WorldWideScience

Sample records for agents affect treatment

  1. Prototyping teams of affective agents in robocode

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, António; Catalão, Fábio; Alves, João; Marreiros, Goreti; Cesar ANALIDE; Novais, Paulo; Neves, José

    2015-01-01

    The study of the impact of emotion and affect in decision making processes involved in a working team stands for a multi-disciplinary issue (e.g. with insights from disciplines such as Psychology, Neuroscience, Philosophy and Computer Science). On the one hand, and in order to create such an environment we look at a team of affective agents to play into a battlefield, which present different emotional profiles (e.g. personality and mood). An emotional system, based on the OCC (Ortony, Clore a...

  2. Do changes in prescription practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents affect treatment response and adherence to therapy? Results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M L; Lindegaard, H M; Hansen, A;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prescription practice for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors has changed towards treating patients with lower disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the trend in treatment response in cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who started TNFalpha inhibitor...... treatment between 2000 and 2005. METHODS: 1813 patients with RA starting treatment with biological agents in 2000-5 were registered prospectively in the nationwide DANBIO Registry. Baseline disease activity and 12 months' treatment responses were determined in cohorts based on start year (2000/1; 2002; 2003...

  3. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive aff...

  4. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  5. Evaluation of biodiesel as bioremediation agent for the treatment of the shore affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of different bioremediation products (nutrients, microorganisms and biodiesel) was tested using tiles located in both the supra-littoral and intertidal zones of a beach that was affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige. Neither nutrients nor microorganisms meant an improvement with respect to the natural processes. The addition of biodiesel improved the appearance of the treated tiles and apparently accelerated the degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the residual fuel oil. Nevertheless, PAHs degradation was similar and very high in all the treatments (80-85% after 60 days). On the other hand, the evolution with time of the amount of vanadium was similar to that of 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, so it was concluded that vanadium could also be used to estimate the extent of oil degradation in the field. These results also suggested that the residual fuel oil mineralization was very low throughout 1 year in all the treatments. Moreover, the increase of the oxygen content of the residual oil from around 1% till 4-8% indicated that the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons took place, and that the hydrocarbon oxidation products accumulated in the polar fractions. In general, the results pointed out that bioremediation techniques were not suitable for the recovery of shores affected by heavy oil spills

  6. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L; Palmer, Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  7. Demethylating Agents in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Howell, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene silencing resulting from aberrant DNA methylation can lead to tumorigenesis. Therefore, drugs that inhibit or interfere with DNA methylation have been used to reactivate and induce silenced gene re-expression in malignancies. Two demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine, are approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and are now considered the standard of care in MDS. In this review, we discuss clinical data, including clinical benefits and toxicities, which led to the approval of azacitidine and decitabine. We also summarize findings from clinical trials that used these two demethylating agents in the treatment of solid tumors. Lastly, we discuss some limitations in the use of azacitidine and decitabine in cancer therapy.

  8. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowl...

  9. Novel agents for the treatment of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, M E

    1998-12-01

    Recent approval in the United States of two new products, Propecia (Merck Co, Rahway, NJ) and Rogaine Extra Strength 5% (Pharmacia & UpJohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI), indicated in men to promote scalp hair growth, have added a new dimension to treatment options offered by physicians in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The search for new and effective agents to treat many different hair loss problems has been intensified by the increase in hair biology research taking place worldwide, from university academic institutions to the pharmaceutical companies. All have a desire to profit from marketing such drugs that have been termed, "cosmeceuticals". Millions of men and women of every race suffer from various forms of alopecia, the most common being AGA where the target tissue active androgen, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) aggravates genetically programmed scalp hair follicles that results in short, fine, miniaturized hairs. Currently available to treat alopecia are drugs indicated for other disease processes because no other agents are accessible; some have severe side-effects and many are minimally effective. These prescription drugs were not originally indicated for alopecia and have not been adequately tested in controlled clinical trials to assess for efficacy, safety, and toxicity. These agents continue to be used clinically to treat patients with various forms of alopecia. As a result, a variety of new agents are emerging in the patient application process to gain protection and approval specifically for various forms of alopecia. This report reviews the most recently approved products, some of the more promising compounds in clinical trial development, as well as those in the over-the-counter (OTC) "natural" treatments category. PMID:9859915

  10. Biopolymeric agents for skin wrinkle treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2016-10-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors capable of deteriorating dermal matrix and is visibly noticed in skin color and skin contour deformities. In addition to the prevention of skin aging by application of antioxidants and sunscreens, treatment of skin wrinkles with those of dermal fillers is also recommended. Dermal filler products with enhanced injectability and longer duration are being developed continuously. Biodegradable polymers such as skin elastic fibers and dermal matrix mimetic used for treatment of skin wrinkle are summarized in this article. Additionally, the importance of amino acids, enzymes, and proteins in aesthetic of skin is addressed. Thus, elective agents are proposed for the dermatologists, cosmetic formulators, and the individuals facing skin aging problems. The candidate natural peptides from marine sources are additionally presented for widening the choice of actives application for treating aging. PMID:26963365

  11. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora. PMID:21401651

  12. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora.

  13. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  14. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiPaola Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  15. Factors affecting response to biologic treatment in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Jacek; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population in western countries. Patients with a more severe form of the disease are typically considered for systemic therapy, including biologics. In spite of the overall superiority of biologic agents, the treatment response may differ substantially among individual patients. As with other medical conditions, a range of factors contribute to response heterogeneity observed in psoriasis. Proper identification of these factors can significantly improve the therapeutic decisions. This review focuses on potential genetic and nongenetic factors that may affect the treatment response and outcomes in patients with psoriasis.

  16. Clinical Results of Hypomethylating Agents in AML Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Cruijsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes play an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Unlike gene mutations, epigenetic changes are potentially reversible, which makes them attractive for therapeutic intervention. Agents that affect epigenetics are the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, azacitidine and decitabine. Because of their relatively mild side effects, azacitidine and decitabine are particularly feasible for the treatment of older patients and patients with co-morbidities. Both drugs have remarkable activity against AML blasts with unfavorable cytogenetic characteristics. Recent phase 3 trials have shown the superiority of azacitidine and decitabine compared with conventional care for older AML patients (not eligible for intensive treatment. Results of treatment with modifications of the standard azacitidine (seven days 75 mg/m2 SC; every four weeks and decitabine (five days 20 mg/m2 IV; every four weeks schedules have been reported. Particularly, the results of the 10-day decitabine schedule are promising, revealing complete remission (CR rates around 45% (CR + CRi (i.e., CR with incomplete blood count recovery around 64% almost comparable with intensive chemotherapy. Application of hypomethylating agents to control AML at the cost of minimal toxicity is a very promising strategy to “bridge” older patients with co-morbidities to the potential curative treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this article, we discuss the role of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in AML.

  17. Current multiple myeloma treatment strategies with novel agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral; Bladé, Joan;

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has undergone significant developments in recent years. The availability of the novel agents thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide has expanded treatment options and has improved the outcome of patients with MM. Following the introduction of these agents...

  18. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  19. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs—namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauver...

  20. Postpartum affective disorders: incidence and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarriza, D N

    1992-05-01

    1. Postpartum depression is a culture-bound syndrome found in Western societies. The lack of supportive rites and rituals for postpartum women shape depressive symptoms. 2. Postpartum depression is a term used for three distinct syndromes: postpartum "blues," postpartum psychosis, and postpartum depression. 3. Treatment issues surrounding each postpartum affective disorder are different and require education and support of family members as well as postpartum women.

  1. Benign meningiomas: primary treatment selection affects survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of primary treatment selection on outcomes for benign intracranial meningiomas at the University of Florida. Methods and Materials: For 262 patients, the impact of age, Karnofsky performance status, pathologic features, tumor size, tumor location, and treatment modality on local control and cause-specific survival was analyzed (minimum potential follow-up, 2 years; median follow-up, 8.2 years). Extent of surgery was classified by Simpson grade. Treatment groups: surgery alone (n = 229), surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (n = 21), RT alone (n = 7), radiosurgery alone (n = 5). Survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier method with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: At 15 years, local control was 76% after total excision (TE) and 87% after subtotal excision plus RT (SE+RT), both significantly better (p = 0.0001) than after SE alone (30%). Cause-specific survival at 15 years was reduced after treatment with SE alone (51%), compared with TE (88%) or SE+RT (86%) (p = 0.0003). Recurrence after primary treatment portended decreased survival, independent of initial treatment group or salvage treatment selection (p = 0.001). Atypical pathologic features predicted reduced 15-year local control (54 vs. 71%) and cause-specific survival rates (57 vs. 86%). Multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival revealed treatment group (SE vs. others; p = 0.0001), pathologic features (atypical vs. typical; p = 0.0056), and Karnofsky performance status (≥80 vs. <80; p = 0.0153) as significant variables. Conclusion: Benign meningiomas are well managed by TE or SE+RT. SE alone is inadequate therapy and adversely affects cause-specific survival. Atypical pathologic features predict a poorer outcome, suggesting possible benefit from more aggressive treatment. Because local recurrence portends lower survival rates, primary treatment choice is important

  2. Anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Kakar, Ron; Berk, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inflammation has been implicated in the risk, pathophysiology, and progression of mood disorders and, as such, has become a target of interest in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, the objective of the current qualitative and quantitative review was to determine...... or significant treatment-emergent adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a moderate antidepressant effect was observed for adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents compared with conventional therapy alone in the treatment of bipolar depression. The small number of studies, diversity of agents, and small...... sample sizes limited interpretation of the current analysis....

  3. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  4. Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism With New Anticoagulant Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-26

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease associated with high risk for recurrences, death, and late sequelae, accounting for substantial health care costs. Anticoagulant agents are the mainstay of treatment for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The recent availability of oral anticoagulant agents that can be administered in fixed doses, without laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment, is a landmark change in the treatment of VTE. In Phase III trials, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban (antifactor Xa agents), and dabigatran (an antithrombin agent) were noninferior and probably safer than conventional anticoagulation therapy (low-molecular-weight heparin followed by vitamin K antagonists). These favorable results were confirmed in specific patient subgroups, such as the elderly and fragile. However, some patients, such as those with cancer or with intermediate- to high-risk pulmonary embolism, were underrepresented in the Phase III trials. Further clinical research is required before new oral anticoagulant agents can be considered standard of care for the full spectrum of patients with VTE. PMID:27102510

  5. The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Lauren A; Chahal, Dev S; Sivamani, Raja K; Larsen, Larissa N

    2016-06-01

    Hormones and androgens play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Multiple hormonal modulators are now available for the treatment of acne. The efficacies and side effects of currently available hormonal agents are reviewed here including the use of oral contraceptives, spironolactone, flutamide, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, and cortexolone 17α-propionate. Hormonal therapies are an efficacious treatment option for acne among females. With the growing need to reduce antibiotic exposures, hormonal therapies should be more widely studied and incorporated into acne treatment strategies. PMID:27416311

  6. Dyeing wastewater treatment with a complex adsorption-coagulation agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-jian; LIU Jun-liang; ZHAO Qing-liang; LIU Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    To remove effectively the pollutants from printing and dyeing wastewater, a new complex adsorptioncoagulation agent was developed and employed in dyeing wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that better removals of COD, turbidity and color could be efficiently realized under the operating conditions of mixing at 150 r/min, reacting within 5 min and dosing at 15 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Combined with the settled sludge, the agent could be recycled for further adsorption and coagulation within 10 times. Compared to the conventional coagulants, the newly-developed agent had such merits as suitability for wide pH range of wastewater, less sludge production, reutilization of the condensed sludge and low operation cost.

  7. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian W. Millsop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers.

  8. Fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines; Lapointe

    1998-05-13

    This paper aims to review current literature on the treatment of acute intraventricular hemorrhage in adults with intraventricular infusion of fibrinolytic agents. A literature search on the topics of "intraventricular hemorrhage" or "intracerebral hemorrhage" with "thrombolytic therapy", "fibrinolytic therapy", "urokinase", "streptokinase", "tissue plasminogen activator" or "tPA" covering the years 1966-1997 was carried out electronically. This was supplemented by searching the reference lists of the identified articles. Articles regarding exclusively intracerebral hemorrhage or hematoma, neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, non-therapeutic issues, and laboratory research were excluded. The included articles are summarized in evidence and evaluation tables. Six articles evaluating the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage in adults with intraventricular fibrinolytic agents were identified. One reports a small randomized clinical trial including 16 patients and appears to show a statistically insignificant preference for urokinase treatment. Five other reports present case series for which a total of 58 patients were exposed to either streptokinase, urokinase, or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and suggest good outcome. Two of them were with non-randomized retrospective or prospective controls, and three have no controls. Despite important limitations, all reports suggest that blood is more rapidly cleared from the ventricles and outcome is better when administering a fibrinolytic agent intraventricularly. While the experience presented in these papers suggests that intraventricular administration of fibrinolytic agents may be associated with fewer complications, more rapid clearing of blood from the ventricles, less late hydrocephalus, and better long-term outcome than is seen in patients treated with ventricular drainage alone, it is insufficient to recommend such treatment as a matter of policy. Substantial methodologic flaws render these

  9. Investigational Agents in Development for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Westin, Shannon N.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Coleman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Although significant success has been achieved in the treatment of advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer, there is clearly room for improvement. The use of targeted agents in this patient population has the promise to provide improved survival and quality of life. There are a myriad of relevant pathways under exploration in all settings of ovarian cancer. Clinical trial data are accumulating for antiangiogenic therapy, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-specific inhibitors an...

  10. [Extravasation of cytostatic agents: a serious complication of oncological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Rubio, Alberto; Sanmartín, Onofre; Requena, Celia; Llombart, Beatriz; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Nagore, Eduardo; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Hueso, Luis; Guillén, Carlos

    2006-04-01

    The extravasation of cytostatic agents is a known, serious situation that can easily occur and cause chronic, irreversible damage. The incidence of extravasation ranges from 0.1 %-6.5 %, according to different studies. Many cases of extravasation can be prevented by systematizing the administration techniques for cytostatic agents. We present the clinical and histological characteristics of a series of patients with extravasation lesions. Included in the study were all patients treated with chemotherapy who developed localized lesions in the area of the cytostatic injection after extravasation was detected during administration. The patients were studied and followed up for a three-year period, from January 2000 to December 2003, inclusive. We found nine cases of extravasation among the 2,186 patients who were treated with chemotherapy, which represents an incidence of 0.41 %, and 3.4 % of all chemotherapy-induced skin lesions. The cytostatic agent most often involved was vinorelbine, and the most frequent location was the antecubital fossa. The intensity of the lesions made it necessary to delay the next cycle of treatment in 55 % of the cases. The histological findings varied depending on when the biopsy was done, showing panniculitis with low cellularity together with epidermal lesions attributable to direct cytotoxicity. The best treatment for extravasation is prevention, but when it has already occurred, measures vary depending on the cytostatic drug extravasated and the intensity of the lesions. Conservative measures are advisable before surgery.

  11. Novel Agents for the Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are urgent needs to develop novel and more effective regimens to improve outcomes of pancreatic cancer given its dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. Several phase I clinical trials involving novel agents were recently presented at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting. It appears that hedgehog inhibition with IPI-926 was welltolerated and might be effective in treating pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The survival benefits will be tested in the following randomized phase II trial. The new combination of gemcitabine and blockade of checkpoint kinases with AZD7762 showed an acceptable safety profile. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K by BAY80-6946 was well tolerated with PET-CT suggesting reduction in FDG uptake in some pancreatic cancer. The benefits of above novel agents/regimens need to be further tested in phase II trials.

  12. I feel you: the design and evaluation of a domotic affect-sensitive spoken conversational agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Syaheerah Lebai; Fernández-Martínez, Fernando; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jaime; Barra-Chicote, Roberto; Montero, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-13

    We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO). In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA). NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive) were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users' frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.

  13. I Feel You: The Design and Evaluation of a Domotic Affect-Sensitive Spoken Conversational Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Montero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO. In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA. NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users’ frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.

  14. Novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of metastaticcolorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades considerable progresshas been made in the management of metastaticcolorectal cancers (mCRC) leading to a significant improvementin five-year survival. Although part of thissuccess has been rightly attributed to aggressive surgicalmanagement and advances in other adjunct treatments,our understanding of the pathogenesis of cancer andemergence of newer molecular targets for colon cancerhas created a powerful impact. In this review article wewill discuss various targeted therapies in the managementof mCRC. Newer agents on the horizon soon to beincorporated in clinical practice will be briefly reviewedas well.

  15. Therapeutic treatment of Alzheimer's disease using metal complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine A; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2007-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques, formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal dysfunction in the brain. A growing body of evidence indicates a central role for biometals such as copper in many critical aspects of AD. The amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide and its parental molecule, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) both modulate Cu and Zn metabolism in the brain. Therefore, aberrant changes to APP or Abeta metabolism could potentially alter biometal homoestasis in AD, leading to increased free radical production and neuronal oxidative stress. Modulation of metal bioavailability in the brain has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of AD patients. The lipid permeable metal complexing agent, clioquinol (CQ), has shown promising results in animal models of AD and in small clinical trials involving AD patients. Moreover, a new generation of metal-ligand based therapeutics is currently under development. Patents now cover the generation of novel metal ligand structures designed to modulate metal binding to Abeta and quench metal-mediated free radical generation. However, the mechanism by which CQ and other metal complexing agents slows cognitive decline in AD animal models and patients is unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that ligand-mediated redistribution of metals at a cellular level in the brain may be important. Further research will be necessary to fully understand the complex pathways associated with efficacious metal-based pharmaceuticals for treatment of AD.

  16. Role of Agents other than Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockers in the Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2015-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by possible peripheral and axial joint involvement, enthesitis, dactylitis, and skin and nail disease. It affects up to one-third of psoriatic patients, and may be associated with comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The usually prescribed initial treatment of moderate-severe PsA is methotrexate, which may be accompanied or replaced by a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor such as etanercept, infliximab, or adalimumab. However, some patients may become unresponsive (or have contraindications) to available anti-TNF agents and require alternative treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the potential role of some new immunomodulatory agents.

  17. Oral available agents in the treatment of RRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aupérin T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Aupérin Medical Communications, Global MS Medical Affairs, Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USAWe read with interest the article by Drs Thöne and Ellrichmann entitled "Oral available agents in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: an overview of merits and culprits" recently published in Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety.1 The review provides a valuable overview of a number of new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis (MS, with a focus on proposed mechanisms of action and efficacy and safety profiles of the respective agents.In reading the article, however, we did note a number of errors pertaining to teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator approved in several countries for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS (RMS and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. The most significant error pertains to a statement made within the safety section, which states: "Serious adverse effects (AEs included pathological liver function, neutropenia, and trigeminal neuralgia as well as one case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus." We would like to draw the authors’ attention to the fact that this case of PML pertains to the use of the related drug, leflunomide, and not teriflunomide as suggested. It is important to note that leflunomide is licensed to treat active rheumatoid arthritis in adults, and has not been evaluated or approved for the treatment of MS; as such it is inappropriate to extrapolate this observation to the use of teriflunomide. Furthermore, the case of PML cited in the article is complicated by the fact that the patient received prior multiple immunosuppressant therapies before leflunomide (ie, prednisone, azathioprine, chloroquine, danazol, cyclosporin A and methotrexate, which may have contributed to the development of PML.View original paper by Thöne and Ellrichmann.

  18. Current pharmacological agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Dede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to review and assess the update studies regarding medical treatment for premature ejaculation (PE. It is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. A wide variety of therapeutic modalities have been tried for treatment of premature ejaculation. Psychological therapies may be helpful for patients with complaint PE. Several topical therapies have been used including lidocaine cream, lidocaine-prilocaine cream. There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, and efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising.

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents in medical care and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation applications in medical research, care, and treatment today are being used to help millions of patients throughout the world. In recent years, the medical community has seen a renaissance of therapeutic radiation applications, particularly of strontium-89 for metastatic bone pain. Radiopharmaceuticals used as therapeutic agents (frequently known as RPTs) are designed to deliver high doses of radiation to selected malignant sites in target organs or tissues, while minimizing the radiation doses to surrounding healthy cells. Over the past several years, several type of RPTs with special properties, including compounds for labelling monoclonal antibodies, have been used in animal and human clinical trials with promising results. The modern trend in radiopharmaceutical research for oncology is the development of RPTs that may be said to be tumour-seeking and tumour-specific. Among the promising RPTs being reported in the medical literature are rhenium-186 and samarium-153. Both can be produced in research reactors available in many countries. 2 tabs

  20. Factors affecting the sensitivity and detection limits of MRI, CT, and SPECT for multimodal diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevinck, Peter R; Seppenwoolde, Jan-Henry; de Wit, Tim C; Nijsen, Johannes F W; Beekman, Freek J; van Het Schip, Alfred D; Bakker, Chris J G

    2007-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) play an increasingly important role in the diagnostic workup and treatment of cancerous disease. In this context, a distinct trend can be observed towards the development of contrast agents and radiopharmaceuticals that open up perspectives on a multimodality imaging approach, involving all three aforementioned techniques. To promote insight into the potentialities of such an approach, we prepared an overview of the strengths and limitations of the various imaging techniques, in particular with regard to their capability to quantify the spatial distribution of a multimodal diagnostic agent. To accomplish this task, we used a two-step approach. In the first step, we examined the situation for a particular therapeutic anti-cancer agent with multimodal imaging opportunities, viz. holmium-loaded microspheres (HoMS). Physical phantom experiments were performed to enable a comparative evaluation of the three modalities assuming the use of standard equipment, standard clinical scan protocols, and signal-known-exactly conditions. These phantom data were then analyzed so as to obtain first order estimates of the sensitivity and detection limits of MRI, CT and SPECT for HoMS. In the second step, the results for HoMS were taken as a starting point for a discussion of the factors affecting the sensitivity and detection limits of MRI, CT and SPECT for multimodal agents in general. In this, emphasis was put on the factors that must be taken into account when extrapolating the findings for HoMS to other diagnostic tasks, other contrast agents, other experimental conditions, and other scan protocols.

  1. Comparison of Herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-06-01

    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (uv) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents - butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near uv radiation, or ether - the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of HSV produces no change in plaque development even though this agent is believed to preferentially affect viral DNA.

  2. Multiple Myeloma Treatment Strategies with Novel Agents in 2011: A European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral; Bladé, Joan;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The arrival of the novel agents thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide has significantly changed our approach to the management of multiple myeloma and, importantly, patient outcomes have improved. These agents have been investigated intensively in different treatment settings...

  3. Neem components as potential agents for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Neelu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2014-08-01

    Azadirachta indica, also known as neem, is commonly found in many semi-tropical and tropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The components extracted from neem plant have been used in traditional medicine for the cure of multiple diseases including cancer for centuries. The extracts of seeds, leaves, flowers, and fruits of neem have consistently shown chemopreventive and antitumor effects in different types of cancer. Azadirachtin and nimbolide are among the few bioactive components in neem that have been studied extensively, but research on a great number of additional bioactive components is warranted. The key anticancer effects of neem components on malignant cells include inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, suppression of cancer angiogenesis, restoration of cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) balance, and enhancement of the host immune responses against tumor cells. While the underlying mechanisms of these effects are mostly unclear, the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway is, at least partially, involved in the anticancer functions of neem components. Importantly, the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of neem components are tumor selective as the effects on normal cells are significantly weaker. In addition, neem extracts sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy and radiotherapy, and enhance the efficacy of certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current updates on the anticancer effects of neem components and their possible impact on managing cancer incidence and treatment. PMID:25016141

  4. Neem components as potential agents for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Neelu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2014-08-01

    Azadirachta indica, also known as neem, is commonly found in many semi-tropical and tropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The components extracted from neem plant have been used in traditional medicine for the cure of multiple diseases including cancer for centuries. The extracts of seeds, leaves, flowers, and fruits of neem have consistently shown chemopreventive and antitumor effects in different types of cancer. Azadirachtin and nimbolide are among the few bioactive components in neem that have been studied extensively, but research on a great number of additional bioactive components is warranted. The key anticancer effects of neem components on malignant cells include inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, suppression of cancer angiogenesis, restoration of cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) balance, and enhancement of the host immune responses against tumor cells. While the underlying mechanisms of these effects are mostly unclear, the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway is, at least partially, involved in the anticancer functions of neem components. Importantly, the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of neem components are tumor selective as the effects on normal cells are significantly weaker. In addition, neem extracts sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy and radiotherapy, and enhance the efficacy of certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current updates on the anticancer effects of neem components and their possible impact on managing cancer incidence and treatment.

