formed according to the Pauli exclusion principle.

  12. Effect of electron electric dipole moment on the spin dynamics of the YbF molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kota; Fukuda, Masahiro; Senami, Masato; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2014-09-01

    The existence of the large value of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) is predicted in extensions of the standard model (SM). To find or exclude physics beyond SM, the EDM is studied in many experiments, where the precession motion of the electron spin is used for the detection. This motion depends on the internal effective electric field (EEF). The accurate prediction of the relation between the EDM and the spin motion is mandatory for deriving the constraint of the EDM. In addition to the computation of EEF, our group studies the spin dynamics by the equation of motion (EOM) of spin. In our group, we have studied the spin motion based on quantum field theory (QFT). In QFT, the spin motion is governed by the spin torque and zeta force. The latter gives local effects and cannot be described in quantum mechanics (QM). Hence, in our approach, there is a difference from ordinary treatment of the spin motion based on QM. In this work, we show that the existence of the EDM modifies our EOM of the spin, that is, the EDM gives the additional contribution to the spin torque. This torque is induced by not only electric field but also magnetic field as a result of relativistic generalization. Then we show our results of the local spin torque distribution for the YbF molecule.

  13. Formalizing argument-based agent interaction in electronic institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Chesñevar, Carlos Iván

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade the notion of agent has gained acceptance within the AI community, mainly due to its adequacy to formalize complex environments. Agents can be thought as active software objects, which may be autonomous and able to perceive, reason, act, and interact with other agents. When agents interact with each other, a multi-agent system (MAS) arises.

  14. The co-evolutionary dynamics of directed network of spin market agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Denis; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Gmitra, Martin

    2006-09-01

    The spin market model [S. Bornholdt, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 12 (2001) 667] is generalized by employing co-evolutionary principles, where strategies of the interacting and competitive traders are represented by local and global couplings between the nodes of dynamic directed stochastic network. The co-evolutionary principles are applied in the frame of Bak-Sneppen self-organized dynamics [P. Bak, K. Sneppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 4083] that includes the processes of selection and extinction actuated by the local (node) fitness. The local fitness is related to orientation of spin agent with respect to the instant magnetization. The stationary regime is formed due to the interplay of self-organization and adaptivity effects. The fat tailed distributions of log-price returns are identified numerically. The non-trivial model consequence is the evidence of the long time market memory indicated by the power-law range of the autocorrelation function of volatility with exponent smaller than one. The simulations yield network topology with broad-scale node degree distribution characterized by the range of exponents 1.3<γin<3 coinciding with social networks.

  15. Multitudes of Stable States in a Periodically Driven Electron-Nuclear Spin System in a Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2010-01-01

    The periodical modulation of circularly polarized light with a frequency close to the electron spin resonance frequency induces a sharp change of the single electron spin orientation. Hyperfine interaction provides a feedback, thus fixing the precession frequency of the electron spin in the external and the Overhauser field near the modulation frequency. The nuclear polarization is bidirectional and the electron-nuclear spin system (ENSS) possesses a few stable states. A similar frequency-loc...

  16. Identification of irradiated rice noodles by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been applied to the identification of the irradiation of a wide variety of foods. In this study, ESR was applied to identify irradiated rice noodles. A detailed ESR investigation of irradiated noodles was carried out in the dose range 0.5–3 kGy. The stability of the radiation-induced ESR signal at cold (−4 °C) and room (25 °C) temperatures was studied over a storage period of 24 weeks. Irradiated rice noodle samples exhibited a strong, symmetric doublet ESR signal centered at g = 2.0, whereas unirradiated noodle exhibited a very weak signal. The ESR signal intensity increased linearly with radiation dose ranging from 0.5 to 3 kGy. Keeping the samples at −4 °C and 25 °C for 24 weeks caused decreases of 50% and 90% in the ESR signal intensities, respectively. However, long-term decay data at room temperature showed that the ESR technique could be used to identify irradiated rice noodles up to 24 weeks following irradiation.

  17. Cavities for electron spin resonance: predicting the resonant frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, John; Miller, Kyle; Meehan, Michael; Spencer, Ross

    Microwave cavities are used in electron spin resonance to enhance magnetic fields. Dielectric resonators (DRs), pieces of high dielectric material, can be used to tailor the resonant frequency of a cavity. However, designing cavities with DRs to obtain desired frequencies is challenging and in general can only be done numerically with expensive software packages. We present a new method for calculating the resonant frequencies and corresponding field modes for cylindrically symmetric cavities and apply it to a cavity with vertically stacked DRs. The modes of an arbitrary cavity are expressed as an expansion of empty cavity modes. The wave equation for D gives rise to an eigenvalue equation whose eigenvalues are the resonant frequencies and whose eigenvectors yield the electric and magnetic fields of the mode. A test against theory for an infinitely long dielectric cylinder inside an infinite cavity yields an accuracy better than 0.4% for nearly all modes. Calculated resonant frequencies are also compared against experiment for quasi-TE011 modes in resonant cavities with ten different configurations of DRs; experimental results agree with predicted values with an accuracy better than 1.0%. MATLAB code is provided at http://www.physics.byu.edu/research/coltonlab/cavityresonance.

  18. Mechanical detection of electron spin resonance beyond 1 THz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki [Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohmichi, Eiji [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, Hitoshi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    We report the cantilever detection of electron spin resonance (ESR) in the terahertz (THz) region. This technique mechanically detects ESR as a change in magnetic torque that acts on the cantilever. The ESR absorption of a tiny single crystal of Co Tutton salt, Co(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O, was observed in frequencies of up to 1.1 THz using a backward travelling wave oscillator as a THz-wave source. This is the highest frequency of mechanical detection of ESR till date. The spectral resolution was evaluated with the ratio of the peak separation to the sum of the half-width at half maximum of two absorption peaks. The highest resolution value of 8.59 ± 0.53 was achieved at 685 GHz, while 2.47 ± 0.01 at 80 GHz. This technique will not only broaden the scope of ESR spectroscopy application but also lead to high-spectral-resolution ESR imaging.

  19. The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2016-10-01

    We use the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin-orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin-orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin-orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. PMID:27494800

  20. A bias-tunable electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effect of the bias in an electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes. The numerical results show that the electron transmission and the conductance as well as the spin polarization are strongly dependent on the bias applied to the device. - Research highlights: → We propose a bias-tunable electron-spin filter. → The transmission and the conductance depend on the bias and the electron energy. → The spin polarization depends on the bias and the electron energy. → The results are helpful for making new types of bias-tunable spin filters.

  1. A bias-tunable electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jianduo, E-mail: l_j316@163.co [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Li Yunbao; Yun Meijuan [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zheng Wei [Key Laboratory of Dynamic Geodesy, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077 (China)

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the effect of the bias in an electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes. The numerical results show that the electron transmission and the conductance as well as the spin polarization are strongly dependent on the bias applied to the device. - Research highlights: We propose a bias-tunable electron-spin filter. The transmission and the conductance depend on the bias and the electron energy. The spin polarization depends on the bias and the electron energy. The results are helpful for making new types of bias-tunable spin filters.

  2. Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shiro, E-mail: s-kawabata@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Vasenko, Andrey S. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ozaeta, Asier [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bergeret, Sebastian F. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Hekking, Frank W.J. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-01

    We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits.

  3. Non-destructive measurement of electron spins in a quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, T.; Vink, I. T.; van Beveren, L. H. Willems; Koppens, F. H. L.; Tranitz, H. P.; Wegscheider, W.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2006-01-01

    We propose and implement a non-destructive measurement that distinguishes between two-electron spin states in a quantum dot. In contrast to earlier experiments with quantum dots, the spins are left behind in the state corresponding to the measurement outcome. By measuring the spin states twice within a time shorter than the relaxation time, T1, correlations between consecutive measurements are observed. They disappear as the wait time between measurements become comparable to T1. The correlat...

  4. Using Markov models to simulate electron spin resonance spectra from molecular dynamics trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer, Deniz; Freed, Jack H.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Simulating electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra directly from molecular dynamics simulations of a spin labeled protein necessitates a large number (hundreds or thousands) of relatively long (hundreds of ns) trajectories. To meet this challenge, we explore the possibility of constructing accurate stochastic models of the spin label dynamics from atomistic trajectories. A systematic, two-step procedure, based on the probabilistic framework of hidden Markov models, is developed to build a discr...

  5. Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits

  6. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupling and control in coherently driven and asymmetrically synchronized hybrid electron-nuclear spin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the coupling and control adaptation of a hybrid electron-nuclear spin system using the laser mediated proton beam in MeV energy regime. The asymmetric control mechanism is based on exact optimization of both: the measure of exchange interaction and anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction induced in the resonance with optimal channeled protons (CP) superfocused field, allowing manipulation over arbitrary localized spatial centers while addressing only the electron spin. Using highly precise and coherent proton channeling regime we have obtained efficient pulse shaping separator technique aimed for spatio-temporal engineering of quantum states, introducing a method for control of nuclear spins, which are coupled via anisotropic hyperfine interactions in isolated electron spin manifold, without radio wave (RW) pulses. The presented method can be efficiently implemented in synchronized spin networks with the purpose to facilitate preservation and efficient transfer of experimentally observed quantum particle states, contributing to the overall background noise reduction.

  8. Electronic structures and spin magnetic properties of CoFe: lattice strain effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of lattice strain on the electronic structures and the spin magnetic properties of CoFe in the CsCl (B2) structure were studied using first-principles electronic-structure calculations based on the density functional theory. The calculations in this study showed that the lattice stain induces significant changes in the peak positions of the majority-spin and the minority-spin densities of states: In the case of lattice expansion, band narrowing was observed while in the case of lattice compression, band broadening was observed. As a result, when the lattice strain of CoFe was increased to 4.7%, the minority-spin density of states at the Fermi energy decreased by 32% as compared to that of the unstrained CoFe. This suggests that lattice strain can play an important role in the functioning of spin electronic devices of CoFe.

  9. Observation of vacuum-enhanced electron spin resonance of levitated nanodiamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thai M; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2015-01-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this novel system, we also investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. Our results show that optical levitation of nanodiamonds in vacuum not only can improve the mechanical quality of its oscillation, but also enhance the ESR contrast, which pave the way towards a novel levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. The results also indicate potenti...

  10. Nonlinear separate spin evolution in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Z

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear evolution of spin-electron acoustic, positron-acoustic, and spin-electron-positron acoustic waves is considered. It is demonstrated that weakly nonlinear dynamics of each wave leads to the soliton formation. Altogether, we report on existence of three different solitons. The spin-electron acoustic soliton known for electron-ion plasmas is described for electron-positron-ion plasmas for the first time. The existence of the spin-electron-positron acoustic soliton is reported for the first time. The positron-acoustic soliton and the spin-electron-positron acoustic soliton arise as the areas of a positive electric potential. The spin-electron acoustic soliton behaves as the area of a negative electric potential at the relatively small positron imbalance $n_{0p}/n_{0e}=0.1$ and as the area of a positive electric potential at the relatively large positron imbalance $n_{0p}/n_{0e}=0.5$.

  11. Determination of Flux-Gate Magnetometer Spin Axis Offsets with the Electron Drift Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Nakamura, Rumi; Giner, Lukas; Teubenbacher, Robert; Chutter, Mark; Leinweber, Hannes K.; Magnes, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Spin-stabilization of spacecraft enormously supports the in-flight calibration of onboard flux-gate magnetometers (FGMs): eight out of twelve calibration parameters can be determined by minimization of spin tone and harmonics in the calibrated magnetic field measurements. From the remaining four parameters, the spin axis offset is usually obtained by analyzing observations of Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind. If solar wind measurements are unavailable, other methods for spin axis offset determination need to be used. We present two alternative methods that are based on the comparison of FGM and electron drift instrument (EDI) data: (1) EDI measures the gyration periods of instrument-emitted electrons in the ambient magnetic field. They are inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength. Differences between FGM and EDI measured field strengths can be attributed to inaccuracies in spin axis offset, if the other calibration parameters are accurately known. (2) For EDI electrons to return to the spacecraft, they have to be sent out in perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field. Minimization of the variance of electron beam directions with respect to the FGM-determined magnetic field direction also yields an estimate of the spin axis offset. Prior to spin axis offset determination, systematic inaccuracies in EDI gyration period measurements and in the transformation of EDI beam directions into the FGM spin-aligned reference coordinate system have to be corrected. We show how this can be done by FGM/EDI data comparison, as well.

  12. Magnetic defects in chemically converted graphene nanoribbons: electron spin resonance investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Singamaneni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are influenced by the presence of adatoms, adsorbates and edge functionalization. To improve the understanding of the factors that influence the spin properties of GNRs, local (element spin-sensitive techniques such as electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy are important for spintronics applications. Here, we present results of multi-frequency continuous wave (CW, pulse and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE ESR spectroscopy measurements performed on oxidatively unzipped graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, which were subsequently chemically converted (CCGNRs with hydrazine. ESR spectra at 336 GHz reveal an isotropic ESR signal from the CCGNRs, of which the temperature dependence of its line width indicates the presence of localized unpaired electronic states. Upon functionalization of CCGNRs with 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate, the ESR signal is found to be 2 times narrower than that of pristine ribbons. NH3 adsorption/desorption on CCGNRs is shown to narrow the signal, while retaining the signal intensity and g value. The electron spin-spin relaxation process at 10 K is found to be characterized by slow (163 ns and fast (39 ns components. HYSCORE ESR data demonstrate the explicit presence of protons and 13C atoms. With the provided identification of intrinsic point magnetic defects such as proton and 13C has been reported, which are roadblocks to spin travel in graphene-based materials, this work could help in advancing the present fundamental understanding on the edge-spin (or magnetic-based transport properties of CCGNRs.

  13. Decay of the Electronic Spin Polarization Outside a Surface of a Ferromagnetic Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, J. S.; Baltensperger, W.

    It is shown that the spin polarization of the electron cloud in thermal equilibrium with a ferromagnetic surface decays within a few Angstroms from the surface. This explains the vanishing spin polarization found in thermoemission from Ni and Fe by Vaterlaus et al. [Phys. Rev. Letters 65, 3041 (1990)].

  14. Correlation energy in a spin polarized two dimensional electron liquid in the high density limit

    OpenAIRE

    Chesi, S; Giuliani, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained an analytic expression for the ring diagram contribution to the correlation energy of a two-dimensional electron liquid as a function of the uniform fractional spin polarization. Our results can be used to improve the interpolation formulas which represent the basic ingredient for the construction of modern spin-density functionals in two dimensions.

  15. Electron Spin Resonance and Related Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Deals with the discussion of the development of spin resonance in low dimensional structures, such as two-dimensional electron systems, quantum wires, and quantum dots. This title discusses opportunities for spin resonance techniques, with emphasis on fundamental physics, nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum information processing

  16. Storage of Multiple Coherent Microwave Excitations in an Electron Spin Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hua; George, Richard E.; Wesenberg, Janus H.; Mølmer, Klaus; Schuster, David I.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Morton, John J. L.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Strong coupling between a microwave photon and electron spins, which could enable a long-lived quantum memory element for superconducting qubits, is possible using a large ensemble of spins. This represents an inefficient use of resources unless multiple photons, or qubits, can be orthogonally...

  17. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot: Theoretical Consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2008-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the

  18. Proposed Coupling of an Electron Spin in a Semiconductor Quantum Dot to a Nanosize Optical Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majumdar, Arka; Nielsen, Per Kær; Bajcsy, Michal;

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme to efficiently couple a single quantum dot electron spin to an optical nano-cavity, which enables us to simultaneously benefit from a cavity as an efficient photonic interface, as well as to perform high fidelity (nearly 100%) spin initialization and manipulation achievable in...

  19. The Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin and intermediate quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the theory of electron spin. The Stern-Gerlach experiment, the anticommutation relations and the properties of spin operators are discussed. The Pauli theory, Dirac transformation theory, the double Stern-Gerlach experiment, the EPR paradox and Bell's inequality are also covered. (U.K.)

  20. Self-spin-controlled rotation of spatial states of a Dirac electron in a cylindrical potential via spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, C C; Reeb, D; Raymer, M G [Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, 1274 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1274 (United States)], E-mail: cleary@uoregon.edu

    2008-10-15

    Solution of the Dirac equation predicts that when an electron with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) propagates in a cylindrically symmetric potential, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom interact, causing the electron's phase velocity to depend on whether its spin angular momentum (SAM) and OAM vectors are oriented parallel or anti-parallel with respect to each other. This spin-orbit splitting of the electronic dispersion curves can result in a rotation of the electron's spatial state in a manner controlled by the electron's own spin z-component value. These effects persist at non-relativistic velocities. To clarify the physical origin of this effect, we compare solutions of the Dirac equation to perturbative predictions of the Schroedinger-Pauli equation with a spin-orbit term, using the standard Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian. This clearly shows that the origin of the effect is the familiar relativistic spin-orbit interaction.

  1. Self-spin-controlled rotation of spatial states of a Dirac electron in a cylindrical potential via spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution of the Dirac equation predicts that when an electron with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) propagates in a cylindrically symmetric potential, its spin and orbital degrees of freedom interact, causing the electron's phase velocity to depend on whether its spin angular momentum (SAM) and OAM vectors are oriented parallel or anti-parallel with respect to each other. This spin-orbit splitting of the electronic dispersion curves can result in a rotation of the electron's spatial state in a manner controlled by the electron's own spin z-component value. These effects persist at non-relativistic velocities. To clarify the physical origin of this effect, we compare solutions of the Dirac equation to perturbative predictions of the Schroedinger-Pauli equation with a spin-orbit term, using the standard Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian. This clearly shows that the origin of the effect is the familiar relativistic spin-orbit interaction.

  2. The Decoherence of the Electron Spin and Meta-Stability of 13C Nuclear Spins in Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Crompton

    2011-01-01

    Following the recent successful experimental manipulation of entangled 13C atoms on the surface of Diamond, we calculate the decoherence of the electron spin in Nitrogen Vacancy NV centers of Diamond via a nonperturbative treatment of the time-dependent Greens function of a Central-Spin model in order to identify the Replica Symmetry Breaking mechanism associated with intersystem mixing between the ms = 0 sublevel of the 3A2 and 1A1 states of the NV− centers, which we identify as mediated via...

  3. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopic studies on the structure and reactivity of Pd(I) species in SAPO-11 molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the possibility of using Pd ions in SAPO-11 by adding [Pd(NH3)4]2+ during the synthesis of SAPO-11 to form PdSAPO-11, which is compared with solid-state ion exchange PdSAPO-11 and impregnation PdH-SAPO-11 in which palladium is in an extraframework position. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopies are used to determine if the palladium position in PdSAPO-11 is located in a framework or extraframework

  4. Spin–spin and spin–orbit interaction effects of two-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous effects of spin–spin and spin–orbit interactions on the energy spectrum of a two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement and under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields are investigated. We have calculated energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system for different spin states. Results show that effects of spin–spin interactions are negligible in comparison with those of the spin–orbit interactions. Spin–orbit interaction splits energy levels and removes degeneracy of different spin states. Moreover it is seen that energy eigenvalues and levels splitting strongly depend on the external magnetic field and the dot dimensions

  5. Spin–spin and spin–orbit interaction effects of two-electron quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaseghi, B., E-mail: vaseghi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G.; Taghizadeh, S.F. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahedi, Z. [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Simultaneous effects of spin–spin and spin–orbit interactions on the energy spectrum of a two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement and under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields are investigated. We have calculated energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system for different spin states. Results show that effects of spin–spin interactions are negligible in comparison with those of the spin–orbit interactions. Spin–orbit interaction splits energy levels and removes degeneracy of different spin states. Moreover it is seen that energy eigenvalues and levels splitting strongly depend on the external magnetic field and the dot dimensions.

  6. Spin-polarized electron momentum density in GdRh3B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spin-polarized electron momentum density (EMD) of single-crystal ferromagnetic GdRh3B2 has been probed by the magnetic Compton scattering technique. The spin moment is determined to be 6.83+/-0.43μB per formula unit and the one-dimensional projection of the spin-polarized EMD (magnetic Compton profile) is obtained along the [101-bar 0] direction. These results are in good agreement with those predicted by a first-principles band structure computation with the spin-orbit interactions

  7. Spin-orbit interactions in electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Cody A.; Zhu, Minyi; Guo, Shi; Ambrosetti, Alberto; Pederiva, Francesco; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-04-01

    We develop generalization of the fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method for Hamiltonians which explicitly depends on particle spins such as for spin-orbit interactions. The method is formulated in a zero-variance manner and is similar to the treatment of nonlocal operators in commonly used static-spin calculations. Tests on atomic and molecular systems show that it is very accurate, on par with the fixed-node method. This opens electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo methods to a vast research area of quantum phenomena in which spin-related interactions play an important role.

  8. Electron Spin Resonance of Tetrahedral Transition Metal Oxyanions (MO4n-) in Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, M.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines general principles in observing sharp electron spin resonance (ESR) lines in the solid state by incorporating the transition metal ion of interest into an isostructural diamagnetic host material in small concentration. Examples of some recent studies are described. (CS)

  9. Hot electron transport in thin bcc FeCo spin valves - room temperature magnetocurrent exceeding 1200%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefes, Christoph; Heindl, Emanuel; Vancea, Johann; Back, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We use the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope to create a nonequilibrium unipolar electron distribution in a metal layer and measure the subsequent perpendicular ballistic hot electron transport through thin single crystalline metallic spin valves by employing ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM). By variation of the thickness of one of the ferromagnetic layers we can determine the spin dependent attenuation lengths which reflect the bulk hot electron transport along the[100]-axis of the bcc FeCo-layers. While the minority spin attenuation length is found to be energy independent and about 0.8 nm, the majority spin attenuation length is about 6 times larger within the measured energy interval of 1.3 up to 2 eV above the Fermi level. Consequently, a magnetocurrent effect exceeding 1200 % accompanied by a monotonic bias voltage behavior is observed at room temperature.

  10. Asymmetric recombination and electron spin relaxation in the semiclassical theory of radical pair reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Alan M; Hore, P J

    2014-01-01

    We describe how the semiclassical theory of radical pair recombination reactions recently introduced by two of us [D. E. Manolopoulos and P. J. Hore, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124106 (2013)] can be generalised to allow for different singlet and triplet recombination rates. This is a non-trivial generalisation because when the recombination rates are different the recombination process is dynamically coupled to the coherent electron spin dynamics of the radical pair. Furthermore, because the recombination operator is a two-electron operator, it is no longer sufficient simply to consider the two electrons as classical vectors: one has to consider the complete set of 16 two-electron spin operators as independent classical variables. The resulting semiclassical theory is first validated by comparison with exact quantum mechanical results for a model radical pair containing 12 nuclear spins. It is then used to shed light on the spin dynamics of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene (CPF) triad containing considerably more nu...

  11. Parametrization, molecular dynamics simulation and calculation of electron spin resonance spectra of a nitroxide spin label on a poly-alanine alpha helix

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer, Deniz; Freed, Jack H.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    The nitroxide spin label 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-3-methyl-methanethiosulfonate (MTSSL), commonly used in site-directed spin labeling of proteins, is studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After developing force field parameters for the nitroxide moiety and the spin label linker, we simulate MTSSL attached to a poly-alanine alpha helix in explicit solvent to elucidate the factors affecting its conformational dynamics. Electron spin resonance spectra at 9 and 250 GHz are ...

  12. Electronic structure of cuprate superconductors in a full charge-spin recombination scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develope a full charge-spin recombination scheme in cuprate superconductors. • Electron self-energy from spin excitations is a key to electronic structure. • Underlying electron Fermi surface fulfills Luttinger’s theorem. • Low-energy excitation in superconducting-state is Bogoliubov quasiparticle. - Abstract: A long-standing unsolved problem is how a microscopic theory of superconductivity in cuprate superconductors based on the charge-spin separation can produce a large electron Fermi surface. Within the framework of the kinetic-energy driven superconducting mechanism, a full charge-spin recombination scheme is developed to fully recombine a charge carrier and a localized spin into a electron, and then is employed to study the electronic structure of cuprate superconductors in the superconducting-state. In particular, it is shown that the underlying electron Fermi surface fulfills Luttinger’s theorem, while the superconducting coherence of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations is qualitatively described by the standard d-wave Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer formalism. The theory also shows that the observed peak-dip-hump structure in the electron spectrum and Fermi arc behavior in the underdoped regime are mainly caused by the strong energy and momentum dependence of the electron self-energy

  13. Spin dynamics and relaxation in graphene dictated by electron-hole puddles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuan, Dinh; Ortmann, Frank; Cummings, Aron W.; Soriano, David; Roche, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of spin dynamics and relaxation mechanisms in clean graphene, and the upper time and length scales on which spin devices can operate, are prerequisites to realizing graphene-based spintronic technologies. Here we theoretically reveal the nature of fundamental spin relaxation mechanisms in clean graphene on different substrates with Rashba spin-orbit fields as low as a few tens of μeV. Spin lifetimes ranging from 50 picoseconds up to several nanoseconds are found to be dictated by substrate-induced electron-hole characteristics. A crossover in the spin relaxation mechanism from a Dyakonov-Perel type for SiO2 substrates to a broadening-induced dephasing for hBN substrates is described. The energy dependence of spin lifetimes, their ratio for spins pointing out-of-plane and in-plane, and the scaling with disorder provide a global picture about spin dynamics and relaxation in ultraclean graphene in the presence of electron-hole puddles.

  14. Modeling of diffusion of injected electron spins in spin-orbit coupled microchannels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zarbo, Liviu; Sinova, Jairo; Knezevic, I.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 20 (2010), 205320/1-205320/7. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Grant ostatní: EU FP7 SemiSpinNet(XE) 215368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spintronics * spin dynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  15. Spatially resolved nuclear spin relaxation, electron spin relaxation and light absorption in swift heavy ion irradiated LiF crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially resolved 19F and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation rates are measured for LiF single crystals after irradiation with two kinds of swift heavy ions (12C of 133 MeV and 208Pb of 1.78 GeV incident energy). Like in earlier studies on 130Xe and 238U irradiated LiF crystals, we found a strong enhancement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate within the ion penetration depth and a slight-but still significant-enhancement beyond. By evaluating the nuclear relaxation rate enhancement within the ion range after irradiation with different projectiles, a universal relationship between the spin-lattice relaxation rate and the dose is deduced. The results of accompanying X-band electron paramagnetic resonance relaxation measurements and optical absorption spectroscopy are included in a physical interpretation of this relationship. Also the reason for the enhanced relaxation rate beyond the ion range is further discussed.

  16. High temperature electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN: Nanosecond spin lifetimes far above room-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buß, J. H.; Schaefer, A.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J. [Arbeitsgruppe Spektroskopie der kondensierten Materie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Schupp, T.; As, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    The electron spin dynamics in n-doped bulk cubic GaN is investigated for very high temperatures from 293 K up to 500 K by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. We find extraordinarily long spin lifetimes exceeding 1 ns at 500 K. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time is in qualitative agreement with predictions of Dyakonov-Perel theory, while the absolute experimental times are an order of magnitude shorter than predicted. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the role of phase mixtures of hexagonal and cubic GaN as well as the impact of localized carriers.

  17. Spin flip inelastic scattering in electron energy loss spectroscopy of a ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model ferromagnetic metal is used to calculate the spin-polarization which occurs during inelastic electron-metal scattering with the production of an electron-hole pair. The polarization is found to have contributions from unequal spin-flip as well as non-flip energy loss rates. Our results indicate an asymmetry of the order of a few percent with parameters roughly modelling iron. (author)

  18. The electronic structure of spintronic materials as seen by spin-polarized angle-resolved photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Introduction of spin-dependent effects in modern angle-resolved photoemission from the point of view of potential applications in spintronics. •Review on modern spin-polarimeters, including the historical development of the field. •Several examples to illustrate the application of spin-polarized photoemission to ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic sample systems. -- Abstract: The key quantity in spintronic devices is the spin polarization of the current flowing through the various device components, which in turn is closely determined by the components’ electronic structure. Modern spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) can map the details of the spin-polarized electronic structure in many novel material systems – both magnetic and nonmagnetic. In order to separate close-lying electronic states, however, an improvement in energy and angular resolution as well as information depth is still mandatory. We review several types of modern photoemission spectrometers capable of spin analysis and discuss the application of the technique for several physical systems including ferromagnetic thin films and topological insulators

  19. Electronic structure of cuprate superconductors in a full charge-spin recombination scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shiping; Kuang, Lülin; Zhao, Huaisong

    2015-10-01

    A long-standing unsolved problem is how a microscopic theory of superconductivity in cuprate superconductors based on the charge-spin separation can produce a large electron Fermi surface. Within the framework of the kinetic-energy driven superconducting mechanism, a full charge-spin recombination scheme is developed to fully recombine a charge carrier and a localized spin into a electron, and then is employed to study the electronic structure of cuprate superconductors in the superconducting-state. In particular, it is shown that the underlying electron Fermi surface fulfills Luttinger's theorem, while the superconducting coherence of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations is qualitatively described by the standard d-wave Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer formalism. The theory also shows that the observed peak-dip-hump structure in the electron spectrum and Fermi arc behavior in the underdoped regime are mainly caused by the strong energy and momentum dependence of the electron self-energy.

  20. Spin polarization in a two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, positive magnetoresistance of a dilute two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs is studied in a parallel magnetic field B. It is found that the normalized resistivity curves, ρ(B)/ρ(0), merge together when we scale the field according to B/Bχ, where Bχ is assumed to be the field in which full spin polarization of electrons is reached. It is also shown that the crossing field, Bcross, determined by the crossover of the B2 dependence of the resistivity, becomes lower than Bχ with increasing electron density, which cannot be explained in terms of filling of the upper electron subbands in the fully spin-polarized regime. The spin susceptibility, χ, is assessed by extracting the product g*m*, where g* and m* are the effective Landé factor and electron mass, respectively. The behavior of χ with increasing electron density, however, deserves further theoretical and experimental study. (paper)

  1. Study of f electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce by means of spin resolved resonant photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S; Komesu, T; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Morton, S A; Tobin, J G

    2005-11-28

    We have studied the spin-spin coupling between two f electrons of nonmagnetic Ce by means of spin resolved resonant photoemission using circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. The two f electrons participating in the 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 4f resonance process are coupled in a singlet while the coupling is veiled in the 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 4f process due to an additional Coster-Kronig decay channel. The identical singlet coupling is observed in the 4d {yields} 4f resonance process. Based on the Ce measurements, it is argued that spin resolved resonant photoemission is a unique approach to study the correlation effects, particularly in the form of spin, in the rare-earths and the actinides.

  2. Unified dynamics of electrons and photons via Zitterbewegung and spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, C. C.; Smith, Karl H.

    2014-02-01

    We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, it experiences both a Zitterbewegung effect and a spin-orbit interaction leading to identical propagation dynamics for both particles. Applying a unified perturbative approach to both particles simultaneously, we find that to first order in perturbation theory, their Hamiltonians each contain identical Darwin (Zitterbewegung) and spin-orbit terms, resulting in the unification of their dynamics. The presence of the Zitterbewegung effect may be interpreted physically as the delocalization of the electron on the scale of its Compton wavelength, or the delocalization of the photon on the scale of its wavelength in the waveguide. The presence of the spin-orbit interaction leads to the prediction of several rotational effects: the spatial or time evolution of either particle's spin or polarization vector is controlled by the sign of its orbital angular momentum quantum number or, conversely, its spatial wave function is controlled by its spin angular momentum.

  3. Hybrid quantum circuit with a superconducting qubit coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the experimental realization of a hybrid quantum circuit combining a superconducting qubit and an ensemble of electronic spins. The qubit, of the transmon type, is coherently coupled to the spin ensemble consisting of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in a diamond crystal via a frequency-tunable superconducting resonator acting as a quantum bus. Using this circuit, we prepare arbitrary superpositions of the qubit states that we store into collective excitations of the spin ensemble and retrieve back into the qubit. We also report a new method for detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins at low temperature with a qubit using the hybrid quantum circuit, as well as our recent progress on spin echo experiments.

  4. Spin-electron acoustic waves: The Landau damping and ion contribution in the spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2016-06-01

    Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum kinetics is derived for more detailed research of the spin-electron acoustic waves (SEAWs). This kinetic theory allows us to obtain the spectrum of the SEAWs including the effects of occupation of quantum states more accurately than the quantum hydrodynamic theory. We derive and apply the quantum kinetic theory to calculate the Landau damping of the SEAWs. We consider the contribution of ions dynamics into the SEAW spectrum. We obtain the contribution of ions in the Landau damping in the temperature regime of classic ions. Kinetic analysis for the ion-acoustic, zero sound, and Langmuir waves at the separated spin-up and spin-down electron dynamics is presented as well.

  5. Agent fabrication and its implementation for agent-based electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; Zhu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, agent-based e-commerce has emerged as a potential role for the next generation of e-commerce. How to create agents for e-commerce applications has become a serious consideration in this field. This paper proposes a new scheme named agent fabrication and elaborates its implementation in multi-agent systems based on the SAFER (Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming) architecture. First, a conceptual structure is proposed for software agents carrying out e-commerce act...

  6. Spin-electron acoustic waves: Linear and nonlinear regimes, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    Considering the spin-up and spin-down electrons as two different fluids we find corresponding hydrodynamic and kinetic equations from the Pauli equation. We find different pressure the spin-up and spin-down electrons due to different concentrations of electrons in the magnetized electron gas. This difference leads to existence of new branches of linear longitudinal waves propagating with small damping. These waves are called the spin-electron acoustic waves (SEAWs) due to linear dispersion dependence at small wave vectors. We obtain two waves at oblique propagation and one wave at propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external magnetic field. Dispersion dependences of these waves are calculated. Contribution of the Coulomb exchange interaction is included in the model and spectrums. Area of existence of nonlinear SEAWs appearing as a spin-electron acoustic soliton is found for the regime of wave propagation parallel to the external magnetic field. It is obtained that the SEAWs lead to formation of the Cooper pairs. This application of our results to the superconductivity phenomenon reveals in a model of the high-temperature superconductivity with the transition temperatures up to 300 K.

  7. Towards a Methodology for Formal Design and Analysis of Agent Interaction Protocols --An Investigation in Electronic Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Various extensions of UML have been developed to meet thechallenges of designin g modern software systems, such as agent-based electronic commerce applications . Recent advances in model checking technology have led it to be introduced into the development of approaches and tools to check the correctness of electronic c ommerce protocols. This paper focuses on the research of a method that connects an extension of AUML to model checker-SPIN/Promela for the specification and v e rification of agent interaction protocols (AIP) in electronic commerce. The meth od presented here allows us to combine the benefits of visual specification with the power of some static analysis and model checking. Some algorithms and rules are developed to permit all visual modeling constructs translated mechanically into some Promela models of AIP, as supported by the model checker -SPIN. Moreo v er, a process is illustrated to guide the specification and verification of AIP. The method is demonstrated thoroughly using the e-commerce protocol -NetBill as an example.

  8. Direct observation of spin-resolved full and empty electron states in ferromagnetic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, G., E-mail: giulia.berti@polimi.it; Calloni, A.; Brambilla, A.; Bussetti, G.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    We present a versatile apparatus for the study of ferromagnetic surfaces, which combines spin-polarized photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. Samples can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy and analyzed in situ. Spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy analysis is done with a hemispherical electron analyzer coupled to a 25 kV-Mott detector. Inverse photoemission spectroscopy experiments are performed with GaAs crystals as spin-polarized electron sources and a UV bandpass photon detector. As an example, measurements on the oxygen passivated Fe(100)-p(1×1)O surface are presented.

  9. Effect of Noise on the Decoherence of a Central Electron Spin Coupled to an Antiferromagnetic Spin Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Fouokeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the influence of a two-state autocorrelated noise on the decoherence and on the tunneling Landau-Zener (LZ transitions during a two-level crossing of a central electron spin (CES coupled to a one dimensional anisotropic-antiferomagnetic spin, driven by a time-dependent global external magnetic field. The energy splitting of the coupled spin system is found through an approach that computes the noise-averaged frequency. At low magnetic field intensity, the decoherence (or entangled state of a coupled spin system is dominated by the noise intensity. The effects of the magnetic field pulse and the spin gap antiferromagnetic material used suggest to us that they may be used as tools for the direct observation of the tunneling splitting through the LZ transitions in the sudden limit. We found that the dynamical frequencies display basin-like behavior decay with time, with the birth of entanglement, while the LZ transition probability shows Gaussian shape.

  10. Electron spin resonance observation of dehydration-induced spin excitations in quasi-one-dimensional iodo-bridged diplatinum complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Iguchi, Hiroaki; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements have been performed on a series of quasi-one-dimensional iodo-bridged diplatinum complexes K2[C3H5R(NH3)2][Pt2(pop)4I]·4H2O (pop = P2H2O52-; R = H, CH3, or Cl), where dehydration/rehydration of the crystalline water switches the electronic state reversibly with retention of single crystallinity. We have observed a nonmagnetic nature in as-grown samples, whereas in the dehydrated samples, a clear enhancement of the spin susceptibility has been observed above ˜80 K with the activation energy ranging 50-60 meV. The activated spins originate from isolated Pt3+ state on the chain, as confirmed from the principal g values. Concomitantly, the ESR linewidth exhibits a prominent motional narrowing, suggesting that the activated Pt3+ spins are mobile solitons generated in the doubly degenerate charge-density-wave states of the dehydrated salts.

  11. Radiosterilization dosimetry by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. Cefotetan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basly, J.P.; Longy, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Bromatologie, UFR de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Bernard, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Biophysique Pharmaceutique, UFR de Pharmacie, Limoges (France)

    1998-02-19

    As an alternative to heat and gas exposure sterilization, ionizing radiation is gaining interest as a sterilization process for medicinal products. Nevertheless, essentially for economic profit, unauthorized and uncontrolled use of radiation processes may be expected. In this context, it is necessary to find methods of distinguishing between irradiated and nonirradiated pharmaceuticals. In the absence of suitable detection methods, our attention was focused on electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. A third generation cephalosporin, cefotetan, was chosen as a model; this antibiotic is a potential candidate for radiation treatment due to its thermosensitivity. While the ESR spectra of a nonirradiated sample presents no signal, a nonsymmetrical signal, dependent on the irradiation dose, is found in irradiated samples. The number of free radicals was estimated by comparing the second integral from radiosterilized samples and a diphenylpicryl hydrazyl reference. Estimation of the number of free radicals gives 7x10{sup 17} radicals g{sup -1} at 20kGy (1.1x10{sup 16} radicals in 15mg). From this result, the G-value (number of radicals (100eV){sup -1}) could be estimated as 0.6. Decay of radicals upon storage were modeled using a bi-exponential function. The limit of detection of free radicals after irradiation at 25kGy is up to two years. This result agrees with those obtained on other cephalosporins. Aside from qualitative detection, ESR spectrometry can be used for dose estimation. Linear regression is applicable for doses lower than 20kGy. Since the radiation dose selected must always be based upon the bioburden of the products and the degree of sterility required (EN 552 and ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137), 25kGy could no longer be accepted as a `routine` dose for sterilizing a pharmaceutical. Doses in the 5-20kGy range could be investigated and linear regression appeared to be the least expensive route to follow. The best results for the integration of the curves were

  12. Spin-orbit and core/valence polarization effects in molecular electronic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic core-valence polarization potentials that incorporate spin-orbit coupling effects are developed for use with relativistic effective core potentials in ab initio calculations on many-electron systems. These potentials effectively lower the number of electrons that must be explicitly included in such calculations without significant loss in accuracy. This reduction in the number of electrons makes tractable the inclusion of correlation and intermediate angular momentum coupling corrections, which are of particular importance in heavy-element molecules. Calculations of electronic spectra are reported for dimers of Group IA and IIA elements at the full spin-orbit configuration interaction level of theory

  13. Ballistic electrons in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrid structures: from nonomagnetometry to spin injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review our recent experimental and theoretical studies on ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrid structures and discuss the role of ballistic electrons in such systems. We focus in particular on two particular features: first, ballistic electrons in semiconductors are shown to be in particular sensitive to local details of an inhomogeneous stray field. We argue that this can preferentially be used for nanomagnetometry. Second, we show theoretically that, in case of injection of ballistic electrons from a metallic ferromagnet into a semiconductor, a spin-dependent interface resistance arises due to band-structure mismatch that causes spin filtering at a interface. Recent band-structure calculations suggest that for an experimental interface a nearly 100% spin-polarized current might be generated in a spin-injection experiment. (author)

  14. 3D optical manipulation of a single electron spin

    CERN Document Server

    Geiselmann, Michael; Renger, Jan; Say, Jana M; Brown, Louise J; de Abajo, F Javier García; Koppens, Frank; Quidant, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are promising elemental blocks for quantum optics [1, 2], spin-based quantum information processing [3, 4], and high-resolution sensing [5-13]. Yet, fully exploiting these capabilities of single NV centers requires strategies to accurately manipulate them. Here, we use optical tweezers as a tool to achieve deterministic trapping and 3D spatial manipulation of individual nano-diamonds hosting a single NV spin. Remarkably, we find the NV axis is nearly fixed inside the trap and can be controlled in-situ, by adjusting the polarization of the trapping light. By combining this unique spatial and angular control with coherent manipulation of the NV spin and fluorescent lifetime measurements near an integrated photonic system, we prove optically trapped NV center as a novel route for both 3D vectorial magnetometry and sensing of the local density of optical states.

  15. Measurement of z-direction component of electron spins field-emitted from a single-crystal magnetite whisker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 90o sector type spin rotator was developed for measurement of the z-direction component of a spin polarization, which is parallel to the emitter axis. The rotator enables us to measure all components of electron spins field-emitted from a single crystalline magnetite. In-plane component of spin polarization dominated of field-emitted electrons from single crystalline magnetite whisker, thus it is suggested that the magnetization of the magnetite whisker results from the anisotropy of crystalline structure rather than its shape. -- Research highlights: → We developed a newly designed a 90o sector type spin rotator. → The spin rotator allows us to measure all components of spin polarization of field emitted electrons from magnetite whiskers. → We clarified that the anisotropy of crystalline structure determines the direction of spin polarization of field-emitted electrons from the magnetite whisker.

  16. Interaction of bee venom melittin with zwitterionic and negatively charged phospholipid bilayers : a spin-label electron spin resonance study

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H.; Mahaney, James E.; Thomas, David D.; Marsh, Derek

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to study the penetration and interaction of bee venom melittin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and ditetradecylphosphatidylglycerol (DTPG) bilayer membranes. Melittin is a surface-active, amphipathic peptide and serves as a useful model for a variety of membrane interactions, including those of presequences and signal peptides, as well as the charged subdomain of the cardiac regulatory protein phospholamban. Derivatives of phospha...

  17. Lagrangian for Frenkel electron and position's non-commutativity due to spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a relativistic spinning-particle Lagrangian where spin is considered as a composite quantity constructed on the base of a non-Grassmann vector-like variable. The variational problem guarantees both a fixed value of the spin and the Frenkel condition on the spin-tensor. The Frenkel condition inevitably leads to relativistic corrections of the Poisson algebra of the position variables: their classical brackets became noncommutative. We construct the relativistic quantum mechanics in the canonical formalism (in the physical-time parametrization) and in the covariant formalism (in an arbitrary parametrization). We show how state vectors and operators of the covariant formulation can be used to compute the mean values of physical operators in the canonical formalism, thus proving its relativistic covariance. We establish relations between the Frenkel electron and positive-energy sector of the Dirac equation. Various candidates for the position and spin operators of an electron acquire clear meaning and interpretation in the Lagrangian model of the Frenkel electron. Our results argue in favor of Pryce's (d)-type operators as the spin and position operators of Dirac theory. This implies that the effects of non-commutativity could be expected already at the Compton wavelength. We also present the manifestly covariant form of the spin and position operators of the Dirac equation. (orig.)

  18. Spin-orbit coupling in AlGaN/GaN 2-dimensional electron gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanas, Sergio; Thillosen, Nicolas; Kaluza, Nicoleta; Lehnen, Patrick; Guzenko, Vitaliy; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Schaepers, Thomas [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Center Juelich (Germany); Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN is a very promising material system for spin electronic devices, because for GaN-based diluted magnetic semiconductors Curie temperatures above room temperature have been predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally. We have investigated weak antilocalization in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. By fitting the experimental curves to a theoretical model we found that the decrease of the peak height in the conductivity with temperature is solely due to the decrease of the phase coherence length. Measurements on gated samples showed that the spin-orbit scattering length is constant for all carrier concentrations. This behavior is due to the fact that the spin-orbit scattering due to crystal inversion asymmetry is the dominant contribution. Although GaN is a large band gap material, the spin-orbit scattering length has a relatively small value of approximately 300 nm, which makes this material interesting for spin electron devices relying on spin precession. If a magnetic field is applied parallel to the plane of the 2-dimensional electron gas the weak antilocalization can be suppressed. We attribute the vanishing of the weak antilocalization peak to the additional contribution of the Zeeman energy competing with the characteristic spin-orbit energy.

  19. All-optical evaluation of spin-orbit interaction based on diffusive spin motion in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-26

    A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.

  20. All-optical evaluation of spin-orbit interaction based on diffusive spin motion in a two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients

  1. Layered Chalcogenides beyond Graphene: from Electronic Structure Evolution to the Spin Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    Recent efforts on graphene-like atomic layer materials, aiming at novel electronic properties and quantum phenomena beyond graphene, have attracted much attention for potential electronics/spintronics applications. Compared to the weak spin-orbit-interaction (SOI) in graphene, metal chalcogenides MX2 have heavy 4d/5d elements with strong atomic SOI, providing a unique way for generating spin polarization based on valleytronics physics. Indeed, such a spin-polarized band structure has been demonstrated theoretically and supported by optical investigations. However, despite these exciting progresses, following two important issues in MX2 community remain elusive: 1. the quantitative band structure of MX2 compounds (where are the valleys -band maxima/minima- locating in the BZ) have not been experimentally confirmed. Especially for those cleaved ultrathin mono- and bi-layer flakes hosting most of recently-reported exotic phenomena at the 2D limit, the direct detection for band dispersion becomes of great importance for valleytronics. 2. Spin transports have seldom been reported even though such a strong SOI system can serve as an ideal platform for the spin polarization and spin transport. In this work, we started from the basic electronic structures of representative MX2, obtained by ARPES, and investigated both the band variation between these compounds and their band evolution from bulk to the monolayer limit. After having a systematic understanding on band structures, we reported a giant Zeeman-type spin-polarization generated and modulated by an external electric field in WSe2 electric-double-layer transistors. The non-magnetic approach for realizing such an intriguing spin splitting not only keeps the system time-reversally invariant but also suggests a new paradigm for manipulating the spin-degrees of freedom of electrons. Acknowledge the support from DoE, BES, Division of MSE under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  2. Spin-dependent electron transport through a ferromagnetic domain wall

    OpenAIRE

    Ohe, J.; Yamamoto, M.; Ohtsuki, T.; Slevin, K.

    2002-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of spin-dependent transport through a ferromagnetic domain wall. With an increase of the number of components of the exchange coupling, we have observed that the variance of the conductance becomes half. As the strength of the domain wall magnetization is increased, negative magnetoresistance is also observed.

  3. A modularized electronic payment system for agent-based e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; Tan, SL; Hua, F

    2004-01-01

    With the explosive growth of the Internet, electronic-commerce (e-commerce) is an increasingly important segment of commercial activities on the web. The Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming (SAFER) architecture was proposed to further facilitate e-commerce using agent technology. In this paper, the electronic payment aspect of SAFER will be explored. The Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) protocol and E-Cash were selected as the bases for the electronic payment system implementatio...

  4. Measurement of the rate of bimolecular electron spin relaxation between pairs of reactive radicals using time-resolved electron spin-echo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-resolved electron spin echo (ESE) method has been employed to measure the bimolecular contribution to electron spin relaxation in the acetate radical xCH2CO-2, formed by pulse radiolysis. Time-resolved ESE signals from solutions containing up to 4 x 10-4 M initial radical concentrations were analyzed using Bloch equations modified to include the effects of strong Heisenberg exchange, chemical reaction, and CIDEP. It is found that the electron exchange rate is approx.3 times faster than the chemical reaction rate, contrary to a simple model involving only statistical factors which predicts equal rates for the two processes. It is also found that the CIDEP enhancement factor is independent of initial radical concentration over the ten fold range of concentrations studied

  5. Electron spin relaxation can enhance the performance of a cryptochrome-based magnetic compass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Daniel R.; Sowa, Jakub K.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Hore, P. J.