  5. Bee Pollen as a Promising Agent in the Burn Wounds Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Olczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to visualize the benefits and advantages derived from preparations based on extracts of bee pollen as compared to pharmaceuticals commonly used in the treatment of burns. The bee pollen ointment was applied for the first time in topical burn treatment. Experimental burn wounds were inflicted on two white, domestic pigs. Clinical, histopathological, and microbiological assessment of specimens from burn wounds, inflicted on polish domestic pigs, treated with silver sulfadiazine or bee pollen ointment, was done. The comparative material was constituted by either tissues obtained from wounds treated with physiological saline or tissues obtained from wounds which were untreated. Clinical and histopathological evaluation showed that applied apitherapeutic agent reduces the healing time of burn wounds and positively affects the general condition of the animals. Moreover the used natural preparation proved to be highly effective antimicrobial agent, which was reflected in a reduction of the number of microorganisms in quantitative research and bactericidal activity of isolated strains. On the basis of the obtained bacteriological analysis, it may be concluded that the applied bee pollen ointment may affect the wound healing process of burn wounds, preventing infection of the newly formed tissue.

  6. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  7. Surface Treatment of Building Materials with Water Repellent Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittman, F.H.; Siemes, T.A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Water repellent agents have been applied to proteet building materials and structural elements for thousands ofyears. Initially, natural products, such as oils and fats were used exclusively. More recently, synthetic organic compounds are being developed for special applications.

  8. Effect of treatment of palatal inflammatory papillary hyperplasia with local and systemic antifungal agents accompanied by renewal of complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Oikarinen, K S

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of local and systemic antifungal treatment, accompanied by renewal of complete dentures, on palatal inflammatory papillary hyperplasia (PIPH). The treatment groups consisted of 26 subjects treated with a local antifungal agent (miconazole, 2% gel) for 4 weeks and 13 subjects treated with a systemic antifungal agent (fluconazole, 50 mg) for 2 weeks (test groups). Ten subjects fitted with new complete dentures served as a control group. Variables examined before antifungal and prosthetic treatment included estimation of the size and color of the affected palatal area, measurements of the lengths of the papillae, and salivary variables. Six months after the completion of prosthetic treatment healing was determined as disappearance or marked reduction of the redness of the PIPH. Healing was more often observed in test groups (64%) than in the control group (20%) (p = 0.012). Fifty-eight per cent of the subjects treated with a local (miconazole, 2%) and 77% of those treated with a systemic (fluconazole, 50 mg) antifungal agent were healed. Even though papillary hyperplastic tissue did not disappear, the treatment of PIPH with an antifungal agent without surgery before renewal of dentures might be an alternative treatment in mild cases. PMID:8739138

  9. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  10. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  11. Persistence with biologic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, Jörg; Sruamsiri, Rosarin

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess persistence rates of biologic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Methods Based on Japanese claims data of 16,214 patients between 2012 and 2014, 6-, 12-, and 18-month persistence rates of different biologic agents were calculated. Determinants of persistence were assessed by means of a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was performed with different definitions of persistence and parametric survival analysis. Results Overall persistence rates in Japan are high and reach 86% after 1 year in the entire sample. The persistence rate for the biologic-naïve subpopulation is above 95%. Persistence is higher for older patients (hazard ratio 0.60 [95% confidence interval 0.40–0.91] for >75 years compared to ≤60 years) and lower for patients with a high comorbidity score (hazard ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.70 for Charlson Comorbidity Index score 3–5 compared to ≤2). We found a high variation of persistence between different drugs. Conclusion Japanese rheumatoid arthritis patients have a high persistence rate of biologic treatments. However, multiple factors affect the persistence rate of Japanese patients, including age, comorbidities, and patient type. Naïve patients tend to have a higher persistence rate than continuing biologic patients. PMID:27540283

  12. Treatment of relapsing polychondritis in the era of biological agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Eoghan M

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder, often requiring high doses of immunosuppressive therapy to control its potentially life-threatening consequences. The advent of biological agents has added to the armamentarium available to treat RP, but the lack of controlled trials, along with the small numbers of patients and disease heterogeneity means that new therapies are prescribed without the benefits of rigorous clinical research. Thus, information on individual cases is of value in expanding our knowledge of the use of biologic agents in rare conditions. We report on the use of rituximab in a patient who subsequently developed catastrophic aortic incompetence, and we review the literature in relation to the use of this drug in RP.

  13. Natural Compounds as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Isha; Shah, Kalpit; Bradbury, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    The recent FDA approval of two drugs to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis has given hope to patients and their families battling this devastating disease. Over many years, with heavy financial investment from Vertex Pharmaceuticals and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, pre-clinical evaluation of thousands of synthetic drugs resulted in the production of Kalydeco and Orkambi. Yet, despite the success of this endeavor, many other compounds have been proposed as therapeutic agents in the t...

  14. Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Systemic Fungal Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UD Allen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the mainstay of systemic antifungal therapy has been amphotericin B deoxycholate (conventional amphotericin B. Newer agents have been developed to fulfill special niches and to compete with conventional amphotericin B by virtue of having more favourable toxicity profiles. Some agents have displaced conventional amphotericin B for the treatment of specific fungal diseases. For example, voriconazole has emerged as the preferred treatment for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. This notwithstanding, conventional amphotericin B remains a useful agent for the treatment of paediatric fungal infections. Knowledge of the characteristics of the newer agents is important, given the increasing numbers of patients who are being treated with these drugs. Efforts need to be directed at research aimed at generating paediatric data where these are lacking. The antifungal agents herein described are most often used as monotherapy regimens because there is no uniform consensus on the value of combination therapy, except for specific scenarios.

  15. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  16. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  17. Antiplatelet agents and proton pump inhibitors – personalizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Eugene Lin, Rajiv Padmanabhan, Majaz MoonisDepartment of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School and UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, USAIntroduction: Antiplatelet therapy remains one of the cornerstones in the management of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. However, a significant percentage of patients have concomitant gastroesophageal reflux or peptic ulcer disease that requires acid-reducing medications, the most powerful and effective being the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. Antiplatelet efficacy, at least in vivo, and particularly for clopidogrel, has been shown to be reduced with concomitant proton pump inhibitor use. Whether this is clinically relevant is not clear from the limited studies available.Methods: We conducted an extensive review of studies available on Medline related to pharmacodynamic interactions between the antiplatelet medications and proton pump inhibitors as well as clinical studies that addressed this potential interaction.Results: Based on the present pharmacodynamic and clinical studies we did not find a significant interaction that would reduce the efficacy of antiplatelet agents with concomitant user of proton pump inhibitors.Conclusions: Patients on antiplatelet agents after a transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke can safely use aspirin, and extended release dipyridamole/aspirin with proton pump inhibitors. Patients on clopidogrel may use other acid-reducing drugs besides proton pump inhibitors. In rare cases where proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel have to be used concurrently, careful close monitoring for recurrent vascular events is required.Keywords: proton pump inhibitors, antiplatelet medications, clopidogrel, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular events

  18. Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Maatouk, Mouna; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    in B16F10 and primary human keratinocyte cells. Our results indicate that hawthorn could be considered as a promising agent for the treatment of melanoma as it shows antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, hawthorn constituents are shown to be highly effective at inhibiting tyrosinase-mediated melanogenesis in vitro on melanoma cells by preventing oxidation in these cells and without affecting the viability of normal human keratinocyte cells. Then, hawthorn might also be used as a new candidate of natural skin depigmenting agents in skin care products. PMID:26795272

  19. Combining biological agents and chemotherapy in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Jakobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    is not always possible. Chemotherapy is effective and the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine is considered a standard treatment of inoperable cholangiocarcinoma. Biological targeted treatment to date has minor effect when given as monotherapy, but some of the drugs hold promise as an adjunct...... to chemotherapy. It should, however, be noted that most of the trials are based on few patients, and thus far the literature does not allow for a conclusion as to the role of biological treatment on cholangiocarcinoma. This situation calls for well-designed randomized trials, and international cooperation as well...

  20. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed. PMID:2252468

  1. Agents for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Theodore E

    2010-08-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug effect characterized by platelet activation, hypercoagulability, and increased risk of thrombosis, both venous and arterial. A diagnosis of HIT usually signifies that heparin products, including unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin, are contraindicated. Although it is uncertain whether heparin continuation really worsens clinical outcomes, it is clear that vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin do worsen outcomes, as they promote microvascular thrombosis, with the potential for limb amputation (venous limb gangrene). Thus, alternative nonheparin anticoagulants are at the forefront of HIT therapy. This review proposes that alternative anticoagulants (danaparoid, fondaparinux) that share certain properties of heparin-namely its irreversible antithrombin-mediated inhibition of factor Xa-and that have relatively long half-lives, have several advantages in the therapy for HIT over short-acting agents that inhibit thrombin directly (recombinant hirudin, argatroban, and bivalirudin). PMID:20659659

  2. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sohaib; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-12-04

    The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.). Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.

  3. Assessing treatment benefit with competing risks not affected by the randomized treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Edward L.; Dignam, James J.; Freidlin, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The comparison of overall survival curves between treatment arms will always be of interest in a randomized clinical trial involving a life-shortening disease. In some settings, the experimental treatment is only expected to affect the deaths caused by the disease, and the proportion of deaths caused by the disease is relatively low. In these settings, the ability to assess treatment-effect differences between Kaplan-Meier survival curves can be hampered by the large proportion of deaths in b...

  4. Embodied Agents, E-SQ and Stickiness: Improving Existing Cognitive and Affective Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diesbach, Pablo Brice

    This paper synthesizes results from two previous studies of embodied virtual agents on commercial websites. We analyze and criticize the proposed models and discuss the limits of the experimental findings. Results from other important research in the literature are integrated. We also integrate concepts from profound, more business-related, analysis that deepens on the mechanisms of rhetoric in marketing and communication, and the possible role of E-SQ in man-agent interaction. We finally suggest a refined model for the impacts of these agents on web site users, and limits of the improved model are commented.

  5. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  6. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621416

  8. Cannabinoids: New Promising Agents in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Giacoppo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cannabis sativa is considered the most extensively used narcotic. Nevertheless, this fame obscures its traditional employ in native medicine of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and in many regions of Asia as a therapeutic drug. In fact, the use of compounds containing Cannabis and their introduction in clinical practice is still controversial and strongly limited by unavoidable psychotropic effects. So, overcoming these adverse effects represents the main open question on the utilization of cannabinoids as new drugs for treatment of several pathologies. To date, therapeutic use of cannabinoid extracts is prescribed in patients with glaucoma, in the control of chemotherapy-related vomiting and nausea, for appetite stimulation in patients with anorexia-cachexia syndrome by HIV, and for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Recently, researcher efforts are aimed to employ the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis sativa in the modulation of cannabinoid receptor activity within the central nervous system, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders. This review evaluates the most recent available data on cannabinoids utilization in experimental and clinical studies, and highlights their beneficial effects in the prevention of the main neurological diseases and for the clinical treatment of symptoms with them correlated.

  9. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  10. Treatment of psoriasis with biologic agents in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Liam; Boffa, Michael J.; Clark, Eileen; Scerri, Lawrence; Aquilina, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biologic therapy has revolutionalised the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis leading to improved clinical outcomes and quality of life scores. This study aims to determine current biologic use in psoriatic patients at our Dermatology department at Sir Paul Boffa hospital, Malta. Method: All patients who were administered biologic therapy for psoriasis in Malta until the end of 2014 were included. Data included demographic details, disease dur...

  11. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millsop, Jillian W.; Sivamani, Raja K; Nasim Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other su...

  12. Treatment of public lice infestation: a comparison of two agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Walsh, J

    1980-12-01

    Bulletins issued by both the United States Public Health Service and the Pan American Health Organization have noted a sharp increase in the incidence of public lice infestation (pediculosis pubis) in this country. At the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic we conducted a controlled, open study comparing the efficacy and safety of Kwell Shampoo (gamma benzene hexachloride; lindane) with RID, an over-the-counter, pyrethrin-based pediculicide. The results showed the two treatments to be equally effective and safe. All adult lice, nymphs, and nits were eradicated at the one week follow-up in fifteen patients treated with single applications of either product. Two patients in each group experienced very slight and transient erythema.

  13. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  14. Novel compounds in the treatment of lung cancer: current and developing therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Rudi

    2011-01-01

    Rudi Bao, Pokman ChanOncology, Curis Inc, Lexington, MA, USAAbstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Though incremental advances have been made in the treatment of this devastating disease during the past decade, new therapies are urgently needed. Traditional cytotoxic agents have been combined with other modalities with improved survival for early-stage patients. Newer cytotoxic agents targeting the same or different mechanisms have been develo...

  15. Levocloperastine in the treatment of chronic nonproductive cough: comparative efficacy versus standard antitussive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliprandi, P; Castelli, C; Bernorio, S; Dell'Abate, E; Carrara, M

    2004-01-01

    The medical and social impact of cough is substantial. Current antitussive agents at effective doses have adverse events such as drowsiness, nausea and constipation that limit their use. There is also recent evidence that standard antitussive agents, such as codeine, may not reduce cough during upper respiratory infections. Therefore, there is a need for more effective and better-tolerated agents. The efficacy of levocloperastine, a novel antitussive, which acts both centrally on the cough center and on peripheral receptors in the tracheobronchial tree in treating chronic cough, was compared with that of other standard antitussive agents (codeine, levodropropizine and DL-cloperastine) in six open clinical trials. The studies enrolled patients of all ages with cough associated with various respiratory disorders including bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levocloperastine significantly improved cough symptoms (intensity and frequency of cough) in all trials, and improvements were observed after the first day of treatment. In children, levocloperastine reduced nighttime awakenings and irritability, and in adults it was effective in treating cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. When compared with other antitussive agents, levocloperastine had improved or comparable efficacy, with a more rapid onset of action. Importantly, no evidence of central adverse events was recorded with levocloperastine, whereas drowsiness was reported by a significant number of patients receiving codeine. Levocloperastine is an effective antitussive agent for the treatment of cough in patients of all ages. It has a more rapid onset of action than standard agents with an improved tolerability profile.

  16. Levocloperastine in the treatment of chronic nonproductive cough: comparative efficacy versus standard antitussive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliprandi, P; Castelli, C; Bernorio, S; Dell'Abate, E; Carrara, M

    2004-01-01

    The medical and social impact of cough is substantial. Current antitussive agents at effective doses have adverse events such as drowsiness, nausea and constipation that limit their use. There is also recent evidence that standard antitussive agents, such as codeine, may not reduce cough during upper respiratory infections. Therefore, there is a need for more effective and better-tolerated agents. The efficacy of levocloperastine, a novel antitussive, which acts both centrally on the cough center and on peripheral receptors in the tracheobronchial tree in treating chronic cough, was compared with that of other standard antitussive agents (codeine, levodropropizine and DL-cloperastine) in six open clinical trials. The studies enrolled patients of all ages with cough associated with various respiratory disorders including bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levocloperastine significantly improved cough symptoms (intensity and frequency of cough) in all trials, and improvements were observed after the first day of treatment. In children, levocloperastine reduced nighttime awakenings and irritability, and in adults it was effective in treating cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. When compared with other antitussive agents, levocloperastine had improved or comparable efficacy, with a more rapid onset of action. Importantly, no evidence of central adverse events was recorded with levocloperastine, whereas drowsiness was reported by a significant number of patients receiving codeine. Levocloperastine is an effective antitussive agent for the treatment of cough in patients of all ages. It has a more rapid onset of action than standard agents with an improved tolerability profile. PMID:15553659

  17. Identifying and Exploring Factors Affecting Embodied Conversational Agent Social Presence for Interpersonal Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Joon Hao

    2013-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been used as virtual conversational partners in interpersonal skills training applications such as medical interviews, military decision making, and cultural training. Ideally, in interpersonal skills training users will perceive and treat the ECAs the same as they would real people. The perception and…

  18. Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents for holistic treatment of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Baldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceuticals is one of the promising approaches for prevention and treatment of a large number of ailments. Nutrients, herbals and dietary supplements are major constituents of nutraceuticals, which make it instrumental in maintaining health, acting against various diseased conditions and thus to promote the quality of life. Diabetes mellitus is one of them. It is a multi-factorial metabolic disorder reflected by high blood sugar/glucose level. In spite of significant development in drug discovery to treat this disease, extensive efforts are on for finding a holistic approach by combining compounds from natural and synthetic drugs. Botanicals, vitamins, anti-oxidants, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids, collectively referred as ′nutraceuticals′, are important sources of new therapies for type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. This review summarises nutraceuticals with proven anti-diabetic potential in pre-clinical and clinical studies and explores the possibility of a new approach, ′polypathy′ for synergistic management of diabetes.

  19. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19412497

  20. Cisplatin encapsulated nanoparticle as a therapeutic agent for anticancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Gusti Ngurah Putu; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of manipulating size of biomaterials encapsulated drug into nano-scale particles has been researched and developed in treating cancer. Cancer is the second worldwide cause of death, therefore it is critical to treat cancers challenging with therapeutic modality of various mechanisms. Our preliminary investigation has studied cisplatin encapsulated into lipid-based nanoparticle and examined the therapeutic effect on xenografted animal model. We used mice with tumor volume ranging from 195 to 214 mm3 and then few mice were grouped into three groups including: control (PBS), lipid platinum chloride (LPC) nanoparticles and CDDP (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) at dose of 3mg cisplatin /kg body weight. The effect of the treatment was observed for 12 days post-injection. It showed that LPC NPs demonstrated a better therapeutic effect compared to CDDP at same 3mg cisplatin/kg drug dose of tumor size reduction, 96.6% and 11.1% respectively. In addition, mouse body weight loss of LPC, CDDP and PBS treated group are 12.1%, 24.3% and 1.4%. It means that by compared to CDDP group, LPC group demonstrated less side effect as not much reduction of body weight have found. Our findings have shown to be a potential modality to further investigate as a feasible cancer therapy modality.

  1. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  2. TREATMENT OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA WITH SINGLE-AGENT ARSENIC TRIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Mathews

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that arsenic trioxide (ATO is an efficacious agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Use of single agent ATO in the treatment of APL leads to remissions which are durable in the majority. ATO is probably the most effective single agent in the treatment of APL and there have been very few reports of primary resistance. It has been used both as a single agent and in combination with other conventional drugs to treat APL. Use of ATO is the accepted standard of care in the management of relapsed APL, where it is often used effectively as a bridge to a stem cell transplant. However, its role in newly diagnosed APL remains controversial. ATO probably has multiple mechanisms of action. Better understanding of its mechanisms of action/s is likely to lead to more rationale use of this agent or its derivatives either alone or in combination with other drugs. There is limited data on the kinetics of leukemia clearance and normal haematopoietic recovery after the administration of single agent ATO for the treatment of APL, preliminary data suggests that it is likely to be different from conventional therapy. There have been a number of concerns of the potential short and long term toxicity of this agent. Most such concerns arise from the toxicity profile noted in people exposed to long term arsenic exposure in the environment. With the therapeutic doses and schedules of administration of ATO in the treatment of malignancies the overall toxicity profile has been favorable. In a resource constrained environments the use of a single agent ATO based regimen is a realistic and acceptable option to treat almost all patients. In the developed world it has the potential in combination with other agents to improve the clinical outcome with reduction of dose intensity of chemotherapy and remains an option for patients who would not tolerate conventional therapy. In this review we focus on the use of single agent ATO for the

  3. Preparation of Nano Tourmaline Surface Treatment Agent and Its Application on Functional Wall fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Fangxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a kind of surface treatment agent and its application on the functional wall fabrics that can produce negative ion was reported. This surface treatment agent was prepared by using nano tourmaline powder dispersion with water as solvent produced by sand milling. The parameters of sand milling process, as well as powder diameter and its distribution, and the negative ion releasing behavior of the functional wall fabrics were discussed. The results showed that nano tourmaline had good dispersity stability with the number average diameter (d50 achieved 190nm and the polydispersity index reached to 0.220. The treated wall fabrics showed good performance in high adsorption with nano powder and high negative ions releasing ability. The negative ions releasing amount changes depending on the different surface treatment process of tourmaline dispersion and three-proofing agent. This facility technics could be widely used as industrial application.

  4. Hepcidin as a predictive factor and therapeutic target in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment for anemia of chronic disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurl, Milan; Nairz, Manfred; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Asshoff, Malte; Haschka, David; Seifert, Markus; Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Wilflingseder, Doris; Posch, Wilfried; Murphy, Anthony T; Witcher, Derrick R; Theurl, Igor; Weiss, Günter

    2014-09-01

    Anemia of chronic disease is a multifactorial disorder, resulting mainly from inflammation-driven reticuloendothelial iron retention, impaired erythropoiesis, and reduced biological activity of erythropoietin. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been used for the treatment of anemia of chronic disease, although with varying response rates and potential adverse effects. Serum concentrations of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, are increased in patients with anemia of chronic disease and linked to the pathogenesis of this disease, because hepcidin blocks cellular iron egress, thus limiting availability of iron for erythropoiesis. We tested whether serum hepcidin levels can predict and affect the therapeutic efficacy of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment using a well-established rat model of anemia of chronic disease. We found that high pre-treatment hepcidin levels correlated with an impaired hematologic response to an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in rats with anemia of chronic disease. Combined treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and an inhibitor of hepcidin expression, LDN-193189, significantly reduced serum hepcidin levels, mobilized iron from tissue stores, increased serum iron levels and improved hemoglobin levels more effectively than did the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent or LDN-193189 monotherapy. In parallel, both the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent/LDN-193189 combined reduced the expression of cytokines known to inhibit erythropoiesis. We conclude that serum hepcidin levels can predict the hematologic responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy in anemia of chronic disease. Pharmacological inhibition of hepcidin formation improves the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent's therapeutic efficacy, which may favor a reduction of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosages, costs and side effects.

  5. Role of "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogio, A G; Cavagnini, F

    2016-09-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), its treatment remains a challenge. When surgery has been unsuccessful or unfeasible as well in case of recurrence, the "old" pharmacological agents represent an important alternative for both ACTH-dependent and independent hypercortisolism. Especially in the latter, the advent of novel molecules directly targeting ACTH secretion has not outweighed the "old" drugs, which continue to be largely employed and have recently undergone a reappraisal. This review provides a survey of the "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of CS.

  6. Role of "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogio, A G; Cavagnini, F

    2016-09-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), its treatment remains a challenge. When surgery has been unsuccessful or unfeasible as well in case of recurrence, the "old" pharmacological agents represent an important alternative for both ACTH-dependent and independent hypercortisolism. Especially in the latter, the advent of novel molecules directly targeting ACTH secretion has not outweighed the "old" drugs, which continue to be largely employed and have recently undergone a reappraisal. This review provides a survey of the "old" pharmacological agents in the treatment of CS. PMID:27086313

  7. An Agent-Based Epidemic Simulation of Social Behaviors Affecting HIV Transmission among Taiwanese Homosexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations are currently used to identify epidemic dynamics, to test potential prevention and intervention strategies, and to study the effects of social behaviors on HIV transmission. The author describes an agent-based epidemic simulation model of a network of individuals who participate in high-risk sexual practices, using number of partners, condom usage, and relationship length to distinguish between high- and low-risk populations. Two new concepts—free links and fixed lin...

  8. Evaluating affective feedback of the 3D agent Max in a competitive cards game

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Asano, Christian; Prendinger, Helmut; Ishizuka, Mitsuro; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Tao, Jianhua; Tan, Tieniu; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2005-01-01

    Within the field of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs), the simulation of emotions has been suggested as a means to enhance the believability of ECAs and also to effectively contribute to the goal of more intuitive human–computer interfaces. Although various emotion models have been proposed, results demonstrating the appropriateness of displaying particular emotions within ECA applications are scarce or even inconsistent. Worse, questionnaire methods often seem insufficient to evaluate th...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  10. An agent-based epidemic simulation of social behaviors affecting HIV transmission among Taiwanese homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations are currently used to identify epidemic dynamics, to test potential prevention and intervention strategies, and to study the effects of social behaviors on HIV transmission. The author describes an agent-based epidemic simulation model of a network of individuals who participate in high-risk sexual practices, using number of partners, condom usage, and relationship length to distinguish between high- and low-risk populations. Two new concepts-free links and fixed links-are used to indicate tendencies among individuals who either have large numbers of short-term partners or stay in long-term monogamous relationships. An attempt was made to reproduce epidemic curves of reported HIV cases among male homosexuals in Taiwan prior to using the agent-based model to determine the effects of various policies on epidemic dynamics. Results suggest that when suitable adjustments are made based on available social survey statistics, the model accurately simulates real-world behaviors on a large scale.

  11. Fabric tensile strength as affected by different anti pilling agents at various concentration and ph levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects. (author)

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation as an immunosuppressive agent for transplantation and the treatment of 'autoimmune' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a powerful immunosuppressive agent. This immunosuppression has the potential for clinical application in certain selected situations. In this review, the immunological changes produced by TLI and its potential applications in organ transplantation and the treatment of certain 'autoimmune' diseases are discussed. (author)

  13. 77 FR 62521 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer and T- cell Lymphoma AGENCY: National... metastatic breast cancer, or ii) incorporating a p53 isoform antisense oligonucleotide as a single biologic... of a p53 Isoform in Regenerative Medicine, Aging and Cancer'' . The patent rights in these...

  14. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  15. Targeted therapy using novel agents in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Roy S

    2002-03-01

    Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor prognosis and high mortality. The therapeutic improvement caused by the new generation of cytotoxic agents seems to have reached a plateau. The main categories of targeted therapeutics applicable for NSCLC include receptor-targeted therapy, signal transduction or cell-cycle inhibition, angiogenesis inhibitors, gene therapy, and vaccines. Several major classes of agents directed at specific cellular mechanisms exist for the treatment of NSCLC. The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) group contains trastuzumab and IMC-C225, monoclonal antibodies against EGFRs that are overexpressed in many cancers. OSI-774 and ZD1839 are inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase, a key enzyme of the signaling pathway. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors, such as SCH66336, and protein kinase C inhibitors, such as ISIS 3521, have also shown antitumor activity. Antiangiogenesis agents that have shown promise include TNP-470, recombinant endostatin, and angiostatin. Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also seem to control tumor progression and may prolong survival. LY317615, an inhibitor of protein kinase Cb, augmented the tumor growth delay produced by cytotoxic drugs. All of these agents are in different phases of clinical testing and have shown encouraging activity as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy drugs. These new agents are more target specific, less toxic, easier to administer, and may lead to enhanced safety and survival for patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:14720353

  16. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  17. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  18. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  19. Therapeutic use of dextromethorphan: key learnings from treatment of pseudobulbar affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ariel; Panitch, Hillel

    2007-08-15

    A variety of neurological conditions and disease states are accompanied by pseudobulbar affect (PBA), an emotional disorder characterized by uncontrollable outbursts of laughing and crying. The causes of PBA are unclear but may involve lesions in neural circuits regulating the motor output of emotional expression. Several agents used in treating other psychiatric disorders have been applied in the treatment of PBA with some success but data are limited and these agents are associated with unpleasant side effects due to nonspecific activity in diffuse neural networks. Dextromethorphan (DM), a widely used cough suppressant, acts at receptors in the brainstem and cerebellum, brain regions implicated in the regulation of emotional output. The combination of DM and quinidine (Q), an enzyme inhibitor that blocks DM metabolism, has recently been tested in phase III clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and was both safe and effective in palliating PBA symptoms. In addition, clinical studies pertaining to the safety and efficacy of DM/Q in a variety of neurological disease states are ongoing. PMID:17433820

  20. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  1. Alternative agents to vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culos, Kathryn A; Cannon, Joan P; Grim, Shellee A

    2013-01-01

    Resistant gram-positive infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carry an increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Historically, MRSA has been a cause of nosocomial infections, although recent reports have noted an increased prevalence in community-acquired MRSA infections. Vancomycin is the preferred agent to treat MRSA. However, cases of S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin have been reported, prompting the need for alternative treatment options. In this review, we discuss the currently available agents with MRSA activity and those in development. Linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been demonstrated as effective although potential toxicities must be taken into consideration before their use. Daptomycin, tigecycline, telavancin, and ceftaroline are well tolerated but lack the clinical data to support a superior place in treatment over vancomycin. Several new agents in various stages of development have also demonstrated MRSA activity. Currently, vancomycin remains the gold-standard treatment option for MRSA infections. In situations that limit its use, consideration of patient-specific parameters, cost, and relevant clinical data demonstrating drug safety and efficacy should be employed for the selection of the appropriate alternative agent. PMID:21642833

  2. Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH3) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

  3. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  4. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Oghabian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3, a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-yearold male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols.

  5. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents in the Treatment of Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gaudreault

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing scientific information clearly demonstrates the important role of inflammation in asthma. This evidence has led physicians to focus their treatment on the elimination of inflammation instead of working solely against bronchoconstriction. Steroids and nonsteroidal agents are currently used to prevent this inflammatory component. This paper focuses only on nonstcroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as sodium cromoglycate, nedocromil sodium and ketotifen and their use in pediatric asthma. The discussion on each medication addresses its mechanism of action, the evidence concerning its efficacy in pediatrics (ie, clinical pharmacology, acute bronchial challenge, late asthmatic response, bronchial hyperrcactivity, clinical efficacy and the pediatric dose.

  6. Potential use of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endophytic fungi as seed treatment agents against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ning YAN; Richard A. SIKORA; Jing-wu ZHENG

    2011-01-01

    Seed treatment with endophytic fungi has been regarded as an effective method for plant parasitic nematode control. Endophytic fungi from cucumber seedlings were isolated and screened for their potential to be used as seed treatment agents against Meloidogyne incognita. Among the 294 isolates screened, 23 significantly reduced galls formed by M. incognita in greenhouse test. The 10 most effective isolates were Fusarium (5), Trichoderma (1), Chaetomium (1),Acremonium (1), Paecilomyces (1), and Phyllosticta (1). Their control efficacies were repeatedly tested and their colonizations as well as in vitro activity against M. incognita were studied. They reduced the number of galls by 24.0%58.4% in the first screening and 15.6%-44.3% in the repeated test, respectively. Phyllosticta Ph511 and Chaetomium Ch1001 had high colonizations on both the roots and the aboveground parts of cucumber seedlings. Fusarium isolates had colonization preference on the roots, their root colonizations ranging from 20.1% to 47.3% of the total root area. Trichoderma Tr882, Paecilomyces Pa972, and Acremonium Ac985 had low colonizations on both the roots and the aboveground parts. Acremonium Ac985, Chaetomium Ch1001, Paecilomyces Pa972, and Phyllosticta Ph511 produced compounds affecting motility of the second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Based on these results, Chaetomium Ch1001 was considered to have the highest potential as a seed treatment agent for M. incognita biocontrol.

  7. How Is the Enamel Affected by Different Orthodontic Bonding Agents and Polishing Techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of new bonding techniques on enamel surface.Materials and Methods: Sixty upper central incisors were randomly divided into two equal groups. In the first group, metal brackets were bonded using Trans- bondXT and, in the second group, the same brackets were bonded with MaxcemElite. The shear bond strength (SBS of both agents to enamel was measured and the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding, after debonding and after polishing were compared. The number of visible cracks and the adhesive remnant index (ARI scores in each group were also measured.Results: There were significantly more enamel cracks in the Transbond XT group after debonding and polishing compared to the Maxcem Elite group. There was no significant difference in the length of enamel cracks between the two groups; but, in each group, a significant increase in the length of enamel cracks was noticeable after debonding. Polishing did not cause any statistically significant change in crack length. The SBS of Maxcem Elite was significantly lower than that of Transbond XT (95% confidence interval.Conclusion: Maxcem Elite offers clinically acceptable bond strength and can thus be used as a routine adhesive for orthodontic purposes since it is less likely todamage the enamel.

  8. Identification and quantification of principal–agent problems affecting energy efficiency investments and use decisions in the trucking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy related Principal–Agent (PA) problems cause inefficient combinations of investment, operating costs, and usage behavior. The complex market structure of the trucking industry contributes to split incentives because entities responsible for investments in energy efficiency do not always pay fuel costs and drivers are often not rewarded for fuel-efficient operation. Some contractual relationships exist in the trucking industry that hinder responses to fuel price signals. Up to 91% of total trucking fuel consumption in the U.S. is affected by “usage” PA problems, where the driver does not pay fuel costs and lacks incentive for fuel saving operation. Approximately 23% of trailers are exposed to an “efficiency problem” when owners of rented trailers do not pay fuel costs and therefore have little incentive to invest in efficiency upgrades such as improved trailer aerodynamics and reduced tire rolling resistance. This study shows that PA problems have the potential to significantly increase fuel consumption through avoided investments, insufficient maintenance, and fuel-wasting practices. Further research into the causes and effects of PA problems can shape policies to promote better alignment of costs and benefits, leading to reduced fuel use and carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We identify and quantify principal agent market failures in the trucking industry. ► Up to 91% of truck fuel consumption is exposed to a usage principal–agent market failure. ► Twenty-three percent of trailers are exposed to an efficiency principal–agent market failure. ► These market failures at least partially insulate key decision makers from fuel price signals.

  9. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan [Department of Electrochemistry, Universität Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet [Department of Optoelectonics, Universität Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari [School of Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahbar, Nima, E-mail: nrahbar@wpi.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30 × magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments. - Highlights: • Understanding the dominant mechanism of bonding

  10. The combination of novel targeted molecular agents and radiation in the treatment of pediatric gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eDasgupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric malignancy. For high-grade, recurrent or refractory pediatric brain tumors, radiation therapy (XRT is an integral treatment modality. In the era of personalized cancer therapy, molecularly targeted agents have been designed to inhibit pathways critical to tumorigenesis. Our evolving knowledge of genetic aberrations in low-grade gliomas is being exploited with targeted inhibitors. These agents are also being combined with XRT to increase their efficacy. In this review, we discuss novel agents targeting three different pathways in low-grade gliomas, and their potential combination with XRT. B-Raf is a kinase in the Ras/Raf/MAPK kinase pathway, which is integral to cellular division, survival and metabolism. In low-grade pediatric gliomas, point mutations in BRAF (BRAF V600E or a BRAF fusion mutation (KIAA1549:BRAF causes overactivation of the MEK/MAPK pathway. Pre-clinical data shows cooperation between XRT and tagrgeted inhibitors of BRAF V600E, and MEK and mTOR inhibitors in the gliomas with the BRAF fusion. A second important signaling cascade in pediatric glioma pathogenesis is the PI3 kinase (PI3K/mTOR pathway. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors are poised to enter studies of pediatric tumors. Finally, many brain tumors express potent stimulators of angiogenesis. Several inhibitors of immunomodulators are currently being evaluated in in clinical trials for the treatment of recurrent or refractory pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors. In summary, combinations of these targeted inhibitors with radiation are currently under investigation in both translational bench research and early clinical trials. We summarize the molecular rationale for, and the pre-clinical data supporting the combinations of these targeted agents with other anti-cancer agents and XRT in pediatric gliomas. Parallels are drawn to adult gliomas, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of these agents is discussed

  11. Update on the use of systemic biologic agents in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasadhika S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirichai Pasadhika,1 James T Rosenbaum2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Southern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Legacy Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Noninfectious uveitis may be associated with other systemic conditions, such as human leukocyte antigen B27-related spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation or prevent non-ophthalmic complications in refractory patients. Off-label use of biologic response modifiers has been studied as primary and secondary therapeutic agents. They are very useful when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed or has been poorly tolerated, or to treat concomitant ophthalmic and systemic inflammation that might benefit from these medications. Biologic therapy, primarily infliximab, and adalimumab, have been shown to be rapidly effective for the treatment of various subtypes of refractory uveitis and retinal vasculitis, especially Behçet's disease-related eye conditions and the uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Other agents such as golimumab, abatacept, canakinumab, gevokizumab, tocilizumab, and alemtuzumab may have great future promise for the treatment of uveitis. It has been shown that with proper monitoring, biologic therapy can significantly improve quality of life in patients with uveitis, particularly those with concurrent systemic symptoms. However, given high cost as well as the limited long-term safety data, we do not routinely recommend biologics as first-line therapy for noninfectious uveitis in most patients. These agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present

  12. A New Diverting Agent Material for Hydraulic Fracturing Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In-fissure divert fracturing technology, in which diverting agent is added. It can create new branch fractures and micro fractures, increase the area of fluid-release and achieve the goal of production and injection increase. This paper introduces a new diverting agent material with different kinds of petroleum resins. A series of evaluation including compatibility, efficiency and dissolved time was put forward. The results showed that the soluble rate of this agent is from 6 h to 12h and with increasing temperature and prolonging dissolved time, soluble rate reach 96% at 110° indicated good solubility. The critical flow velocity of sand production increases more than 30 ~ 60 times with adding fiber. The highest breakthrough pressure can reach 0.5MPa in 10 cm cores containing 9‰ diverting agent in the fracturing fluid. Meanwhile, it has minimal impact on flow conductivity .It had good flow back after treatment the viscosity was 13-54 mPa.s. Moreover, a special instrument was introduced to evaluate the performances of fracture conductivity and diverting. More than 24 treatments with this new material in X oil field have been performed with encouraging results with an average post-fracturing rate 11m3/d. It has great influences on new chemical material for improving complex fractures net-work of hydraulic fracturing in tight oil and gas reservoirs.

  13. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses f

  14. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5

  15. Estimating the Impact of Expanding Treatment Coverage and Allocation Strategies for Chronic Hepatitis C in a Direct Antiviral Agent Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Pan-ngum, Wirichada; White, Lisa J.; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Wilairatana, Polrat; Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important worldwide public health problem, and most of the global HCV burden is in low- to middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the future burden of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and the impact of public health policies using novel antiviral agents in Thailand. A mathematical model of CHC transmission dynamics was constructed to examine the disease burden over the next 20 years using different treatment strategies. We compared and evaluated the current treatment (PEGylated interferon and ribavirin) with new treatments using novel direct-acting antiviral agents among various treatment policies. Thailand’s CHC prevalence was estimated to decrease 1.09%–0.19% in 2015–2035. Expanding treatment coverage (i.e., a five-fold increment in treatment accessibility) was estimated to decrease cumulative deaths (33,007 deaths avoided, 25.5% reduction) from CHC-related decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The yearly incidence of HCC-associated HCV was estimated to decrease from 2,305 to 1,877 cases yearly with expanding treatment coverage. A generalized treatment scenario (i.e., an equal proportional distribution of available treatment to individuals at all disease stages according to the number of cases at each stage) was predicted to further reduce death from HCC (9,170 deaths avoided, 11.3% reduction) and the annual incidence of HCC (i.e., a further decrease from 1,877 to 1,168 cases yearly, 37.7% reduction), but cumulative deaths were predicted to increase (by 3,626 deaths, 3.7% increase). Based on the extensive coverage scenario and the generalized treatment scenario, we estimated near-zero death from decompensated cirrhosis in 2031. In conclusion, CHC-related morbidity and mortality in Thailand are estimated to decrease dramatically over the next 20 years. Treatment coverage and allocation strategies are important factors that affect the future burden of CHC in resource-limited countries like

  16. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  17. Effectiveness of treatment of patients affected by trochanter major enthesitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kaljić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enthesitis of the trochanter major is characterized by pain and often by limping when walking, then pain, tension, swelling, increased warmth and redness in the area of trochanter, and hip weaknessespecially when performing exercises with resistance. Research goals: Determine the effectiveness of treatment of major trochanter enthesitis, and analyze the representation of it in patients of both gender, different ages and professions.Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from the clinic "Praxis" in the period from 01.01.2001. to 31.12.2011. year because of the major trochanter enthesitis 30 patients were treated. Criteria for inclusion in the study were those people with symptoms and diagnosis of of the trochanter major enthesitis who have accessed treatment, while the criteria for exclusion were inadequate diagnosis, treatment abandonment and lack ofpatient data. The process of therapy included the evaluation of the functional status of patients graded 0-5, then conducted physical therapy that included: bed rest, manual massage and local instillation of depot corticosteroids, and assessment of treatment success ranging from 0 to 5.Research results: The mean score for condition of respondents was 3.27 before therapy, while after treatment it was 4.33. The mean score for status of respondents was 3.13 before treatment, and after therapy itwas 4.33.Conslusion: Based on these data we can conclude that treatment in the clinic "Praxis" leads to the improvement in patients suffering from the enthesitis of trochanter major.

  18. The Next Wave of Biological Agents for the Treatment of IBD: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Reena; Chande, Nilesh; Vermeire, Séverine; Sandborn, William J; Parker, Claire E; Feagan, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Multiple new biological treatments for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are becoming available. Specifically, vedolizumab and ustekinumab are monoclonal antibodies that target molecular pathways relevant to disease pathogenesis. What can Cochrane reviews tell us about the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of these new agents? A Cochrane inflammatory bowel disease group symposium held at the 2015 Digestive Diseases Week annual meeting addressed these questions. This article reviews the data presented at that session. PMID:27306074

  19. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  20. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelle W Noorlander

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  1. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  2. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  3. Biofilm matrix composition affects the susceptibility of food associated staphylococci to cleaning and disinfection agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eFagerlund

    2016-06-01

    polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity towards a commonly used disinfectant.

  4. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  5. Biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis treatment%类风湿关节炎的生物制剂治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 袁国华

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disabling diease, seriously affecting the patients' quality of life. Traditional drugs treatment for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs,however,these drugs are often not satisfied to control the condition of refractory rheumatoid arthritis,and resulting in severe joint damage. Recently , the emergence of multiple biological agents brought hope to the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients These agents play an important role in the control of rheumatic conditions and the improvement of quality of life in PtA patients.%类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)是一种常见的致残性疾病,严重影响患者的生活质量.传统的RA药物治疗主要包括非甾体抗炎药、糖皮质激素以及慢作用药物,然而这些药物常常不能满意控制那些难治性RA患者的病情,最终导致关节进行性破坏.近年,由于多种生物制剂的出现,为治疗难治性RA带来了希望,这些生物制剂在控制风湿病情和改善生活质量方面发挥了重要作用.

  6. The Role of Common Pharmaceutical Agents on the Prevention and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sunil; Boffetta, Paolo; Lucas, Aimee L

    2016-09-15

    Survival from pancreatic cancer remains poor. Conventional treatment has resulted in only marginal improvements in survival compared with survival in the previous several decades. Thus, considerable interest has emerged regarding the potential use of common pharmaceutical agents as chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic options. Aspirin, metformin, statins, β-blockers, and bisphosphonates have biologically plausible mechanisms to inhibit pancreatic neoplasia, whereas dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors may promote it. Regardless, real-world epidemiological data remain inconclusive. This review examines the hypotheses, evidence, and current state of the literature for each of these medications and their potential roles in the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27563018

  7. The Role of Common Pharmaceutical Agents on the Prevention and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sunil; Boffetta, Paolo; Lucas, Aimee L.

    2016-01-01

    Survival from pancreatic cancer remains poor. Conventional treatment has resulted in only marginal improvements in survival compared with survival in the previous several decades. Thus, considerable interest has emerged regarding the potential use of common pharmaceutical agents as chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic options. Aspirin, metformin, statins, β-blockers, and bisphosphonates have biologically plausible mechanisms to inhibit pancreatic neoplasia, whereas dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors may promote it. Regardless, real-world epidemiological data remain inconclusive. This review examines the hypotheses, evidence, and current state of the literature for each of these medications and their potential roles in the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27563018

  8. New agents for the treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Daniel T; Liu, Jiuyu; Lee, Robin B; Lee, Richard E

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate dosing and incomplete treatment regimens, coupled with the ability of the tuberculosis bacilli to cause latent infections that are tolerant of currently used drugs, have fueled the rise of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Treatment of MDR-TB infections is a major clinical challenge that has few viable or effective solutions; therefore patients face a poor prognosis and years of treatment. This review focuses on emerging drug classes that have the potential for treating MDR-TB and highlights their particular strengths as leads including their mode of action, in vivo efficacy, and key medicinal chemistry properties. Examples include the newly approved drugs bedaquiline and delaminid, and other agents in clinical and late preclinical development pipeline for the treatment of MDR-TB. Herein, we discuss the challenges to developing drugs to treat tuberculosis and how the field has adapted to these difficulties, with an emphasis on drug discovery approaches that might produce more effective agents and treatment regimens. PMID:27151308

  9. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Rojas, J B; Verreth, J A J; Amato, S; Huisman, E A

    2003-09-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 gkg(-1) molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P<0.05). Similarly, true protein values tended to increase. The cellulose and total phenols levels of E-CoP were lower than OD-CoP (P<0.05). The E-CoP tannins levels tended to be lower than OD-CoP whereas caffeine levels remained unaffected. Improvement in the nutritional quality of E-CoP was associated with higher fat and protein contents and reduction of cellulose, total phenols and tannins. The aerobic decomposition treatment improved the nutritional quality of CoP by increasing true protein and fat contents. In addition, total phenols, tannins, caffeine and cellulose contents were reduced by an increase in treatment time (P<0.05). Bacterial treatment increased the protein content of CoP after 21 days (from 137 to 392 gkg(-1)) and decreased it after 28 days. Cellulose, total phenols, tannins and caffeine contents reduced with an increase in time of bacterial degradation. Bacterial treatment improved the CoP quality by increasing protein content and reducing cellulose and ANFs, especially after 21 days of treatment. Both the aerobic decomposition (after 21-28 days) and the aerobic bacterial degradation of CoP (after 21 days) appeared more suitable to improve the nutritional quality of CoP than the ensiling.

  10. Multiple Principal-Agent Model of SMEs Pollution Regulation under Centralized Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pollution regulation game model under multiple principal-agent among government, pollutant treatment enterprise and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is developed to study the pollution regulation mechanism under centralized treatment mode. The optimal regulation mechanism is obtained through theoretic and numeric analysis. It is found that with the supervision costs on pollutant emission, government can not achieve the optimal social welfare but the sub-optimal through supervision and regulation; government should charge a fine as big as possible on pollutant treatment enterprise instead of SMEs to reduce the emission of untreated pollutants, and guide the price-making of pollutant treatment enterprise instead of making by itself freely, in order to increase social welfare.

  11. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  12. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Rahbar, Nima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30× magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments. PMID:24268263

  13. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Rahbar, Nima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30× magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments.

  14. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Pingting Liu; Zhiyu Huang; Hao Deng; Rongsha Wang; Shuixiang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by am...

  15. The combination of novel targeted molecular agents and radiation in the treatment of pediatric gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tina; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric malignancy. For high-grade, recurrent, or refractory pediatric brain tumors, radiation therapy (XRT) is an integral treatment modality. In the era of personalized cancer therapy, molecularly targeted agents have been designed to inhibit pathways critical to tumorigenesis. Our evolving knowledge of genetic aberrations in pediatric gliomas is being exploited with the use of specific targeted inhibitors. These agents are additionally being combined with XRT to increase the efficacy and duration of local control. In this review, we discuss novel agents targeting three different pathways in gliomas, and their potential combination with XRT. BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase in the RAS/RAF/MAPK kinase pathway, which is integral to cellular division, survival, and metabolism. Two-thirds of pilocytic astrocytomas, a low-grade pediatric glioma, contain a translocation within the BRAF gene called KIAA1549:BRAF that causes an overactivation of the MEK/MAPK signaling cascade. In vitro and in vivo data support the use of MEK or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in low-grade gliomas expressing this translocation. Additionally, 15-20% of high-grade pediatric gliomas express BRAF V600E, an activating mutation of the BRAF gene. Pre-clinical in vivo and in vitro data in BRAF V600E gliomas demonstrate dramatic cooperation between XRT and small molecule inhibitors of BRAF V600E. Another major signaling cascade that plays a role in pediatric glioma pathogenesis is the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR pathway, known to be upregulated in the majority of high- and low-grade pediatric gliomas. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors are in clinical trials for adult high-grade gliomas and are poised to enter studies of pediatric tumors. Finally, many brain tumors express potent stimulators of angiogenesis that render them refractory to treatment. An analog of thalidomide, CC-5103 increases the secretion of critical cytokines of the tumor

  16. Study of combination treatment effect of the {sup 166}Ho and anticancer agents in-vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, S. M.; Choi, S. J.; Park, K. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    For the development of new controlled drug delivery systems, the application of combination therapy using radioisotopes and tumor static agents has drawn great attention. This study was designed to estimate the treatment effect of the combination therapy with Holmium ({sup 166}Ho) and tumor static agents. Ho-166 was produced at the KAERI using HANARO reactor. The drugs applied were Sunpla, Methotrexate and Doxorubicin. Human glioblastoma (T98G), adenocarcinoma (MKN45), hepatocellular (Hep3B), lung carcinoma (Calu6), ovary adenocarcinoma (NIH:OVCAR- 3) and rat glioma (C6) were used. The cell cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines determined by MTT assay. In the case where the chemotherapeutic agent was solely applied to the cell lines, the IC{sub 50} values wer e 2.4x10{sup -5}M of the Sunpla for MKN45 and 4.23x10{sup -6}M of the Doxorubicin for Calu6. The radioactivity of Ho-166 occurring 20% apoptosis was 10{mu}Ci. As for Sunpla and Doxorubicin, the value of IC20 was dependent on the cell lines used. The combination treatment of {sup 166}Ho and drug was to improve therapeutic success rate in T98G, MKN45, Hep3B, and Calu6. From this in vitro study it can be concluded that combining 166Ho radionuclide therapy and chemotherapy could enhance the effect of each in eliminating proliferating tumor cells.