    2016-06-01

    The radical pair model of the avian magnetoreceptor relies on long-lived electron spin coherence. Dephasing, resulting from interactions of the spins with their fluctuating environment, is generally assumed to degrade the sensitivity of this compass to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Here we argue that certain spin relaxation mechanisms can enhance its performance. We focus on the flavin–tryptophan radical pair in cryptochrome, currently the only candidate magnetoreceptor molecule. Correlation functions for fluctuations in the distance between the two radicals in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 1 were obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and used to calculate the spin relaxation caused by modulation of the exchange and dipolar interactions. We find that intermediate spin relaxation rates afford substantial enhancements in the sensitivity of the reaction yields to an Earth-strength magnetic field. Supported by calculations using toy radical pair models, we argue that these enhancements could be consistent with the molecular dynamics and magnetic interactions in avian cryptochromes.

  6. Mechanism for nuclear and electron spin excitation by radio frequency current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Stefan; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe; Tebi, Stefano; Serrano, Giulia; Wiespointner-Baumgarthuber, Stefan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Koch, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Recent radio frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy (rf-STS) experiments have demonstrated nuclear and electron spin excitations up to ±12 ℏ in a single molecular spin quantum dot (qudot). Despite the profound experimental evidence, the observed independence of the well-established dipole selection rules is not described by existing theory of magnetic resonance—pointing to a new excitation mechanism. Here we solve the puzzle of the underlying mechanism by discussing the relevant mechanistic steps. At the heart of the mechanism, periodic transient charging and electric polarization due to the rf-modulated tunneling process cause a periodic asymmetric deformation of the adsorbed qudot, enabling efficient spin transitions via spin-phonon-like coupling. The mechanism has general relevance for a broad variety of different spin qudots exhibiting internal mechanical degrees of freedom (organic molecules, doped semiconductor qudots, nanocrystals, etc.).

  7. Baseband Detection of Bistatic Electron Spin Signals in Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)

    CERN Document Server

    Yip, C; Rugar, D; Fessler, J A; Yip, Chun-yu; Hero, Alfred O.; Rugar, Daniel; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    In single spin Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM), the objective is to detect the presence of an electron (or nuclear) spin in a sample volume by measuring spin-induced attonewton forces using a micromachined cantilever. In the OSCAR method of single spin MRFM, the spins are manipulated by an external rf field to produce small periodic deviations in the resonant frequency of the cantilever. These deviations can be detected by frequency demodulation followed by conventional amplitude or energy detection. In this paper, we present an alternative to these detection methods, based on optimal detection theory and Gibbs sampling. On the basis of simulations, we show that our detector outperforms the conventional amplitude and energy detectors for realistic MRFM operating conditions. For example, to achieve a 10% false alarm rate and an 80% correct detection rate our detector has an 8 dB SNR advantage as compared with the conventional amplitude or energy detectors. Furthermore, at these detection rates it co...

  8. A Spin-Light Polarimeter for Multi-GeV Longitudinally Polarized Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal [Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States); Dutta, Dipangkar [Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The physics program at the upgraded Jefferson Lab (JLab) and the physics program envisioned for the proposed electron-ion collider (EIC) include large efforts to search for interactions beyond the Standard Model (SM) using parity violation in electroweak interactions. These experiments require precision electron polarimetry with an uncertainty of < 0.5 %. The spin dependent Synchrotron radiation, called "spin-light," can be used to monitor the electron beam polarization. In this article we develop a conceptual design for a "spin-light" polarimeter that can be used at a high intensity, multi-GeV electron accelerator. We have also built a Geant4 based simulation for a prototype device and report some of the results from these simulations.

  9. Spin dynamics in Kapitza-Dirac scattering of electrons from bichromatic laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Dellweg, Matthias M; Müller, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Kapitza-Dirac scattering of nonrelativistic electrons from counterpropagating bichromatic laser waves of linear polarization i s studied. The focus lies on the electronic spin dynamics in the Bragg regime when the laser fields possess a frequency ratio of two. To this end, the time-dependent Pauli equation is solved numerically, both in coordinate space and momentum space. Our numerical results are corroborated by analytical derivations. We demonstrate that, for certain incident electron momenta, the scattering crucially relies on the electron spin which undergo es characteristic Rabi-like oscillations. A parameter regime is identified where the Rabi oscillations reach maximum amplitude. We also briefly discuss spin-dependent Kapitza-Dirac scattering of protons.

  10. Hot electron spin attenuation lengths of bcc Fe34Co66—Room temperature Magnetocurrent of 1200%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, E.; Kefes, C.; Soda, M.; Vancea, J.; Back, C. H.

    2009-11-01

    We investigate spin-dependent hot electron transport through metallic epitaxial spin valves by ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM). By variation of the thickness of one of the ferromagnetic layers we determine the spin dependent attenuation lengths which reflect hot electron transport along the vicinity of the [1 0 0]-axis of the bcc Fe34Co66 lattice. The majority spin attenuation length is more than 6 times larger than that of the minority spins within the measured energy interval of 1.3 up to 2 eV above the Fermi level. Consequently a Magnetocurrent effect exceeding 1200% accompanied by a monotonic bias voltage behavior is observed at room temperature.

  11. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quasirelativistic study of electron density topology of Os and Ru complexes. • Electron/spin densities and negative Laplacian of electron density presented. • Analytic correction of picture change error at IOTC level. • Relativistic and spin–orbit effects are considered, IOTC vs. DKH2 compared. - Abstract: The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]− and [RuCl5(NO)]2− transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin–orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian

  12. Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Miwa, Jill; Hoesch, Moritz; Kim, Timur K.; Matzen, Peter; Mi, Jianli; Bremholm, Martin; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic to a...

  13. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bučinský, Lukáš, E-mail: lukas.bucinsky@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology, FCHPT, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Radlinskeho 9, Bratislava SK-812 37 (Slovakia); Kucková, Lenka; Malček, Michal; Kožíšek, Jozef; Biskupič, Stanislav [Slovak University of Technology, FCHPT, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Radlinskeho 9, Bratislava SK-812 37 (Slovakia); Jayatilaka, Dylan [University of Western Australia, Department of Chemistry, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Büchel, Gabriel E. [University of Vienna, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Währinger Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Division for Physical Sciences and Engineering and KAUST Catalysis Center, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Arion, Vladimir B. [University of Vienna, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Währinger Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • Quasirelativistic study of electron density topology of Os and Ru complexes. • Electron/spin densities and negative Laplacian of electron density presented. • Analytic correction of picture change error at IOTC level. • Relativistic and spin–orbit effects are considered, IOTC vs. DKH2 compared. - Abstract: The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl{sub 5}(Hpz)]{sup −} and [RuCl{sub 5}(NO)]{sup 2−} transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin–orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.

  14. Nonequilibrium electron spin polarization in a double quantum dot. Lande mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Serebrennikov, Yuri A.

    2005-01-01

    In moderately strong magnetic fields, the difference in Lande g-factors in each of the dots of a coupled double quantum dot device may induce oscillations between singlet and triplet states of the entangled electron pair and lead to a nonequilibrium electron spin polarization. We will show that this polarization may partially survive the rapid inhomogeneous decoherence due to random nuclear magnetic fields.

  15. 2D Spin-Dependent Diffraction of Electrons From Periodical Chains of Nanomagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Senbeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of the unpolarized beams of electrons by nanomagnets in the vicinity of some scattering angles leads to complete spin polarized electrons. This result is obtained with the help of the perturbation theory. The dipole-dipole interaction between the magnetic moment of the nanomagnet and the magnetic moment of electron is treated as perturbation. This interaction is not spherically symmetric. Rather it depends on the electron spin variables. It in turn results in spinor character of the scattering amplitudes. Due to the smallness of the magnetic interactions, the scattering length of this process is very small to be proved experimentally. To enhance the relevant scattering lengths, we considered the diffraction of unpolarized beams of electrons by linear chains of nanomagnets. By tuning the distance between the scatterers it is possible to obtain the diffraction maximum of the scattered electrons at scattering angles which corresponds to complete spin polarization of electrons. It is shown that the total differential scattering length is proportional to N2 (N is a number of scatterers. Even small number of nanomagnets in the chain helps to obtain experimentally visible enhancement of spin polarization of the scattered electrons.

  16. Hot-electron transport and magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, E.; Vancea, J.; Woltersdorf, G.; Back, C. H.

    2007-09-01

    We report on ballistic electron magnetic microscopy studies at room temperature using an epitaxially grown Fe34Co66/Au/Fe34Co66 trilayer. Local hysteresis loops are obtained as a function of the in-plane magnetic field angle. In order to understand the underlying local magnetization behavior, the magnetic anisotropies were determined by ferromagnetic resonance. These results served as input for simulations of the hysteresis loops, which are compared to magneto-optic Kerr effect and ballistic electron magnetic microscopy data of the spin valve. In doing so, the relative magnetization configuration of the spin valve can be calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, and the magnetization behavior during the reversal can be explained. Since different magnetization configurations of the spin valve are available, epitaxial spin valves allow multimagnetocurrent values, when the magnetic field is applied along different directions.

  17. Strong mechanical driving of a single electron spin

    OpenAIRE

    Barfuss, A; Teissier, J.; Neu, E.; Nunnenkamp, A; Maletinsky, P.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum devices for sensing and computing applications require coherent quantum systems, which can be manipulated in fast and robust ways [1]. Such quantum control is typically achieved using external electromagnetic fields, which drive the system's orbital [2], charge [3] or spin [4, 5] degrees of freedom. However, most existing approaches require complex and unwieldy gate structures, and with few exceptions [6, 7] are limited to the regime of weak coherent driving. Here, we present a novel ...

  18. Spin-state blockade in Te6+-substituted electron-doped LaCoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Koyama, Shun-Ichi; Watahiki, Masanori; Sato, Mika; Nishihara, Kazuki; Onodera, Mitsugi; Iwasa, Kazuaki; Nojima, Tsutomu; Yamasaki, Yuuichi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite-type LaCoO3 (Co3+: d6) is a rare inorganic material with sensitive and characteristic responses among low, intermediate, and high spin states. For example, in insulating nonmagnetic low-spin states below about 20 K, light hole doping (Ni substitution) induces much larger magnetization than expected; over net 10μB/hole (5μB/Ni) for 1μB/hole (1μB/Ni), in which the nearly isolated dopants locally change the surrounding Co low-spin states to magnetic ones and form spin molecules with larger total spin. Further, the former is isotropic, whereas the latter exhibits characteristic anisotropy probably because of Jahn-Teller distortion. In contrast, for electron doping, relatively insensitive spin-state responses were reported, as in LaCo(Ti4+) O3, but are not clarified, and are somewhat controversial. Here, we present macroscopic measurement data of another electron-doped system LaCo(Te6+) O3 and discuss the spin-state responses. This study was financially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. 22740209 and 26800174) from the MEXT of Japan.

  19. Electronic transport in the quantum spin Hall state due to the presence of adatoms in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Lewenkopf, Caio

    Heavy adatoms, even at low concentrations, are predicted to turn a graphene sheet into a topological insulator with substantial gap. The adatoms mediate the spin-orbit coupling that is fundamental to the quantum spin Hall effect. The adatoms act as local spin-orbit scatterer inducing hopping processes between distant carbon atoms giving origin to transverse spin currents. Although there are effective models that describe spectral properties of such systems with great detail, quantitative theoretical work for the transport counterpart is still lacking. We developed a multiprobe recursive Green's function technique with spin resolution to analyze the transport properties for large geometries. We use an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian to describe the problem of adatoms randomly placed at the center of the honeycomb hexagons, which is the case for most transition metals. Our choice of current and voltage probes is favorable to experiments since it filters the contribution of only one spin orientation, leading to a quantized spin Hall conductance of e2 / h . We also discuss the electronic propagation in the system by imaging the local density of states and the electronic current densities. The authors acknowledge the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  20. Edge spin accumulation in a two-dimensional electron gas with two subbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaetskii, Alexander; Egues, J. Carlos

    We have studied the edge spin accumulation in 2D electron gas due to the intrinsic mechanism of spin-orbit interaction for the case of a two-subband structure. This study is strongly motivated by recent experiments which observed the spin accumulation near the edges of a high mobility 2D electron system in a bilayer symmetric GaAs structure in contrast to zero effect in a single-layer configuration. Our theoretical explanation is based on the Rashba-like spin-orbit interaction which arises as a result of the coupling between two subband states of opposite parities in a symmetric quantum well. Following the method developed in, we have calculated the edge spin density in a quasi-ballistic regime, and explained the experimental results, in particular, a large magnitude of the edge spin density. We showed that one can easily proceed from the regime of strong spin accumulation to the regime of weak one. It opens up a possibility to construct an interesting new spintronic device Supported by FAPESP (Brazil).

  1. Quantum spin-glass transition in the two-dimensional electron gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subir Sachdev

    2002-02-01

    We discuss the possibility of spin-glass order in the vicinity of the unexpected metallic state of the two-dimensional electron gas in zero applied magnetic field. An average ferromagnetic moment may also be present, and the spin-glass order then resides in the plane orthogonal to the ferromagnetic moment. We argue that a quantum transition involving the destruction of the spin-glass order in an applied in-plane magnetic field offers a natural explanation of some features of recent magnetoconductance measurements. We present a quantum field theory for such a transition and compute its mean field properties.

  2. Spin polarization of two-dimensional electronic gas decoupled from structural asymmetry environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyrak, B.; Szary, M.; Jurczyszyn, L.; Radny, M. W.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown, using density functional theory, that a 2D electron gas induced in a monolayer of Pb or Tl adatoms on the Si (111 )-1 ×1 surface is insensitive to the structural asymmetry of the system and its spin polarization is governed by the interaction between the adlayer and the substrate. It is demonstrated that this interaction changes the in-plane inversion symmetry of the charge distribution within the monolayer and can either suppress [Pb/Si(111)] or enhance [Tl/Si(111)] the adatom intra-atomic spin-orbit effect on a Rashba-Bychkov-type spin splitting.

  3. Dyakonov-perel electron spin relaxation in a highly degenerate wurtzite semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, J.; Buß, J. H.; Hägele, D. [Arbeitsgruppe Spektroskopie der kondensierten Materie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Semond, F. [Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne (France)

    2013-12-04

    The doping density dependence of the electron spin lifetime in n-type bulk GaN is investigated up to the highly degenerate regime by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. We find a non-monotonic doping density dependence with maximum spin lifetimes at the onset of degeneracy. The reduction of spin lifetimes in the degenerate regime shows a weak τ{sub s}∝n{sub D}{sup −2/3} density dependence, in full agreement with Dyakonov-Perel theory.

  4. Effects of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic structure of mono-layer quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, B.; Ghaffari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous effects of spin-orbit interaction, external electric and magnetic fields and dimension on the electronic structure of a mono-layer quantum wire are investigated in this paper. Due to the direct effects of external electric field on the structure's symmetries and spin-orbit interaction, energy eigenvalues and functions of the system are calculated with axial or in-plane electric field. It is shown that spin-orbit interaction modifies energy eigenvalues and functions of the system with regard to external factors.

  5. Spin-polarized electronic structure of the Ni(001) surface and thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, O.; Madsen, J.; Andersen, O.K.

    1982-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy bands, charge and spin densities have been calculated self-consistently for one, three, and five atomic (001) layers of fcc Ni using the linear augmented plane-wave method and the von Barth—Hedin approximation for exchange and correlation. The self-consistent potential of the five-layer film is used to calculate the electronic structure of a 13-layer film. The theoretical work function of 5.4 eV agrees well with the experimental value of 5.2 eV. The calculated spin momen...

  6. Hybrid Electron Spin Resonance and Whispering Gallery Mode Resonance Spectroscopy of Fe3+ in Sapphire

    OpenAIRE

    Benmessai, Karim; Farr, Warrick G.; Creedon, Daniel L.; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Floch, Jean-Michel Le; Duty, Timothy; Tobar, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new era of quantum devices requires an understanding of how paramagnetic dopants or impurity spins behave in crystal hosts. Here, we describe a new spectroscopic technique which uses traditional Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) combined with the measurement of a large population of electromagnetic Whispering Gallery (WG) modes. This allows the characterization of the physical parameters of paramagnetic impurity ions in the crystal at low temperatures. We present measurements...

  7. Unified Dynamics of Electrons and Photons via Zitterbewegung and Spin-Orbit Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, C. C.; Smith, Karl H.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, it experiences both a zitterbewegung effect and a spin-orbit interaction leading to identical propagation dynamics for both particles. Applying a unified perturbative approach to both particles simultaneously, we find that to first-order in perturbation theory their Hamiltonians each contain identical Darwin (zitterbewegung) and spin-orbit terms, resulting in the unification of their dynamics. The prese...

  8. Semiclassical Vlasov and fluid models for an electron gas with spin effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Jerome; Morandi, Omar; Manfredi, Giovanni; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We derive a four-component Vlasov equation for a system composed of spin-1/2 fermions (typically electrons). The orbital part of the motion is classical, whereas the spin degrees of freedom are treated in a completely quantum-mechanical way. The corresponding hydrodynamic equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the phase-space distribution function. This hydrodynamic model is closed using a maximum entropy principle in the case of three or four constraints on the fluid moments, bo...

  9. Ultrafast geometric manipulation of electron spin and detection of the geometric phase via Faraday rotation spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li Xue Qian; Cen, L X; Zheng, H Z; Yan, Y J; Li, Xin-Qi; Hu, Cheng-Yong; Cen, Li-Xiang; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Yan, YiJing

    2002-01-01

    Time-resolved Faraday rotation spectroscopy is currently exploited as a powerful technique to probe spin dynamics in semiconductors. We propose here an all-optical approach to geometrically manipulate electron spin and to detect the geometric phase by this type of extremely sensitive experiment. The global nature of the geometric phase can make the quantum manipulation more stable, which may find interesting application in quantum devices.

  10. Estimation of the Postmortem Duration of Mouse Tissue by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiko Sawaguchi; Hideko Kanazawa; Tomohisa Mori; Shinobu Ito

    2011-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) method is a simple method for detecting various free radicals simultaneously and directly. However, ESR spin trap method is unsuited to analyze weak ESR signals in organs because of water-induced dielectric loss (WIDL). To minimize WIDL occurring in biotissues and to improve detection sensitivity to free radicals in tissues, ESR cuvette was modified and used with 5,5-dimethtyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). The tissue samples were mouse brain, hart, lung, liver, kid...

  11. Spin-Orbit Interaction and Related Transport Phenomena in 2d Electron and Hole Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaetskii, A.

    Spin-orbit interaction is responsible for many physical phenomena which are under intensive study currently. Here we discuss several of them. The first phenomenon is the edge spin accumulation, which appears due to spin-orbit interaction in 2D mesoscopic structures in the presence of a charge current. We consider the case of a strong spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron spectrum, i.e. a spin precession length is small compared to the mean free path l. The structure can be either in a ballistic regime (when the mean free path is the largest scale in the problem) or quasi-ballistic regime (when l is much smaller than the sample size). We show how physics of edge spin accumulation in different situations should be understood from the point of view of unitarity of boundary scattering. Using transparent method of scattering states, we are able to explain some previous puzzling theoretical results. We clarify the important role of the form of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, the role of the boundary conditions, etc., and reveal the wrong results obtained in the field by other researchers. The relation between the edge spin density and the bulk spin current in different regimes is discussed. The detailed comparison with the existing theoretical works is presented. Besides, we consider several new transport phenomena which appear in the presence of spin-orbit interaction, for example, magnetotransport phenomena in an external classical magnetic field. In particular, new mechanism of negative magneto-resistance appears which is due to destruction of spin fluxes by the magnetic field, and which can be really pronounced in 2D systems with strong scatterers.

  12. Ultrafast optical rotations of electron spins in an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on fast optical rotation operations on electron spins in a quantum dots ensemble. The spins are initialized in the z direction (quantum dot growth and light propagation direction). The spin vector oscillates about a transversal magnetic field B till a ultrafast 2π-''control'' laser pulse induces rotations of the spins about the z axis. The 2π-control pulse rotates the spin without generating a new spin polarization. The rotation angle is determined by the photon energy detuning of the control pulse from the optical resonance. For the first time for optically controlled spins, spin echoes and extension of the dephasing time were seen. By combining the rotation about the two axis a spin rotations about arbitrary axis has been realized. This robust optically controlled single spin rotation gate provides the basis for single-qubit logic operations.

  13. Spin-orbit coupled two-electron Fermi gases of ytterbium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bo; Zhang, Shanchao; Zou, Yueyang; Haciyev, Elnur; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a two-electron Fermi gas of $^{173}$Yb atoms by coupling two hyperfine ground states via the two-photon Raman transition. Due to the SU($N$) symmetry of the $^1$S$_0$ ground-state manifold which is insensitive to external magnetic field, an optical AC Stark effect is applied to split the ground spin states and separate an effective spin-1/2 subspace out from other hyperfine levels for the realization of SOC. With a momentum-dependent spin-orbit gap being suddenly opened by switching on the Raman transition, the dephasing of spin dynamics is observed, as a consequence of the momentum-dependent Rabi oscillations. Moreover, the momentum asymmetry of the spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas is also examined after projection onto the bare spin state and the corresponding momentum distribution is measured for different two-photon detuning. The realization of SOC for Yb fermions may open a new avenue to the study of novel spin-orbit physics with alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  14. Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-09-01

    Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin–orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.

  15. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic tra

  16. Spin-dependent electron-atom scattering - a detailed test of atomic collision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the experimental and theoretical studies of atomic collision processes. The use of polarized collision partners has enabled experimentalists to perform very detailed tests of theoretical models, particularly with regard to the description of spin-dependent effects such as electron exchange or the spin-orbit interactions. Besides the development of the general theoretical formulation of spin-dependent electron-atom collisions - predominantly in terms of the density matrix formalism - much progress has also been made in the numerical treatment of such processes. In particular, the non-perturbative R-matrix (close-coupling) method and the open-quotes Distorted Wave Born Approximationclose quotes (DWBA), based on the Born series expansion of the T-operator have been applied very successfully. The presentation will begin with an outline of the density matrix formalism and its use to describe several, apparently different, atomic collision processes in a common framework. Next, the origin of spin-dependence in these collisions will be investigated, with particular emphasis on the so-called open-quotes fine-structure effectclose quotes where explicitly spin-dependent terms in the projectile-target interaction (such as the spin-orbit interaction) are assumed to be negligible during the collision process. Selected results for elastic and inelastic (including ionization) electron scattering from various targets will be presented and compared with recent experimental data

  17. The Utilization of Spin Polarized Photoelectron Spectroscopy as a Probe of Electron Correlation with an Ultimate Goal of Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown in the paper.

  18. Spin-exchange effects in elastic electron scattering from linear triatomic radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Low-energy electron collisions with atoms, molecules, radicals, and surfaces are, in general, strongly influenced by electron-exchange effects. Such effects can be easily characterized in the electron-impact spin-forbidden excitations (for instance, singlet-to-triplet transitions). Although exchange mechanism is also important in low-energy elastic electron-molecule collisions, its effects is usually masked since most experimental studies are performed using unpolarized electron sources and without spin analysis of the scattered beam. Limited experimental studies have been reported in the literature over the past years. For instance, spin-flip (Sf) differential cross sections (Dss) for elastic electron scattering by the Na and Hg atoms as well as by the open-shell O2 and No molecules were reported by Hageman et al.. Although significant spin-exchange effects were found for atomic targets, very small effects were observed for O2 and No. Lately, theoretical studies of da PIXE et al. have shown that the almost isotropic polarization fractions (Sfs) of scattered electrons is mainly caused by the molecular orientation averaging, since gaseous targets are randomly oriented in space. Recently, we reported a theoretical investigation on spin-exchange effects in elastic electron collisions with the open-shell C2O radical using the Iterative Schwinger Variational Method (ISVM). In that study, we have shown that the exchange effects are strongly enhanced by the occurrence of resonances. In this sense, the calculated P'/P averaged over all orientations are no longer isotropic and deviate significantly from unity particularly at large scattering angles. Here, we extend the spin-exchange study to two linear triatomic open-shell molecules, namely CNN and Ncn. These two targets are isoelectronic of C2O radical with the ground-state electronic configuration X3Σ-. As in C2O, strong shape resonances are also present in the doublet- and quartet-coupling scattering channels

  19. Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on Kondo Phenomena in $f^7$-Electron Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote our basic understanding on the Kondo behavior recently observed in europium compounds, we analyze an impurity Anderson model with seven $f$ electrons at an impurity site by employing a numerical renormalization group method. The local part of the model consists of Coulomb interactions among $f$ electrons, spin-orbit coupling $\\lambda$, and crystalline electric field (CEF) potentials, while we consider the hybridization $V$ between local $f$ electrons and single-band conduc...