  17. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odes S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing role in altering the natural history of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and is improving patient prognosis. However, indications for treatment and issues with drug costs and value for money remain unclear. Also, when to perform early intervention with biologic agents is at present unclear. We performed an extensive literature search and review to address these issues. The biologics provide better care for many patients. The choice of biologic agent, the indications for its use, the switch between agents, and the considerations of cost are outlined, with a view to guiding the treating physician in managing these cases. Outstanding issues and anticipated future developments are defined.Keywords: biologic therapy, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cost-effectiveness

  18. Agent-based model of laser hair removal: A treatment optimization and patient education tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracking of various parameters associated with laser hair removal is tedious and time consuming. The currently available mathematical models are not simple enough for physicians to be used as a treatment optimization and patient education tool. Aim: The aim of the study was to develop a mathematical model for laser hair removal using agent-based modeling and to make a user-friendly simulation environment. Methods: The model was created using NetLogo. The hairs were modeled as agents oscillating between anagen and telogen. The variables were assigned based on published data whenever possible and the various paths the agent could take were coded as conditional statements. The improvement was assessed using an arbitrary index which takes into account the mean diameter and pigmentation along with the number and length of hairs visible above the surface. Few of the commonly encountered scenarios were simulated using the model. Results: The model is made freely available online (http://www.gulfdoctor.net/model/lhr.htm. Limited number of simulations performed indicated that an eight-week gap between laser sessions may be more effective than a four-week gap. Conclusions: The simulation provides a reliable tool for treatment optimization and patient education as obtaining relevant clinical data is slow and labor-intensive. Its visual interface and online availability makes it useful for everyday use.

  19. Causal explanations affect judgments of the need for psychological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowing what event precipitated a client's abnormal behaviors makes the client appear more normal than if the event is not known (Meehl, 1973. Does such knowledge also influence judgments of the need for psychological treatment, and if so, does it matter whether the precipitating event was inside or outside the client's control? We presented undergraduates with cases of hypothetical clients exhibiting abnormal behaviors and manipulated whether they were also told of a precipitating event explaining those behaviors. Knowing the precipitant significantly reduced perceptions of clients' need for treatment, but only when the precipitating event was outside the client's control. These findings call into question the notion that it need always be beneficial for an outside reasoner to uncover the root cause of a client's psychological problems, particularly when the root cause is still unknown to the client. The rationality of the effect and additional implications for decision-making are discussed.

  20. Efficacy of chelating agents for treatment of acute uranium intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelating agents (8102, 7601, 811, 7603, 8307, DTPA) were tested for treatment of acute uranium intoxication in rats. All phenolic chelating agents distinctively increased removal of uranium when they were injected immediately after intoxication of uranyl nitrate. 8102 was the best of them on removing uranium. After a single i.m. injection of 8102 at dose of 500 mg/kg, the excretion of uranium in the urine was 2.9 times higher than that for control, and the retention of uranium in kidneys was their 29%. When 8102 was administered 1 h before and up to 4 h after intoxication, it markedly increased the removal of uranium. When 8102 was administered to rats 1 h before intoxication, the histological lesion in kidneys was only a slight hydropic degeneration of the tubule epithelial cells. On the contrary, there wa a severe necrosis of the tubule epithelial cells in kidneys for controls

  1. Recent Progress and Advances in HGF/MET-Targeted Therapeutic Agents for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilong Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF: MET axis is a ligand-mediated receptor tyrosine kinase pathway that is involved in multiple cellular functions, including proliferation, survival, motility, and morphogenesis. Aberrancy in the HGF/MET pathway has been reported in multiple tumor types and is associated with tumor stage and prognosis. Thus, targeting the HGF/MET pathway has become a potential therapeutic strategy in oncology development in the last two decades. A number of novel therapeutic agents—either as therapeutic proteins or small molecules that target the HGF/MET pathway—have been tested in patients with different tumor types in clinical studies. In this review, recent progress in HGF/MET pathway-targeted therapy for cancer treatment, the therapeutic potential of HGF/MET-targeted agents, and challenges in the development of such agents will be discussed.

  2. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  3. Newly Approved Agents for the Treatment and Prevention of Pediatric Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of pediatric migraine remains an unmet medical need. There continues to be a paucity of pediatric randomized controlled trials for the treatment of migraine, both in the acute and preventive settings. Pediatric studies are often complicated by high placebo-response rates and much of our current practice is based on adult trials. This lack of significant pediatric studies results in a wide variation in migraine management both amongst clinicians and between institutions, and evidence-based treatments are not always administered. In this article, we aim to briefly review newly approved abortive and preventive agents for migraine in the pediatric age group. Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, aspirin, and acetaminophen are reasonable first-line options for abortive therapy. In addition, studies have shown triptans, or migraine-specific agents, to be safe and effective in children and adolescents and several formulations have been approved for the pediatric population, including rizatriptan, almotriptan, zolmitriptan nasal spray, and naproxen sodium/sumatriptan in combination. PMID:27503180

  4. Role of chemotherapy and novel biological agents in the treatment of elderly patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerardo Rosati; Domenico Bilancia

    2008-01-01

    Patients older than 65 years are the fastest growing segment of the cancer population. It is estimated that within 20 years over 75% of cases and 85% of deaths from colorectal cancer (CRC) will be in this setting. Concerns about cancer treatment in the elderly relate to comorbidities, which increase proportionally with age, physiological changes associated with aging which may influence drug metabolism and toxicity, and diminishing life expectancy, which particularly impacts decisions surrounding the benefits of adjuvant therapies. Over the last 10 years, significant improvements in the treatment of advanced CRC with combination therapy have been made. The randomized trials which have defined these improvements did not exclude elderly patients. However, the median age of patients in these trials has generally been approximately 60 years. Thus, it appears that some degree of selection is involved with younger and presumably fitter patients being the subjects in most of the pivotal trials. The availability of new molecularly targeted agents and newly improved existing agents has expanded the range of treatment options available. This variety gives greater flexibility in dealing with different subsets of patients, such as the elderly. However, some fit elderly patients seem to tolerate combination therapy reasonably well, while studies on unfit elderly subjects are needed.

  5. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...... and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. CONCLUSIONS: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most of the rating scales, but correlations were modest in size, possibly due to the number of different factors influencing...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  6. The Role of Biological Agents and Immunomodulators in Treatment Strategies for Thyroid Eye Disease: An Evidence-based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Anna; Migliori, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disease where circulating antibodies bind to the thyrotropin receptors on the thyroid gland. These bound antibodies mimic thyroid stimulating hormone without the normal feedback from the anterior pituitary, causing hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. These antibodies also interact with orbital tissues and cause the characteristic orbital findings of thyroid eye disease (TED). It is not clearly understood why anatomically and physiologically distinct tissues like the thyroid gland and orbit are affected selectively, or why the orbital disease tends to be self-limited. Identifying and understanding these processes is critical to targeting therapy. In the active phase of the disease patients may experience orbital inflammation, eyelid and conjunctiva edema (chemosis), eyelid retraction, proptosis, ocular motility restriction, and optic nerve compression. Current treatment strategies for the ocular symptoms have been predominantly directed at symptomatic relief. More recently, investigators have concentrated their efforts to better understanding the underlying pathophysiologic processes to direct therapy at these processes. This review examines the current literature exploring a variety of newer therapeutic alternatives, including immunomodulative and suppressive agents, targeted at strategic points of the active-phase TED pathophysiological pathways. Specifically, biological agents including rituximab, adalimumab, intravenous immunoglobulin and others are reviewed with considerations for pathophysiology, extent of literature support, and adverse effects. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-06.asp, free with no login].

  7. Use of Biologic Agents in Combination with Other Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cather, Jennifer C.; Crowley, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which is associated with a significant negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. Traditional therapies for psoriasis are often not able to meet desired treatment goals, and high-dose and/or long-term use is associated with toxicities that can result in end-organ damage. An improved understanding of the involvement of cytokines in the etiology of psoriasis has led to the development of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF...

  8. Agentes Biológicos en el tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide Biological Agents in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz-Coto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El mayor conocimiento inmuno-patológico de la artritis reumatoide permitió mediante una sofisticada tecnología molecular elaborar antagonistas contra blancos específicos en diversos pasos de la inmuno patogenia de la enfermedad. Existe una amplia evidencia sobre la eficacia, tolerabilidad y seguridad de estos agentes en diferentes escenarios clínicos de la artritis reumatoide. La introducción de estos agentes biológicos en el arsenal terapéutico de la artritis reumatoide ha marcado un hito en su evolución y pronóstico artritis reumatoide.A better understanding of the immuno-pathological rheumatoid arthritis enabled by sophisticated molecular technology to develop antagonists against specific targets in various steps of the immune pathogenesis of the disease. There is ample evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of these agents in different clinical scenarios of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of biological agents in the armamentarium of rheumatoid arthritis has marked a milestone in its evolution and prognosis rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Battling resistance mechanisms in antihormonal prostate cancer treatment: Novel agents and combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maeseneer, Daan Joost; Van Praet, Charles; Lumen, Nicolaas; Rottey, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a hormone-sensitive disease. Androgen deprivation therapy lowers serum testosterone levels (castration) or blocks the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Especially in metastatic disease, hormonal therapy has been able to delay disease progression, reduce symptoms, and improve overall survival. Despite subsequent disease progression and development of castration resistance, PCa remains AR driven. Secondary hormonal treatments such as abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide have demonstrated increased overall survival. However, new resistance mechanisms to these agents have been identified, and systemic chemotherapy is still needed especially in fast-progressing castration-resistant PCa. Several promising androgen synthesis inhibitors (orteronel and galeterone), AR inhibitors (ARN-509, EPI-001, AZD3514, and ODM-201), and heat shock protein modulators (AT11387, 17-DMAG, STA-9090, and OGX-427) are currently under investigation. The wide variety in upcoming systemic agents underlines the molecular heterogeneity of castration-resistant PCa. This article reviews antihormonal therapy in PCa and resistance mechanisms and focuses on novel and upcoming agents currently in clinical testing. PMID:25708954

  10. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF HOSPITAL AND DAY TREATMENT WITH COMMUNITY CARE OF AFFECTIVE AND SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, D; KLUITER, H; NIENHUIS, FJ; RUPHAN, M; GIEL, R

    1995-01-01

    Background. A randomised controlled trial of day treatment with community care for patients with schizophrenic and affective disorders, referred for in-patient psychiatric treatment, was conducted to evaluate patterns of treatment and the course of illness with its psychosocial consequences over a p

  11. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  12. Retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs): a new paradigm in the treatment of hyperkeratotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaille, Christel J; Borgers, Marcel; van Steensel, Maurice A M

    2008-05-01

    Synthetic vitamin A derivatives, retinoids,have long been the mainstay of treatment for several disorders of keratinization, notably the ichthyoses and severe acne. Some forms of psoriasis also respond well. Their considerable power comes at a price. They have dose-limiting side effects and can be highly teratogenic, limiting their use in women of childbearing age.Thus, retinoids are used less often than their potential would warrant. However, the recent development of compounds that block the catabolism of endogenous vitamin A, called Retinioic Acid Metabolism Blocking Agents or RAMBAs, offers new possibilities. With these drugs, retinoid effects with less side effects and a reduction of the post-treatment teratogenicity period due to their favourable pharmacokinetic profile might be expected. In this review, we discuss how retinoids work, how they are metabolized and how RAMBAs influence this process. We also review the presently available data from clinical trials with RAMBAs. PMID:17941881

  13. Molecular analysis of tooth enamel by Raman spectroscopy after treatment with bleaching agents at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule of the surface of dentin enamel are treated and researched with bleaching agents of chemical activation to basis of hydrogen peroxide than 9,5% and 14% and carbamide peroxide than 38%, for a period of 28 days. Raman spectroscopy was used and 30 dental pieces extracted, of which, were to be free of blemishes and pigmentations, without possessing fractures of the enamel, decay nor any other type of defect. The Raman spectrum was obtained of each dental piece prior to the application of bleaching agents. The specimens were separated into three experimental groups according to the concentration of whitening. The concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule was measured in the tooth enamel to the second and fourth week of treatment. In addition, ANOVA was performed for respective measurements (p≤0.05). A reduction of the v1 phosphate molecule were observed during and after the bleaching process in the experimental groups that have used of hydrogen peroxide to 14% and carbamide peroxide 38%. In the group of hydrogen peroxide to 9,5% has remained unproven a significant reduction. Within the limitations of this study is concluded that the bleaching agent causes a loss of v1 phosphate. This loss has been greater in the whitening of higher concentration. In spite, that the possible effect remineralizing of the saliva on a teeth whitening process has been unevaluated, it is recommended using during and after the treatment, toothpastes, mouthwashes, chewing gums, dental floss, among others, that contain ACP to help to cushion the potential loss of phosphate from tooth enamel. (author)

  14. Hypoxia-directed and activated theranostic agent: Imaging and treatment of solid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, Eun-Joong; Han, Jiyou; Lee, Hyunseung; Shin, Weon Sup; Kim, Hyun Min; Bhuniya, Sankarprasad; Kim, Jong Seung; Hong, Kwan Soo

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia, a distinguished feature of various solid tumors, has been considered as a key marker for tumor progression. Inadequate vasculature and high interstitial pressures result in relatively poor drug delivery to these tumors. Herein, we developed an antitumor theranostic agent, 4, which is activated in hypoxic conditions and can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. Compound 4, bearing biotin, a tumor-targeting unit, and SN38, an anticancer drug, proved to be an effective theranostic agent for solid tumors. SN38 plays a dual role: as an anticancer drug for therapy and as a fluorophore for diagnosis, thus avoids an extra fluorophore and limits cytotoxicity. Compound 4, activated in the hypoxic environment, showed high therapeutic activity in A549 and HeLa cells and spheroids. In vivo imaging of solid tumors confirmed the tumor-specific localization, deep tissue penetration and activation of compound 4, as well as the production of a strong anticancer effect through the inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model validating it as a promising strategy for the treatment of solid tumors.

  15. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intraoral fistula to allow passive administration of solutions. In the first study, taste reactivity was tracked throughout chronic vehicle or nicotine (12 mg/kg/day) infusion via osmotic minipumps and spontaneous withdrawal following removal of minipumps. In the second study, the endocannabinoid CB1-receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 3 and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or vehicle was acutely administered before taste reactivity measurement during chronic nicotine administration. Chronic nicotine treatment and spontaneous withdrawal did not influence taste reactions to sucrose or quinine. AM251 decreased positive reactions to sucrose and increased negative reactions to quinine. The effects of AM251 were respectively attenuated and enhanced in nicotine infused mice. These results suggest chronic nicotine exposure and withdrawal has no apparent affective sequelae, as probed by taste reactivity, and thus may not explain the difficulty tobacco-users have in achieving abstinence. In contrast, endocannabinoids elevate affective state in drug-naïve animals and changes in endogenous endocannabinoid tone may underlie compensations in affective state during chronic nicotine exposure. PMID:19540830

  16. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw related to bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo-Elías

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical management of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in patients treated with bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents is subject to controversy. The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) has developed guidelines for the correct management of the disorder which are revised and updated by a panel of experts. Material and Methods The present systematic review analyzes the different treatments currently used to treat this clinical condition, based on the PRISMA® (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement published in 2009. An electronic Medline search was made of the PubMed database, covering the period 2006-2014. The last search date was 31 December 2014. Results A total of 29 articles were selected from the initial search according to the different drugs implicated in the appearance of osteonecrosis; the treatment modality used according to the stage of the disease; and the recorded success rate. Conclusions It is currently still recommended that the management of MRONJ should be decided according to the stage of the disease – conservative treatment being preferred in early stages without symptoms, while surgical management is preferred in the case of bone exposure with symptoms. Key words:Osteonecrosis, medication, bisphosphonates, treatments, review PMID:27475683

  17. Liver copper concentration in Wilson's disease: effect of treatment with 'anti-copper' agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, K; Walshe, J M

    1990-01-01

    Serial copper determinations have been made on the livers of 10 patients with Wilson's disease. Two were studied before and eight after the start of treatment in order to assess the effect, if any, on the concentration of the metal. In two patients who were receiving no therapy and in one in whom it had been discontinued, the level of copper rose. In the latter patient, resumption of treatment then resulted in a fall in the level of copper in the liver. A similar fall was seen in seven patients on continuous therapy. In one patient, a very poor complier, there was a tendency for the liver copper concentration to rise over a 5-year period. All three therapies investigated--penicillamine, trientine and tetrathiomolybdate--when taken regularly, appear to be effective in reducing liver copper levels. Sixty-nine single determinations of liver copper have been plotted against time on treatment. This shows that the copper concentration falls rapidly in the first year. Thereafter, there is no linear relationship between the duration of treatment and liver copper. Poor compliers have a higher liver copper concentration than do good compliers. Determinations made from different portions of the liver showed that in only one of 19 examples was there an overlap between the near normal and the abnormal range. The principal mechanism of action of 'anti-copper' agents in Wilson's disease appears to be the mobilization of copper from the tissues, but a secondary detoxifying action may come into play later.

  18. Preclinical therapeutic potential of a nitrosylating agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Giri

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of s-nitrosylation in the growth of ovarian cancer using cell culture based and in vivo approaches. Using the nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a physiological nitric oxide molecule, we show that GSNO treatment inhibited proliferation of chemoresponsive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C200, SKVO3, ID8, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, OVCAR7, OVCAR8, OVCAR10, PE01 and PE04 in a dose dependent manner. GSNO treatment abrogated growth factor (HB-EGF induced signal transduction including phosphorylation of Akt, p42/44 and STAT3, which are known to play critical roles in ovarian cancer growth and progression. To examine the therapeutic potential of GSNO in vivo, nude mice bearing intra-peritoneal xenografts of human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line (2 × 10(6 were orally administered GSNO at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Daily oral administration of GSNO significantly attenuated tumor mass (p<0.001 in the peritoneal cavity compared to vehicle (phosphate buffered saline treated group at 4 weeks. GSNO also potentiated cisplatin mediated tumor toxicity in an A2780 ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. GSNO's nitrosylating ability was reflected in the induced nitrosylation of various known proteins including NFκB p65, Akt and EGFR. As a novel finding, we observed that GSNO also induced nitrosylation with inverse relationship at tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, an established player in chemoresistance and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer and in cancer in general. Overall, our study underlines the significance of S-nitrosylation of key cancer promoting proteins in modulating ovarian cancer and proposes the therapeutic potential of nitrosylating agents (like GSNO for the treatment of ovarian cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  19. Cysteamine (Lynovex®), a novel mucoactive antimicrobial & antibiofilm agent for the treatment of cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Charrier, Cedric; Rodger, Catherine; Robertson, Jennifer; Kowalczuk, Aleksandra; Shand, Nicola; Fraser-Pitt, Douglas; Mercer, Derry; O’Neil, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background There remains a critical need for more effective, safe, long-term treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF). Any successful therapeutic strategy designed to combat the respiratory pathology of this condition must address the altered lung physiology and recurrent, complex, polymicrobial infections and biofilms that affect the CF pulmonary tract. Cysteamine is a potential solution to these unmet medical needs and is described here for the first time as (Lynovex®) a single therapy with the ...

  20. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study charted 237 fatal cases of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) observed from May 2002-May 2003 in one Oklahoma feedyard. The data collected included: agent identification, observed pathology, mortality, and animal treatment information. The cattle died either in the sick pen after treatment ...

  1. Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes CZECH REPUBLIC (Dvorak, Zdenek) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-08-22 Revised: 2006-11-16 Accepted: 2007-01-02

  2. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ingrid; Portieles, Roxana; Rodríguez García, Mayra; López, Yunior; Aranguren, Miguel; Alonso, Eugenio; Delgado, Roger; Luis, Maritza; Batista, Lochy; Paredes, Camilo; Rodríguez, Meilyn; Pujol, Merardo; Ochagavia, María Elena; Falcón, Viviana; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo; Ayra-Pardo, Camilo; Llauger, Raixa; Pérez, María del Carmen; Núñez, Mirian; Borrusch, Melissa S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Silva, Yussuan; Pimentel, Eulogio; Borroto, Carlos; Borrás-Hidalgo, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatment with epibrassinolide under both greenhouse and field conditions but were stronger in the greenhouse. Known defense genes were induced in leaves by epibrassinolide. With the SuperSAGE technology combined with next generation sequencing, induction of genes known to be associated with defense response to bacteria and hormone transduction pathways were identified. The results demonstrate that epibrassinolide may provide a useful tool for the management of HLB. PMID:26731660

  3. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  4. Bedaquiline: A Promising new agent for the treatment of MDR-TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti M. Benni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains the single most infectious disease causing the highest mortality in humans. India is the highest TB burden country according to World Health Organization (WHO statistics for 2011. The previous studies in India showed that 3% of multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB is seen in new tuberculosis cases and 17.2% among retreatment cases. The alarming increase in MDR-TB and the emergence of extensively drug resistant TB(XDR-TB are man-made snags; therefore new drugs for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis are obligatory.On 28thDecember 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved bedaquiline (TMC207, as part of combination therapy to treat adults with MDR-TB when other alternatives are not available. Bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline has a unique mechanism of action and acts as a promising new agent in patients with MDR-TB.

  5. Treatment of diseases due to infections and old age using anti-foaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemann, Peter Joachim

    2003-06-01

    The biochemical changes taking place in the organism in the course of ageing and infectious processes result in substantial catabolic processes during which a variety of gases are created (in addition to carbon dioxide and nitrogen, depending on the conditions, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptan, etc. are also created) in addition to peptides and low molecular organic compounds. These gases are dispersed in the extra-cellular space and in the capillary system of blood and lymph in the form of micro-foam. The accompanied disturbance in the ability to flow considerably impairs the immune defence system which is inseparably connected to the transport of catabolic products. Any resulting diseases can be alleviated or even removed by the application of a simple physical-chemical principle. Anti-foaming agents (solutions, all types of dispersions, micro-emulsions) based on polydimethylsiloxane but also based on fatty acid esters (preferably unsaturated fatty acids) are proposed for treatment purposes. PMID:12699723

  6. 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Canales

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatment with epibrassinolide under both greenhouse and field conditions but were stronger in the greenhouse. Known defense genes were induced in leaves by epibrassinolide. With the SuperSAGE technology combined with next generation sequencing, induction of genes known to be associated with defense response to bacteria and hormone transduction pathways were identified. The results demonstrate that epibrassinolide may provide a useful tool for the management of HLB.

  7. Enzymatic treatment of specimens before DNA extraction directly influences molecular detection of infectious agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goldschmidt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biological samples, pharmaceuticals or food contain proteins, lipids, polymers, ammoniums and macromolecules that alter the detection of infectious agents by DNA amplification techniques (PCR. Moreover the targeted DNA has to be released from the complex cell walls and the compact nucleoprotein matrixes and cleared from potential inhibitors. The goal of the present work was to assess the efficiency of enzymatic pretreatments on infectious agents to make DNA available for further extraction and amplification. METHODS: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani were mixed with an internal control virus and treated with: 1 proteinase K; 2 lyticase and 3 lyticase followed by proteinase K. DNAs was manually extracted using the QIAmp DNA Mini kit or the MagNA Pure Compact automate. DNA extraction yields and the inhibitors were assessed with a phocid Herpesvirus. Bacterial detection was performed using TaqMan real-time PCR and yeasts and filamentous Fungi with HRM (real-time PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis. RESULTS: Viral DNA was released, extracted and detected using manual and automatic methods without pre enzymatic treatments. Either the manual or the automatic DNA extraction systems did not meet the sensitivity expectations if enzymatic treatments were not performed before: lyticase for Fungi and Proteinase K for Bacteria. The addition of lyticase and proteinase K did not improve results. For Fungi the detection after lyticase was higher than for Proteinase K, for which melting analysis did not allow fungal specification. DISCUSSION: Columns and magnetic beads allowed collecting DNA and separate PCR inhibitors. Detection rates cannot be related to DNA-avidity of beads or to elution but to the lack of proteolysis.

  8. A comparison of herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Coohill, T P; Babich, M; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W

    1980-01-01

    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (UV) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents--butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near UV radiation, or ether--the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of H...

  9. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Israels; C. Chirambo; H. Caron; J. de Kraker; E. Molyneux; R. Reis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Methods: Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible caus

  10. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80 fo

  11. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON TREATMENT OF LUMBAR VERTEBRAL RETROGRADE AFFECTION WITH ACUPUNCTURE, TDP-IRRADIATION AND CUPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, 70 cases of retrograde affection of the lumbar vertebrae are randomly and evenly divided into treatment group and control group. Shenshu (BL 23), Qihaishu (BL 24), Dachangshu (BL 25),Weizhong (BL 40), Jiaji (EX-B 2), etc. are used. In treatment group, acupuncture, TDP irradiation and cupping are performed, and in control group, only acupuncture is given. After 30 sessions (3 therapeutic courses) of treatment, in treatment and control groups, the total effective rates are 91.43 % and 71.43 % respectively. The therapeutic effect of comprehensive treatment is significantly superior to that of simple acupuncture therapy (P < 0.05).