  20. Radiation-sterilized bone grafts evaluated by electron spin resonance technique and mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Central Tissue Bank in Poland are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on evaluation of changes in the mechanical properties of bone tissue subjected to lyophilization and radiosterilization and the application of the electron spin resonance technique in the research of mineralizing tissues. The following topics are discussed: technology of tissue conservation; clinical results of conserved tissue application; mechanical properties of preserved bone; free radicals and other paramagnetic substances in radiosterilized bone grafts; electron spin resonance studies of irradiated bone tissue; electron spin resonance analysis of irradiated hydroxyapatites in the course of their synthesis in vitro; stable paramagnetic centers as labels in research on bone graft resorption, creeping substitution, and new bone formation; determination of crystallinity of various mineralized tissues; and dosimetry of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation

  1. Spin-transport effects in the electron system above the surface of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport phenomena in the electron system above liquid helium in strong nonquantising nonuniform magnetic field have been considered. When the frequencies of the applied electric field are not high and the equilibrium spin distribution has time to be established along the conducting surface during the period of field, the electric resistance is determined by scattering processes other than in the uniform case. Spin nonuniformity makes electron-electron collisions effective for momentum relaxation and this causes to essential dissimilarity from Drude-Lorentz theory. A spin-electrical nonstationary effect has been found in the direction transverse to the applied electric field. The evolution of the transport properties after switching on a nonuniform magnetic field is discussed.

  2. Transport in serial spinful multiple-dot systems: The role of electron-electron interactions and coherences

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Goldozian; Damtie, Fikeraddis A.; Gediminas Kiršanskas; Andreas Wacker

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots are nanoscopic systems, where carriers are confined in all three spatial directions. Such nanoscopic systems are suitable for fundamental studies of quantum mechanics and are candidates for applications such as quantum information processing. It was also proposed that linear arrangements of quantum dots could be used as quantum cascade laser. In this work we study the impact of electron-electron interactions on transport in a spinful serial triple quantum dot system weakly couple...

  3. Spin-tagged electron-hydrogen scattering: Ionization in the near-threshold region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use beams of polarized electrons and polarized hydrogen atoms to measure the ionization-rate asymmetry, ΔI=[R(↑↓)-R(↑↑)]/[R(↑↓)+R(↑↑)], in the near-threshold region, where R(↑↓) and R(↑↑) are the ionization rates when the electron spin is antiparallel and parallel, respectively, to the atomic spins. Within 1.7 eV above threshold, our results reveal the presence of structure, which heretofore has not been predicted by any conventional theoretical calculation

  4. Electronic Properties and Persistent Spin Currents of Nanospring under Static Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Taichi

    2013-03-01

    Relativistic electronic properties of a nanospring under a static magnetic field are theoretically investigated in the present study. The wave equation accounting for the spin--orbit interaction is derived for the nanospring as a special case of the Pauli equation for a spin-1/2 particle confined to a curved surface under an electromagnetic field. We define the helical momentum operator and show that it commutes with the Hamiltonian owing to the helical geometry of the nanospring. The energy eigenstates are hence also the eigenstates of the helical momentum. We solve the equation numerically to obtain the surface wave functions and the energy spectra. The electronic properties are systematically examined by varying the parameters that characterize the system. It is demonstrated that either the nonzero spin--orbit interaction or the nonzero external magnetic field suffices for the occurrence of the persistent spin current on the nanospring. Two different mechanisms are shown to generate the persistent spin current. One employs the spin--orbit interaction coming from the local inversion asymmetry on the surface, while the other employs the curvature coupling with the external magnetic field.

  5. Experimental study on the activation process of GaAs spin-polarized electron source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮存军

    2003-01-01

    GaAs spin-polarized electron source is a new kind of electron source, where the GaAs semiconductor crystal is used as a photocathode under the irradiation of helicity light. In this paper the activation process of the GaAs spin-polarized electron source is investigated experimentally in detail, during which the negative electron affinity of the photo cathode should be achieved more carefully by absorbing the caesium and oxygen on the surface of the GaAs crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Besides the different activation processes, the important physical parameters are studied to achieve the optimum activation results. At the same time the stability and lifetime of the polarized electron beam are explored for future experiments. Some important experimental data have been acquired.

  6. Spin dependent transport of hot electrons through ultrathin epitaxial metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, Emanuel

    2010-06-23

    In this work relaxation and transport of hot electrons in thin single crystalline metallic films is investigated by Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy. The electron mean free paths are determined in an energy interval of 1 to 2 eV above the Fermi level. While fcc Au-films appear to be quite transmissive for hot electrons, the scattering lengths are much shorter for the ferromagnetic alloy FeCo revealing, furthermore, a strong spin asymmetry in hot electron transport. Additional information is gained from temperature dependent studies in combination with golden rule approaches in order to disentangle the impact of several relaxation and transport properties. It is found that bcc Fe-films are much less effective in spin filtering than films made of the FeCo-alloy. (orig.)

  7. Is spin transport through molecules really occurring in organic spin valves? A combined magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbiati, Marta; Tatay, Sergio; Delprat, Sophie; Khanh, Hung Le; Deranlot, Cyrile; Collin, Sophie; Seneor, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.seneor@thalesgroup.com; Mattana, Richard, E-mail: richard.mattana@thalesgroup.com; Petroff, Frédéric [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Servet, Bernard [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-02-23

    Molecular and organic spintronics is an emerging research field which combines the versatility of chemistry with the non-volatility of spintronics. Organic materials have already proved their potential as tunnel barriers (TBs) or spacers in spintronics devices showing sizable spin valve like magnetoresistance effects. In the last years, a large effort has been focused on the optimization of these organic spintronics devices. Insertion of a thin inorganic tunnel barrier (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO) at the bottom ferromagnetic metal (FM)/organic interface seems to improve the spin transport efficiency. However, during the top FM electrode deposition, metal atoms are prone to diffuse through the organic layer and potentially short-circuit it. This may lead to the formation of a working but undesired FM/TB/FM magnetic tunnel junction where the organic plays no role. Indeed, establishing a protocol to demonstrate the effective spin dependent transport through the organic layer remains a key issue. Here, we focus on Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Alq{sub 3}/Co junctions and show that combining magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy measurements one can sort out working “organic” and short-circuited junctions fabricated on the same wafer.

  8. XMCD as a probe for spin-orbit interaction and spin-resolved electronic structure of Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaer, Peter; Kallmayer, Michael; Arbelo Jorge, Elena; Herbort, Christian; Jakob, Gerhard; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans Joachim [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blum, Christian; Graf, Tanja; Balke, Benjamin; Fecher, Gerhard Horst; Felser, Claudia [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To confirm theoretical predictions and optimize material properties of half-metallic Heusler alloys a characterization of the electronic structure is necessary. For this purpose x-ray magnetic circular dicroism (XMCD) is a powerful tool. In addition to the element-specific determination of the spin and orbital moment, XMCD allows a direct experimental observation of the spin-resolved unoccupied density of states (DOS) in Heusler alloys. It is shown that a substitution of Ge by Ga in alloys like Co{sub 2}MnGe shifts the minority DOS maximum with respect to E{sub F}, indicating half-metallic ferromagnetism for the whole series and satisfying the rigid-band like behavior. Results for polycrystalline bulk samples and single crystalline films are discussed. We report on the orbital to spin moment ratio versus composition, relating its variation to the symmetry of the unit cell. For the series Co{sub 2}Ti{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Ge the Fermi energy shifts opposite to the expected rigid band behavior, which can be explained by a charge transfer from the light 3d-element Ti with antiparallel moment to Co states.

  9. Mode locking of electron spin coherences in singly charged InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an optical technique based on time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements of the electron spin dynamics in an ensemble of QDs to recover the coherence time of a single QD. The measured spin coherence time T2 is 3 microseconds, which is three orders of magnitude longer than the ensemble dephasing time of about 2 nanoseconds. A periodic train of circularly polarized light pulses from a mode-locked laser synchronizes the precession of the spins to the laser repetition rate TR, transferring the mode-locking into the spin system. This synchronization leads to constructive interference of the electron spin polarization in time. The interference gives also the possibility for alloptical coherent manipulation of spin ensembles: the electron spins can be clocked by two trains of pump pulses with a fixed temporal delay TD. After this pulse sequence, the QD ensemble shows multiple echo-like Faraday rotation signals with a period equal to the pump pulse separation

  10. Excitation of bond-alternating spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains by tunnelling electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) are evaluated for spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains showing different phases of their spin ordering. The spin ordering is controlled by the value of the two different Heisenberg couplings on the two sides of each of the chain's atoms (bond-alternating chains). The perfect anti-ferromagnetic phase, i.e. a unique exchange coupling, marks a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) of the bond-alternating chain. Our calculations show that the TQPT is recognizable in the excited states of the chain and hence that IETS is in principle capable of discriminating the phases. We show that perfectly symmetric chains, such as closed rings mimicking infinite chains, yield the same spectra on both sides of the TQPT and IETS cannot reveal the nature of the spin phase. However, for finite size open chains, both sides of the TQPT are associated with different IETS spectra, especially on the edge atoms, thus outlining the transition. (paper)

  11. Spin-Momentum Correlations in Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering from Deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Passchier; L.D. van Buuren; D. Szczerba; R. Alarcon; Th.S. Bauer; D. Boersma; J.F.J. van den Brand; H.J. Bulten; R. Ent; M. Ferro-Luzzi; M. Harvey; P. Heimberg; D.W. Higinbotham; S. Klous; H. Kolster; J. Lang; B.L. Militsyn; D. Nikolenko; G.J.L. Nooren; B.E. Norum; H.R. Poolman; I. Rachek; M.C. Simani; E. Six; H. de Vries; K. Wang; Z.-L. Zhou

    2002-02-25

    We report on a measurement of spin-momentum correlations in quasi-elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons with an energy of 720 MeV from vector-polarized deuterium. The spin correlation parameter A{sub ed}{sup V} was measured for the 2{rvec H}({rvec e},e{prime}p)n reaction for missing momenta up to 350 MeV/c at a four-momentum transfer squared of 0.21 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data give detailed information about the spin structure of the deuteron, and are in good agreement with the predictions of microscopic calculations based on realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials and including various spin-dependent reaction mechanism effects. The experiment demonstrates in a most direct manner the effects of the D-state in the deuteron ground-state wave function and shows the importance of isobar configurations for this reaction.

  12. Asymmetric recombination and electron spin relaxation in the semiclassical theory of radical pair reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Alan M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Hore, P. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    We describe how the semiclassical theory of radical pair recombination reactions recently introduced by two of us [D. E. Manolopoulos and P. J. Hore, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124106 (2013)] can be generalised to allow for different singlet and triplet recombination rates. This is a non-trivial generalisation because when the recombination rates are different the recombination process is dynamically coupled to the coherent electron spin dynamics of the radical pair. Furthermore, because the recombination operator is a two-electron operator, it is no longer sufficient simply to consider the two electrons as classical vectors: one has to consider the complete set of 16 two-electron spin operators as independent classical variables. The resulting semiclassical theory is first validated by comparison with exact quantum mechanical results for a model radical pair containing 12 nuclear spins. It is then used to shed light on the spin dynamics of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene triad containing considerably more nuclear spins which has recently been used to establish a “proof of principle” for the operation of a chemical compass [K. Maeda, K. B. Henbest, F. Cintolesi, I. Kuprov, C. T. Rodgers, P. A. Liddell, D. Gust, C. R. Timmel, and P. J. Hore, Nature (London) 453, 387 (2008)]. We find in particular that the intriguing biphasic behaviour that has been observed in the effect of an Earth-strength magnetic field on the time-dependent survival probability of the photo-excited C{sup ·+}PF{sup ·−} radical pair arises from a delicate balance between its asymmetric recombination and the relaxation of the electron spin in the carotenoid radical.

  13. Asymmetric recombination and electron spin relaxation in the semiclassical theory of radical pair reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alan M; Manolopoulos, David E; Hore, P J

    2014-07-28

    We describe how the semiclassical theory of radical pair recombination reactions recently introduced by two of us [D. E. Manolopoulos and P. J. Hore, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124106 (2013)] can be generalised to allow for different singlet and triplet recombination rates. This is a non-trivial generalisation because when the recombination rates are different the recombination process is dynamically coupled to the coherent electron spin dynamics of the radical pair. Furthermore, because the recombination operator is a two-electron operator, it is no longer sufficient simply to consider the two electrons as classical vectors: one has to consider the complete set of 16 two-electron spin operators as independent classical variables. The resulting semiclassical theory is first validated by comparison with exact quantum mechanical results for a model radical pair containing 12 nuclear spins. It is then used to shed light on the spin dynamics of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene triad containing considerably more nuclear spins which has recently been used to establish a "proof of principle" for the operation of a chemical compass [K. Maeda, K. B. Henbest, F. Cintolesi, I. Kuprov, C. T. Rodgers, P. A. Liddell, D. Gust, C. R. Timmel, and P. J. Hore, Nature (London) 453, 387 (2008)]. We find in particular that the intriguing biphasic behaviour that has been observed in the effect of an Earth-strength magnetic field on the time-dependent survival probability of the photo-excited C(·+)PF(·-) radical pair arises from a delicate balance between its asymmetric recombination and the relaxation of the electron spin in the carotenoid radical. PMID:25084885

  14. Asymmetric recombination and electron spin relaxation in the semiclassical theory of radical pair reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe how the semiclassical theory of radical pair recombination reactions recently introduced by two of us [D. E. Manolopoulos and P. J. Hore, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124106 (2013)] can be generalised to allow for different singlet and triplet recombination rates. This is a non-trivial generalisation because when the recombination rates are different the recombination process is dynamically coupled to the coherent electron spin dynamics of the radical pair. Furthermore, because the recombination operator is a two-electron operator, it is no longer sufficient simply to consider the two electrons as classical vectors: one has to consider the complete set of 16 two-electron spin operators as independent classical variables. The resulting semiclassical theory is first validated by comparison with exact quantum mechanical results for a model radical pair containing 12 nuclear spins. It is then used to shed light on the spin dynamics of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene triad containing considerably more nuclear spins which has recently been used to establish a “proof of principle” for the operation of a chemical compass [K. Maeda, K. B. Henbest, F. Cintolesi, I. Kuprov, C. T. Rodgers, P. A. Liddell, D. Gust, C. R. Timmel, and P. J. Hore, Nature (London) 453, 387 (2008)]. We find in particular that the intriguing biphasic behaviour that has been observed in the effect of an Earth-strength magnetic field on the time-dependent survival probability of the photo-excited C·+PF·− radical pair arises from a delicate balance between its asymmetric recombination and the relaxation of the electron spin in the carotenoid radical

  15. Electron spin resonance of radicals and metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials are a collection of extended synopsis of papers presented at the conference sessions. The broad area of magnetic techniques applications has been described as well as their spectra interpretation methods. The ESR, NMR, ENDOR and spin echo were applied for studying the radiation and UV induced radicals in chemical and biological systems. Also in the study of complexes of metallic ions (having the paramagnetic properties) and their interaction with the matrix, the magnetic techniques has been commonly used. They are also very convenient tool for the study of reaction kinetics and mechanism as well as interaction of paramagnetic species with themselves and crystal lattice or with the surface as for thee catalytic processes

  16. Electron interaction effect on the spin diffusion and transport in half metallic magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For half metallic magnets, spin fluctuation is the same as charge fluctuation. The length scale is controlled by electron–electron interaction and is of the order of the screening length, typically of the order of an Angstrom whereas the ordinary spin diffusion length is of the order of 100 Å or more. We examine the eigenstates for charge and spin transport for systems close to half-metallicity. Due to the electron–electron interaction, the decay length of the eigenstate that corresponds to the longitudinal spin diffusion length is much reduced, consistent with recent experimental results. We explore the consequence of this. We find that there are two parameters that characterize half-metallicity and illustrate our results numerically with a simple model. - Highlights: • We show that in half metallic magnets such as the Heusler alloys electron–electron interaction need to be included. • In this class of material the length scale for the transport eigenstates that corresponds to spin diffusion is much reduced. • There are two quantities, the diffusion constant and the density of states, that control the magneto-resistance ratio

  17. Electron interaction effect on the spin diffusion and transport in half metallic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, S.T., E-mail: chui@bartol.udel.edu

    2015-11-01

    For half metallic magnets, spin fluctuation is the same as charge fluctuation. The length scale is controlled by electron–electron interaction and is of the order of the screening length, typically of the order of an Angstrom whereas the ordinary spin diffusion length is of the order of 100 Å or more. We examine the eigenstates for charge and spin transport for systems close to half-metallicity. Due to the electron–electron interaction, the decay length of the eigenstate that corresponds to the longitudinal spin diffusion length is much reduced, consistent with recent experimental results. We explore the consequence of this. We find that there are two parameters that characterize half-metallicity and illustrate our results numerically with a simple model. - Highlights: • We show that in half metallic magnets such as the Heusler alloys electron–electron interaction need to be included. • In this class of material the length scale for the transport eigenstates that corresponds to spin diffusion is much reduced. • There are two quantities, the diffusion constant and the density of states, that control the magneto-resistance ratio.

  18. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport also supercurrent transport has already been observed. It has also been suggested that graphene might be a promising material for sp...

  19. Intrinsic spin polarized electronic structure of CrO{sub 2} epitaxial film revealed by bulk-sensitive spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Sunagawa, Masanori; Kittaka, Tomoko [Research Laboratory for Surface Science and Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Terashima, Kensei; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science and Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage, and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-05-18

    We have performed bulk-sensitive spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in order to clarify the intrinsic spin-resolved electronic states of half-metallic ferromagnet CrO{sub 2}. We used CrO{sub 2} epitaxial films on TiO{sub 2}(100), which shows a peak at 1 eV with a clear Fermi edge, consistent with the bulk-sensitive PES spectrum for CrO{sub 2}. In spin-resolved spectra at 40 K, while the Fermi edge was observed in the spin up (majority spin) state, no states at the Fermi level (E{sub F}) with an energy gap of 0.5 eV below E{sub F} were observed in the spin down (minority spin) state. At 300 K, the gap in the spin down state closes. These results are consistent with resistivity measurements and magnetic hysteresis curves of the fabricated CrO{sub 2} film, constituting spectroscopic evidence for the half-metallicity of CrO{sub 2} at low temperature and reducing the spin polarization at room temperature. We also discuss the electron correlation effects of Cr 3d.

  20. Intrinsic spin polarized electronic structure of CrO2 epitaxial film revealed by bulk-sensitive spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed bulk-sensitive spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in order to clarify the intrinsic spin-resolved electronic states of half-metallic ferromagnet CrO2. We used CrO2 epitaxial films on TiO2(100), which shows a peak at 1 eV with a clear Fermi edge, consistent with the bulk-sensitive PES spectrum for CrO2. In spin-resolved spectra at 40 K, while the Fermi edge was observed in the spin up (majority spin) state, no states at the Fermi level (EF) with an energy gap of 0.5 eV below EF were observed in the spin down (minority spin) state. At 300 K, the gap in the spin down state closes. These results are consistent with resistivity measurements and magnetic hysteresis curves of the fabricated CrO2 film, constituting spectroscopic evidence for the half-metallicity of CrO2 at low temperature and reducing the spin polarization at room temperature. We also discuss the electron correlation effects of Cr 3d

  1. Applying Electronic Supply Chain Management Using Multi-Agent System: A Managerial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Al-zu’bi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the electronic business environment, supply chain management must deal with globalization, proliferating productvariety, organizational barriers, and quick information sharing. Consequently, appropriate tools are needed to support supply chainmanagement. We believe that software agents are good candidates to overcome these challenges. In this paper, I propose MAS+SCM,which is a Multi-Agent System (MAS to support Electronic Supply Chain Management (E-SCM. The proposed model consists of aset of agents that are working together to maintain supplying, manufacturing, inventory and distributing. The main operations of thesoftware agents include: (1 receiving information from customer orders (2 check the inventory (3 make the production schedule (4issue the order of raw materials from the suppliers (5 receive the raw materials (6 production (7 deliver products to the customer.In addition to the interface agents and communication protocols among agents.

  2. Spin-independent effective mass in a valley-degenerate electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a generic spin-polarized Fermi liquid, the masses of spin-up and spin-down electrons are expected to be different and to depend on the degree of polarization. This expectation is not confirmed by the experiments on two-dimensional heterostructures. We consider a model of an N-fold degenerate electron gas. It is shown that in the large-N limit, the mass is enhanced via a polaronic mechanism of emission/absorption of virtual plasmons. As plasmons are classical collective excitations, the resulting mass does not depend on N, and thus on polarization, to the leading order in 1/N. We evaluate the 1/N corrections and show that they are small even for N=2. (author)

  3. Characteristic lengths for three-carrier transport with spin-flip and electron-hole recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmar, Maja; Saslow, Wayne M.

    2016-05-01

    The exact solution of the linearized, steady-state transport equation for three-carrier systems, such as can occur for semiconductors and ionic conductors, is constructed starting from the near-equilibrium entropy-production requirements of irreversible thermodynamics. Three characteristic modes are found, one associated with electrostatic screening (which is often neglected), and two modes associated with diffusion and "reactions." For a spintronics model with up and down electrons and unpolarized holes, the "reactions" are spin-flip and electron-hole recombination. We discuss how the variations in carrier density, diffusivity, recombination rate, and spin relaxation time affect the characteristic lengths. We apply these modes to study spin-polarized surface photoabsorption.

  4. Sensitivity and spatial resolution for electron-spin-resonance detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signal intensity of electron spin resonance in magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) experiments employing periodic saturation of the electron spin magnetization is determined by four parameters: the rf field H1, the modulation level of the bias field Hm, the spin relaxation time τ1, and the magnetic size R(∂H/∂z) of the sample. Calculations of the MRFM spectra obtained from a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl particle have been performed for various conditions. The results are compared with experimental data and excellent agreement is found. The systematic variation of the signal intensity as a function of H1 and Hm provides a powerful tool to characterize the MRFM apparatus. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Performance of spin polarized electron source for low energy electron microscopy and applied to high energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a spin polarized electron source for the spin polarized low energy electron microscopy (SPLEEM) that provide detailed real time observation of magnetic domain structure when the magnetic thin film is deposited to the substrate. The interelectrode dark current is kept less than 1nA under the extreme high vacuum environment as 5x10-10 Pa, and the polarized electron beam is drawn out in the electric field intensity of 4.2 MV/m. Also, the beam performance obtained the reduction brightness of 1.3x107A·m-2·sr-1·V-1, as to focus the laser spot diameter to 1.2μm, by having the 90% spin polarization. Moreover, using NEA surface photoemission mechanism, the electron beam with narrow of energy is emitted from photocathode. It seems to be useful for an electron source that needs a low emittance for high-energy accelerator. (author)

  6. Many-body effects in electron spin resonance in 2D systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report effects of electron–electron (e–e) interaction on electron spin resonance (ESR) in two-dimensional (2D) systems with Rashba spin–orbit interaction (SOI). Using the Hartree–Fock approximation, we demonstrate that Rashba SOI results in non-zero many-body corrections to the ESR energy. We discover that e–e interaction in 2D systems with SOI can not only enhance the ESR energy but also lead to the ESR energy reduction. The magnitude of this effect exhibits remarkable features in a wide range of parameters relevant to experiment: it is found to be rather sensitive to the sign of g-factor and the filling factor of Landau levels ν. We derive analytical expressions for many-body corrections to ESR energy and energy dispersion of spin wave excitations for the case of ν⩽2. We have found out that e–e interaction does not affect the ESR energy in the case of filling of the lowest Landau level (ν⩽1) in 2D systems with positive g-factors even at arbitrarily large values of Rashba constant. The many-body renormalization of ESR energy in the case of fractional Quantum Hall effect is also discussed. (papers)

  7. Stabilizing effect of nuclear quadrupole interaction on the polarization of electron-nuclear spin system in a quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole interaction extends the limits imposed by hyperfine interaction on the spin coherence of the electron and nuclei in a quantum dot. The strain-induced nuclear quadrupole interaction suppresses the nuclear spin flip and makes possible the zero-field dynamic nuclear polarization in self-organized InP/InGaP quantum dots. The direction of the effective nuclear magnetic field is fixed in space, thus quenching the magnetic depolarization of the electron spin in the quantum dot. Th...

  8. Numerical simulations of strongly correlated electron and spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changlani, Hitesh Jaiprakash

    Developing analytical and numerical tools for strongly correlated systems is a central challenge for the condensed matter physics community. In the absence of exact solutions and controlled analytical approximations, numerical techniques have often contributed to our understanding of these systems. Exact Diagonalization (ED) requires the storage of at least two vectors the size of the Hilbert space under consideration (which grows exponentially with system size) which makes it affordable only for small systems. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) uses an intelligent Hilbert space truncation procedure to significantly reduce this cost, but in its present formulation is limited to quasi-1D systems. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) maps the Schrodinger equation to the diffusion equation (in imaginary time) and only samples the eigenvector over time, thereby avoiding the memory limitation. However, the stochasticity involved in the method gives rise to the "sign problem" characteristic of fermion and frustrated spin systems. The first part of this thesis is an effort to make progress in the development of a numerical technique which overcomes the above mentioned problems. We consider novel variational wavefunctions, christened "Correlator Product States" (CPS), that have a general functional form which hopes to capture essential correlations in the ground states of spin and fermion systems in any dimension. We also consider a recent proposal to modify projector (Green's Function) Quantum Monte Carlo to ameliorate the sign problem for realistic and model Hamiltonians (such as the Hubbard model). This exploration led to our own set of improvements, primarily a semistochastic formulation of projector Quantum Monte Carlo. Despite their limitations, existing numerical techniques can yield physical insights into a wide variety of problems. The second part of this thesis considers one such numerical technique - DMRG - and adapts it to study the Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  9. Electrons and Spin Waves in Heavy Rare Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackintosh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Although the main principles governing the magnetic interactions and magnetic ordering in rare earth metals have been qualitatively understood for some time, it is only relatively recently that a sufficiently detailed study has been made of their electronic and magnetic excitations to place this...... understanding on a more quantitative basis. The experimental evidence on the electronic structure of the rare earths is still rather meager but, so far as it goes, is in accord with the detailed description provided by band structure calculations. On the other hand, the experimental study of the magnon...... dispersion relations by inelastic neutron scattering has provided a wealth of information about the interactions between the local moments, associated with the incompletely filled 4f subshell, and the rest of the crystal. The main emphasis in these notes will be on the interrelation between the electronic...

  10. A Prototype for an Agent-based Secure Electronic Marketplace including Reputation Tracking Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Padovan Boris; Sackmann Stefan; Eymann Thorsten; Pippow Ingo

    2002-01-01

    The future of electronic commerce will be shaped by open, heterogeneous and complex structures, consisting of networked marketplaces. Software agents will interact and negotiate on behalf of their human (or organizational) principals. Principals will be able to implement fraudulent strategies in their agents, which cannot be countered by technical security alone. In the absence of a single correctional institution, agents will have to rely on social mechanisms for assessing reliability and re...

  11. Differential spin exchange in the elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic-beam recoil technique has been used to obtain the ratio of spin-flip to full differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons by rubidium at 0.80, 1.10, and 1.40 eV. Data are presented for a range of angles between 30degree and 180degree at each of these energies. These measurements were partly motivated by the expectation that relativistic effects, particularly the spin-orbit interaction, will be significant in electron scattering by the heavier alkali metals, even at low energies. In this context, we show how our measurements are related to the relativistic scattering amplitudes recently discussed by Burke and Mitchell for one-electron atoms. These experiments were performed at intermediate magnetic fields, where the nuclear and valence electron magnetic moments are not fully decoupled. The necessary corrections are discussed and taken into account

  12. Transport of Spin-Polarized Electrons through an NEM-SET Structure with Ferromagnetic Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Jiang, K.

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated the spin-polarized electron transport in a magnetic nanoelectromechanical single-electron-transistor (NEM-SET), with an oscillating quantum dot (QD) coupled to two ferromagnetic electrodes. The interplay between the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom is considered by using the quantum master equation method within Wigner phase-space. We present a concrete picture for the transition of the QD oscillations from the tunneling state to the shuttling one by analysis of the electron occupation, the effective potential and amplitude probability distribution. It is found that the development of dynamic shuttle instability is dependent on the relative orientation of two leads' magnetizations, which arises a pronounced spin valve effect. For an asymmetric NEM-SET structure, besides the spin valve effect, we unexpectedly find that the shuttle instability is additionally dependent on the the bias-voltage polarities, exhibiting a sizable current rectifica tion. The coexistence of two effects makes it possible to control the spin valve effect electrically or control the rectification magnetically.

  13. The HERA polarimeter and the first observation of electron spin polarization at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin polarizations of about 8% were observed at HERA in November 1991. In runs during 1992 utilizing special orbit corrections, polarization values close to 60% have been achieved. In this paper the polarimeter, the machine conditions, the data analysis, the first results and plans for future measurements are described. (orig.)

  14. A point of view about identification of irradiated foods by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles and conditions required for using electron spin resonance (ESR) in identifying irradiated foods are first put forth. After a literature review, examples of irradiated cereals and French prunes are described in order to derive general conclusions concerning the future of ESR in this field

  15. Electron spin resonance in neutron-irradiated graphite. Dependence on temperature and effect of annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance signal from neutron irradiated graphite has been studied. The results lead to an interpretation of the nature of the paramagnetic centers created by irradiation. In annealing experiments on graphite samples, which had been irradiated at low temperature, two annealing peaks and one anti-annealing peak were found. Interpretations are proposed for these peaks. (author)

  16. Applying Electronic Supply Chain Management Using Multi-Agent System: A Managerial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haitham Al-zu’bi

    2010-01-01

    In the electronic business environment, supply chain management must deal with globalization, proliferating productvariety, organizational barriers, and quick information sharing. Consequently, appropriate tools are needed to support supply chainmanagement. We believe that software agents are good candidates to overcome these challenges. In this paper, I propose MAS+SCM,which is a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to support Electronic Supply Chain Management (E-SCM). The proposed model consists of as...

  17. Estimation of the Postmortem Duration of Mouse Tissue by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR method is a simple method for detecting various free radicals simultaneously and directly. However, ESR spin trap method is unsuited to analyze weak ESR signals in organs because of water-induced dielectric loss (WIDL. To minimize WIDL occurring in biotissues and to improve detection sensitivity to free radicals in tissues, ESR cuvette was modified and used with 5,5-dimethtyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO. The tissue samples were mouse brain, hart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, muscle, skin, and whole blood, where various ESR spin adduct signals including DMPO-ascorbyl radical (AsA∗, DMPO-superoxide anion radical (OOH, and DMPO-hydrogen radical (H signal were detected. Postmortem changes in DMPO-AsA∗ and DMPO-OOH were observed in various tissues of mouse. The signal peak of spin adduct was monitored until the 205th day postmortem. DMPO-AsA∗ in liver (y=113.8–40.7 log (day, R1=-0.779, R2=0.6, P<.001 was found to linearly decrease with the logarithm of postmortem duration days. Therefore, DMPO-AsA∗ signal may be suitable for detecting an oxidation stress tracer from tissue in comparison with other spin adduct signal on ESR spin trap method.

  18. Spin decoherence in electron storage rings --- more from a simple model

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, D P

    2015-01-01

    This is an addendum to the paper "Some models of spin coherence and decoherence in storage rings" by one of the authors [1] in which spin diffusion in simple electron storage rings is studied. In particular, we illustrate in a compact way, a key implication in the Epilogue of [1], namely that the exact formalism of [1] delivers a rate of depolarisation which can differ from that obtained by the conventional treatments of spin diffusion which rely on the use of the derivative $\\partial \\hat n/\\partial\\eta$ [2,3,4]. As a vehicle we consider a ring with a Siberian Snake and electron polarisation in the plane of the ring (Machine II in [1]). For this simple setup with its one-dimensional spin motion, we avoid having to deal directly with the Bloch equation [5,6] for the polarisation density. Our treatment, which is deliberately pedagogical, shows that the use of $\\partial \\hat n/\\partial\\eta$ provides a very good approximation to the rate of spin depolarisation in the model considered. But it then shows that the ...

  19. Topologically nontrivial electronic bands and tunable Dirac cones in graphynes with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juricic, Vladimir; van Miert, Guido; Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2015-03-01

    Graphynes represent an emerging family of carbon allotropes that differ from graphene by the presence of the triple bonds (-C ≡C-) in their band structure. They have recently attracted much interest due to the tunability of the Dirac cones in the band structure. I will show that the spin-orbit coupling in β-graphyne could produce various effects related to the topological properties of its electronic bands. Intrinsic spin-orbit coupling yields high- and tunable Chern-number bands, which may host both topological and Chern insulators, in the presence and absence of time-reversal symmetry, respectively. Furthermore, Rashba spin-orbit coupling can be used to control the position and the number of Dirac cones in the Brillouin zone. Finally, I will also discuss the electronic properties of α - and γ - graphyne in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling within recently developed general theory of spin-orbit couplings in graphynes. Work supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  20. Spin decoherence in electron storage rings. More from a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Heinemann, K. [The Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics

    2015-06-15

    This is an addendum to the paper ''Some models of spin coherence and decoherence in storage rings'' by one of the authors (K. Heinemann, DESY Report 97-166 (1997)), in which spin diffusion in simple electron storage rings is studied. In particular, we illustrate in a compact way, namely that the exact formalism of this article delivers a rate of depolarisation which can differ from that obtained by the conventional treatments of spin diffusion which rely on the use of the derivative ∂n/∂η. As a vehicle we consider a ring with a Siberian Snake and electron polarisation in the plane of the ring. For this simple setup with its one-dimensional spin motion, we avoid having to deal directly with the Bloch equation for the polarisation density. Our treatment, which is deliberately pedagogical, shows that the use of ∂n/∂η provides a very good approximation to the rate of spin depolarisation in the model considered. But it then shows that the exact rate of depolarisation can be obtained by replacing ∂n/∂η by another derivative, while giving a heuristic justification for the new derivative.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of conduction electron spin resonance in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present work is to contribute to the elucidation of the spin resonance properties of conduction electron in pure metals. We follow three complementary ways: 1) We compare between them all metals where spin resonance has been observed. We show the influence of spin-orbit and of the metal valence, and we deduce the likely importance of the Fermi surface complexity, in particular concerning the g factor. 2) We have assembled an original EPR spectrometer, working at 350 MHz. This 'low' frequency enables to minimize the line broadenings due to g factor distributions over the Fermi surface. Nevertheless we were unable to detect any new resonance. This apparatus performed some experiments on aluminum, an exemplary metal: spin relaxation on dislocations and surfaces; study of g between 50 and 110 K. 3) We calculate the g factor at every point of the Fermi surface of aluminum, by introducing the spin-orbit potential as a perturbation. An important difficulty remains, linked to the choice of the wave function phase. Moreover we propose a phenomenological model based on the narrowing of the so calculated g distribution by two types of motion: a random one corresponding to diffusion of electrons on the crystalline imperfections, and a coherent one around the cyclotron orbits. A qualitative model accounts relatively well for the experimental facts

  2. Recent progress on correlated electron systems with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert; Kin-Ho Lee, Eric; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of novel quantum ground states in correlated electron systems with strong spin-orbit coupling has been a recent subject of intensive studies. While it has been realized that spin-orbit coupling can provide non-trivial band topology in weakly interacting electron systems, as in topological insulators and semi-metals, the role of electron-electron interaction in strongly spin-orbit coupled systems has not been fully understood. The availability of new materials with significant electron correlation and strong spin-orbit coupling now makes such investigations possible. Many of these materials contain 5d or 4d transition metal elements; the prominent examples are iridium oxides or iridates. In this review, we succinctly discuss recent theoretical and experimental progress on this subject. After providing a brief overview, we focus on pyrochlore iridates and three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. In pyrochlore iridates, we discuss the quantum criticality of the bulk and surface states, and the relevance of the surface/boundary states in a number of topological and magnetic ground states, both in the bulk and thin film configurations. Experimental signatures of these boundary and bulk states are discussed. Domain wall formation and strongly-direction-dependent magneto-transport are also discussed. In regard to the three-dimensional honeycomb iridates, we consider possible quantum spin liquid phases and unusual magnetic orders in theoretical models with strongly bond-dependent interactions. These theoretical ideas and results are discussed in light of recent resonant x-ray scattering experiments on three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. We also contrast these results with the situation in two-dimensional honeycomb iridates. We conclude with the outlook on other related systems. PMID:27540689

  3. Electron transport, interaction and spin in graphene and graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Shylau, Artsem

    2012-01-01

    Since the isolation of graphene in 2004, this novel material has become the major object of modern condensed matter physics. Despite of enormous research activity in this field, there are still a number of fundamental phenomena that remain unexplained and challenge researchers for further investigations. Moreover, due to its unique electronic properties, graphene is considered as a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Besides experimental and technological issues, utilizing graphen...

  4. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  5. Stabilizing nuclear spins around semiconductor electrons via the interplay of optical coherent population trapping and dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onur, A. R.; de Jong, J. P.; O'Shea, D.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van der Wal, C. H.

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate how coherent population trapping (CPT) for donor-bound electron spins in GaAs results in autonomous feedback that prepares stabilized states for the spin polarization of nuclei around the electrons. CPT was realized by excitation with two lasers to a bound-exciton state. Transmission studies of the spectral CPT feature on an ensemble of electrons directly reveal the statistical distribution of prepared nuclear-spin states. Tuning the laser driving from blue to red detuned drives a transition from one to two stable states. Our results have importance for ongoing research on schemes for dynamic nuclear-spin polarization, the central spin problem, and control of spin coherence.

  6. Dynamical spin injection into a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaAs/GaAs structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Kenro; Ando, Yuichiro; Shinjo, Teruya; Uemura, Tetsuya; Shiraishi, Masashi

    A two-dimensional electron system in a GaAs-based heterostructure is the attractive platform for spintronics since it has high mobility and spin-orbit interaction can be modulated by the gate voltage1. Thus, it is a possible platform to realize electric gate-controlled spin transistor2. However, room-temperature spin transport through GaAs-based heterostructure has yet to be shown. We report first spin transport through the quantum well at GaAs/AlGaAs interface at room temperature. We used spin pumping under ferromagnetic resonance to inject spins from the Ni80Fe20 to the GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. Generated spin current propagated through the 1 μm channel and was detected using spin-charge conversion inverse spin Hall effect in the Pt electrode. In agreement with spin pumping theory, polarity of the spin transport signal was reversed together with magnetization of the Ni80Fe20. This first demonstration of spin transport through a quantum well at a semiconductor heterostructure interface at room temperature opens a way to realize Datta-Das spin-based transistor.1 J. Nitta, et al., PRL 78, 1335 (1997). 2 S. Datta and B. Das, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 665 (1990).

  7. On the representation matrices of the spin permutation group. [for atomic and molecular electronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of the representation matrices of the spin permutation group (symmetric group), a detailed knowledge of these matrices being required in the study of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. The method is characterized by the use of two different coupling schemes. Unlike the Yamanouchi spin algebraic scheme, the method is not recursive. The matrices for the fundamental transpositions can be written down directly in one of the two bases. The method results in a computationally significant reduction in the number of matrix elements that have to be stored when compared with, say, the standard Young tableaux group theoretical approach.

  8. Semiclassical Vlasov and fluid models for an electron gas with spin effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hurst, Jerome; Manfredi, Giovanni; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We derive a four-component Vlasov equation for a system composed of spin-1/2 fermions (typically electrons). The orbital part of the motion is classical, whereas the spin degrees of freedom are treated in a completely quantum-mechanical way. The corresponding hydrodynamic equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the phase-space distribution function. This hydrodynamic model is closed using a maximum entropy principle in the case of three or four constraints on the fluid moments, both for Maxwell-Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  9. Theoretical studies of spin dependent scatterings of electrons from ferromagnetic surfaces and ultra thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors summarize results of the authors' recent theoretical studies of spin dependent scattering of electrons from ferromagnetic surfaces. The authors obtain an excellent account of both the energy and angle variation of the exchange asymmetry reported by Waller and Gradmann in their SPLEED study of the Fe(110) surface, and of spin dependent asymmetries in the transmission of photoelectrons through an ultra thin film of Fe on Cu(100). Potentials supplied by Fe and Freeman enable us to account for the data, with use of ground state potentials generated by ab initio methods

  10. Electron spin resonance study of Na_{1-x}Li_xV_2O_5

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, M.; von Nidda, H. -A. Krug; Loidl, A.; Morre, E.; Dischner, M.; Geibel, C

    1999-01-01

    We measured X-band electron-spin resonance of single crystalline sodium vanadate doped with lithium, Na_{1-x}Li_xV_2O_5 for 0 < x < 1.3% . The phase transition into a dimerized phase that is observed at 34 K in the undoped compound, was found to be strongly suppressed upon doping with lithium. The spin susceptibility was analyzed to determine the transition temperature and the energy gap with respect to the lithium content. The transition temperature Tsp is suppressed following a square depen...

  11. Diamond-nitrogen-vacancy electronic and nuclear spin-state anticrossings under weak transverse magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, Hannah; Chen, Edward H.; Dolde, Florian; Teale, Carson; Englund, Dirk; Braje, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    We report on detailed studies of electronic and nuclear spin states in the diamond-nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center under weak transverse magnetic fields. We numerically predict and experimentally verify a previously unobserved NV hyperfine level anticrossing (LAC) occurring at bias fields of tens of gauss—two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported LACs at ˜500 and ˜1000 G axial magnetic fields. We then discuss how the NV ground-state Hamiltonian can be manipulated in this regime to tailor the NV's sensitivity to environmental factors and to map into the nuclear spin state.

  12. Magneto-anisotropy of spin dephasing in a [001]-grown high-mobility two-dimensional electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, T.; Stich, D.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2010-01-01

    The spin dynamics in [001]-grown two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) at low temperatures are governed by the effective spin-orbit fields, which lead to dephasing via the D'yakonov-Perel mechanism. If both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit fields are present and of the same order, their interference causes a large anisotropy of the spin dephasing times for spin orientation along different in-plane directions. This may be observed in time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements using in-plane magnetic fields. The dephasing anisotropy is strongly reduced for increasing carrier density by the increasing importance of the kubic Dresselhaus term.

  13. Effects of spin on the cyclotron frequency for a Dirac electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barut-Zanghi (BZ) theory - that constitutes a natural ''classical limit's'' of the Dirac equation and can be regarded as a satisfactory picture of a classical spinning electron - has been analytically studied, in some of our previous papers, in the case of free particles. By contrast, in this letter we consider the case of external fields, and a previously found equation of the motion is generalized for a non-free spin-1/2 particle. In the important case of a spinning charge in a uniform magnetic field, we find that its angular frequency (around the magnetic field direction) is slightly different from the classical ''cyclotron frequency'' ωclass≡eH/m expected for spinless charges. As a matter of fact, the angular frequency does depend on the spin orientation. As a consequence, the electrons with magnetic moment μ parallel to the magnetic field do rotate with a frequency greater than that of electrons endowed with a μ antiparallel to H. (author)

  14. Nonlinear magnetic field dependence of spin polarization in high-density two-dimensional electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K F; Liu, H W; Nagase, K; Hirayama, Y [ERATO Nuclear Spin Electronics Project, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Mishima, T D; Santos, M B, E-mail: liuhw@ncspin.jst.go.jp, E-mail: hirayama@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, OK 73019-2061 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The spin polarization (P) of high-density InSb two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) has been measured using both parallel and tilted magnetic fields. P is found to exhibit a superlinear increase with the total field B. This P-B nonlinearity results in a difference in spin susceptibility between its real value {chi}{sub s} and {chi}{sub gm}{approx} m*g* (m{sup *} and g* are the effective mass and g factor, respectively) as routinely used in experiments. We demonstrate that such a P-B nonlinearity originates from the linearly P-dependent g* due to the exchange coupling of electrons rather than from the electron correlation as predicted for the low-density 2DES.

  15. Field and frequency modulated sub-THz electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Christian; da Silva, Pedro Freire; Soundararajan, Murari; Haider, M. Ali; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    260-GHz radiation is used for a quasi-optical electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer which features both field and frequency modulation. Free space propagation is used to implement Martin-Puplett interferometry with quasi-optical isolation, mirror beam focusing, and electronic polarization control. Computer-aided design and polarization pathway simulation lead to the design of a compact interferometer, featuring lateral dimensions less than a foot and high mechanical stability, with all components rated for power levels of several Watts suitable for gyrotron radiation. Benchmark results were obtained with ESR standards (BDPA, DPPH) using field modulation. Original high-field ESR of 4f electrons in Sm3+-doped Ceria was detected using frequency modulation. Distinct combinations of field and modulation frequency reach a signal-to-noise ratio of 35 dB in spectra of BDPA, corresponding to a detection limit of about 1014 spins.

  16. Dynamical correlation effects on structure factor of spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a theoretical study on static density structure factor S(q) of a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas over a wide range of electron number density rs. The electron correlations are treated within the dynamical version of the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander, the so-called qSTLS approach. The calculated S(q) exhibits almost perfect agreement with the quantum Monte Carlo simulation data at rs=1. However, the extent of agreement somewhat diminishes with increasing rs, particularly for q around 2kF. Seen in conjunction with the success of qSTLS theory in dealing with correlations in the unpolarized phase, our study suggests that the otherwise celebrated qSTLS theory is not that good in treating the like-spin correlations

  17. Unique electron polarimeter analyzing power comparison and precision spin-based energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision measurements of the relative analyzing powers of five electron beam polarimeters, based on Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering, have been performed using the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory). A Wien filter in the 100 keV beamline of the injector was used to vary the electron spin orientation exiting the injector. High statistical precision measurements of the scattering asymmetry as a function of the spin orientation were made with each polarimeter. Since each polarimeter receives beam with the same magnitude of polarization, these asymmetry measurements permit a high statistical precision comparison of the relative analyzing powers of the five polarimeters. This is the first time a precise comparison of the analyzing powers of Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering polarimeters has been made. Statistically significant disagreements among the values of the beam polarization calculated from the asymmetry measurements made with each polarimeter reveal either errors in the values of the analyzing power, or failure to correctly include all systematic effects. The measurements reported here represent a first step toward understanding the systematic effects of these electron polarimeters. Such studies are necessary to realize high absolute accuracy (ca. 1%) electron polarization measurements, as required for some parity violation measurements planned at Jefferson Laboratory. Finally, a comparison of the value of the spin orientation exiting the injector that provides maximum longitudinal polarization in each experimental hall leads to an independent and very precise (better than 10-4) absolute measurement of the final electron beam energy

  18. Unique electron polarimeter analyzing power comparison and precision spin-based energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Grames; Charles Sinclair; Joseph Mitchell; Eugene Chudakov; Howard Fenker; Arne Freyberger; Douglas Higinbotham; B. Poelker; Michael Steigerwald; Michael Tiefenback; Christian Cavata; Stephanie Escoffier; Frederic Marie; Thierry Pussieux; Pascal Vernin; Samuel Danagoulian; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Renee Fatemi; Kyungseon Joo; Markus Zeier; Viktor Gorbenko; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Brian Raue; Riad Suleiman; Benedikt Zihlmann

    2004-03-01

    Precision measurements of the relative analyzing powers of five electron beam polarimeters, based on Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering, have been performed using the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory). A Wien filter in the 100 keV beamline of the injector was used to vary the electron spin orientation exiting the injector. High statistical precision measurements of the scattering asymmetry as a function of the spin orientation were made with each polarimeter. Since each polarimeter receives beam with the same magnitude of polarization, these asymmetry measurements permit a high statistical precision comparison of the relative analyzing powers of the five polarimeters. This is the first time a precise comparison of the analyzing powers of Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering polarimeters has been made. Statistically significant disagreements among the values of the beam polarization calculated from the asymmetry measurements made with each polarimeter reveal either errors in the values of the analyzing power, or failure to correctly include all systematic effects. The measurements reported here represent a first step toward understanding the systematic effects of these electron polarimeters. Such studies are necessary to realize high absolute accuracy (ca. 1%) electron polarization measurements, as required for some parity violation measurements planned at Jefferson Laboratory. Finally, a comparison of the value of the spin orientation exiting the injector that provides maximum longitudinal polarization in each experimental hall leads to an independent and very precise (better than 10-4) absolute measurement of the final electron beam energy.