  12. Evaluation of the benefit of the bispyridinium compound MB327 for the antidotal treatment of nerve agent-poisoned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Pohanka, Miroslav; Timperley, Christopher M; Bird, Mike; Green, A Christopher; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-06-01

    The potency of the bispyridinium non-oxime compound MB327 [1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) diiodide] to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents was studied in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone - or atropine in combination with an oxime, MB327, or both an oxime and MB237 - was evaluated by the determination of LD50 values of several nerve agents (tabun, sarin and soman) in mice with and without treatment. The addition of MB327 increased the therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone, and atropine in combination with an oxime, against all three nerve agents, although differences in the LD50 values only reached statistical significance for sarin. In conclusion, the addition of the compound MB327 to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with nerve agents was beneficial regardless of the chemical structure of the nerve agent, although at the dose employed, MB327 in combination with atropine, or atropine and an oxime, provided only a modest increase in protection ratio. These results from mice, and previous ones from guinea-pigs, provide consistent evidence for additional, albeit modest, efficacy resulting from the inclusion of the antinicotinic compound MB327 in standard antidotal therapy. Given the typically steep probit slope for the dose-lethality relationship for nerve agents, such modest increases in protection ratio could provide significant survival benefit.

  13. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  14. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation.

  15. Betaine: a potential agent for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Teixeira Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatopathy associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS is a multifactorial disease associated with poor prognosis. Besides intestinal transplantation, no other treatment has been shown effective. The current study evaluated the efficacy of betaine for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with SBS. Methods: A prospective, unicentric, non-placebo controlled trial was carried out. After initial evaluation, 10g of betaine anhydrous was administrated to SBS patients in two divided doses for three months. The hepatic steatosis was assessed through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, the inflammatory response by interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and ferritin, besides the hepatic lesion through hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Furthermore, the effect of betaine on homocysteine was evaluated as well as its safety and tolerability in this group of patients. Results: After three months supplementation, patients showed decreased percentage of hepatic fat (p = 0.03 through triphasic NMR examination. There was no significant reduction of serum levels for inflammatory proteins and hepatic lesion markers. Homocysteinemia also did not present significant decrease. The most prevalent side effects were diarrhea and nausea, reported in 62% of the participants; however, these symptoms were transient and not severe enough to justify the treatment interruption. Parenteral nutrition-dependent patients did not present different hepatic lesion degree compared to patients who do not need the prolonged use of it. Conclusions: Betaine was shown to be a potential agent for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with SBS, which was evidenced by NMR, although the markers for hepatic lesion have not presented significant decrease.

  16. Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO₂gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of PO(3⁻)(4) exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with > 0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P₂O₅ in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent PO(3⁻)(4) -P to added M-CSH-lime was > 0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer. PMID:25189846

  17. Optimizing Treatment of Intra-amniotic Infection and Early-Onset Postpartum Endometritis: Advantages of Single-Agent Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglich, Norma; Alston, Meredith; vanSwam, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and early-onset postpartum endometritis (PPE) require prompt antibiotic treatment and are generally treated by either of two regimens. A complicated multi-agent regimen is most commonly used, despite a lack of clear evidence that it produces better outcomes than a simpler single-agent regimen. Objective: We compared treatment outcomes between a multi-agent regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin versus a single-agent regimen of ampicillin/sulbactam for IAI and early-onset PPE. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study by collecting data from the records of all patients at Denver Health Medical Center treated for IAI or PPE during two 6-month periods: a baseline period during which a regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin was used and a subsequent period when ampicillin/sulbactam was used. Primary outcomes were prolonged antibiotic treatment and readmission for endometritis or wound cellulitis. Results: Of potential study participants, 323 women met inclusion criteria; 179 were treated with the multi-agent regimen and 144 were treated with the single-agent regimen. The groups were statistically similar for demographic and intrapartum characteristics, except for a lower rate of premature rupture of membranes in the single-agent treatment group. Twelve patients required prolonged treatment, and 2 were readmitted; these subgroups were combined for statistical analyses. The primary outcomes were significantly associated with cesarean delivery and blood loss >500 mL for vaginal deliveries and >1000 mL for cesarean deliveries; however, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary outcomes between the 2 treatment groups when adjusted for these variables. Treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam resulted in fewer antibiotic doses administered to patients with an uncomplicated treatment course. Conclusion: Ampicillin/sulbactam treatment of IAI and early-onset PPE

  18. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries. PMID:19603700

  19. Infection Agents Detected with Wound Culture in Patients with Diabetic Foot who will Undergo Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan Mert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We aimed to obtain the knowledge of appropriate antibiotic therapy and to make a contribution to improving treatment efficacy by conducting a microbiological study of diabetic foot ulcers. METHOD: 30 patients (18 male and 12 female with diabetic foot ulcer applying to our center for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment in 2010 were enrolled in this study. The wounds were graded according to Meggitt-Wagner classification system. Wound cultures were obtained before starting antibiotic therapy and HBO treatment. Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing were used in order to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility of the infection agents. The number of HBO sessions, glycemic control and treatment results were assessed. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 61.3 years (range: 35-83. 24 patients had a good glycemic control and 6 patients had not. The patients were given 5 to 55 HBO sessions (mean: 20. Of the 30 patients 19 (63.33% recovered from the infection but 11 (36.67% have not responded to the treatment. 14 different infectious agents were detected in diabetic foot ulcers we examined. Gram-positive agents were isolated in 12 (40% out of 30 wound cultures and gram-negative agents were isolated in 18 (60% wound culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was predominantly isolated and the other agents isolated were enterococcus faecalis, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: The outcomes can not represent the general population rates due to the restriction factors. They give only an idea about the probability of infectious agent spectrum in diabetic foot ulcers and their antibiotic susceptibility. We want to attract attention to the fact that although pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are mostly encountered in hospital, they can also be acquired from the community and it will be useful to develop appropriate antibiotic policies and treatment protocols. [TAF

  20. Attachment and affect regulation: a framework for family treatment of conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K

    2002-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), a pervasive adolescent disorder with clinically significant antisocial behaviors, has been a difficult syndrome to treat successfully. Recently, research on affect regulation and attachment has suggested that attachment and affect regulation strategies may underlie the development of conduct disorder in adolescents, implying that attention to these factors might improve family treatment for CD. In this review of the research literature, I discuss the role of attachment and affect regulation in the development and treatment of CD. In addition, I present information about the framework, intervention protocol, and preliminary evidence of effectiveness of an attachment- and affect regulation-based intervention that has been developed and implemented with multiple-family groups of parents and incarcerated adolescents.

  1. Terapia com agentes biológicos na criança e no adolescente Treatment with biologic agents in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Maisse Suehiro

    2010-06-01

    : Biologic agents have shown efficacy in the treatment of pediatric autoimmune diseases such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, idiopathic inflammatory myositis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, chronic uveitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura, as well as in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Considering the high cost and the potential adverse events, the choice to use them must be individualized and followed by a specialist.

  2. New and emerging therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibromyalgia: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Recla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jill M ReclaIGERT Program in Functional Genomics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine and The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic widespread pain condition that is estimated to affect5 million US adults. Several molecular pathophysiologies are thought to contribute to the symptoms of FM, complicating the development of effective clinical management techniques. It is now known that abnormalities in both nociceptive and central pain processing systems are necessary (but perhaps not sufficient to condition the onset and maintenance of FM, producing associated neuropsychologic symptoms such as pronounced fatigue, sleep abnormalities, cognitive difficulties, stress sensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Current treatment strategies are focused primarily on correcting the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these nervous system abnormalities. Clinical studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of three drugs recently approved for the treatment of FM: pregabalin (an alpha-2-delta ligand, and duloxetine and milnacipran (serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. This review describes these pharmaceuticals in detail and discusses their current roles in FM management.Keywords: fibromyalgia, treatment, pharmacotherapy, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran

  3. Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottstein Claudia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues. The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice. Results We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation. Conclusion We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA

  4. Rituximab as a first-line agent for the treatment of dermatomyositis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    B cells may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of DM, and reports have claimed that targeting B cells is a viable treatment option in patients with dermatomyositis. A 20-year-old girl presented in October 2007, with few weeks\\' history of proximal muscle weakness. Gottron\\'s papules were noted on her knuckles. She had normal inflammatory markers and negative autoantibody screen. Her CPK was 7,000 U\\/L (normal range 0-170) with an LDH of 1,300 U\\/L (normal range 266-500). EMG and muscle biopsy was consistent with active myositis. She had normal pulmonary function tests. HRCT showed no interstitial lung disease. She was started with 60 mg glucocorticoids (1 mg\\/kg), with a good clinical response. However, any attempt to taper down the steroid dose led to recurrence of her symptoms. The options of available immunosuppressive therapies, including the experimental usage of rituximab, were discussed with her; averse to long-term systemic treatments, she opted to try a course of rituximab. She had rituximab 1,000 mg on days 0 and 14, and her glucocorticoids were tapered in next few weeks. Now, 24 months since her rituximab infusions, she remains in complete clinical and biochemical remission and is naive to other immunosuppressive agents apart from glucocorticoids and rituximab. Depleting peripheral B cells with rituximab (one course) in our patient has led not only to complete resolution of muscle and skin disease (induction) but also remains off all immunosuppressives including glucocorticoids.

  5. Psoralea glandulosa as a Potential Source of Anticancer Agents for Melanoma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Madrid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1, 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2 and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3 against melanoma cells (A2058. In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4, a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells.

  6. Application of AMDS mortar as a treatment agent for arsenic in subsurface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, H.; Choi, U. K.; Yang, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    Among the treatment technologies available for As in soil and groundwater, adsorption or precipitation using acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge has become a promised technique because of high efficiency, inexpensiveness and simple to handling. The adsorbents were prepared by addition of Cement, Joomoonjin sand, fly ash, and Ca(OH)2 to air dry AMD sludge. In this work, the adsorption of As (III) and As (V) on AMDS mortar has been studied as a function of kinetic, pH, and initial arsenic concentration. Results of batch study showed that 75-90% of both As (III) and As (V) were removed at pH 7. Arsenic adsorption capacities were the highest at neutral pH condition and the adsorption equilibrium time reached in 7 days using AMDS mortar. Additionally, the adsorption kinetic process is expressed well by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacities of AMDS mortar for As(III) and As(V) were found 19.04 and 30.75 mg g-1, respectively. The results of As (III) adsorption isotherms were fitted well to the Freundlich model. Moreover, As (V) adsorption isotherms were fitted well to the Langmuir model rather than Freundlich model. Based on experimental results in this study, we could conclude that AMDS mortar can be effectively used for arsenic removal agent from subsurface environment.

  7. Two different embolic agents in the treatment of uterine arterial embolization for symptomatic fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of dextran microspheres and polyvinyl alcohol particles in the uterine arterial embolization (UAE)for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. Methods: Forty women (mean aged 38.5 years, ranged 28-44 years)with symptomatic myomas were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each, PVA (polyvinyl alcohol particles, 355-500 μm)was used as embolic agents in group A and dextran microspheres(Sephadex G-50, 100-300 μm)in group B. The mean diameter of fibroids was 6.5 cm (range, 3-12 cm)with symptoms of menorrahgia, bulk-related symptoms, dysmenorrhea and infertility. Analgesics, anti-infection and rehydration treatments were used after the procedure. The hospital stay, post-embolization syndromes, follow-up materials were reviewed and compared. Results: The hospital stay and the post embolization pain showed no obvious difference between the two groups, simultaneously with no serious complications. The average follow-up duration was 9 months (range, 6-24 months). The average volumes of uterus and fibroid in group A and B decreased gradually during follow-up: 53.4%, 55% and 48.6%, 40.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Dextran microspheres is as the same effective and safe as PVA particles for UAE, but rather cheaper than latter. Further prospective study is warranted. (authors)

  8. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  9. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingting Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA, as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%.

  10. Psychosocial and medical factors affecting treatment compliance in patients attending psychiatric hospital: a study from Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Shoib; Raheel Mushtaq; Mohammad Maqbool Dar; Javid Ahmad Mir; Tabindah Shah; Rameshwar Singh; Javid Ahmad; Syed Kyser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compliance with medication is decisive for treatment of the psychiatric disorders and is necessary for determining the outcome and prognoses of psychiatric patients. While the causes of poor compliance are multifactorial, the psychiatrist should be aware of such factors and may be able to implement interventions to address those factors. The objective of study was to find out the various medical and social reasons affecting treatment Compliance among patients suffering from psychi...

  11. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  12. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  13. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...

  14. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  15. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...... in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran was decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes...... were found in any treatment group. Antibiotic induced changes in microbiota could be linked to intestinal permeability, although changes in permeability did not always result from major changes in microbiota and vice versa....

  16. Recent advances in the development of novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert W; Freedman, Robert; Javitt, Daniel C; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-09-01

    Wayne Fenton was a major driving force behind the establishment of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia (TURNS) project mechanisms. These projects were designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The MATRICS project identified 3 drug mechanisms of particular interest: cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic. The TURNS project is designed to select potential cognitive-enhancing agents and evaluate their potential efficacy in the context of proof of concept or clinical efficacy trials. This article reviews the rationale for these 3 approaches and provides an update on the development of therapeutic agents, which act through one of these 3 mechanisms.

  17. New developments in the treatment of osteoarthritis – focus on biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrero JI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jose Ignacio Torrero,1 Carlos Martínez2 1BioTrauma Centre, Escaldes, Principality of Andorra; 2University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common diseases around the world. Medical, social, and financial consequences oblige clinicians, surgeons, and researchers to focus on finding the best treatment option, to eradicate and stop this degenerative joint disease, in order to avoid surgical options which in many instances are over-indicated. Noninvasive treatments, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, orthotic devices, dietary supplements, have demonstrated lack of effectiveness. The possibility to perform intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid, corticosteroids, or the newest but criticized treatment based on platelet-rich plasma (PRP has changed the management of OA disease. The use of PRP has led to many differences in treatment since there is a lack of consensus about protocols, indications, number of doses, cost-effectiveness, and duration of the treatment. Many publications have suggested efficacy in tendon injuries, but when PRP has been indicated to treat cartilage injuries, things are more inconsistent. Some authors have reported their experience treating OA with PRP, and it seems that, if well indicated, it is an option as a supplementary therapy. Therefore, we need to understand that OA is a mechanical disease which not only produces changes in radiographs, but also affects the quality of life. Pathogenesis of OA has been well explained, providing us new knowledge and future possibilities to improve the clinical approach. From basic science to surgery, there is a great field we all need to contribute to, because the general population is aging and total joint replacements should not be the only solution for OA. So herein is an actual review of the developments for treating OA with biologics, intended to be useful for the population inside

  18. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  19. Hot foam for weed control-Do alkyl polyglucoside surfactants used as foaming agents affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, H; Börjesson, E

    2016-08-15

    Use of alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) as a foaming agent during hot water weed control may influence the environmental fate of organic contaminants in soil. We studied the effects of the APG-based foaming agent NCC Spuma (C8-C10) on leaching of diuron, glyphosate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sand columns. We also examined how APG concentration affected the apparent water solubility and adsorption of the herbicides and of the PAHs acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorene. Application of APGs at the recommended concentration of 0.3% did not significantly affect leaching of any of the compounds studied. However, at a concentration of 1.5%, leaching of both diuron and glyphosate was significantly increased. The increased leaching corresponded to an increase in apparent water solubility of diuron and a decrease in glyphosate adsorption to the sand. However, APG addition did not significantly affect the mobility of PAHs even though their apparent water solubility was increased. These results suggest that application of APG-based foam during hot water weed control does not significantly affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil if used according to recommendations. Moreover, they suggest that APGs could be useful for soil bioremediation purposes if higher concentrations are used.

  20. Hot foam for weed control-Do alkyl polyglucoside surfactants used as foaming agents affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, H; Börjesson, E

    2016-08-15

    Use of alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) as a foaming agent during hot water weed control may influence the environmental fate of organic contaminants in soil. We studied the effects of the APG-based foaming agent NCC Spuma (C8-C10) on leaching of diuron, glyphosate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sand columns. We also examined how APG concentration affected the apparent water solubility and adsorption of the herbicides and of the PAHs acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorene. Application of APGs at the recommended concentration of 0.3% did not significantly affect leaching of any of the compounds studied. However, at a concentration of 1.5%, leaching of both diuron and glyphosate was significantly increased. The increased leaching corresponded to an increase in apparent water solubility of diuron and a decrease in glyphosate adsorption to the sand. However, APG addition did not significantly affect the mobility of PAHs even though their apparent water solubility was increased. These results suggest that application of APG-based foam during hot water weed control does not significantly affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil if used according to recommendations. Moreover, they suggest that APGs could be useful for soil bioremediation purposes if higher concentrations are used. PMID:27149400

  1. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of gallocyanine dyes as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpousis, Spyros; Thysiadis, Savvas; Avramidis, Nicolaos; Katsamakas, Sotirios; Efthimiopoulos, Spiros; Sarli, Vasiliki

    2016-01-27

    In search of safe and effective anti-Alzheimer disease agents a series of gallocyanine dyes have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit LRPs/DKK1 interactions. Modulation of the interactions between LRPS and DKK1, regulate Wnt signaling pathway and affect Tau phosphorylation. The current efforts resulted in the identification of potent DKK1 inhibitors which are able to inhibit prostaglandin J2-induced tau phosphorylation at serine 396. PMID:26629858

  3. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Fride Tvete

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores. The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, tocilizumab, anakinra/rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept [corrected]. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs.

  4. Injectable biomaterials for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: their potential and pitfalls as urethral bulking agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2013-06-01

    Injectable urethral bulking agents composed of synthetic and biological biomaterials are minimally invasive treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The development of an ideal urethral bulking agent remains challenging because of clinical concerns over biocompatibility and durability. Herein, the mechanical and biological features of injectable urethral biomaterials are investigated, with particular emphasis on their future potential as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. A literature search for English language publications using the two online databases was performed. Keywords included "stress urinary incontinence", "urethral bulking agent" and "injectable biomaterial". A total of 98 articles were analysed, of which 45 were suitable for review based on clinical relevance and importance of content. Injectable biomaterials are associated with a lower cure rate and fewer postoperative complications than open surgery for SUI. They are frequently reserved as secondary treatment options for patients unwilling or medically unfit to undergo surgery. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen remains the most commonly injected biomaterial and has a cure rate of up to 53 %. Important clinical features of an injectable biomaterial are durability, biocompatibility and ease of administration, but achieving these requirements is challenging. In carefully selected patients, injectable biomaterials are feasible alternatives to open surgical procedures as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. In future, higher cure rates may be feasible as researchers investigate alternative biomaterials and more targeted injection techniques for treating SUI.

  5. In vitro Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents in the Treatment of Candida Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Lignell, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies are important for the optimal use of antimicrobial agents. Combination antifungal therapy may be one method to improve outcome in invasive Candida infections. An in vitro kinetic model to study the pharmacodynamic effects of a combination of two antifungal agents with different elimination rates was developed and the pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VRC) or the combination was evaluated. Exposure to VRC inhibited the fungicidal activity of sequen...

  6. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  7. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KİLİC, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KESİM, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  8. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem KiLiC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p0.05. Conclusions Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination.

  9. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10–11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general...... in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic...

  10. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes. PMID:25619927

  11. 锅炉水处理剂E—M配方%E—M mixture,boiler water treatment agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2001-01-01

    介绍由乙二胺四亚甲基膦酸(EDTMP)和水解聚马来酸(HPMA)组成的锅炉水处理剂E—M配方及其应用实例。%E—M water treatment agent for boilers,composed of ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid(EDTMP) and hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride (HPMA),and its applications are introduced in this article.

  12. Efficacy of a novel mucolytic agent on pseudomyxoma peritonei mucin, with potential for treatment through peritoneal catheters

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Javed; Pillai, Krishna; Chua, Terence C; Alzarin, Naeef; Morris, David Lawson

    2014-01-01

    Compared to current treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), the extraction of solubilised mucin through peritoneal catheter can be minimally invasive. However, mucin has variable appearance that may influence mucolysis. Hence, we investigated the mucolysis of 36 mucin samples with a novel agent. Using visual inspection and hardness index, PMP mucin was classified into three grades. The mucin pathological category was identified from patient record. Subsequently, the dissolution of the sam...

  13. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2013-01-01

    Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast), “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor ma...

  14. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Banwari; Prutha Desai; Prahlad Patidar

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolong...

  15. Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Lampic, C; Akerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflict...

  16. Novel Hydrogel Material as a Potential Embolic Agent in Embolization Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Chen, Liming; An, Qingzhu; Chen, Liang; Wen, Ying; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Wei; Yi, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel graphene-oxide (GO) enhanced polymer hydrogel (GPH) as a promising embolic agent capable of treating cerebrovascular diseases and malignant tumors, using the trans-catheter arterial embolization (TAE) technique. Simply composed of GO and generation five poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM-5), our rheology experiments reveal that GPH exhibits satisfactory mechanical strength, which resist the high pressures of blood flow. Subcutaneous experiments on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats demonstrate the qualified biocompatibility of GPH. Finally, our in vivo experiments on New Zealand rabbits, which mix GPH with the X-ray absorbing contrast agent, Iohexol, reveal complete embolization of the artery. We also note that GPH shortens embolization time and exhibits low toxicity in follow-up experiments. Altogether, our study demonstrates that GPH has many advantages over the currently used embolic agents and has potential applications in clinical practice. PMID:27561915

  17. Novel Hydrogel Material as a Potential Embolic Agent in Embolization Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Chen, Liming; An, Qingzhu; Chen, Liang; Wen, Ying; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Wei; Yi, Tao

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel graphene-oxide (GO) enhanced polymer hydrogel (GPH) as a promising embolic agent capable of treating cerebrovascular diseases and malignant tumors, using the trans-catheter arterial embolization (TAE) technique. Simply composed of GO and generation five poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM-5), our rheology experiments reveal that GPH exhibits satisfactory mechanical strength, which resist the high pressures of blood flow. Subcutaneous experiments on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats demonstrate the qualified biocompatibility of GPH. Finally, our in vivo experiments on New Zealand rabbits, which mix GPH with the X-ray absorbing contrast agent, Iohexol, reveal complete embolization of the artery. We also note that GPH shortens embolization time and exhibits low toxicity in follow-up experiments. Altogether, our study demonstrates that GPH has many advantages over the currently used embolic agents and has potential applications in clinical practice.

  18. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination.

  19. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination. PMID:11844038

  20. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Brett, Kaighley; McCreary, Donald R; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in the high Arctic place particular strain on the human circadian system, which leads to trouble sleeping and increased feelings of negative affect in the winter months. To qualify for our study, potential participants had to have been at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30' 00″ N) for at least 2 weeks. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected at regular intervals on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals with a melatonin rhythm that was in disaccord with their sleep schedule were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatment prescribed to seven of the twelve subjects was effective in improving sleep quality both subjectively, based on questionnaire results, and objectively, based on the actigraphic data. The treatment also caused a significant reduction in negative affect among the participants. Since the treatment is noninvasive and has minimal associated side effects, our results support the use of the light visors at CFS Alert and other northern outposts during the winter for individuals who are experiencing sleep difficulty or low mood. PMID:25580574

  1. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  2. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolonged hypomania/mania or manic-like syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with first episode, continuous, nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant, unipolar major depression of 10 years duration, who manifested a switch from depression to mania while being treated with subanesthetic dose of ketamine, given intramuscularly. This case suggests that polarity switch should be considered as a potential side effect while using ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.

  3. Consequence on Treatment of TB Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS A Conceptual Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarder N. Uddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ancient malady, which is one of the world’s most wide spread infectious bacterial agents. Fully one-third of the world’s population is already infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the greatest burden of disease and infection borne by people in developing countries. Tuberculosis disease is still out of control. Alarming spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and emergence of drug resistance is now further complicating the major problem. HIV not only makes the diagnosis of TB more difficult; it contributes to an increase in TB incidence. The rate of breakdown to clinical TB in individuals infected both with HIV and tuberculosis is many times higher than in those without HIV. The present vaccine is not sufficient to reduce the death rate by eradicating TB with HIV/AIDS. The present review is based on the prevention and treatment of TB patient and co-infected with HIV/AIDS and effect of HIV/AIDS on the treatment and prevention of TB. It will help assuming idea about future steps in prevention and treatment of TB among HIV/AIDS patients.