  19. Dynamics of an electron spin in strong classical and quantized electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoromnik, Oleg

    2014-07-09

    The electron motion in the presence of a strong classical and quantized pulse of an electromagnetic field is studied with a special emphasis on the spin degree of freedom. It is shown that the Hamiltonian of this system can be separated into two parts with the help of canonical transformations of the field variables, namely the interaction between an electron and a single collective mode of the field and fluctuations relatively to this collective mode. The application of perturbation theory to the fluctuations allows the conditions of applicability of the single-mode approximation for the quantized external field to be formulated. Furthermore, within this approximation the electron spin evolution is investigated. In addition to fast spin oscillations at the laser frequency, a second time scale is identified due to the intensity-dependent emissions and absorptions of field quanta, that is collapse and revival dynamics. The effect is observable at the experimentally feasible intensity of 10{sup 18} Wcm{sup 2}. After this, we switch to the regime of higher intensities, when the fluctuations of the external field can be neglected. We investigate the asymmetries in the electron scattering arising due to the electron polarization and pulse duration, and constrain the optimal conditions for the asymmetry observation.

  20. Coherence of a spin-polarized electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode in a transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightness and interference fringes of a spin-polarized electron beam extracted from a semiconductor photocathode excited by laser irradiation are directly measured via its use in a transmission electron microscope. The brightness was 3.8 × 107 A cm−2 sr−1 for a 30-keV beam energy with the polarization of 82%, which corresponds to 3.1 × 108 A cm−2 sr−1 for a 200-keV beam energy. The resulting electron beam exhibited a long coherence length at the specimen position due to the high parallelism of (1.7 ± 0.3) × 10−5 rad, which generated interference fringes representative of a first-order correlation using an electron biprism. The beam also had a high degeneracy of electron wavepacket of 4 × 10−6. Due to the high polarization, the high degeneracy and the long coherence length, the spin-polarized electron beam can enhance the antibunching effect

  1. Backbone Dynamics of Alamethicin Bound to Lipid Membranes: Spin-Echo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of TOAC-Spin Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucci, Rosa; Guzzi, Rita; De Zotti, Marta; Toniolo, Claudio; Sportelli, Luigi; Marsh, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Alamethicin F50/5 is a hydrophobic peptide that is devoid of charged residues and that induces voltage-dependent ion channels in lipid membranes. The peptide backbone is likely to be involved in the ion conduction pathway. Electron spin-echo spectroscopy of alamethicin F50/5 analogs in which a selected Aib residue (at position n = 1, 8, or 16) is replaced by the TOAC amino-acid spin label was used to study torsional dynamics of the peptide backbone in association with phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. Rapid librational motions of limited angular amplitude were observed at each of the three TOAC sites by recording echo-detected spectra as a function of echo delay time, 2τ. Simulation of the time-resolved spectra, combined with conventional EPR measurements of the librational amplitude, shows that torsional fluctuations of the peptide backbone take place on the subnanosecond to nanosecond timescale, with little temperature dependence. Associated fluctuations in polar fields from the peptide could facilitate ion permeation. PMID:18096632

  2. The Decoherence of the Electron Spin and Meta-Stability of 13C Nuclear Spins in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Crompton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent successful experimental manipulation of entangled 13C atoms on the surface of Diamond, we calculate the decoherence of the electron spin in Nitrogen Vacancy NV centers of Diamond via a nonperturbative treatment of the time-dependent Greens function of a Central-Spin model in order to identify the Replica Symmetry Breaking mechanism associated with intersystem mixing between the ms = 0 sublevel of the 3A2 and 1A1 states of the NV− centers, which we identify as mediated via the meta-stability of 13C nuclei bath processes in our calculations. Rather than the standard exciton-based calculation scheme used for quantum dots, we argue that a new scheme is needed to formally treat the Replica Symmetry Breaking of the 3A2 → 3E excitations of the NV− centers, which we define by extending the existing Generalized Master Equation formalism via the use of fractional time derivatives. Our calculations allow us to accurately quantify the dangerously irrelevant scaling associated with the Replica Symmetry Breaking and provide an explanation for the experimentally observed room temperature stability of Diamond for Quantum Computing applications.

  3. Agent-Based Workflow Systems in Electronic Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlodlo, Nomusa; Dlodlo, Joseph B.; Masiye, Bighton S.

    Current workflow systems largely assume a closed network where all the software is available on a homogenous platform and all participants are locally linked together at the same time. The field of Electronic Distance Education (EDE) on the other hand, requires the next-generation workflow that will integrate workflows from a distributed…

  4. Electronic spin transport and thermoelectric effects in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    La espintrónica y la espín caloritronica en grafeno son campos de investigación muy activos, y esta tesis es una contribución a ambos campos. El tema principal es el estudio de la corriente de espín a través de métodos de inyección y detección eléctrica en válvulas de espín no locales de grafeno. Preliminarmente, estudiamos analíticamente el efecto túnel de electrones de conducción entre materiales ferromagnéticos y no magnéticos. En la parte experimental, se investiga la precesión de espín ...

  5. Spin-orbit coupling in gated AlGaN/GaN 2-dimensional electron gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaepers, Th.; Thillosen, N.; Cabanas, S.; Kaluza, N.; Guzenko, V.A.; Hardtdegen, H. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1), Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Weak antilocalization was studied in an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature for various gate voltages. By fitting the weak antilocalization measurements by a theoretical model we found that the spin-orbit scattering length does not vary upon changing the carrier concentration or the temperature. The occurrence of spin-orbit coupling was attributed to the crystal inversion asymmetry. The presence of beating patterns observed in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations were not assigned to the presence of spin-orbit coupling but rather to structural inhomogeneities in the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN crystal. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the study of nanomaterial-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei He

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biological applications and effects of nanomaterials are attributed to their ability to facilitate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy is a direct and reliable method to identify and quantify free radicals in both chemical and biological environments. In this review, we discuss the use of ESR spectroscopy to study ROS generation mediated by nanomaterials, which have various applications in biological, chemical, and materials science. In addition to introducing the theory of ESR, we present some modifications of the method such as spin trapping and spin labeling, which ultimately aid in the detection of short-lived free radicals. The capability of metal nanoparticles in mediating ROS generation and the related mechanisms are also presented.

  7. Spin- and valley-coupled electronic states in monolayer WSe{sub 2} on bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, K.; Souma, S. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, T.; Tanaka, Y. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, T. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We have fabricated a high-quality monolayer WSe{sub 2} film on bilayer graphene by epitaxial growth and revealed the electronic states by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed a direct energy gap at the Brillouin-zone corner in contrast to the indirect nature of gap in bulk WSe{sub 2}, which is attributed to the lack of interlayer interaction and the breaking of space-inversion symmetry in monolayer film. A giant spin splitting of ∼0.5 eV, which is the largest among known monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides, is observed in the energy band around the zone corner. The present results suggest a high potential applicability of WSe{sub 2} to develop advanced devices based with the coupling of spin- and valley-degrees of freedom.

  8. Spin- and valley-coupled electronic states in monolayer WSe2 on bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated a high-quality monolayer WSe2 film on bilayer graphene by epitaxial growth and revealed the electronic states by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed a direct energy gap at the Brillouin-zone corner in contrast to the indirect nature of gap in bulk WSe2, which is attributed to the lack of interlayer interaction and the breaking of space-inversion symmetry in monolayer film. A giant spin splitting of ∼0.5 eV, which is the largest among known monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides, is observed in the energy band around the zone corner. The present results suggest a high potential applicability of WSe2 to develop advanced devices based with the coupling of spin- and valley-degrees of freedom

  9. Antiferromagnetic ordering in spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5} studied by electronic spin resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. M.; Ruan, M. Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Sun, Y. C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ouyang, Z. W., E-mail: zwouyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Xia, Z. C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao, G. H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-06-14

    High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) has been employed to study the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering state (T < T{sub N} = 55 K) of spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5}. The spin reorientation at T{sub SR} = 24 K is well characterized by the temperature-dependent ESR spectra. The magnetization data evidence a field-induced spin-flop transition at 2 K. The frequency-field relationship of the ESR data can be explained by conventional AFM resonance theory with uniaxial anisotropy, in good agreement with magnetization data. Related discussion on zero-field spin gap is presented.

  10. Charge Transport in a Spin-Polarized 2D Electron System in Silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, D. A.; Omelyanovskii, O. E.; Dormidontov, A. S.; Pudalov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the conductivity \\sigma(T) for strongly interacting 2D electron system in silicon have been analyzed both in zero magnetic field and in spin-polarizing magnetic field of 14.2T, parallel to the sample plane. Measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range (1.4-9)K, in the ballistic regime of electron-electron interaction, i.e., for T\\tau > 1. In zero magnetic field, the data obtained for \\sigma(T) are quantitatively described by the theory of interactio...

  11. Quantum mechanics of a spin-orbit coupled electron constrained to a space curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortix, Carmine

    2015-06-01

    We derive the effective one-dimensional Schrödinger-Pauli equation for electrons constrained to move on a space curve. The electrons are confined using a double thin-wall quantization procedure with adiabatic separation of fast and slow quantum degrees of freedom. This procedure is capable of yielding a correct Hermitian one-dimensional Schrödinger-Pauli operator. We find that the torsion of the space curve generates an additional quantum geometric potential, adding to the well-known curvature-induced one. Finally, we derive an analytic form of the one-dimensional Hamiltonian for spin-orbit coupled electrons in a nanoscale helical wire.

  12. Spin-dependent electron-atom scattering: What can be learned from the simplest systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederson first summarized the requirements of the open-quotes completeclose quotes scattering experiment, in which the magnitudes and phases of all scattering amplitudes would be determined as functions of both scattering angle and energy of the collision partners. Ever since, both theorists and experimentalists have been devising more intricate and illuminating combinations of polarized projectiles and spin- and angular momentum-oriented targets, and ever more novel techniques for increasing the resolution, if you will, of spin and angular momentum transferred during the collision. The open-quotes completeclose quotes experiment has yet to be performed, but great progress has been made, particularly for relatively simple targets such as sodium and cesium. For these hydrogen-like systems, the number of parameters needed to define the open-quotes completeclose quotes experiment is at a manageable minimum, but the alkalis' greater nuclear charge increases the impact of spin-dependent forces, such as the spin-orbit interaction. Thus the possibility of obtaining useful insight from calculations or measurements is maximized. This talk will focus, for these two atoms, on selected theoretical and experimental results for spin-dependent effects, such as the open-quotes fine-structureclose quotes effect, that do not require the use of polarized electrons; for spin-dependent effects such as the pure exchange interaction, that do require the use of polarized electrons; and, for cesium, results that begin to elucidate effects in the scattering process that do not emerge until one steps beyond the constraints of the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation

  13. Flux-gate magnetometer spin axis offset calibration using the electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin-stabilization of spacecraft immensely supports the in-flight calibration of on-board flux-gate magnetometers (FGMs). From 12 calibration parameters in total, 8 can be easily obtained by spectral analysis. From the remaining 4, the spin axis offset is known to be particularly variable. It is usually determined by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations that are embedded in the solar wind. In the absence of solar wind observations, the spin axis offset may be obtained by comparison of FGM and electron drift instrument (EDI) measurements. The aim of our study is to develop methods that are readily usable for routine FGM spin axis offset calibration with EDI. This paper represents a major step forward in this direction. We improve an existing method to determine FGM spin axis offsets from EDI time-of-flight measurements by providing it with a comprehensive error analysis. In addition, we introduce a new, complementary method that uses EDI beam direction data instead of time-of-flight data. Using Cluster data, we show that both methods yield similarly accurate results, which are comparable yet more stable than those from a commonly used solar wind-based method. (paper)

  14. Electron-atom scattering resonances: Complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method for B-shape resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Yeager, Danny L.

    2015-06-01

    We develop the complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for the theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom-molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated (nondynamical correlation) atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method developed and implemented by Yeager and his coworkers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and electron affinities. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex-scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. We apply the CMCSTEP and the related M1 methods to get the B-shape resonance parameters using 14 s 11 p and 14 s 11 p 5 d basis sets with 1 s 2 s 2 p 3 s , 1 s 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p , 1 s 2 s 2 p 3 d , 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p , 2 s 2 p 3 d , and 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p 3 d complete active spaces. The CMCSTEP and M1 resonance positions and widths are obtained for the 1 s22 s22 p21D , 1 s22 s 2 p33D , and 1 s 2 s22 p33D , 3S , and 3P shape resonances.

  15. Zitterbewegung, internal momentum and spin of the circular travelling wave electromagnetic electron

    CERN Document Server

    Asif, Malik Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The study of this paper demonstrates that electron has Dirac delta like internal momentum (u,p_{{\\theta}}), going round in a circle of radius equal to half the reduced Compton wavelength of electron with tangential velocity c. The circular momentum p_{{\\theta}} and energy u emanate from circular Dirac delta type rotating monochromatic electromagnetic (EM) wave that itself travels in another circle having radius equal to the reduced Compton wavelength of electron. The phenomenon of Zitterbewegung and the spin of electron are the natural consequences of the model. The spin is associated with the internal circulating momentum of electron in terms of four component spinor, which leads to the Dirac equation linking the EM electron model with quantum mechanical theory. Our model accurately explains the experimental results of electron channelling experiment, [P. Catillon et al., Found.Phys. 38, 659 (2008)], in which the momentum resonance is observed at 161.784MeV/c corresponding to Zitterbewegung frequency of 80.8...

  16. The co-evolutionary dynamics of directed network of spin market agents

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, D.; Z. Kuscsik; Gmitra, M.

    2005-01-01

    The spin market model [S. Bornholdt, Int.J.Mod.Phys. C 12 (2001) 667] is extended into co-evolutionary version, where strategies of interacting and competitive traders are represented by local and global couplings between the nodes of dynamic directed stochastic network. The co-evolutionary principles are applied in the frame of Bak - Sneppen self-organized dynamics [P. Bak, K. Sneppen, Phys. Rev. Letter 71 (1993) 4083] that includes the processes of selection and extinction actuated by the l...

  17. Shaped electric fields for fast optimal manipulation of electron spin and position in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagosky, J. A.; Khomitsky, D. V.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Castro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We use quantum optimal control theory algorithms to design external electric fields that drive the coupled spin and orbital dynamics of an electron in a double quantum dot, subject to the spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman magnetic fields. We obtain time profiles of multifrequency electric field pulses which increase the rate of spin-flip transitions by several orders of magnitude in comparison with monochromatic fields, where the spin Rabi oscillations were predicted to be very slow. This precise (with fidelity higher than 1 ×10-4 ) and fast (at the time scale of the order of 0.1 ns, comparable with the Zeeman spin rotation and the interdot tunneling time) simultaneous control of the spin and position is achieved while keeping the electron in the four lowest tunneling- and Zeeman-split levels through the duration of the pulse. The proposed algorithms suggest effective applications in spintronics and quantum information devices.

  18. Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fazhan; Rong, Xing; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Wu, Jie; Chong, Bo; Peng, Xinhua; Kniepert, Juliane; Schoenfeld, Rolf-Simon; Harneit, Wolfgang; Feng, Mang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy defect center (NV center) is a promising candidate for quantum information processing due to the possibility of coherent manipulation of individual spins in the absence of the cryogenic requirement. We report a room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by encoding both a qubit and an auxiliary state in the electron spin of a single NV center. By thus exploiting the specific S=1 character of the spin system, we demonstrate how even scarce quantum resou...

  19. Spin-tagged electron-hydrogen scattering: Ionization in the near-threshold region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.Q.; Crowe, D.M.; Lubell, M.S.; Tang, F.C.; Vasilakis, A.; Slevin, J.; Eminyan, M. (Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY (USA) Department of Experimental Physics, St. Patrick' s College, Maynooth, Maynooth, County Kildare (United Kingdom) Laboratoire de Physique Atomique, Tour 24, Universite Paris VII, F-75251 Paris (France))

    1990-10-08

    We use beams of polarized electrons and polarized hydrogen atoms to measure the ionization-rate asymmetry, {Delta}{sub {ital I}}=({ital R}({up arrow}{down arrow}){minus}{ital R}({up arrow}{up arrow}))/({ital R}({up arrow}{down arrow})+{ital R}({up arrow}{up arrow})), in the near-threshold region, where {ital R}({up arrow}{down arrow}) and {ital R}({up arrow}{up arrow}) are the ionization rates when the electron spin is antiparallel and parallel, respectively, to the atomic spins. Within 1.7 eV above threshold, our results reveal the presence of structure, which heretofore has not been predicted by any conventional theoretical calculation.

  20. Effect of ionising radiation on potassium pentacyanonitrosyl ruthenate(II): an electron spin resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugman, Ney V.; Pinhal, Nelson M.; Amorim, Helio S. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica dos Solidos. E-mail: ney@if.ufrj.br; Santos, Cristina M.P. dos; Faria, Roberto B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    2000-06-01

    Amorphous potassium pentacyanonitrosyl ruthenate (II) was synthesized and characterized by UV, IR, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy reveals the presence of paramagnetic ruthenate (i) complexes and NO{sub 2} radicals in the X-irradiated diamagnetic salt. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the [Ru (CN){sub 5} N O]{sup 3-} complex (g=2.0064, A ({sup 14} N) = 60.7 MHz, g = 1.999, A ({sup 14} N) = 77.3 MHz) support an electron capture in a {pi}{sup *} molecular orbital of the nitrosyl group mixed with d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} ruthenium orbitals as recently predicted by theoretical calculations. Silver ions, present as impurities, are reduced to Ag(o) by X-irradiation and coordinate to four magnetically equivalent nitrogens in a distorted site, giving to a well resolved anisotropic ESR powder spectrum. (author)

  1. Optical rotation and electron spin resonance of an electro-optically active polythiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The electro-chiroptical polythiophene displays optical rotation at wavelengths corresponding to the doping band observable in the absorption spectra. The formation of polarons on the main-chain is confirmed by electron spin resonance measurements. - Abstract: A chiroptical polythiophene, is synthesized by electrolytic polymerization in a cholesteric liquid crystal electrolyte solution. The polymer displays a fingerprint texture similar to that of the cholesteric electrolyte solution. Upon electrochemical doping, the polymer displays optical rotation at wavelengths corresponding to the doping band observable in the absorption spectra. The formation of polarons on the main-chain is confirmed by electron spin resonance measurements. The results demonstrate the intermolecular chirality of polarons in this π-conjugated polymer, indicating continuum delocalized polarons are in a three-dimensional helical environment.

  2. Electronic Structure, Magnetism and Spin-Fluctuations in Fe-As Based Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, David J [ORNL; Du, Mao-Hua [ORNL; Zhang, Lijun [ORNL; Subedi, Alaska P [ORNL; An, Jiming [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties of the layered iron superconductors and related phases are discussed starting from first principles calculations. The electronic structure is described as that of metallic Fe{sup 2+} square lattice sheets with substantial direct Fe-Fe hopping and interactions with the neighboring anionic pnictogens or chalcogens. The materials have a semi-metallic band structure, and in particular the Fermi surface consists of small cylindrical electron sections centered at the zone corner, and compensating hole sections at the zone boundary. The density of states N(E{sub F}) is high placing the materials near itinerant magnetism in general, and furthermore the small Fermi surface sections are well nested leading to a tendency towards a spin density wave. Comparison of experimental and density functional results imply the presence of exceptionally strong spin fluctuations in these materials. Superconductivity is discussed within this context.

  3. A scheme for spin-selective electron localization in Mn3Ga Heusler material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that tetragonal Mn3Ga Heusler material allows for a new possibility of adjusting an electric current by means of the so-called spin-selective localization of conduction electrons. On the basis of a first-principles analysis, we propose possible chemical substitutes for Mn, which, when used in small quantities, can lead to a disorder-induced localization of the conduction electrons in a single spin channel. Replacement of the Mn in Mn3 − xYxGa with other 3d transition metals Y is known not to change the tetragonal structure for a certain range of x. For Y = Co the range is x ⩽ 0.5. Therefore, substitution of Co for Mn is used in the present work as a prototype procedure for a detailed demonstration of the underlying physical mechanisms. (paper)

  4. Electron spin and the origin of Bio-homochirality II. Prebiotic inorganic-organic reaction model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biomolecular homochirality is a critically important question about life phenomenon and the origins of life. In a previous paper (arXiv:1309.1229), I tentatively put forward a new hypothesis that the emergence of a single chiral form of biomolecules in living organisms is specifically determined by the electron spin state during their enzyme-catalyzed synthesis processes. However, how a homochirality world of biomolecules could have formed in the absence of enzymatic networks before the origins of life remains unanswered. Here I discussed the electron spin properties in Fe3S4, ZnS, and transition metal doped dilute magnetic ZnS, and their possible roles in the prebiotic synthesis of chiral molecules. Since the existence of these minerals in hydrothermal vent systems is matter of fact, the suggested prebiotic inorganic-organic reaction model, if can be experimentally demonstrated, may help explain where and how life originated on early Earth.

  5. Native defect induced charge and ferromagnetic spin ordering and coexisting electronic phases in CoO epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, D. S.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the observation of Co vacancy (VCo) induced charge ordering and ferromagnetism in CoO epitaxial thin film. The ordering is associated with the coexistence of commensurate, incommensurate, and discommensurate electronic phases. Density functional theory calculation indicates the origin of ordering in Co atoms undergoing high spin to low spin transition immediately surrounding the VCo(16.6 at. %). Electron magnetic chiral dichroism experiment confirms the ferromagnetic signal at uncompensated Co spins. Such a native defects induced coexistence of different electronic phases at room temperature in a simple compound CoO is unique and adds to the richness of the field with the possibility of practical device application.

  6. Hot electron spin attenuation lengths of bcc Fe{sub 34}Co{sub 66}-Room temperature Magnetocurrent of 1200%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, E. [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: Emanuel.Heindl@physik.uni-r.de; Kefes, C.; Soda, M.; Vancea, J.; Back, C.H. [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We investigate spin-dependent hot electron transport through metallic epitaxial spin valves by ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM). By variation of the thickness of one of the ferromagnetic layers we determine the spin dependent attenuation lengths which reflect hot electron transport along the vicinity of the [1 0 0]-axis of the bcc Fe{sub 34}Co{sub 66} lattice. The majority spin attenuation length is more than 6 times larger than that of the minority spins within the measured energy interval of 1.3 up to 2 eV above the Fermi level. Consequently a Magnetocurrent effect exceeding 1200% accompanied by a monotonic bias voltage behavior is observed at room temperature.

  7. Efficient injection of spin-polarized electrons from manganese arsenide contacts into aluminum gallium arsenide/gallium arsenide spin LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweidenback, Lars

    In this thesis we describe two spectroscopic projects project on semiconductor heterostructures, as well as putting together and testing a micro-photoluminescence/7 tesla magnet system for the study of micron size two-dimensional crystals. Below we discuss the three parts in more detail. i) MnAs-based spin light emitting diodes. We have studied the injection of spin-polarized electrons from a ferromagnetic MnAs contact into an AlGaAs(n)/GaAs(i)/AlGaAs(p) n-i-p light emitting diode. We have recorder the emitted electroluminescence as function of magnetic field applied at right angles to the device plane in the 7-300 K temperature range. It was found that at 7 Kelvin the emitted light is circularly polarized with a polarization that is proportional to the MnAs contact magnetization with a saturation value of 26% for B > 1.25 tesla. The polarization persists up to room temperature with a saturation value of 6%. ii) Optical Aharonov-Bohm effect in InGaAs quantum wells. The excitonic photoluminescence intensity from InGaAs quantum wells as function of magnetic field exhibits two local maxima superimposed on a decreasing background. The maxima are attributed to the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect of electrons orbiting around a hole localized at the center of an Indium rich InGaAs islands detected by cross sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. Analysis of the position of the maxima yields a value of the electron orbit radius. iii) Micro-Photoluminescence. We have put together a micro-photoluminescence /7 tesla system for the study of two dimensional crystals. The samples are placed inside a continuous flow cryostat whose tail is positioned in the bore of the 7 tesla magnet. A microscope objective is used to focus the exciting laser light and collect the emitted photoluminescence. The system was tested by recording the photoluminescence spectra of WS2 and WSe 2 monolayers at T = 77 K.

  8. Electron-Mediated Nuclear-Spin Interactions Between Distant NV Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez A.; Jelezko F.; Plenio M.B.; Retzker A.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme enabling controlled quantum coherent interactions between separated nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond in the presence of strong magnetic fluctuations. The proposed scheme couples nuclear qubits employing the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between the electron spins and, crucially, benefits from the suppression of the effect of environmental magnetic field fluctuations thanks to a strong microwave driving. This scheme provides a basic building block for a full-scale q...

  9. Theoretical and experimental results of electronic transport of spin quantum cross structure devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Kenji; Kaiju, Hideo; Ishibashi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed quantum cross structure (QCS) devices that consist of two metalthin films deposited on organic films with edge-to-edge configuration like crossed fins for switching devices. In this paper, we propose a spin quantum cross structure (SQCS) device, which is a QCS device consisting of two magnetic thin films. We show theoretical and experimental results of electronic transport characteristics regarding SQCS devices. The calculation of the I-Vcharacteristics has been per...

  10. Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhkov, A. V.; Giavaras, G.; Bliokh, Yury P.; Freilikher, Valentin; Nori, Franco

    2011-01-01

    This brief review discusses electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene-based structures. These allow controlling the confinement and transport of charge and spin; thus, they are of interest not only for fundamental research, but also for applications. The graphene-related topics covered here are: edges, nanoribbons, quantum dots, $pn$-junctions, $pnp$-structures, and quantum barriers and waveguides. This review is partly intended as a short introduction to graphene mesoscopics.

  11. Electron spin resonance of paramagnetic defects and related charge carrier traps in complex oxide scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, Valentyn; Nikl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 2 (2013), s. 254-260. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GAP204/12/0805; GA AV ČR IAA100100810 Grant ostatní: SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillators * point defects * electron spin resonance * polarons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013

  12. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: Application to Proof of Structure of Organic Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G A; Talaty, E R

    1965-05-28

    Many ketones containing an alpha-methylene group can be converted to alpha-diketone radical anions in dimethyl sulfoxide solution. The resulting radical anions can usually be unambiguously identified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and the structure of the starting ketone may be deduced, often without reference to model compounds. The technique is also applicable to alpha-diketones, alpha-bromoketones, and alpha-hydroxyketones. PMID:17748118

  13. Electron spin resonance study of the demagnetization fields of the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Gimazov, Yu.I. Talanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the electron spin resonance study of the La1-xCaxMnO3 manganite and the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl thin films for the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of the films are presented. The temperature dependence of the demagnetizing field is obtained. The parameters of the Curie-Weiss law are estimated for the paramagnetic thin film.

  14. Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: Charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief review discusses electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene-based structures. These allow controlling the confinement and transport of charge and spin; thus, they are of interest not only for fundamental research, but also for applications. The graphene-related topics covered here are: edges, nanoribbons, quantum dots, pn-junctions, pnp-structures, and quantum barriers and waveguides. This review is partly intended as a short introduction to graphene mesoscopics.

  15. Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova; Branka Blagovic; Srecko Valic

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical wa...

  16. Spin-dependent electron transport through a magnetic resonant tunneling diode

    OpenAIRE

    Havu, P.; Tuomisto, N.; R. Väänänen; Puska, Martti J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron-transport properties in nanostructures can be modeled, for example, by using the semiclassical Wigner formalism or the quantum-mechanical Green’s function formalism. We compare the performance and the results of these methods in the case of magnetic resonant-tunneling diodes. We have implemented the two methods within the self-consistent spin-density-functional theory. Our numerical implementation of the Wigner formalism is based on the finite-difference scheme whereas for the Green’...

  17. Proposal for a loophole-free Bell test with electron spins of donors

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Fang-Yu; Xiong, Shi-Jie

    2008-01-01

    So far, all experimental tests of Bell inequalities which must be satisfied by all local realistic hidden-variable theories and are violated by quantum mechanical predictions have left at least one loophole open. We propose a feasible setup allowing for a loophole-free test of the Bell inequalities. Two electron spin qubits of phosphorus donors in semiconductors in different cavities 300 m apart are entangled through a bright coherent light and postselections using homodyne measurements. The ...

  18. Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Based on Copper(II) Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jiang, Jia; Han, Dandan; Yu, Xinyu; Wang, Kun; Zang, Shuang; Lu, Dayong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2016-04-01

    A new method is proposed for measuring the antioxidant capacity by electron spin resonance spectroscopy based on the loss of electron spin resonance signal after Cu(2+) is reduced to Cu(+) with antioxidant. Cu(+) was removed by precipitation in the presence of SCN(-). The remaining Cu(2+) was coordinated with diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into n-butanol and determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Eight standards widely used in antioxidant capacity determination, including Trolox, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were investigated. The standard curves for determining the eight standards were plotted, and results showed that the linear regression correlation coefficients were all high enough (r > 0.99). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values for the antioxidant standards were calculated, and a good correlation (r > 0.94) between the values obtained by the present method and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity method was observed. The present method was applied to the analysis of real fruit samples and the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits. PMID:26927869

  19. Electron-electron interaction and spin-orbit coupling in InAs/AlSb heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron-electron interaction on the spectrum of two-dimensional electron states in InAs/AlSb (001) heterostructures with a GaSb cap layer with one filled size-quantization subband. The energy spectrum of two-dimensional electrons is calculated in the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. It is shown that the exchange interaction decreasing the electron energy in subbands increases the energy gap between subbands and the spin-orbit splitting of the spectrum in the entire region of electron concentrations, at which only the lower size-quantization band is filled. The nonlinear dependence of the Rashba splitting constant at the Fermi wave vector on the concentration of two-dimensional electrons is demonstrated.

  20. Vibrational and elastic properties of ferromagnesite across the electronic spin-pairing transition of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] has been proposed as a candidate host mineral for carbon in the Earth's mantle. Studying its physical and chemical properties at relevant pressures and temperatures helps our understanding of deep-carbon storage in the planet's interior and on its surface. Here we have studied high-pressure vibrational and elastic properties of magnesian siderite [(Mg0.35Fe0.65)CO3] across the electronic spin transition by Raman and X-ray diffraction spectroscopies in a diamond-anvil cell. Our results show an increase in Raman shift of the observed lattice modes of magnesian siderite across the spin transition at 45 GPa as a result of an ∼8% unit-cell volume collapse and a 10% stiffer lattice (higher bulk modulus). C-O bond lengthening in the strong, rigid (CO3)2- unit across the spin transition contributes to a competitive decrease in Raman shift, most evident in the Raman shift decrease of the symmetric stretching mode. Combined vibrational and elastic results are used to derive the mode Grueneisen parameter of each mode, which drops significantly across the transition. These results suggest that the low-spin state has distinctive vibrational and elastic properties compared to the high-spin state. Analyses of all recent experimental results on the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system show no appreciable compositional effect on the transition pressure, indicating weak iron-iron exchange interactions. Our results provide new insight into understanding the effects of the spin transition on the vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of (Mg,Fe)CO3 as a candidate carbon-host in the deep mantle.

  1. Quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electron spins in superconducting hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubanja, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.bubanja@callaghaninnovation.govt.nz

    2015-06-15

    We present schemes for quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electronic spin states in hybrid superconductor–normal-metal systems. The proposed schemes employ subgap transport whereby the lowest order processes involve Cooper pair-electron and double Cooper-pair cotunneling in quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping protocols, respectively. The competition between elastic cotunneling and Cooper-pair splitting results in the success probability of 25% in both cases. Described implementations of these protocols are within reach of present-day experimental techniques.

  2. The electron spin resonance study of heavily nitrogen doped 6H SiC crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savchenko, Dariia

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2015), "045708-1"-"045708-6". ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-06697P; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant ostatní: SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin resonance * conduction electrons * 6H SiC * insulator-metal transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  3. Rashba coupling in three-dimensional wurtzite structure electron gas at electric-dipole spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungier, W.

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical description of Rashba effects in three-dimensional electron gas at electric-dipole spin resonance conditions is presented in the frame of conductivity tensor formalism. The details due to anisotropy of the effective mass tensor, as well as the Lande factor, are considered. The absorbed power is calculated for arbitrary orientation of the sample with respect to external fields: constant magnetic field and rf electric field. The differences between resonance signals in two- and three-dimensional electron gas are pointed out.

  4. Quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electron spins in superconducting hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present schemes for quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electronic spin states in hybrid superconductor–normal-metal systems. The proposed schemes employ subgap transport whereby the lowest order processes involve Cooper pair-electron and double Cooper-pair cotunneling in quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping protocols, respectively. The competition between elastic cotunneling and Cooper-pair splitting results in the success probability of 25% in both cases. Described implementations of these protocols are within reach of present-day experimental techniques

  5. Coexistence of perfect spin filtering for entangled electron pairs and high magnetic storage efficiency in one setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T. T.; Bu, N.; Chen, F. J.; Tao, Y. C.; Wang, J.

    2016-04-01

    For Entangled electron pairs superconducting spintronics, there exist two drawbacks in existing proposals of generating entangled electron pairs. One is that the two kinds of different spin entangled electron pairs mix with each other. And the other is a low efficiency of entanglement production. Herein, we report the spin entanglement state of the ferromagnetic insulator (FI)/s-wave superconductor/FI structure on a narrow quantum spin Hall insulator strip. It is shown that not only the high production of entangled electron pairs in wider energy range, but also the perfect spin filtering of entangled electron pairs in the context of no highly spin-polarized electrons, can be obtained. Moreover, the currents for the left and right leads in the antiferromagnetic alignment both can be zero, indicating 100% tunnelling magnetoresistance with highly magnetic storage efficiency. Therefore, the spin filtering for entangled electron pairs and magnetic storage with high efficiencies coexist in one setup. The results may be experimentally demonstrated by measuring the tunnelling conductance and the noise power.

  6. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Deutsch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed.

  7. Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, E.; Jarmola, A.; Siyushev, P.; Gulka, M.; Hruby, J.; Jelezko, F.; Budker, D.; Nesladek, M.

    2015-01-01

    The readout of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centre electron spins is essential for applications in quantum computation, metrology and sensing. Conventional readout protocols are based on the detection of photons emitted from nitrogen-vacancy centres, a process limited by the efficiency of photon collection. We report on an alternative principle for detecting the magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centres, allowing the direct photoelectric readout of nitrogen-vacancy centres spin state in an all-diamond device. The photocurrent detection of magnetic resonance scheme is based on the detection of charge carriers promoted to the conduction band of diamond by two-photon ionization of nitrogen-vacancy centres. The optical and photoelectric detection of magnetic resonance are compared, by performing both types of measurements simultaneously. The minima detected in the measured photocurrent at resonant microwave frequencies are attributed to the spin-dependent ionization dynamics of nitrogen-vacancy, originating from spin-selective non-radiative transitions to the metastable singlet state. PMID:26486014

  8. The fate of allogenic radiation sterilized bone grafts controlled by the electron spin resonance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal fate of bone grafts is their resorption and substitution by the own host's bone tissue. This phenomenon described as creeping substitution process was controlled using biopsies from the grafted region in allogenic experimental system. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was used for independent evaluation of resorption and substitution processes. The measurements were based on the process of induction in the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals of bone mineral of stable paramagnetic centers which can be detected by ESR spectrometry. The loss of total amount of spins connected with the paramagnetic centers expressed in percent describes the kinetics of resorption. The changes in the concentration of spins due to the ''dilution'' of spins implanted with the graft by the nonirradiated ingrowing host's own bone describe the kinetics of the substitution process. Allogenic bone of calvaria was grafted orthotopically into rabbits after lyophilization and radiation sterilization with a dose of 3.5 Mrads. The process of graft's rebuilding was evaluated using the described ESR method. The application of the described technique in the human clinic is possible. (author)

  9. Theory of electronic and spin-orbit proximity effects in graphene on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tobias; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    We study orbital and spin-orbit proximity effects in graphene adsorbed to the Cu(111) surface by means of density functional theory (DFT). The proximity effects are caused mainly by the hybridization of graphene π and copper d orbitals. Our electronic structure calculations agree well with the experimentally observed features. We carry out a graphene-Cu(111) distance dependent study to obtain proximity orbital and spin-orbit coupling parameters, by fitting the DFT results to a robust low energy model Hamiltonian. We find a strong distance dependence of the Rashba and intrinsic proximity induced spin-orbit coupling parameters, which are in the meV and hundreds of μ eV range, respectively, for experimentally relevant distances. The Dirac spectrum of graphene also exhibits a proximity orbital gap, of about 20 meV. Furthermore, we find a band inversion within the graphene states accompanied by a reordering of spin and pseudospin states, when graphene is pressed towards copper.

  10. Spin-dependent asymmetry functions in the elastic and inelastic electron-cesium scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the measurements of the relative differential cross section, the exchange asymmetry, the spin-orbit asymmetry, and the interference asymmetry for the electron scattering on cesium atoms from 4 to 18 eV is described. (HSI)

  11. Tuning of the spin distribution between ligand- and metal-based spin: electron paramagnetic resonance of mixed-ligand molybdenum tris(dithiolene) complex anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekl, Ulrich; Sarkar, Biprajit; Kaim, Wolfgang; Zimmer-De Iuliis, Marco; Nguyen, Neilson

    2011-09-19

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of homoleptic and mixed-ligand molybdenum tris(dithiolene) complex anions [Mo(tfd)(m)(bdt)(n)](-) (n + m = 3; bdt = S(2)C(6)H(4); tfd = S(2)C(2)(CF(3))(2)) reveal that the spin density has mixed metal-ligand character with more ligand-based spin for [Mo(tfd)(3)](-) and a higher degree of metal-based spin for [Mo(bdt)(3)](-): the magnitude of the isotropic (95,97)Mo hyperfine interaction increases continuously, by a factor of 2.5, on going from the former to the latter. The mixed complexes fall in between, and the metal character of the spin increases with the bdt content. The experiments were corroborated by density functional theory computations, which reproduce this steady increase in metal-based character. PMID:21853970

  12. Spin-Dependent Electron-Proton Scattering in the Delta-Excitation Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. D. van Buuren; D. Szczerba; R. Alarcon; D. J. Boersma; J. F. J. van den Brand; H. J. Bulten; R. Ent; M. Ferro-Luzzi; M. Harvey; P. Heimberg; D. W. Higinbotham; S. Klous; H. Kolster; J. Lang; B. L. Militsyn; D. Nikolenko; B. E. Norum; I. Passchier; H. R. Poolman; I. Rachek; M. C. Simani; E. Six; H. de Vries; Z.-L. Zhou

    2002-07-01

    We report on measurements of the cross section and provide first data on spin correlation parameters A{sub TT'} and A{sub TL'} in inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from nuclear-polarized hydrogen. Polarized electrons were injected into an electron storage ring operated at a beam energy of 720 MeV. Polarized hydrogen was produced by an atomic beam source and injected into an open-ended cylindrical cell, located in the electron storage ring. The four-momentum transfer squared ranged from Q{sup 2} = 0.2 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} at the elastic scattering peak to Q{sup 2} = 0.11 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} at the Delta (1232) resonance. The data provide a stringent test of pion electroproduction models.

  13. Spin-Dependent Electron-Proton Scattering in the Delta-Excitation Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on measurements of the cross section and provide first data on spin correlation parameters ATT' and ATL' in inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from nuclear-polarized hydrogen. Polarized electrons were injected into an electron storage ring operated at a beam energy of 720 MeV. Polarized hydrogen was produced by an atomic beam source and injected into an open-ended cylindrical cell, located in the electron storage ring. The four-momentum transfer squared ranged from Q2 = 0.2 GeV2/c2 at the elastic scattering peak to Q2 = 0.11 GeV2/c2 at the Delta (1232) resonance. The data provide a stringent test of pion electroproduction models

  14. Doppler effect at the electron cyclotron and spin resonances and its applications for plasma diagnostics and electron polarization in a warm beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Ref.[1] it is considered the method of electron polarization using the Doppler effect at the electron spin resonance (ESR),in the case of the monoenergetic electron beam.In this work the development of the method is discussed for the warm beam,i.e.,for the kinetic case instead of the hydrodynamic one

  15. Quantum transport phenomena in disordered electron systems with spin-orbit coupling in two dimensions and below

    OpenAIRE

    Asada, Yoichi; Slevin, Keith; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport phenomena in disordered electron systems with spin-orbit coupling in two dimensions and below are studied numerically. The scaling hypothesis is checked by analyzing the scaling of the quasi-1D localization length. A logarithmic increase of the mean conductance is also confirmed. These support the theoretical prediction that the two dimensional metal in systems with spin-orbit coupling has a perfect conductivity. Transport through a Sierpinski carpet is also reported.

  16. Effect of Ionizing y-Radiation on Thermoluminescence and Electron Spin Rosonance Intensities in Milk Protein Concentrate Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Kispeter, J.; Horvath, L. I.; Kiss, L. I.

    1992-01-01

    Milk protein concentrate powder has found a wide application as a food ingredient. We investigated the effects of ionizing ')'-radiation at doses ranging from 2 to 20 kGy on electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence intensities in samples of milk protein concentrate powder with varying protein contents (36-73 %wt), containing addltional Fe++ ions (12-910 ppm) and stored under different conditions. Electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence intensities increased unambiguously with ...

  17. Electronic structures and the spin polarization of Heusler alloy Co2FeAl surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yankai; Zhang, Delin; Jiang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structures of the Heusler alloy Co2FeAl surface are studied theoretically via first-principles calculations. The space localization of the surface states is the key effect on the electronic structures of the Co2FeAl surface. At the surface, the lattice parameter shrinks to minimize the total energy, and the minority spin gap disappears and shows a metallic band gap character. However, with the depth increasing, the lattice parameter equals to that of bulk phase, and there shows an energy gap opening at the Fermi level in the minority spin states. As a result, the spin polarization at the surface is lower than that of the bulk Co2FeAl, while it is close to that of bulk phase beneath the surface. According to the calculations, it is clear that the half-metallic property fading of the Co2FeAl films is caused by the surface states. Therefore, it is important to minimize the lattice mismatch at the interface of Co2FeAl in order to obtain a high tunneling magnetoresistance.

  18. Optical and electron spin resonance spectroscopy of Ti3+-doped yttrium and gadolinium aluminoborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of Ti3+-doped aluminoborates YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) and GdAl3(BO3)4 (GAB) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth technique, and the optical absorption, photoluminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) properties of Ti3+ dopants measured at low temperature. The optical absorption spectrum of Ti3+ comprises two broad bands with peaks at 514 and 576 nm in YAB and at 520 and 586 nm in GAB. The energy separation of the two bands in each crystal is due to the static Jahn-Teller splitting of the excited 2E state of the Ti3+ ions. Photoluminescence from excited Ti3+ ions occurs as a broad band in the near-infrared region with a peak at λ = 747 nm in YAB and 754 nm in GAB when measured at 14 K. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra are strongly polarized. The spin Hamiltonian parameters for Ti3+ ions substituting at trigonally symmetric Al3+ sites in YAB have been determined from the orientation dependence of the ESR spectra. The measured shifts in the components of the g-tensor from the free electron g-value of 2.0023 are interpreted in terms of the mixing of the higher component of the 2T2 ground states and of the 2E excited state into the lowest 2T2 ground state by spin-orbit interaction. (author)

  19. Higher-order Zeeman and spin terms in the electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian; their description in irreducible form using Cartesian, tesseral spherical tensor and Stevens' operator expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, Dennis G; Tennant, W Craighead

    2009-06-17

    In setting up a spin Hamiltonian (SH) to study high-spin Zeeman and high-spin nuclear and/or electronic interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, it is argued that a maximally reduced SH (MRSH) framed in tesseral combinations of spherical tensor operators is necessary. Then, the SH contains only those terms that are necessary and sufficient to describe the particular spin system. The paper proceeds then to obtain interrelationships between the parameters of the MRSH and those of alternative SHs expressed in Cartesian tensor and Stevens operator-equivalent forms. The examples taken, initially, are those of Cartesian and Stevens' expressions for high-spin Zeeman terms of dimension BS(3) and BS(5). Starting from the well-known decomposition of the general Cartesian tensor of second rank to three irreducible tensors of ranks 0, 1 and 2, the decomposition of Cartesian tensors of ranks 4 and 6 are treated similarly. Next, following a generalization of the tesseral spherical tensor equations, the interrelationships amongst the parameters of the three kinds of expressions, as derived from equivalent SHs, are determined and detailed tables, including all redundancy equations, set out. In each of these cases the lowest symmetry, [Formula: see text] Laue class, is assumed and then examples of relationships for specific higher symmetries derived therefrom. The validity of a spin Hamiltonian containing mixtures of terms from the three expressions is considered in some detail for several specific symmetries, including again the lowest symmetry. Finally, we address the application of some of the relationships derived here to seldom-observed low-symmetry effects in EPR spectra, when high-spin electronic and nuclear interactions are present. PMID:21693947

  20. Long spin lifetime and large barrier polarisation in single electron transport through a CoFe nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, R. C.; McLaren, M.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated single electron spin transport in individual single crystal bcc Co30Fe70 nanoparticles using scanning tunnelling microscopy with a standard tungsten tip. Particles were deposited using a gas-aggregation nanoparticle source and individually addressed as asymmetric double tunnel junctions with both a vacuum and a MgO tunnel barrier. Spectroscopy measurements on the particles show a Coulomb staircase that is correlated with the measured particle size. Field emission tunnelling effects are incorporated into standard single electron theory to model the data. This formalism allows spin-dependent parameters to be determined even though the tip is not spin-polarised. The barrier spin polarisation is very high, in excess of 84%. By variation of the resistance, several orders of magnitude of the system timescale are probed, enabling us to determine the spin relaxation time on the island. It is found to be close to 10 μs, a value much longer than previously reported. PMID:27329575

  1. Agent-based inter-organizational workflow management system for electronic institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Paulo; Mendes, João M.

    2008-01-01

    Indexado Inspec An Electronic Institution is a computational framework that provides a set of services supporting the Virtual Organization lifecycle, namely its formation, operation and dissolution. A crucial service is related to the coordination of the corresponding inter-organizational workflow defined by the established contract. This paper introduces an agent-based interorganizational workflow management system, part of an Electronic Institution, aiming to coordinate the contract exec...

  2. Field-assisted electron transport through a symmetric double-well structure with spin-orbit coupling and the Fano-resonance induced spin filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cun-Xi; Nie Yi-Hang; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron-transport through a double-quantum-well semiconductor-heterostructure with spin-orbit coupling. The numerical results demonstrate that the transmission spectra are divided into two sets due to the bound-state level-splitting and each set contains two asymmetric resonance peaks which may be selectively suppressed by changing the difference in phase between two driving fields. When the phase difference changes from O to π, the dip of asymmetric resonance shifts from one side of resonance peak to the other side and the asymmetric Fano resonance degenerates into the symmetric Breit-Wigner resonance at a critical value of phase difference. Within a given range of incident electron energy, the spin polarization of transmission current is completely governed by the phase difference which may be used to realize the tunable spin filtering.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic waves with relativistic electrons and positrons in degenerate spin-1/2 astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic waves with relativistic electrons and positrons in degenerate spin-1/2 astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroof, R. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2015-11-15

    Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.

  5. Low frequency magnetic field suppression in an atomic spin co-magnetometer with a large electron magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Chen, Yao; Zou, Sheng; Liu, Xuejing; Hu, Zhaohui; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Ding, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In a K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer, the Rb electron magnetic field which is experienced by the nuclear spin is about 100 times larger than that of the K in a K-3He co-magnetometer. The large electron magnetic field which is neglected in the K-3He co-magnetometer coupled Bloch equations model is considered here in the K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer to study the low frequency magnetic field suppression effect. Theoretical analysis and experimental results shows that in the K-Rb-21Ne spin co-magnetometer, not only the nuclear spin but also the large electron spin magnetic field compensate the external magnetic field noise. By comparison, only the 3He nuclear spins mainly compensate the external magnetic field noise in a K-3He co-magnetometer. With this study, in addition to just increasing the magnetic field of the nuclear spins, we can suppress the magnetic field noise by increasing the density of the electron spin. We also studied how the magnetic field suppression effect relates to the scale factor of the K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer and we compared the scale factor with that of the K-3He co-magnetometer. Lastly, we show the sensitivity of our co-magnetometer. The magnetic field noise, the air density fluctuation noise and pumping power optimization are studied to improve the sensitivity of the co-magnetometer.