  4. Failure of growth hormone-suppressing agents to affect TSH-releasing hormone- and LH-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone release in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Obara, T

    1977-01-01

    In patients with acromegaly whose basal plasma GH levels were suppressed with 9 mg/day of dexamethasone for 2 days, TRH-(6 cases) and LHRH-(1 case) induced GH release were unaffected when the responses were compared to the basal levels. Phentolamine infusion, 70 mg in 150 min, or hyperglycemia induced by iv infusion of 700 ml of 50% glucose solution also did not suppress TRH-induced GH release in 2 acromegalic patients whose basal GH levels were lowered with these agents alone. These results seem to indicate that dexamethasone does not affect TRH- or LHRH-induced GH release per se, but affects the basal state which determines the absolute level of response. They also support the concept that TRH and LHRH act directly on pituitary tumor cells to release GH in acromegaly.

  5. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy, mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Huong eCHATAIN-LY

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature ..., the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications

  6. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  7. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  8. Neuro-endovascular Embolic Agent for Treatment of a Renal Arteriovenous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal arteriovenous fistula is a known complication following a renal biopsy, and may require catheter based embolization. Distal location of these fistulas in the renal parenchyma in many a case may necessitate non-traditional embolic materials. Liquid embolic agents that allow a controlled delivery may be suitable in this situation, as demonstrated in this case report.

  9. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with animal and treatment information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) occurring in the feedlot represent the major disease entity during the feeding period. Several bacteria, viruses, and Mycoplasma spp. are reported as causative agents. Feedlot BRD may occur at various times, although the early disease appearing after arrival and pro...

  10. 1-Methylnicotinamide and nicotinamide: two related anti-inflammatory agents that differentially affect the functions of activated macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Biedroń, Rafał; Ciszek, Marta; Tokarczyk, Marianna; Bobek, Małgorzata; Kurnyta, Maria; Słominska, Ewa M.; Smoleński, Ryszard T.; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), a major metabolite of nicotinamide (NA), is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Treatment of inflammatory skin diseases by topical application of MNA provides certain advantages over the use of NA. However, in contrast to NA, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory properties of MNA are not well known. In this study the influence of exogenous MNA and NA in vivo on the generation of inflammatory mediators by macrophages (Mϕ) was...

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Cross Linked Chitosan With Different Cross Linking Agents For Waste Water Treatment Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from N-deacetylation of chitin and receiving increased attention as metal ion absorbent in wastewater treatment application. To improve the performance of chitosan as an absorbent, the cross linking approach was applied. Introduction of cross-linking agent would break the crystal zone in chitosan system, making it less crystal and consequently enhanced the absorption area. Therefore, in this study, cross-linked chitosan were prepared using different of cross-linking agents. The chitosan powder was weighed, dissolved in acetic acid (0.1 M), and dropped slowly into absolute N-methyl pyyrolidone solvent containing cross-linking agent. The cross linking reaction was carried out in N2 environment at 150° C for 6 hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was applied to characterize the crystallinity of native and cross linked chitosan. Generally, the XRD patterns of all types of chitosan show two crystalline peaks approximately at 10° and 20° (2θ). However, the cross linked chitosan with longer length of cross linking agents show lower and broader crystalline peaks as compare to those with shorter length. Similarly, the calculated crystalline index (Cr I) also showed this decreasing tendency.

  12. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents

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    Amalia Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1 were developed by incorporating neem (NO and oregano essential oils (OEO. First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil against two fungus (P. expansum and A. niger was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films’ physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%, while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%. S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  13. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Victoria C.; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intra-oral fi...

  14. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: comparisons from real-world clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Garzotto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analia Rodriguez Garzotto,1 Oliver Heine,2 Matthew Turner,3 Francisco Rebollo Laserna,4 Andreas Lorenz5 1Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Ctra Andalucía, Madrid, Spain; 2Zentralklinikum Suhl, Suhl, 3Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, Germany; 4Sandoz Farmaceutica SA, Madrid, Spain; 5Frauenarztpraxis, Hildburghausen, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to report real-world data on the relative effectiveness of a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; Binocrit®, and other available ESAs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia.Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from single centers in Spain (n=284 and Germany (n=145. Hemoglobin outcomes, transfusion requirements, and serious drug-related adverse events were assessed for each ESA.Results: Hemoglobin outcomes and transfusion requirements were generally similar in the different ESA treatment groups assessed. No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded in any of the treatment groups.Conclusion: These data confirm the real-world effectiveness and safety of a biosimilar ESA (Binocrit® for the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia.Keywords: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, chemotherapy-induced anemia, biosimilar

  15. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

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    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  16. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents.

  17. Sitagliptin treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Perrin C; Chamberlain-Shea, Heidi; de la Morena, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors have recently become widely used for treating type 2 diabetes, but in meta-analyses are associated with a mildly increased risk of all-cause infections. CD26 is a cell-surface form of DPP4 which can costimulate T-cell proliferation, raising the possibility that DPP4 inhibitors might adversely affect immune function. To address this issue in an observational study, two groups of 20 subjects each were recruited from a private endocrinology practice; one group consisted of type 2 diabetes patients treated for at least 6 months with the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, whereas patients in the other group had never been treated with this agent. The groups were similar with regard to sex and racial composition, body mass index, hemoglobin A(1c), and use of other medications for diabetes, but the sitagliptin group was slightly older. A blood sample from each patient was analyzed for CD4+ T-cell activation in response to phytohemagglutinin using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated bioluminescence. There was not a significant difference in T-cell activation between the treatment groups (median, 419 and 481 ng/ml ATP in the groups that were and were not treated with sitagliptin, respectively). Thus the observed increased rate of infection in diabetic patients treated with sitagliptin cannot be explained by a major effect on T-cell activation. Randomized studies, preferably using several assays of immune function, should be performed to confirm and extend these findings.

  18. Tyrothricin--An underrated agent for the treatment of bacterial skin infections and superficial wounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Staiger, C

    2016-06-01

    The antimicrobial agent tyrothricin is a representative of the group of antimicrobial peptides (AMP). It is produced by Bacillus brevis and consists of tyrocidines and gramicidins. The compound mixture shows activity against bacteria, fungi and some viruses. A very interesting feature of AMPs is the fact, that even in vitro it is almost impossible to induce resistances. Therefore, this class of molecules is discussed as one group that could serve as next generation antibiotics and overcome the increasing problem of bacterial resistances. In daily practice, the application of tyrothricin containing formulations is relatively limited: It is used in sore throat medications and in agents for the healing of infected superficial and small-area wounds. However, due to the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and the low risk of resistance development it is worth to consider further fields of application. PMID:27455547

  19. Correlation between size and external temperature of the ISIS 130 tumour after treatment with cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickers, P; Oosters, L; Brasseur, F; Deckers-Passau, L; Maisin, H; Deckers, C

    1986-07-01

    The reduction in size of the experimental ISIS 130 tumour has been investigated in LOU rats under the influence of increasing doses of cytostatic agents belonging to different classes. External temperatures of tumours as well as rectal temperatures have been measured at the same time, twice daily, during the whole experiment. The greater the decrease in the tumour size after drug administration, the larger was the decrease in external temperature of tumour. The rectal temperatures remained fairly stable, thus differences between the tumour and rectal temperatures increased. A possible correlation between the reduction of tumour size and the decrease of external temperature of tumour has been traced for every cytostatic agent, and the same linear relationship has been found to link these two parameters. The decrease in external temperature of tumour may, moreover, predict the decrease in tumour size within a term of 1-2 days. Measurement of the magnitude of the transient tumour hypothermia of ISIS 130, following chemotherapy, would represent a new method for measuring the efficiency and duration of action of cytostatic agents.

  20. Correlation between size and external temperature in four rat tumours after treatment with cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickers, P; Oosters, L; Brasseur, F; Kunkler, I; Maisin, H; Deckers, C

    1988-01-01

    The reduction in size of four experimental tumours (ISIS 130 and ISIS 208 immunocytomas, S 437 mammary adenocarcinoma, S 447 colon adenocarcinoma) was investigated in LOU rats under the influence of cytostatic agents belonging to different classes (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, vinblastine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide). External tumour and rectal temperatures were measured at the same time, twice daily, during the whole experiment. With the rectal temperature of the rats kept constant, the reduction in tumour dimensions following chemotherapy correlated via a linear relationship with the duration and degree of tumour hypothermia for the three tumours S 437, ISIS 208, ISIS 130. However, for the same reduction in tumour volume following chemotherapy, the duration and degree of transient tumour hypothermia varied according to the type of tumour and cytostatic agent studied. There was not correlation between the decrease in size of S 447 and external tumour hypothermia. Even when the reduction in tumour size was statistically significant, the hypothermic tumour phase after drug administration was not sufficient to be significant, except for vinblastine. However, the temperature of this slowly growing tumour before chemotherapy was particularly low. The measurement of the degree and duration of external tumour hypothermia of tumours following chemotherapy would represent a new physiological technique for measuring the efficacy and duration of action of cytostatic agents.

  1. [Affective disorders and their treatment during pregnancy and after birth -- a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félegyházy, Zsolt; Adler, Mats

    2013-03-01

    Treatment and management of affective disorders associated with pregnancy is still an underemphasized field receiving little attention, furthermore, it is burdened with misinformation as well as incomplete or missing knowledge. Professionals of related fields (psychiatrists, obstetrician-gynecologists) often provide patients with contradicting information or, due to their lack of sufficient knowledge, keep referring the patient for information between different services. However, there is an increasing amount of data and information available, suitable for drawing conclusions and making it possible to provide adequate and credible counselling and information for pregnant women or family planning couples. In the present paper we aim to facilitate this process by reviewing the currently available information.

  2. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  3. [Up-to-date drug treatment of disseminated lung cancer--which other drugs are available in addition to conventional cytotoxic agents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Jussi; Knuuttila, Aija; Mali, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In addition to conventional cytotoxic agents, novel drug treatments have in the last few years been introduced for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Whereas some of the novel treatments have brought significant improvement in treatment outcome, the benefit brought about by the treatment has in some cases been quite small in comparison with the costs and adverse effects. In the present review we explore the goals of drug treatments of disseminated lung cancer, assessment of therapeutic benefits as well as most significant research results of novel drug treatments of the lastfew years In addition, we evaluate the effect of the novel drug treatments on Finnish treatment practices.

  4. Factors affecting cognitive remediation response in schizophrenia: the role of COMT gene and antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Spangaro, Marco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bechi, Margherita; Cocchi, Federica; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    Cognitive remediation is the best available tool to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and has evidence of biological validity; however results are still heterogeneous and significant predictors are lacking. Previous studies showed that cognitive remediation is able to induce changes in PFC function and dopaminergic transmission and thus the study of possible sources of variability at these levels (i.e. antipsychotic treatments and genetic variability) might help to gain a deeper understanding of neurobiological correlates and translate into optimization and personalization of interventions. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between pharmacological treatment (clozapine vs typical/atypical D2 blockers) and COMT rs4680 polymorphism on cognitive changes after cognitive remediation therapy, in a sample of 98 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia. The General Linear Model showed a significant interaction of pharmacological treatment and COMT polymorphism on the improvement in "Symbol Coding" subtest, a global measure of speed of processing. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between COMT genotypes, when treated with D2 blockers, with worse results among Val/Val patients. These preliminary results suggest that genetic variability, influencing prefrontal dopamine, might affect individual capacity to improve with different patterns, depending on antipsychotic treatment.

  5. First-line single agent treatment with gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yong-Qian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a malignant carcinoma which has the highest morbidity and mortality in Chinese population. Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase (TK inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, displays anti-tumor activity. The present data regarding first-line treatment with single agent gefitinib against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in Chinese population are not sufficient. Purpose To assess the efficacy and toxicity of gefitinib in Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, a study of single agent treatment with gefitinib in Chinese patients was conducted. Methods 45 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with gefitinib (250 mg daily until the disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Results Among the 45 patients, 15 patients achieved partial response (PR, 17 patients experienced stable disease (SD, and 13 patients developed progression disease (PD. None of the patients achieved complete response (CR. The tumor response rate and disease control rate was 33% and 71.1%, respectively. Symptom remission rate was 72.5%, and median remission time was 8 days. Median overall survival and median progression-free survival was 15.3 months and 6.0 months, respectively. The main induced toxicities by gefitinib were skin rash and diarrhea (53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The minor induced toxicities included dehydration and pruritus of skin (26.7% and 22.2%, respectively. In addition, hepatic toxicity and oral ulceration occurred in few patients (6.7% and 4.4%2, respectively. Conclusions Single agent treatment with gefitinib is effective and well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC.

  6. Micromorphology and microhardness of enamel after treatment with home-use bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Tetsuo Sasaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of home-use bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness and surface micromorphology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel slabs (n=10 received the bleaching agents for 1 h/day and remained in artificial saliva solution for 23 h/day, during a total period of 21 days. Control group was composed of enamel slabs that were not subjected to treatment with the agents and were maintained in artificial saliva solution. Microhardness tests were performed before treatment application, 21 days of treatment and 14 days after the end of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed after 14 days after the end of bleaching treatment by 3 calibrated observers who attributed scores. RESULTS: The Tukey's test (α=0.05 showed no significant differences in microhardness values among bleaching agents, at 21 days of treatment and a significant increase in microhardness for different agents after 14 days from the end of treatment. Fisher's exact test showed differences in micromorphology of enamel between control and experimental groups (p=0.0342. CONCLUSIONS: Bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide may change surface micromorphology of enamel, although no changes in microhardness were observed.

  7. Glutathione Depletion Induced by c-Myc Downregulation Triggers Apoptosis on Treatment with Alkylating Agents

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    Annamaria Biroccio

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the mechanism(s involved in the c-Myc-dependent drug response of melanoma cells. By using three M14-derived c-Myc low-expressing clones, we demonstrate that alkylating agents, cisplatin and melphalan, trigger apoptosis in the c-Myc antisense transfectants, but not in the parental line. On the contrary, topoisomerase inhibitors, adriamycin and camptothecin, induce apoptosis to the same extent regardless of c-Myc expression. Because we previously demonstrated that c-Myc downregulation decreases glutathione (GSH content, we evaluated the role of GSH in the apoptosis induced by the different drugs. In control cells treated with one of the alkylating agents or the others, GSH depletion achieved by L-buthionine-sulfoximine preincubation opens the apoptotic pathway. The apoptosis proceeded through early Bax relocalization, cytochrome c release, concomitant caspase-9 activation, whereas reactive oxygen species production and alteration of mitochondria membrane potential were late events. That GSH was determining in the c-Myc-dependent druginduced apoptosis was demonstrated by altering the intracellular GSH content of the c-Myc low-expressing cells up to the level of controls. Indeed, GSH ethyl ester-mediated increase of GSH abrogated apoptosis induced by cisplatin and melphalan by inhibition of Baxicytochrome c redistribution. The relationship among c-Myc, GSH content, the response to alkylating agent has been also evaluated in the M14 Myc overexpressing clones as well as in the melanoma JR8 c-Myc antisense transfectants. All together, these results demonstrate that GSH plays a key role in governing c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis.

  8. New treatment strategies in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia : Hypomethylating agents and proteasome inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Lidia Henrieke

    2016-01-01

    New treatment strategies in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is challenging, especially in the large group of patients older than 60 years. In these patients, results of standard chemotherapy are often disappointing

  9. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rende (Italy); Amantea, Diana [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmacobiology, Rende (Italy); Saturnino, Carmela [University of Salerno, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fisciano (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals. (orig.)

  10. The Safety of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents for the Treatment of Anemia Resulting from Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Nicolas Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia treatment was revolutionized in the late 1980s with the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin. This and related erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) greatly benefited patients by decreasing debilitating symptoms, improving their quality of life, and freeing them from dependence on blood transfusions with their associated complications such as infections, sensitization impeding transplantation, and secondary iron overload. However, even in the initial studies, untoward effects were noted in patients receiving ESAs, including worsening hypertension, seizures, and dialysis access clotting. Later, increased mortality, malignancy progression and even stroke were reported in renal patients. This review focuses on the safety issues of ESAs in CKD patients. PMID:26894799

  11. Evaluation of unnatural cyclic amino acids as boron delivery agents for treatment of melanomas and gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnatural cyclic amino acids (UNAAs) are a new class of boron delivery agents that are in a pre-clinical stage of evaluation. In the present study, the biodistribution of racemic forms of the cis- and trans-isomers of the boronated UNAA 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC) and 1-amino-3-boronocycloheptanecarboxylic acid (ABCHC) were evaluted in B16 melanoma bearing mice and this was compared to L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Boron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) at 2.5 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the test agents at a concentration equivalent to 24 mg/B/kg. While all compounds attained comparable tumor boron concentrations, the tumor/blood (T/Bl) boron concentration ratios were far superior for both cis-ABCPC and cis-ABCHC compared to BPA (T/Bl=16.4, and 15.1 vs. 5.4). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging revealed that the cis-ABCPC delivered boron to the nuclei, as well as the cytoplasm of B16 cells. Next, a biodistribution study of cis-ABCPC and BPA was carried out in F98 glioma bearing rats following i.p. administration. Both compounds attained comparable tumor boron concentrations but the tumor/brain (T/Br) boron ratio was superior for cis-ABCPC compared to BPA (6 vs. 3.3). Since UNAAs are water soluble and cannot be metabolized by tumor cells, they could be potentially more effective boron delivery agents than BPA. Our data suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate these compounds prior to the initiation of clinical studies. - Highlights: • Unnatural cyclic amino acids (UNAAs) are a new class of boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. • ABCPC and ABCHC attained higher tumor/blood ratios vs. BPA in B16 melanoma bearing mice. • The tumor/brain ratio of cis-ABCPC was superior to BPA (6 vs. 3.3) suggesting that further studies are warranted

  12. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20562789

  13. Understanding Virulence in the Brucellae and Francisellae: Towards Efficacious Treatments for Two Potential Biothreat Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasley, A; Parsons, D A; El-Etr, S; Roux, C; Tsolis, R

    2009-12-30

    Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Brucellae species are highly infectious pathogens classified as select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with the potential for use in bioterrorism attacks. These organisms are known to be facultative intracellular pathogens that preferentially infect human monocytes. As such, understanding how the host responds to infection with these organisms is paramount in detecting and combating human disease. We have compared the ability of fully virulent strains of each pathogen and their non-pathogenic near neighbors to enter and survive inside the human monocytic cell line THP-1 and have quantified the cellular response to infection with the goal of identifying both unique and common host response patterns. We expanded the scope of these studies to include experiments with pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nonpathogenic strains of each organism were impaired in their ability to survive intracellularly compared with their pathogenic counterparts. Furthermore, infection of THP-1 cells with pathogenic strains of Y. pestis and F. tularensis resulted in marked increases in the secretion of the inflammatory chemokines IL-8, RANTES, and MIP-1{beta}. In contrast, B. melitensis infection failed to elicit any significant increases in a panel of cytokines tested. These differences may underscore distinct strategies in pathogenic mechanisms employed by these pathogens.

  14. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M.; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregnant WKY dams completed gestation with and without T4 administration and their adult male offspring were tested. Measures included depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in both plasma and specific brain regions. In addition, the expression of two proteins affecting thyroid hormone trafficking and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT-8) and iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), and of several behavior-altering molecules, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (prepro-TRH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), were determined in the hippocampus and amygdala of the offspring. Prenatal T4 treatment of WKYs did not affect adult depressive behavior but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased plasma levels of THs. In the hippocampus of males treated with T4 in utero, Dio3 and MCT-8 protein levels were increased, while in the amygdala, there were increases of free T4, MCT-8, GR, prepro-TRH protein and CRH mRNA levels. These results show that T4 administration in utero programs adult peripheral and amygdalar thyroid hormone levels divergently, and that the resulting upregulation of anxiety-related genes in the amygdala could be responsible for the exacerbated anxiety-like behavior seen in WKYs after prenatal T4 treatment. PMID:20005050

  15. Novel compounds for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: emerging therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Sue

    2011-01-01

    The identification of dystrophin and the causative role of mutations in this gene in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (D/BMD) was expected to lead to timely development of effective therapies. Despite over 20 years of research, corticosteroids remain the only available pharmacological treatment for DMD, although significant benefits and extended life have resulted from advances in the clinical care and management of DMD individuals. Effective treatment of DMD will require dystrophin restitution in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles and nonmuscle tissues; however, modulation of muscle loss and regeneration has the potential to play an important role in altering the natural history of DMD, particularly in combination with other treatments. Emerging biological, molecular, and small molecule therapeutics are showing promise in ameliorating this devastating disease, and it is anticipated that regulatory environments will need to display some flexibility in order to accommodate the new treatment paradigms. PMID:23776365

  16. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  17. Effective NSAID treatment indicates that hyperprostaglandinism is affecting the clinical severity of childhood hypophosphatasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collmann H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypophosphatasia (HP is an inborn error of bone metabolism characterized by a genetic defect in the gene encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP. There is a lack of knowledge as to how the variability and clinical severity of the HP phenotype (especially pain and walking impairment are related to metabolic disturbances or impairments, subsequent to the molecular defect. Methods We analyzed the changes in clinical symptoms and the prostaglandin (PG metabolism in response to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in six children affected by childhood HP. In addition, by exposing HP fibroblasts to pyridoxal phosphate and/or calcium pyrophosphate in vitro, we analyzed whether the alterations in PG levels are sequelae related to the metabolic defect. Results Childhood HP patients, who often complain about pain in the lower limbs without evident fractures, have systemic hyperprostaglandinism. Symptomatic anti-inflammatory treatment with NSAIDs significantly improved pain-associated physical impairment. Calcium pyrophosphate, but not pyridoxal phosphate, induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 gene expression and PG production in HP and normal fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion Clinical features of childhood HP related to pain in the lower legs may be, at least in part, sequelae related to elevated PG levels, secondary to the primary metabolic defect. Consequently, NSAID treatment does improve the clinical features of childhood HP.

  18. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  19. Update on the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: focus on the cost-effectiveness of new agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnenègre A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Vergnenègre,1,4 I Borget,2 C Chouaid3,4 1Service de Pathologie Respiratoire et d'Allergologie, CHU Dupuytren, Limoges, France; 2Etudes et Recherche en Économie de la Santé, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; 3Service de Pneumologie, CHU Saint-Antoine, Paris, France; 4Inserm, U707, Paris, France Background: The incidence of lung cancer and the cost of drug treatment have increased dramatically in the last decade. This article examines the costs of new target agents, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs and anti-angiogenic drugs. Methods: This study uses PubMed research to focus on the topics of lung cancer, economics, and new targeted therapies. Results: The published papers only addressed TKIs and anti-angiogenic antibodies. For gefitinib, the results favored a clinical-based selection, despite the low number of studies. Erlotinib was studied in second line and as a maintenance treatment (with the studies reaching opposite conclusions in terms of cost-effectiveness. Economic analyses were not in favor of bevacizumab, but the studies on this topic were very heterogeneous. Conclusion: The economic impact of a drug depends on the health care system organization. Future clinical trials must include economic analyses, particularly with TKIs in the first line. Keywords: lung cancer, new target agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic, bevacizumab

  20. Treatment with Hypomethylating Agents before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Improves Progression-Free Survival for Patients with Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtim, Piyanuch; Popat, Uday; Jimenez, Antonio; Gaballa, Sameh; El Fakih, Riad; Rondon, Gabriela; Chen, Julianne; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Borthakur, Gautam; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kantarjian, Hagop; Alousi, Amin; Hosing, Chitra; Anderlini, Paolo; Khouri, Issa F; Kebriaei, Partow; Andersson, Borje S; Oran, Betul; Rezvani, Katayoun; Marin, David; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E; Ciurea, Stefan O

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) with transplant has not been optimized. We retrospectively reviewed the data for 83 consecutive patients with CMML (47 with CMML-1/2 and 36 with CMML progressed to acute myeloid leukemia) who received an allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) at our institution between April 1991 and December 2013 to identify factors associated with improved survival and determine whether treatment with hypomethylating agents before transplant improves progression-free survival (PFS). The median age of the cohort was 57 years. Seventy-eight patients received induction treatment before transplant, with 37 receiving hypomethylating agents and 41 receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Patients treated with a hypomethylating agent had a significantly lower cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years post-transplant (22%) than those treated with other agents (35%; P = .03), whereas treatment-related mortality at 1 year post-transplant did not significantly differ between the groups (27% and 30%, respectively; P = .84). The lower relapse rate resulted in a significantly higher 3-year PFS rate in patients treated with a hypomethylating agent (43%) than in those treated with other agents (27%; P = .04). Our data support the use of hypomethylating agents before allo-SCT for patients with CMML to achieve morphologic remission and improve PFS of these patients. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Emerging oral immunomodulating agents – focus on teriflunomide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwo E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enyioma Nwankwo, Douglas R Allington, Michael P RiveyPharmacy Practice Department, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USAAbstract: Treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic disease of the central nervous system, has historically relied exclusively on the use of injectable therapies. As the disease requires lifelong therapy, the development of oral therapies that are safe and effective would provide a more convenient dosage form that may improve patient compliance. One oral medication (fingolimod was recently approved for treatment of MS. Teriflunomide, an immunomodulator, is one of four oral therapies currently undergoing Phase III trials. Teriflunomide exerts its clinical effects via selective inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, primarily targeting proliferating T and B lymphocytes in the periphery. Teriflunomide was effective as monotherapy in reducing magnetic resonance imaging lesions and annual relapse rates in Phase II and Phase III trials. When teriflunomide was added to interferon or glatiramer acetate therapy in Phase II trials, teriflunomide reduced magnetic resonance imaging lesions significantly more than either interferon or glatiramer acetate alone. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred at similar rates among all groups in teriflunomide studies, with a trend towards a higher treatment emergent adverse events rate in the higher dosage group of teriflunomide (14 mg daily. Treatment discontinuations in teriflunomide trials were relatively low, suggesting that teriflunomide monotherapy is well tolerated. This article reviews the mode of action of teriflunomide, its pharmacokinetic, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles.Keywords: clinical trials, oral drugs, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

  2. Treatment characteristics and mortality of a large insured female population with advanced or metastatic breast cancer by receipt of HER2-targeted agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Nicole Meyer,2 Pamela Landsman-Blumberg,2 William Johnson,2 Jaqueline Willemann Rogerio1 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA Purpose: This retrospective administrative claims study of women diagnosed with advanced or metastatic breast cancer compared treatment characteristics and mortality by receipt of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-targeted agents and by disease stage and age group among patients using HER2-targeted agents. Patients and methods: Adult women diagnosed with stage III or IV breast cancer (index date between 2008 and 2012 were identified from MarketScan® databases containing medical and pharmacy claims for >40 million enrollees insured with >100 US health plans. Patients were followed until the earlier of the following: end of enrollment, inpatient death, or December 31, 2012. Study cohorts were women ± HER2-targeted agent use, HER2-targeted agent users' subgroups of stages III and IV, and age group. Pre- and postindex breast cancer treatments were compared among study cohorts. Overall survival was compared using log-rank tests. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to study the predictors of overall survival. Results: Of 30,660 eligible women, 14.4% received HER2-targeted agents. HER2-targeted agent users received more aggressive pre- and postindex cancer treatments compared to those with no HER2-targeted agents. HER2-targeted agents had higher rates of pre- and postindex breast cancer surgery, adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biologics-based therapy. Among HER2-targeted agent users, younger women and those with stage III breast cancer received more aggressive treatments. After adjusting for clinically relevant patient characteristics, women receiving HER2-targeted agents had a 20% reduced risk of death compared to patients not receiving HER2-targeted agents. Among all patients and the

  3. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. CONCLUSIONS: Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an

  4. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability. PMID:20688369

  5. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  6. Chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: efficacy and mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Shaaban

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a dreaded malignancy that every year causes half a million deaths worldwide. Being an aggressive cancer, its incidence exceeds 700,000 new cases per year worldwide with a median survival of 6-8 months. Despite advances in prognosis and early detection, effective HCC chemoprevention or treatment strategies are still lacking, therefore its dismal survival rate remains largely unchanged. This review will characterize currently available chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of HCC. The respective mode(s of action, side effects and recommendations will be also described for each drug.

  7. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eOker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  8. Treatment optimization of fluoropyrimidines as single agent and in combination therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, MJ

    2011-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its oral prodrugs capecitabine and tegafur, are among the most commonly prescribed anticancer drugs for the adjuvant and palliative treatment of various types of solid malignancies, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and breast cancer.

  9. Novel compounds for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: emerging therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve D Wilton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Steve D Wilton, Sue FletcherCentre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: The identification of dystrophin and the causative role of mutations in this gene in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (D/BMD was expected to lead to timely development of effective therapies. Despite over 20 years of research, corticosteroids remain the only available pharmacological treatment for DMD, although significant benefits and extended life have resulted from advances in the clinical care and management of DMD individuals. Effective treatment of DMD will require dystrophin restitution in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles and nonmuscle tissues; however, modulation of muscle loss and regeneration has the potential to play an important role in altering the natural history of DMD, particularly in combination with other treatments. Emerging biological, molecular, and small molecule therapeutics are showing promise in ameliorating this devastating disease, and it is anticipated that regulatory environments will need to display some flexibility in order to accommodate the new treatment paradigms.Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, molecular therapeutics, small molecules

  10. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13–19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved. PMID:27635134

  11. Agent based modeling of the effects of potential treatments over the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Marzio; Russo, Giulia; Motta, Santo; Pappalardo, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system that involves the destruction of the insulating sheath of axons, causing severe disabilities. Since the etiology of the disease is not yet fully understood, the use of novel techniques that may help to understand the disease, to suggest potential therapies and to test the effects of candidate treatments is highly advisable. To this end we developed an agent based model that demonstrated its ability to reproduce the typical oscillatory behavior observed in the most common form of multiple sclerosis, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The model has then been used to test the potential beneficial effects of vitamin D over the disease. Many scientific studies underlined the importance of the blood-brain barrier and of the mechanisms that influence its permeability on the development of the disease. In the present paper we further extend our previously developed model with a mechanism that mimics the blood-brain barrier behavior. The goal of our work is to suggest the best strategies to follow for developing new potential treatments that intervene in the blood-brain barrier. Results suggest that the best treatments should potentially prevent the opening of the blood-brain barrier, as treatments that help in recovering the blood-brain barrier functionality could be less effective. PMID:26343337

  12. Meta-analysis: the efficacy of nootropic agent Cerebrolysin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z-H; He, Q-B; Wang, H; Su, B-H; Chen, H-Z

    2007-01-01

    To determine the therapeutic effect of nootropic agent Cerebrolysin on patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), we searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System for Compact Disc (CBMDISC), and communicated with EBEWE Pharmaceutical Ltd, for randomized trials comparing Cerebrolysin with placebo in AD. Available data on clinical global impression, cognitive performance and activities of daily living were extracted from 6 randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials and combined with standard meta-analysis methods. An infusion with Cerebrolysin for 4 weeks (30 ml Cerebrolysin daily on five consecutive days of each week) led to a significant improvement of the clinical global impression. Compared with placebo, log(OR) was 1.1799, and 95% confident interval was 0.7463-1.6135 (P Cerebrolysin could significantly improve the clinical global impression in patients with mild to moderate AD. However, more convincing evidences are needed for the efficacy of Cerebrolysin on the cognitive performance and activities of daily living.

  13. Affect Intensity and Phasic REM Sleep in Depressed Men before and after Treatment with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored relationship between daytime affect and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in 45 depressed men before and after treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and in control group of 43 healthy subjects. For depressed subjects only, intensity of daytime affect correlated significantly and positively with phasic REM sleep measures at pre- and…

  14. Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, M; Levine, S M; Terman, J S; Doherty, S

    1998-09-28

    This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS. Instruments included the Personal Inventory for Depression and SAD (PIDS) and the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Effects (SAFTEE), which catalogs the current severity of a wide range of somatic, behavioral, and affective symptoms. Data sets from 110 CFS patients matched across seasons were entered into the analysis. Symptoms that conform with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of CFS were rated as moderate to very severe during the winter months by varying proportions of patients (from 43% for lymph node pain or enlargement, to 79% for muscle, joint, or bone pain). Fatigue was reported by 92%. Prominent affective symptoms included irritability (55%), depressed mood (52%), and anxiety (51%). Retrospective monthly ratings of mood, social activity, energy, sleep duration, amount eaten, and weight change showed a coherent pattern of winter worsening. Of patients with consistent summer and winter ratings (n = 73), 37% showed high global seasonality scores (GSS) > or = 10. About half this group reported symptoms indicative of major depressive disorder, which was strongly associated with high seasonality. Hierarchical cluster analysis of wintertime symptoms revealed 2 distinct clinical profiles among CFS patients: (a) those with high seasonality, for whom depressed mood clustered with atypical neurovegetative symptoms of hypersomnia and hyperphagia, as is seen in SAD; and (b) those with low seasonality, who showed a primary clustering of classic CFS symptoms (fatigue, aches, cognitive disturbance

  15. Anti-inflammatory Agents in the Treatment of Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rena M; Donath, Marc Y; LeRoith, Derek; Leibowitz, Gil

    2016-08-01

    The association between hyperglycemia and inflammation and vascular complications in diabetes is now well established. Antidiabetes drugs may alleviate inflammation by reducing hyperglycemia; however, the anti-inflammatory effects of these medications are inconsistent and it is unknown whether their beneficial metabolic effects are mediated via modulation of chronic inflammation. Recent data suggest that immunomodulatory treatments may have beneficial effects on glycemia, β-cell function, and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial metabolic effects are not always clear, and there are concerns regarding the specificity, safety, and efficacy of immune-based therapies. Herein, we review the anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of current antidiabetes drugs and of anti-inflammatory therapies that were studied in patients with type 2 diabetes. We discuss the potential benefit of using anti-inflammatory treatments in diabetes and important issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of such therapeutic approaches. PMID:27440839

  16. Anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Iosifovich Konenkov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is a common complication associated with the loss of visual acuity in diabetic patients. Intravitreal injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (anti-VEGF therapy have been proposed recently as a new treatment option for patients with DME. In this review we summarized results of randomized clinical trials of VEGF inhibitors in DME patients. The results indicate that all studied inhibitors (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, pegaptanib and aflibersept reduce the retinal thickness and improve of visual acuity in DME when are used as a monotherapy or in combination with the laser treatment. Optimal course duration and effectiveness predictors of anti-VEGF therapy in DME should be elucidate in the future studies.

  17. An effective antibiofilm agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm from traditional Thai herbal recipes used for wound treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, Sasitorn; Jittanon, Wittaya; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2013-10-01

    The presence of bacterial biofilm, particularly formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been considered an important factor responsible for wound chronicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of water and ethanol extracts obtained from three traditional herbal recipes (THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011) on biofilm formation and on mature biofilm of a reference strain of P. aeruginosa. The effects of the extracts on the biofilm mass were evaluated by using crystal violet (CV) assay. The respiratory activity of preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa after treatment with the extract was determined by MTT reduction assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to furnish images of biofilm reduction after the recipe treatment. Tested ethanol extracts displayed antibiofilm activity, but the water extracts exhibited low biofilm inhibition activity at the tested concentrations. Remarkable reduction in biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa was found after treatment with the THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E). Treatments with this extract resulted in prevention of biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa on both polystyrene and glass surfaces. Almost 50% reduction in the bacterial metabolic activity in the preformed biofilm was seen after exposure to the extract-supplemented buffer for 12 hr. After a 24-hr treatment with THR-SK010E at 62.5 μg/ml, 97.3% of the preformed biofilms were destroyed. Promising antibiofilm activity was displayed by the THR-SK010 ethanol extract, suggesting further investigation to explore the possible utilization of the herbal recipe as an antibiofilm agent, especially for wound treatment. PMID:23600560

  18. Non-surgical treatment of deep wounds triggered by harmful physical and chemical agents: a successful combined use of collagenase and hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesti, Maria G; Fino, Pasquale; Ponzo, Ida; Ruggieri, Martina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-02-01

    Some chronic ulcers often occur with slough, not progressing through the normal stages of wound healing. Treatment is long and other therapies need to be performed in addition to surgery. Patients not eligible for surgery because of ASA class (American Society of Anesthesiologists class) appear to benefit from chemical therapy with collagenase or hydrocolloids in order to prepare the wound bed, promoting the healing process. We describe four cases of traumatic, upper limb deep wounds caused by different physical and chemical agents, emphasising the effectiveness of treatment based on topical application of collagenase and hyaluronic acid (HA) before standardised surgical procedures. We performed careful disinfection of lesions combined with application of topical cream containing hyaluronic acid, bacterial fermented sodium hyaluronate (0·2%w/w) salt, and bacterial collagenase obtained from non-pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus (>2·0 nkat1/g). In one patient a dermo-epidermal graft was used to cover the wide loss of substance. In two patients application of a HA-based dermal substitute was done. We obtained successful results in terms of wound healing, with satisfactory aesthetic result and optimal recovery of the affected limb functionality. Topical application of collagenase and HA, alone or before standardised surgical procedures allows faster wound healing. PMID:24698215

  19. Novel compounds for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: emerging therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton, Steve D; Sue Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Steve D Wilton, Sue FletcherCentre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: The identification of dystrophin and the causative role of mutations in this gene in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (D/BMD) was expected to lead to timely development of effective therapies. Despite over 20 years of research, corticosteroids remain the only available pharmacological treatment for DMD, although significant benefits a...

  20. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Odes S; Greenberg D

    2014-01-01

    Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing ...

  1. New developments in the treatment of osteoarthritis – focus on biologic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Torrero JI; Martínez C

    2015-01-01

    Jose Ignacio Torrero,1 Carlos Martínez2 1BioTrauma Centre, Escaldes, Principality of Andorra; 2University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases around the world. Medical, social, and financial consequences oblige clinicians, surgeons, and researchers to focus on finding the best treatment option, to eradicate and stop this degenerative joint disease, in order to avoid surgical options which in...

  2. New developments in the treatment of osteoarthritis – focus on biologic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Torrero, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Jose Ignacio Torrero,1 Carlos Martínez2 1BioTrauma Centre, Escaldes, Principality of Andorra; 2University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases around the world. Medical, social, and financial consequences oblige clinicians, surgeons, and researchers to focus on finding the best treatment option, to eradicate and stop this degenerative joint disease, in order to avoid surgical options whic...

  3. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10−2 s−1) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10−8–10−6 s−1). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  4. Direct-acting Antiviral Agents Resistance-associated Polymorphisms in Chinese Treatment-na(i)ve Patients Infected with Genotype 1b Hepatitis C Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wang; Hui-Ying Rao; Xing-Wang Xie; Lai Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background:It has been reported that several baseline polymorphisms of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents resistance-associated variants (RAVs) would affect the treatment outcomes of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (CHC).The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of DAAs RAVs in treatment-na(i)ve GT1b CHC patients.Methods:Direct sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing of the HCV NS3,NS5A,and NS5B gene were performed in baseline serum samples of treatment-ha(i)ve patients infected with genotype lb hepatitis C virus (HCVs).Results:One hundred and sixty CHC patients were studied.Complete sequence information was obtained for 145 patients (NS3),148 patients (NS5A),and 137 patients (NS5B).Treatment-failure associated variants of DAAs were detected:56.6% (82/145) of the patients presented S122G for simeprevir (NS3 protease inhibitor);10.1% (14/148) of the patients presented Y93H for daclatasvir and ledipasvir (NS5A protein inhibitors);94.2% (129/137) of the patients presented C316N for sofosbuvir (NS5B polymerase inhibitor).Nearly,all of the DAAs RAVs detected by ultra-deep sequencing could be detected by direct sequencing.Conclusions:The majority of genotype lb CHC patients in China present a virus population carrying HCV DAAs RAVs.Pretreatment sequencing of HCV genome might need to be performed when patients infected with GTlb HCV receiving DAAs-containing regimens in China.Population sequencing would be quite quantified for the work.

  5. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  6. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of scutellarein carbamate derivatives as potential multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Zhi-Pei; Qiang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Yan; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Deng, Yong

    2015-11-01

    A series of scutellarein carbamate derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the multitarget-directed drug design strategy for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, antioxidant activities, metals chelation, and neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced PC12 cell injury were evaluated in vitro. The preliminary results indicated that compound 7b exhibited good inhibitory potency toward AChE and BuChE with IC50 values of 1.2 ± 0.03 μm and 22.1 ± 0.15 μm, respectively, possessed the strong antioxidant potency (10.3 trolox equivalents), as well as acted as a selective metal chelator and neuroprotective agent. Furthermore, 7b could improve memory impairment induced by scopolamine, ethanol, and sodium nitrite using the step-down passive avoidance task in vivo and could remarkably decrease the activity of acetylcholinesterase in mice brain. This study indicated that 7b could be considered as a potential multitarget agent against AD.

  7. State-of-the-Art Treatment and Novel Agents in Local and Distant Recurrences of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Clemens B; Beckmann, Matthias W

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the stage at initial presentation, cervical cancer will recur in 25-61% of women. Typical manifestations of recurrent cervical cancer include the central pelvis and the pelvic side walls as well as retroperitoneal lymph node basins in the pelvis and the para-aortic region, and - more rarely - supraclavicular lymph nodes. There are no typical symptoms of recurrent cervical cancer. Women with suspected recurrence after cervical cancer based on gynecological examination or organ-specific symptoms must undergo imaging studies and - if technically feasible - biopsy with histological verification, especially in cases of distant metastases, in order to rule out a second primary. Radiotherapy-naïve women should be treated with salvage radiochemotherapy with curative intention. For women with previous radiotherapy, surgery in the form of hysterectomy, local resection, or pelvic exenteration is the treatment of choice. Pelvic exenteration can lead to cure in selected patients, but at the price of a high rate of complications and significant morbidity and mortality. If complete surgical resection is not feasible or if the woman is not a candidate for surgery, chemotherapy with palliative intent should be offered. Patients with recurrent disease outside the pelvis are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. Several agents have shown to be active in this situation, either in single-agent or combination regimens. Platinum-containing regimens have a superior efficacy over non-platinum regimens and bevacizumab may be added to chemotherapy. PMID:27614445

  8. Biologic agents for the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruy; Smith, Judith A; Lovell, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Biologic therapies, primarily anticytokine therapies, are being increasingly used in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Levels of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to be elevated in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid and tissue in children with JRA. In a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in children with severe, long-standing, polyarticular-course JRA not responsive to standard therapies, etanercept showed a statistically significantly greater response rate than placebo. Approximately 75% of these children responded to etanercept. Etanercept has been efficacious in 50-60% of children with active systemic JRA in open clinical trials with acceptable tolerance. Adverse events seen in children treated with etanercept have been similar in type and frequency to those reported in adults. Infliximab has been studied in several open clinical trials in both polyarticular and systemic JRA and found to, overall, have demonstrated efficacy in approximately 60% of patients. Approximately 3-5% of patients have demonstrated infusion reactions or frank allergic reactions and 9% developed new autoantibodies. Anakinra has been studied in children with polyarticular JRA. Approximately 65% of patients developed injection-site reactions and 68% demonstrated a response to the medication. Anakinra may have increased efficacy in systemic JRA. Interleukin (IL)-6 is highly related to the systemic disease manifestations in systemic JRA and two patients treated with a monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor have demonstrated significant improvement with prolonged clinical control with continued treatment. A particular pediatric concern is the effect of immunosuppressive biologics in children who are exposed to or develop varicella. These children should be treated, both in terms of prophylaxis and aggressive antivaricella treatment, as for other immunosuppressed children. Anticytokine biologics have demonstrated great promise in the treatment of

  9. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  10. Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj B Warad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.

  11. Naturally Inspired Molecules as Multifunctional Agents for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rampa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been defined as a multi-factorial disorder resulting from a complex array of networked cellular and molecular mechanisms. In particular, elevated levels of Aβ protein and its aggregation products in the presence of metal ions proved to be highly neurotoxic and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing Aβ generation and oxidative stress may represent an effective approach for AD treatment. A recent paradigm for the treatment of complex diseases such as AD suggests the employment of multifunctional compounds, single chemical entities capable of simultaneously modulating different targets involved in the pathology. In this paper, the “pharmacophores combination” strategy was applied, connecting the main scaffold of the BACE-1 ligand 1 to that of the chalcone 2, as metal chelating pharmacophore, to obtain a small library of compounds. Conjugate 5 emerged as the most interesting derivative, proving to inhibit BACE-1 with low-micromolar potency, and showing neuroprotective effects. In particular, 5 proved to be able to protect from metal-associated oxidative stress by hampering intracellular Cu2+-induced ROS formation without any direct neurotoxic effect.

  12. [Clinical experience with the treatment of gingival hyperplasia induced by calcium channel blocking agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keglevich, T; Benedek, E; Gera, I

    1999-12-01

    The prevalence of the nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is ranging from 0.5-83% in the dental literature. The pathomechanism of the nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not clearly understood. Evaluating the dental history and the course of disease of 34 patients treated and followed up at the Department of Periodontology the following answers were raised: What sort of local and systemic factors are enhancing the recurrence of the gingival overgrowth and how this can be anticipated in patients on continuous Ca channel blocking medication. Eight out of the 34 patients participating in the clinical trial did not remember the onset of their gingival overgrowth. 10 cases developed three years and three cases after less then one year of the onset of the drug administrations. 27 out of the 34 cases required gingival surgery and seven showed good clinical improvement after the hygienic phase of the comprehensive periodontal treatment. 70% of the gingival hyperplasia cases presented no clinical sign of recurrence one year after the completion of the active phase of the treatment. A positive correlation was found between the oral hygiene and the recurrence rate of gingival overgrowth. Oral hygiene seems to play a decisive role in the development of gingival enlargement. The present findings and substantial evidences from the dental literature indicate that the gingival enlargement can be successfully controlled even under the continuous nifedipine administration by meticulous professional and individual oral hygiene.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  14. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  15. Practical guidance on immunogenicity to biologic agents used in the treatment of psoriasis: What can be learnt from other diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jo; Nast, Alexander; Nestle, Frank O; Prinz, Jörg C

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of biologic agents for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis is well proven in clinical studies, but patients may lose response over time. Loss of response may be due to immunogenicity and the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). Although data on the immunogenicity of drugs used to treat psoriasis are now emerging, more information on the impact of factors, such as dosing regimens and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy is needed. Exploring research from other disease areas where immunogenicity has long been recognised as a significant clinical issue may help in developing future strategies for using drug level and ADA measurements to help tailor biologic therapy to meet individual needs. To this end, we analyse what is known about biologics and immunogenicity in psoriasis. In order to learn from other indications, we then address the issue of immunogenicity for three different types of biologic treatments. First, factor VIII-substitution in haemophilia, where the immune system is newly exposed to a physiologic but formerly absent protein. Second, the use of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease, where similar treatment challenges apply as observed in psoriasis. Third, immunogenicity in multiple sclerosis caused by therapeutic antibodies or interferons. Immunogenicity strategies used in other disease areas will need to be tested in psoriasis before they can be widely adopted in routine clinical practice.

  16. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    OpenAIRE

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level.Objective: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP.Design: Hea...

  17. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  18. Lipiodol solution of a lipophilic agent, {sup 188}Re-TDD, for the treatment of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min E-mail: jmjng@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Yoon Sang; Ko, Jun Il; Son, Miwon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-02-01

    Radiolabeled lipiodol has been used for targeting liver cancer. We developed a lipiodol solution of {sup 188}Re-TDD (2,2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanedithiol) and investigated its feasibility for the treatment of liver cancer. The lipiodol solution of {sup 188}Re-TDD was well-retained in the lipiodol phase in vitro. After injection through the tail veins of mice, high lung-uptake was investigated which is evidence of embolizing activity. We also found high accumulation in hepatoma after injection through the hepatic arteries of hepatoma-bearing rats. In conclusion, the lipiodol solution of {sup 188}Re-TDD is a promising agent for liver cancer therapy.

  19. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  20. N-succinyl chitosan as buccal penetration enhancer for delivery of herbal agents in treatment of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Neha; Kumar, Krishan; Kalia, A N; Arora, Saahil

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy (30-76%) and radiotherapy (over 50%). Current palliative treatments of oral mucositis include specialized agents like pelifermin, platelet derived factors etc. or oral hygienic agents which suffered from various drawbacks like systemic side effect, least effect owing to fast wash out of buccal mucosa, patient unfriendly delivery systems, and mere symptomatic relief. In this research work, N-succinyl chitosan gel delivery system of microemulsified eugenol, honey and sodium hyaluronate was prepared to explore their multiple and synergistic effects on various pathological factors of oral mucositis. N-succinyl chitosan was synthesized in our laboratory and loaded with microemulsified eugenol (10% v/v), honey (10% v/v) and sodium hyaluronate (0.2% w/v) to prepare orogel with optimum pH, spreadability, mucoadhesion strength, and viscosity. In vitro eugenol release from N-succinyl chitosan gel after 8 hours in PBS (pH-6.4) was found to be 87.45±0.14%, which was better in comparison to that released from chitosan gel. Ex vivo penetration studies using rat buccal mucosal tissue also suggested better J-efflux of eugenol through N-succinyl chitosan in comparison to chitosan gel with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.71. The antimicrobial effect of N-succinyl chitosan based orogel against S. aureus and C. albicans efficacy was found to be statistically high in comparison to chitosan based orogel as well as marketed formulation of chlorhexidine (pinflammation in the oral mucosa of animals compared to disease control (p<0.05) and hence suggesting the potential of N-succinyl chitosan orogel in the treatment of oral mucositis.