  6. Properties of a finite fully spin-polarized free homogeneous one-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftja, Orion [Department of Physics, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The homogeneous electron gas model has been quite successful to predict the bulk properties of systems of electrons at various densities. In many occasions, a simplified free homogeneous electron gas model represents a powerful first approximation to a real system. Despite our considerable knowledge on the bulk properties of a homogeneous electron gas, advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology call for a greater effort to understand the opposite limit of small finite systems of electrons with size-dependent properties. In this work, we provide a detailed description of the properties of a finite fully spin-polarized (spinless) free homogeneous one-dimensional electron gas, the simplest of the free homogeneous electron gases. We derive exact analytical results for various quantities such as the one-particle density function, two-particle density function, one-particle density matrix, pair correlation function and energy of finite systems with an arbitrary number of electrons. The results obtained provide a detailed view on how various quantities corresponding to a finite system approach their bulk (thermodynamic limit) value.

  7. Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spin-Trapping with Iron-Dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Luisa B; Moura, José J G

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is the ideal methodology to identify radicals (detection and characterization of molecular structure) and to study their kinetics, in both simple and complex biological systems. The very low concentration and short life-time of NO and of many other radicals do not favor its direct detection and spin-traps are needed to produce a new and persistent radical that can be subsequently detected by EPR spectroscopy.In this chapter, we present the basic concepts of EPR spectroscopy and of some spin-trapping methodologies to study NO. The "strengths and weaknesses" of iron-dithiocarbamates utilization, the NO traps of choice for the authors, are thoroughly discussed and a detailed description of the method to quantify the NO formation by molybdoenzymes is provided. PMID:27094413

  8. On the structure of the energy-momentum and the spin currents in Dirac's electron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, F W; Mielke, E W; Obukhov, Yu N; Obukhov, Yu.N.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a classical Dirac field in flat Minkowski spacetime. We perform a Gordon decomposition of its canonical energy-momentum and spin currents, respectively. Thereby we find for each of these currents a convective and a polarization piece. The polarization pieces can be expressed as exterior covariant derivatives of the two-forms $\\check M_\\alpha$ and $M_{\\alpha\\beta}=-M_{\\beta\\alpha}$, respectively. In analogy to the magnetic moment in electrodynamics, we identify these two-forms as gravitational moments connected with the translation group and the Lorentz group, respectively. We point out the relation between the Gordon decomposition of the energy-momentum current and its Belinfante-Rosenfeld symmetrization. In the non-relativistic limit, the translational gravitational moment of the Dirac field is found to be proportional to the spin covector of the electron.

  9. Entanglement dynamics of electron spins in quantum dots under a nonuniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate entanglement of two coupled electron spins in quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The important effects of the inhomogeneous field are discussed for the dynamics of entanglement. Due to the system's symmetry, the inhomogeneity of the field is shown not to affect the evolution of entanglement for Φ-type Bell state while it plays a key role for Ψ-type Bell state. For the maximal entangled Bell states, the field is positive for the entanglement dynamics. The mean field can increase the entanglement revival for Φ-type Bell state while an inhomogeneous field can promote the entanglement revival for Ψ-type Bell state. For the unentangled initial states, the field is destructive for the entanglement generation induced by the coupling of the two spins.

  10. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Electrons Trapped in Solid Molecular Hydrogen Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludiakov, S.; Ahokas, J.; Järvinen, J.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Zvezdov, D.; Khmelenko, V.; Lee, D. M.; Vasiliev, S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the measurements of electrons trapped in solid molecular films of H2, HD, and D2. A narrow ESR line associated with the trapped electrons was detected with g=2.00233(5), which turned out to be shifted by -0.3 G from the free electron resonance. Comparison is made with earlier measurements where a similar line has been seen. In addition, for a text {D}2{:}text {H}2 mixture, after raising the temperature above 1 K, we observe a strong line at the location of the electron cyclotron resonance. The line amplitude is dependent on temperature and has an activation energy of 26 K. We believe that at elevated temperatures, electrons diffuse from the bulk of the film to the surface.

  11. Quantum field theory treatment of magnetic effects on the spin and orbital angular momentum of a free electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, P.; Verzegnassi, C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales.

  12. Spin contamination-free N-electron wave functions in the excitation-based configuration interaction treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.; Capuzzi, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the spin contamination in N-electron wave functions provided by the excitation-based configuration interaction methods. We propose a procedure to ensure a suitable selection of excited N-electron Slater determinants with respect to a given reference determinant, required in these schemes. The procedure guarantees the construction of N-electron wave functions which are eigenfunctions of the spin-squared operator S ˆ 2 , avoiding any spin contamination. Our treatment is based on the evaluation of the excitation level of the determinants by means of the expectation value of an excitation operator formulated in terms of spin-free replacement operators. We report numerical determinations of energies and expectation values, arising from our proposal as well as from traditional configuration interaction methods, in selected open-shell systems, in order to compare the behavior of these procedures and their computational costs.

  13. Large Logarithms in the Beam Normal Spin Asymmetry of Elastic Electron--Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanasev; Mykola Merenkov

    2004-06-01

    We study a parity-conserving single-spin beam asymmetry of elastic electron-proton scattering induced by an absorptive part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. It is demonstrated that excitation of inelastic hadronic intermediate states by the consecutive exchange of two photons leads to logarithmic and double-logarithmic enhancement due to contributions of hard collinear quasi-real photons. The asymmetry at small electron scattering angles is expressed in terms of the total photoproduction cross section on the proton, and is predicted to reach the magnitude of 20-30 parts per million. At these conditions and fixed 4-momentum transfers, the asymmetry is rising logarithmically with increasing electron beam energy, following the high-energy diffractive behavior of total photoproduction cross section on the proton.

  14. Electron Spin Resonance Characterization of Damage and Recovery of Si/SiO2 Interfaces from Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sung; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Electron beam lithography (EBL) is an essential tool for the fabrication of few electron silicon quantum devices. However, high-energy electrons and photons from the EBL process create shallow traps and other defects at the Si/SiO2 interface, inhibiting the control of electron populations through electrostatic gating. To reduce defect densities, high temperature and forming gas anneals are commonly used. We studied the effect of these anneals on the reduction of shallow traps created by EBL by fabricating two sets of large area (~1cm2) MOSFETs and characterizing them using transport and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. One set was exposed to a typical EBL dosage (10kV, 40 μC/cm2) and the other remained unexposed. All MOSFETs were fabricated from the same commercially grown gate stack (30nm dry thermal oxide, 200nm amorphous silicon gate layer) and were annealed at 900C in N2 and at 435C in forming gas. Our transport data indicate that these annealing steps recover the EBL exposed sample's low temperature (4.2K) peak mobility to 85 % of the unexposed sample's. Additionally, our ESR data indicate that annealing the EBL exposed sample reduces its density of shallow traps (2-4 meV) to the same density as the unexposed sample.

  15. Technique for electron beam spin polarization measurement and equipment for its realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is aimed at the increase in accuracy and fast-response of the device for the measurement of electron spin polarization. The measuring method is an electron beam is directed onto preliminarily purified surface of crystal-analyzer at the angle of THETA and then electrons, scattered at an angle of 2THETA, are recorded. The device, realizing the described measuring method, consists of an electron source, the first system of focusing lenses, monochromator, the second system of focusing lenses, crystal-analyzer and scattered electron collector, located in vacuum chamber in series. To increase the accuracy of measurement, crystal-analyzer with rigidly bound collector of scattered electrons is rotated as to two mutually perpendicular axes and according to the difference in the number of electrons, scattered in two mutually opposite directions, the corresponding projection of polarization vector is determined. High efficiency of the device is ensured at the expense of the preparation of pure surface of the crystal-analyzer by chipping in vacuum directly before measurement. The increase of accuracy of measurement can be achieved by the determination of all the three polarization vector components. It permits to restore completely polarization vector and it increases considerably informativity of the results obtained

  16. High Efficiency and Light Mobile Electronic Business System Based on Mobile Agent Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunyong; LIU Jinde

    2004-01-01

    Mobile Network technology has been being the research focus during the 1990's.The middleware technology is imported for the sake of running distributed transaction smoothly.In this paper,a mobile agent based middleware high efficiency mobile electronic business oriented middleware (HEMEBOM) is designed and implemented based on the requirement and background of collaborative electronic business.Its architecture,elements and excellent properties are mainly focused.Then high efficiency mobile electronic business systemμMcommerce is built using HEMEBOM.

  17. Muon spin relaxation as a probe of electron motion in conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of implanted muons to probe the dynamics of electronic excitations in conducting polymers is reviewed. Early work on polyacetylene showed evidence for mobile solitons performing one-dimensional diffusion in the trans isomer and localized spins in the cis isomer. Subsequent muon studies on a range of conducting polymers have shown evidence for mobile polaronic excitations and microscopic transport properties for these polarons have been derived from the measurements. A theoretical framework was developed by Risch and Kehr to describe the intermittent hyperfine coupling between a static muon and an electron diffusing randomly through a chain of sites. This theory predicts a specific form for both the muon spin relaxation function and the field dependence of the relaxation rate. The experimental data are found to be described well by this model. Intrachain diffusion rates can be extracted from the data; in several cases an interchain diffusion rate can also be measured. The anisotropy of diffusion rates can be as high as 104 at low temperatures, reducing typically to 102 or less at room temperature. The importance of molecular vibrational modes in controlling the electronic motion in the polymer has been shown

  18. The effect of inertia on the Dirac electron, the spin Hall current and the momentum space Berry curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the spin dependent force and the associated momentum space Berry curvature in an accelerating system. The results are derived by taking into consideration the non-relativistic limit of a generally covariant Dirac equation with an electromagnetic field present, where the methodology of the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation is applied to achieve the non-relativistic limit. Spin currents appear due to the combined action of the external electric field, the crystal field and the induced inertial electric field via the total effective spin–orbit interaction. In an accelerating frame, the crucial role of momentum space Berry curvature in the spin dynamics has also been addressed from the perspective of spin Hall conductivity. For time dependent acceleration, the expression for the spin polarization has been derived. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of acceleration on the Dirac electron in the presence of an electromagnetic field, where the acceleration induces an electric field. ► Spin currents appear due to the total effective electric field via the total spin–orbit interaction. ► We derive the expression for the spin dependent force and the spin Hall current, which is zero for a particular acceleration. ► The role of the momentum space Berry curvature in an accelerating system is discussed. ► An expression for the spin polarization for time dependent acceleration is derived.

  19. Magnetic properties and electron spin resonance of Ecuadorian obsidians. Application to provenance research of archeological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obsidians from major Ecuadorian sources were analyzed by SQUID magnetometry and electron spin resonance (ESR). The association of these two techniques permits to differentiate obsidians from the sources of Cotopaxi volcano and from the Quiscatola and Mullumica-Callejones sources of the Chacana caldera, taking into account various parameters arising from the M vs. H cycles and the X-band ESR spectra. The analysis of 27 archeological samples coming from the prehispanic site of La Mana allowed us to infer that most of them come from the Mullumica-Callejones source

  20. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on irradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated (10kGy) and unirradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds have been compared. Unirradiated cocoa beans failed to give any ESR signal, whereas after irradiation (10kGy) an ESR signal at g = 2.0042 was observed. However, ESR signals are given by both irradiated and unirradiated niger seeds. The intensity of signal was found to be dose-dependent up to 10kGy for both seeds. The signals were stable up to 180 days in both cases. The results indicate the possibility of using ESR for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated cocoa beans but not for niger seeds

  1. Solid-state pulsed microwave bridge for electron spin echo spectrometers of 8-mm wavelength range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabukhova E. N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a construction of a coherent pulsed microwave bridge with an output power up to 10 Wt with a time resolution of 10–8 seconds at a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz designed for electron spin echo spectrometers. The bridge is built on a homodyne scheme based on IMPATT diodes, which are used for modulation and amplification of microwave power coming from the reference Gunn diode oscillator. The advantages of the bridge are optimal power and minimum pulse width, simple operation, low cost.

  2. Use of thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance for identification of irradiated vital wheat gluten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing gamma-radiation on wheat gluten's chemical properties and induced phenomena are investigated by thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance. The vital wheat gluten can be considered as a whole sample of protein-containing foodstuffs. The water, protein and starch content and water-absorbing capacity have been measured. It was found that some chemical parameters are changed due to irradiation, and the identification of irradiated samples as function of both radiation dose and storage time is done by the methods used. (author)

  3. Spin-polarized Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Molecular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we fabricate molecular magnetic tunnel junctions and demonstrate that inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy technique can be utilized to inspect such junctions to investigate the existence of desired molecular species in the device area. Tunneling magnetoresistance measurements have been carried out and spin-dependent tunneling transport has been observed. Bias-dependence of the tunneling resistance has also been detected. IETS measurements at different magnetic field suggested that the TMR bias-dependence was likely caused by the inelastic scattering due to the molecular vibrations

  4. Electronic structure of the quantum spin Hall parent compound CdTe and related topological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Bian, Guang; Fu, Li; Liu, Chang; Wang, Tao; Zha, Gangqiang; Jie, Wanqi; Neupane, Madhab; Miller, T.; Hasan, M. Z.; Chiang, T.-C.

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe), a compound widely used in devices, is a key base material for the experimental realization of the quantum spin Hall phase. We report herein a study of the electronic structure of CdTe by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy from well-ordered (110) surfaces. The results are compared with first-principles calculations to illustrate the topological distinction between CdTe and a closely related compound HgTe. Through a theoretical simulation a topological phase transition as well as the Dirac-Kane semimetal phase at the critical point was demonstrated in the mixed compound H gxC d1 -xTe .

  5. Landau level crossing in a spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied experimentally the Landau level (LL) spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an In0.53Ga0.47As/InP quantum well structure by means of low-temperature magneto-transport coincidence measurement in vector magnetic fields. It is well known that LL crossing occurs in tilted magnetic fields due to a competition between cyclotron energy and Zeeman effect. Remarkably, here we observe an additional type of level-crossing resulting from a competition between Rashba and Zeeman splitting in a small magnetic field, consistent with the theoretical prediction for strongly spin-orbit coupled 2DEG

  6. An Electron Spin Resonance Study of Stearic Acid Interactions in Model Wheat Starch and Gluten Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, L. E.; Davis, E. A.; Gordon, J.; Miller, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to examine interactions of 16- Doxyl stearic acid in wheat starch-water (starch:water "'1: 1), vital wheat gluten-water and glut en-starch-water model systems, Immobilization of the 16-Doxyl stearic acid, shown by broadIine ESR powder patterns , occurred in wheat starch model systems. In contrast to the starch systems, 16-Doxylstearic acid in gluten-water systems did not display broad line powder patterns. Broadened 3- line ESR spectra were recorded for ...

  7. Electron spin resonance measurements in CoFe2O4 free rotor nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a new magnetic behaviour has been observed in the nanoparticles that rotate freely in response to an applied static magnetic field (i.e., 'free rotor behaviour') after conditioning the material in a cycling magnetic field. On the other hand, in an electron spin resonance (ESR) experiment where microwave power excites a free magnetic moment without any anisotropy a zero-field-absorption in the spectrum is predicted at all temperatures and independent of the microwave frequency. In this contribution we present ESR measurements on CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with free-rotor behaviour, and the zero-field-absorption results will be discussed

  8. SPIN Effects, QCD, and Jefferson Laboratory with 12 GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    QCD and Spin physics are playing important role in our understanding of hadron structure. I will give a short overview of origin of hadron structure in QCD and highlight modern understanding of the subject. Jefferson Laboratory is undergoing an upgrade that will increase the energy of electron beam up to 12 GeV. JLab is one of the leading facilities in nuclear physics studies and once operational in 2015 JLab 12 will be crucial for future of nuclear physics. I will briefly discuss future studies in four experimental halls of Jefferson Lab.

  9. Electron spin resonance (ESR) in multiferroic TbMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report temperature dependent X-Band (ν∼9.4GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement in a single crystal of TbMnO3. A single Lorentzian ESR line with an isotropic g∼ 1.96 was observed for T>=120K up to 600K. The ESR signal is attributed to the Mn3+ ions in a insulator environment. For the three crystallographic axes the temperature dependence ESR linewidth shows a strong broadening as the temperature decreases due to the presence of short range magnetic correlations

  10. Study by electron spin resonance of the free radicals created under irradiation in glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free radicals created by different radiations in glycine are measured by electron spin resonance and their number is evaluated in function of the absorbed dose. This number decreases when the LET of the radiations increases ; in other words,high LET radiations gives less radiochemical effects; in contrary with the fact that high LET radiations creates more damage in biological materials. The decreasing with time of the number of free radicals and the speed of this decrease is a function of temperature; by the study of the kinetics of this decrease, an attempt has been made to prove the presence of three radicals. (authors)

  11. Electron spin resonance dosimetry of teeth of Goiania radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to assess absorbed doses of six teeth belonging to victims of the highly irradiated group of Goiania accident. The influence of the broad background signal at g=2.0040 as well as of the unstable fraction of CO-2 radicals was taken into account in dose estimates. Three victims teeth showed absorbed doses comparable to those estimated by chromosomal analysis. For the other three teeth, the doses were higher by a factor of 1.3, 1.8 and 2.2

  12. Indirect identification of irradiated foodstuff by electron spin resonance measurements at synthetic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of this work was to proof, whether an indirect identification of irradiated foodstuffs can be performed by electron spin resonance measurements on specific radicals built in synthetic packaging materials like polyethylene, polypropylene or polystyrene. For e.s.r. measurements two different spectrometers were used: a newly designed routine spectrometer and a research instrument. All measurements were carried out at ambient temperature. The following synthetic materials were studied: Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethyleneterephtalate and acrylnitril-butadiene-styrene-copolymere. The first three mentioned materials are commonly used in food industry. Investigations were performed with standard samples (granulate, balls) of the pure polymere and additionally with commercially used packaging materials. (orig./MG)

  13. Constraints on exotic spin-dependent interactions between electrons from helium fine-structure spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Filip; Kozlov, Mikhail; Leefer, Nathan; Pustelny, Szymon; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Agreement between theoretical calculations of atomic structure and spectroscopic measurements is used to constrain possible contribution of exotic spin-dependent interactions between electrons to the energy differences between states in helium-4. In particular, constraints on dipole-dipole interactions associated with the exchange of pseudoscalar bosons (such as axions or axion-like particles, ALPs) with masses $10^{-2}~{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^{4}~{\\rm eV}$ are improved by a factor of $\\sim 100$. The first atomic-scale constraints on several exotic velocity-dependent dipole-dipole interactions are established as well.

  14. Retrospective Dosimetry: Dose Analysis From Tooth Enamel Using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose should be accurately measured in order to relate its effect to the cells. The assessment of dose usually performed using biological dosimetry techniques. However, the reduction of lymphocytes (white blood cells) after the time period results in inaccuracy of dose measurement. An alternative method used is the application of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) using tooth enamel. In this study, tooth enamels were evaluated and used to measure the individual absorbed dose from the background. The basic tooth features that would affect dose measurement were discussed. The results show this technique is capable and effective for retrospective dose measurement and useful for the study of radiation effect to human. (author)

  15. Determination of the feasibility of directly dating quartz by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses have been made of natural quartz samples ranging in age from 100 ka to 1.4 Ga. Signal intensities of two ESR centres that can be associated with Schottky-Frenkel (SF) defects are significantly correlated with age. These defects are thought to accumulate naturally as a result of elastic collisions in the quartz lattice initiated by the recoil of alpha-emitting nuclides present in the impurities. Preliminary indications are that recoil-induced SF defects can be significantly more abundant than original SF defects in samples older than several million years. These considerations provide the theoretical basis for a long-ranging quartz geochronometer

  16. Topological phases in atoms and molecules in spin-polarized electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James; Pravica, Luka; Samarin, Sergey; Kathi, Sudarshan; Guagliardo, Paul; CentreAtomic, Molecular; Surface Physics Team

    2013-05-01

    Observations of spin-polarized electron impact excitation of zinc atoms, ionization of helium atoms and dissociative excitation of molecules indicate a topological phase. The parallel transport of the spin vector gives rise to an effective `monopole' magnetic field and an apparent spin-orbit interaction. In excitation, the Stokes parameters of radiated photons show alignment and orientation. Excitation of a superposition of 2s and 2p states on atomic hydrogen in an external electric field show beats in Lyman alpha radiation as predicted for a circular vortex. Ionization of helium atoms show minima in (e,2e) angular and energy differential cross sections associated with a linear vortex (Macek, Feagin). Exchange dissociative excitation of methane shows radiated photons from a Jahn-Teller ``avoided crossing'' of potential energy curves (Mead and Truhlar). The observations are consistent with fundamental principles that a gauge-invariant quantity is potentially a physical observable and the topology of a ring indicates a magnetic-flux line enclosed by the ring is equivalent to a vortex line. Funding was received from the Australian Research Council and The University of Western Australia.

  17. Optimized quantum sensing with a single electron spin using real-time adaptive measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, C.; Blok, M. S.; Dinani, H. T.; Berry, D. W.; Markham, M. L.; Twitchen, D. J.; Hanson, R.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum sensors based on single solid-state spins promise a unique combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The key challenge in sensing is to achieve minimum estimation uncertainty within a given time and with high dynamic range. Adaptive strategies have been proposed to achieve optimal performance, but their implementation in solid-state systems has been hindered by the demanding experimental requirements. Here, we realize adaptive d.c. sensing by combining single-shot readout of an electron spin in diamond with fast feedback. By adapting the spin readout basis in real time based on previous outcomes, we demonstrate a sensitivity in Ramsey interferometry surpassing the standard measurement limit. Furthermore, we find by simulations and experiments that adaptive protocols offer a distinctive advantage over the best known non-adaptive protocols when overhead and limited estimation time are taken into account. Using an optimized adaptive protocol we achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 6.1 ± 1.7 nT Hz-1/2 over a wide range of 1.78 mT. These results open up a new class of experiments for solid-state sensors in which real-time knowledge of the measurement history is exploited to obtain optimal performance.

  18. Experimental observation of spin-dependent electron many-body effects in CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In semiconductors, the spin degree of freedom is usually disregarded in the theoretical treatment of electron many-body effects such as band-gap renormalization and screening of the Coulomb enhancement factor. Nevertheless, as was observed experimentally in GaAs, not only the single-particle phase-space filling but also many-body effects are spin sensitive. In this paper, we report on time- and polarization-resolved differential transmission pump-probe measurements in CdTe, which has the same zincblende crystal structure but different material parameters compared to that of GaAs. We show experimentally that at room temperature in CdTe—unlike in GaAs—the pump-induced decrease of transmission due to the band-gap renormalization can even exceed the transmission increase due to the phase-space filling, which enables to measure directly the spin-sensitivity of the band-gap renormalization. We also observed that the influence of the band-gap renormalization is more prominent at low temperatures

  19. Experimental observation of spin-dependent electron many-body effects in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horodyská, P.; Němec, P., E-mail: nemec@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Novotný, T.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-07

    In semiconductors, the spin degree of freedom is usually disregarded in the theoretical treatment of electron many-body effects such as band-gap renormalization and screening of the Coulomb enhancement factor. Nevertheless, as was observed experimentally in GaAs, not only the single-particle phase-space filling but also many-body effects are spin sensitive. In this paper, we report on time- and polarization-resolved differential transmission pump-probe measurements in CdTe, which has the same zincblende crystal structure but different material parameters compared to that of GaAs. We show experimentally that at room temperature in CdTe—unlike in GaAs—the pump-induced decrease of transmission due to the band-gap renormalization can even exceed the transmission increase due to the phase-space filling, which enables to measure directly the spin-sensitivity of the band-gap renormalization. We also observed that the influence of the band-gap renormalization is more prominent at low temperatures.

  20. Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on Kondo Phenomena in f7-Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    In order to promote our basic understanding of the Kondo behavior recently observed in europium compounds, we analyze an impurity Anderson model with seven f electrons at an impurity site by employing a numerical renormalization group method. The local part of the model consists of Coulomb interactions among f electrons, spin-orbit coupling λ, and crystalline electric field (CEF) potentials, while we consider the hybridization V between local f electrons and single-band conduction electrons with au symmetry. For λ = 0, we observe underscreening Kondo behavior for appropriate values of V, characterized by an entropy change from ln 8 to ln 7, in which one of the seven f electrons is screened by conduction electrons. When λ is increased, we obtain two types of behavior depending on the value of V. For large V, we find an entropy release of ln 7 at low temperatures, determined by the level splitting energy due to the hybridization. For small V, we also observe an entropy change from ln 8 to ln 2 by the level splitting due to the hybridization, but at low temperatures, ln 2 entropy is found to be released, leading to the Kondo effect. We emphasize that the Kondo behavior for small V is observed for realistic values of λ on the order of 0.1 eV. We also discuss the effect of CEF potentials and the multipole properties in the Kondo behavior reported in this paper.