  1. [Gadolinium as an alternative radiocontrast agent in patients with allergy to iodine-based contrast provide for useful diagnostic imagings and safely treatment of biliary tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Makoto; Sano, Hitoshi; Fukusada, Shigeki; Kachi, Kenta; Inoue, Tadahisa; Anbe, Kaiki; Nishie, Hirotada; Nishi, Yuji; Yoshimura, Norihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Okumura, Fumihiro; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Takahiro

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract disease requires an intraductal radiocontrast agent. Although iodine-based contrast medium is commonly used, some patients show severe allergy to iodinated contrast agent. We have retrospectively reviewed the usefulness and safety of gadolinium as an alternative radiocontrast agent in 3 patients with allergy to iodine-based contrast medium in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract diseases. In case 1, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and cholangiography were performed successfully and it was possible to visualize an intrahepatic bile duct stone. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy was performed and the intrahepatic bile duct stone was removed. In case 2, endoscopic biliary lithotripsy was performed. In case 3, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and cholangioscopy provided a diagnosis of moderately differentiated carcinoma. He underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Postoperative cholangiograms were also obtained successfully. Gadolinium contrast agent is an alternative to iodine-based cholangiography for the patients with allergy to iodine.

  2. Bedaquiline: A Novel Antitubercular Agent for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam; Baxi, Mudit

    2016-08-01

    The developing countries are having an abruptly growing number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a type of TB in which the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to at least Isoniazid and Rifampicin, the two most effective of the four first-line TB drugs (the other two drugs being Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide). The management of such cases is complex and requires a treatment for 24-27 months. The current guidelines available for the management of this type of TB are largely based on the second line TB drugs which are relatively costly, less efficacious and are associated with greater side-effects. The introduction of newer drugs to cater to the high mortality and early sputum culture conversion in the MDR-TB cases is an absolute essential. In the present article, the authors discuss about the introduction of a newer drug named Bedaquiline for the control of MDR-TB. PMID:27656462

  3. [Anemia and its treatment with peroral anti-anemia agents in women during the postpartum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mára, M; Eretová, V; Zivný, J; Kvasnicka, J; Umlaufová, A; Márová, E

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum is according to the literature and many years clinical experience high. In the submitted work we investigated the incidence of sideropenic anaemia in women during the first three months after a spontaneous delivery, changes of clinical and laboratory indicators of anaemia during this period and the possible effect exerted by administration of iron and iron plus folic acid resp. Ninety pregnant women in the 35th to 39th week of pregnancy were at random divided into three equally sized groups and the following were assessed: haemogram, indicators of iron reserves, serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12, erythropoetin and soluble transferrin receptor, liver tests, total protein + electrophoresis, acute stage proteins. In the first group (T) the women were given, starting on the 4th day after delivery 1 tablet of Tardyferon per day for two months. To the second group (F) for an equal period 1 tablet of Tardyferon Fol per day was administered. Women in the control group (K) had no medication. In the investigation women with medium and severe pregnancy anaemia were not included nor women taking during pregnancy or previously iron preparations or those treated in the past by blood transfusion. After spontaneous delivery (women who had Caesarean section or forceps delivery were eliminated from the study) the women were subjected to the same examinations as before delivery. These examinations were made on the fourth day after delivery and then after monthly intervals for a period of three months. At the same time the subjective condition of the mothers was evaluated after delivery, focused on the development of symptoms typical for anaemia and the possible effect of administered treatment. The investigation was completed by 60 women. During treatment no allergic or other serious side-reactions to the administered drugs calling for discontinuation of treatment were recorded. The results of the investigation

  4. Treatment of wastewater dyeing agent by photocatalytic process in solar reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zahraa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of industrial textile dyes has been studied. The treatment was carried out on a solar reactor consisting in a flat active plane, tilted so as to face the sun and to allow the trickling of the water to be treated. Alternatively the reactor could be irradiated by an artificial source. After checking the system using salicylic acid, a conventional model molecule, the photocatalytic decolorization of Orange II, Yellow Drimarene, and Black Drimarene dyes was investigated. Artificial and solar irradiation gave comparable results although the heating by the sun reduced the amount of adsorption. The kinetics agrees with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and a discrepancy between adsorption constants deduced from the kinetic and adsorption experiments was interpreted by considering various types of adsorption sites. Orange II and Drimarene dyes decolorization kinetics are opposite limiting cases of the above model, as being of order 0 and 1 with respect to the dye, respectively.

  5. Selected Topical Agents Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Minor Injuries- A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ping-Chung; Ko, Erik Chun-Hay; Siu, Wing-Sum; Pang, Ellie Suet-Yee; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2016-01-01

    Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches. In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries. In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level. A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas: (1) Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study; (2) Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation; (3) Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and (4) Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications. Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain's disease) and the elbow (Tennis elbow). The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive. It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  6. Selected topical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of minor injuries- a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chung eLEUNG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level.A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas:(1Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study;(2Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation;(3Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and(4Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications.Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease and the elbow (Tennis elbow. The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive.It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  7. Betaine: a potential agent for the treatment of hepatopathy associated with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Araújo, Guilherme; Domenici, Fernanda; Elias, Jorge; Vannucchi, Hélio

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: La hepatopatía asociada con el síndrome del intestino corto (SIC) es una enfermedad multifactorial asociada con un mal pronóstico. Además de trasplante intestinal, ningún otro tratamiento ha demostrado ser eficaz. El actual estudio evaluó la eficacia de la betaína para el tratamiento de la hepatopatía asociada a la SIC. Métodos: Fue realizado un estudio prospectivo, unicéntrico, no controlado con placeb. Después de la evaluación inicial, 10 g de betaína anhidra fue administrado a pacientes con SIC en dos dosis divididas durante tres meses. La esteatosis hepática se evaluó a través de resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN), la respuesta inflamatoria por la interleucina-6 (IL-6), factor de necrosis tumoral-(TNF-) y la ferritina, además de la lesión hepática por medio de enzimas hepáticas y de la bilirrubina. Además, el efecto de la betaína sobre la homocisteína fue evaluada así como su seguridad y tolerabilidad en este grupo de pacientes. Resultados: Después de la administración de la betaína por tres meses, los pacientes mostraron disminución de la porcentaje de grasa hepática (p = 0,03) demosntrado por examen de RMN trifásico. No hubo una reducción significativa de los niveles séricos de proteínas inflamatorias y marcadores de lesión hepática. La homocisteína también no presentó disminución significativa. Los efectos secundarios más frecuentes fueron diarrea y náuseas, presentado en 62% de los participantes, sin embargo, estos síntomas fueron transitorios y no lo suficientemente graves como para justificar la interrupción del tratamiento. Pacientes dependientes de nutrición parenteral no presentaron diferentes grados de lesión hepática en comparación con los pacientes que no necesitan el uso prolongado de la misma. Conclusiones: La betaína demostró ser un agente potencial para el tratamiento de la hepatopatía asociada a la SIC, que se evidenció mediante RMN, a pesar de los marcadores de lesi

  8. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  9. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of dextromethorphan/quinidine in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoedel KA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kerri A Schoedel,1 Sarah A Morrow,2 Edward M Sellers3,4 1Altreos Research Partners, Inc., Toronto, 2Western University, London, 3DL Global Partners, Inc., Toronto, 4University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration–effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug’s side effects and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a

  10. Protein-nanoparticle conjugates as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximov, V D; Reukov, V V; Barry, J N; Vertegel, A A [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631 (United States); Cochrane, C, E-mail: vertege@clemson.edu [South Carolina Governor' s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC 29550 (United States)

    2010-07-02

    Hyperlipidemia, a condition associated with atherosclerosis, can develop because of the lack of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in hepatocytes. Since injected polymeric nanoparticles are quickly taken up by the liver Kupffer cells, we hypothesize that it is possible to enhance LDL delivery to the liver through the use of LDL-absorbing nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in vitro. We used biodegradable and biocompatible polylactide nanoparticles ({approx}100 nm in diameter) with covalently attached apolipoprotein B100 antibody to adsorb LDLs at physiologically relevant concentrations. We showed that up to sixfold decreases of LDL levels can be achieved in vitro upon treatment of LDL suspensions (500 mg dl{sup -1}) with anti-apoB100-nanoparticle conjugates. The study of the uptake of the antibody-nanoparticle-LDL complexes by cells was performed using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) as a model for liver Kupffer cells. We found that macrophages can quickly take up antibody-nanoparticle-LDL complexes and digest them within 24 h. No evidence of cytotoxicity was observed for the experimental conditions used in this study.

  11. Protein-nanoparticle conjugates as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, V. D.; Reukov, V. V.; Barry, J. N.; Cochrane, C.; Vertegel, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia, a condition associated with atherosclerosis, can develop because of the lack of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in hepatocytes. Since injected polymeric nanoparticles are quickly taken up by the liver Kupffer cells, we hypothesize that it is possible to enhance LDL delivery to the liver through the use of LDL-absorbing nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in vitro. We used biodegradable and biocompatible polylactide nanoparticles (~100 nm in diameter) with covalently attached apolipoprotein B100 antibody to adsorb LDLs at physiologically relevant concentrations. We showed that up to sixfold decreases of LDL levels can be achieved in vitro upon treatment of LDL suspensions (500 mg dl - 1) with anti-apoB100-nanoparticle conjugates. The study of the uptake of the antibody-nanoparticle-LDL complexes by cells was performed using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) as a model for liver Kupffer cells. We found that macrophages can quickly take up antibody-nanoparticle-LDL complexes and digest them within 24 h. No evidence of cytotoxicity was observed for the experimental conditions used in this study.

  12. Overview of biopolymers as carriers of antiphlogistic agents for treatment of diverse ocular inflammations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil Kumar; Arya, Amit; Sahoo, Pravat Kumar; Majumdar, Dipak Kanti

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation of the eye is a usual clinical condition that can implicate any part of the eye. The nomenclature of variety of such inflammations is based on the ocular part involved. These diseases may jeopardize normal functioning of the eye on progression. In general, corticosteroids, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat inflammatory diseases/disorders of the eye. There have been several attempts via different approaches of drug delivery to overcome the low ocular bioavailability resulting from shorter ocular residence time. The features like safety, ease of elimination and ability to sustain drug release have led to application of biopolymers in ocular therapeutics. Numerous polymers of natural origin such as gelatin, collagen, chitosan, albumin, hyaluronic acid, alginates etc. have been successfully employed for preparation of different ocular dosage forms. Chitosan is the most explored biopolymer amongst natural biopolymers because of its inherent characteristics. The emergence of synthetic biopolymers (like PVP, PACA, PCL, POE, polyanhydrides, PLA, PGA and PLGA) has also added new dimensions to the drug delivery strategies meant for treatment of ophthalmic inflammations. The current review is an endeavor to describe the utility of a variety of biomaterials/polymers based drug delivery systems as carrier for anti-inflammatory drugs in ophthalmic therapeutics.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer: radiopharmaceutical biochemical markers and therapy with radionuclides and reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cancer is the Second cause but common of death in many countries like it USES, after the cardiac disease, similar situation in Uruguay. The cancer incidence increasing with the age . I number adult developed the illness. For it, you prove biochemical of laboratory, through their determination in the serum or in the plasma, They are very useful in the patient's care with cancer. It is so the mensuration of resulting substances of the cellular metabolism that they are overturned to the patient's sanguine torrent with a certain neoplasms, it is constituted in markers of the illness, called by it Markers Tumours. Many of these labels are useful in the neoplasmas neodiagnosis and therapy. However, in general, any of the labels of it own can not be used for all neoplasms types and for all patients with kind of disease. The most effective uses in the labels tumour have been, the pursuit of the answers to the treatment and the identification of the early recurrence

  14. Overview of biopolymers as carriers of antiphlogistic agents for treatment of diverse ocular inflammations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil Kumar; Arya, Amit; Sahoo, Pravat Kumar; Majumdar, Dipak Kanti

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation of the eye is a usual clinical condition that can implicate any part of the eye. The nomenclature of variety of such inflammations is based on the ocular part involved. These diseases may jeopardize normal functioning of the eye on progression. In general, corticosteroids, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat inflammatory diseases/disorders of the eye. There have been several attempts via different approaches of drug delivery to overcome the low ocular bioavailability resulting from shorter ocular residence time. The features like safety, ease of elimination and ability to sustain drug release have led to application of biopolymers in ocular therapeutics. Numerous polymers of natural origin such as gelatin, collagen, chitosan, albumin, hyaluronic acid, alginates etc. have been successfully employed for preparation of different ocular dosage forms. Chitosan is the most explored biopolymer amongst natural biopolymers because of its inherent characteristics. The emergence of synthetic biopolymers (like PVP, PACA, PCL, POE, polyanhydrides, PLA, PGA and PLGA) has also added new dimensions to the drug delivery strategies meant for treatment of ophthalmic inflammations. The current review is an endeavor to describe the utility of a variety of biomaterials/polymers based drug delivery systems as carrier for anti-inflammatory drugs in ophthalmic therapeutics. PMID:27287177

  15. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: new cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J B

    1993-12-01

    The literature on new cytostatic drugs in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and on new methods for administration of established drugs has been reviewed back to 1985. Two well-known cytostatic drugs, ifosfamide and etoposide, have been evaluated in trials using oral administration instead of the usual intravenous route, and a total of 26 new investigative drugs has also been evaluated. Oral administration of etoposide is associated with an accumulated response rate of 17% in four studies using a dose of 50 mg/m2 daily for 2-3 weeks, followed by 1 week's rest. Oral administration of ifosfamide yields an accumulated response rate of 18% when the dose intensity is 7 g or more during a 4-week period. Among the new drugs tested, the most promising seem to be campthothecin-11, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, taxol, fotemustine, and zeniplatin which have all shown response rates above 20% among previously untreated patients. Also, the antimetabolites 10-EDAM and trimetrexate and the platinum analogues carboplatin and (glycolate-0,0) diammine-platinum(II) are of interest, with cumulative response rates above 15% in previously untreated patients.

  16. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Patient Affected by Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poggi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV is pegilated interferon α (IFN α plus ribavirin. Despite the numerous benefits of this therapy, there is an increasing concern regarding his tolerance. Among the most common side effects, interferon may trigger the onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. When chronic hepatitis C coexists with an autoimmune disorder, it is not clear whether using interferon is better than avoiding it. We evaluated the disease state of a 55-year old female affected by sistemic sclerosis (SSc, during and after therapy with IFNα pegilated plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. We were worried about the potential worsening of the autoimmune disease during the therapy, but we were confident that we would give our patient a short course of peginterferon and ribavirin. A mild, asymptomatic worsening of lung SSc was observed during IFN administration, without life threatening symptoms. After 24 months follow up we observed the maintenance of the virological response and a good control of the rheumatological disease. Thus, in liver disease at high risk of progression and concomitant SSc, the antiviral therapy with IFNα is a feasible approach.

  17. Integration of targeted agents in the neo-adjuvant treatment of gastro-esophageal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, D G; Ilson, D H

    2009-11-01

    Pre- and peri-operative strategies are becoming standard for the management of localized gastro-esophageal cancer. For localized gastric/gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancer there are conflicting data that a peri-operative approach with cisplatin-based chemotherapy improves survival, with the benefits seen in esophageal cancer likely less than a 5-10% incremental improvement. Further trends toward improvement in local control and survival, when combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy are given pre-operatively, are suggested by recent phase III trials. In fit patients, a significant survival benefit with pre-operative chemoradiation is seen in those patients who achieve a pathologic complete response. In esophageal/GEJ cancer, definitive chemoradiation is now considered in medically inoperable patients. In squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, surgery after primary chemoradiation is not clearly associated with an improved overall survival, however, local control may be better. In localized gastric/GEJ cancer, the integration of bevacizumab with pre-operative chemotherapy is being explored in large randomized studies, and with chemoradiotherapy in pilot trials. The addition of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor and anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 antibody treatment to pre-operative chemoradiation continues to be explored. Early results show the integration of targeted therapy is feasible. Metabolic imaging can predict early response to pre-operative chemotherapy and biomarkers may further predict response to pre-operative chemo-targeted therapy. A multimodality approach to localized gastro-esophageal cancer has resulted in better outcomes. For T3 or node-positive disease, surgery alone is no longer considered appropriate and neo-adjuvant therapy is recommended. The future of neo-adjuvant strategies in this disease will involve the individualization of therapy with the integration of molecular signatures, targeted therapy, metabolic imaging

  18. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Gareth J; Broad, John; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-09-01

    Nausea is one of a cluster of symptoms described subjectively by patients with delayed gastric emptying. The mechanisms and treatments are unclear (anti-emetic drugs are not fully effective against nausea). Can nausea be relieved by stimulating gastric emptying? Physostigmine (together with atropine) has been shown experimentally to stimulate gastric motility, relieve nausea and restore normal gastric motility. Is this mimicked by gastric prokinetic drugs? The answer is complicated by mixed pharmacology. Metoclopramide increases gastric motility by activating myenteric 5-HT4 receptors but also directly inhibits vomiting via D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism; relationships between increased gastric motility and relief from nausea are therefore unclear. Similarly, the D2 receptor antagonist domperidone has direct anti-emetic activity. Nevertheless, more selective 5-HT4 and motilin receptor agonists (erythromycin, directly stimulating gastric motility) inhibit vomiting in animals; low doses of erythromycin can also relieve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and appetite mostly via vagus-dependent pathways, and inhibits vomiting in animals. To date, ghrelin receptor activation has failed to consistently improve gastric emptying or symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. We conclude that nausea can be relieved by gastric prokinetic drugs, but more clinical studies are needed using drugs with selective activity. Other mechanisms (e.g. ghrelin, vagal and central pathways, influencing a mechanistic continuum between appetite and nausea) also require exploration. These and other issues will be further explored in a forthcoming special issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology, which focusses on mechanisms of nausea and vomiting.

  19. Efficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in the treatment of uveitis associated with rheumatic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Neroyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of incorporating genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs into a combination treatment regimen for rheumatic diseases (RD (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behcet's disease in relation to associated uveitis of varying severity was studied in 92 children aged 2 to 17 years. The follow-up lasted 1.5 to 49 months. Twenty-three patients took consecutively 2 to 5 GEBAs. When infliximab was used, remission of uveitis occurred in 21% of 38 children and the disease activity and/or recurrence rates reduced in an additional 21%. These were in 45 and 38.6% of 44 patients on adalimumab (ADA and in 27.8 and 27.8% of 18 patients on abatacept, respectively. There was an association of the efficiency of therapy with the severity of uveitis at the start of treatment. The use of ADA induced a steady remission of panuveitis resistant to therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclosporine in both patients with Behcet's disease. One of 4 rituximab-treated patients achieved a steady remission. Tocilizumab therapy caused an exacerbation of uveitis in 1 patient. The postoperative period showed no inflammatory complications in most cases (37 operations, 26 eyes, 20 patients. No local adverse reactions were seen; systemic reactions occurred in 14% of the patients, this caused GEBAs to be discontinued in 7%. There is evidence for a need for further investigations into the efficacy of GEBAs in RD-associated uveitis in children in order to define success criteria, differentiated indications, and therapy regimens.

  20. Affect Regulation and Treatment for Depression and Anxiety through Art: Theoretical Ground and Clinical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Nan, JKM; Ho, RTH

    2014-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience research have shown that depression and anxiety are closely related to affect regulation, the emotional processes that work within the brain system. This paper reviews two major areas of affect regulation. The first area accounts for the relationships between affect regulation and the functions of the left/right hemispheric brain, as well as the effect of these emotional processes on the autonomic nervous system. The interpersonalneurobiological basis of affect regula...

  1. A second chance to make a first impression? How appearance and nonverbal behavior affect perceived warmth and competence of virtual agents over time

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Kirsten; Eyssel, Friederike Anne; Kopp, Stefan; Walker, Marilyn; Neff, Michael; Paiva, Ana; Nakano, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    First impressions of others are fundamental for the further develop- ment of a relationship and are thus of major importance for the design of vir- tual agents, too. We addressed the question whether there is a second chance for first impressions with regard to the major dimensions of social cognition–warmth and competence. We employed a novel experimental set-up that combined agent appearance (robot-like vs. human-like) and agent behavior (gestures present vs. absent) of virtual agents as be...

  2. Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to P. acnes Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Michael J; Myntti, Matthew F

    2016-06-01

    The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring P. acnes- generated inflammation. P. acnes biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the P. acnes biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the P. acnes biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by P. acnes. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the P. acnes bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin (ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT02404285). J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):677-683. PMID:27272073

  3. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  4. Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, B.; Forsgren, E.; Fries, I; Miranda, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate)...

  5. Bioaccessibility of Pb from ammunition in game meat is affected by cooking treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mateo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of lead (Pb ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w. than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g. The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75% and wine (4.51% than in uncooked meat (0.7%. Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account.

  6. Identification and management of prodromal symptoms in bipolar affective disorder: the role of individual, disorder, and treatment-related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadon, Lisa Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traditional psychosocial treatments have been adapted for use with individuals with bipolar affective disorders due to the limited prophylactic nature of pharmacotherapy and the recognition of the role of psychosocial factors in the course of this disorder. Psychosocial interventions that include a prodromal monitoring and management component have been empirically shown to be an effective adjunct to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Aims: There i...

  7. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: a critical review of the pharmacology and clinical effects of current and future therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S; Miyake, N; Jarskog, L F; Fleischhacker, W W; Lieberman, J A

    2012-12-01

    Since the introduction of chlorpromazine and throughout the development of the new-generation antipsychotic drugs (APDs) beginning with clozapine, the D(2) receptor has been the target for the development of APDs. Pharmacologic actions to reduce neurotransmission through the D(2) receptor have been the only proven therapeutic mechanism for psychoses. A number of novel non-D(2) mechanisms of action of APDs have been explored over the past 40 years but none has definitively been proven effective. At the same time, the effectiveness of treatments and range of outcomes for patients are far from satisfactory. The relative success of antipsychotics in treating positive symptoms is limited by the fact that a substantial number of patients are refractory to current medications and by their lack of efficacy for negative and cognitive symptoms, which often determine the level of functional impairment. In addition, while the newer antipsychotics produce fewer motor side effects, safety and tolerability concerns about weight gain and endocrinopathies have emerged. Consequently, there is an urgent need for more effective and better-tolerated antipsychotic agents, and to identify new molecular targets and develop mechanistically novel compounds that can address the various symptom dimensions of schizophrenia. In recent years, a variety of new experimental pharmacological approaches have emerged, including compounds acting on targets other than the dopamine D(2) receptor. However, there is still an ongoing debate as to whether drugs selective for singe molecular targets (that is, 'magic bullets') or drugs selectively non-selective for several molecular targets (that is, 'magic shotguns', 'multifunctional drugs' or 'intramolecular polypharmacy') will lead to more effective new medications for schizophrenia. In this context, current and future drug development strategies can be seen to fall into three categories: (1) refinement of precedented mechanisms of action to provide drugs

  8. 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chang; Brown, Dennis A; Scofield, Barbara A; Yu, I-Chen; Chang, Fen-Lei; Wang, Pei-Yu; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2016-10-01

    3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), the simplest member of the sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, is found in cruciferous vegetables, and has been previously reported to be a potent inducer of antioxidant genes and glutathione biosynthesis by activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. D3T is a cancer chemopreventive agent and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Although D3T has been shown to protect against neoplasia, the effect of D3T in the autoimmune inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is unknown. The present study is the first report of the therapeutic effect of D3T in EAE. Our results show D3T, administered post immunization, not only delays disease onset but also dramatically reduces disease severity in EAE. Strikingly, D3T, administered post disease onset of EAE, effectively prevents disease progression and exacerbation. Mechanistic studies revealed that D3T suppresses dendritic cell activation and cytokine production, inhibits pathogenic Th1 and Th17 differentiation, represses microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression, and promotes microglia phase II enzyme induction. In summary, these results indicate that D3T affects both innate and adaptive immune cells, and the protective effect of D3T in EAE might be attributed to its effects on modulating dendritic cell and microglia activation and pathogenic Th1/Th17 cell differentiation. PMID:27013356

  9. Research Progress on Waterborne Polyurethane Synthetic Leather Surface Treatment Agent%水性聚氨酯合成革表面处理剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新; 杨明华; 沈秋仙

    2015-01-01

    水性聚氨酯具有环保、无毒等特性,将水性聚氨酯应用于合成革涂饰剂可以消除溶剂型合成革处理剂的环境污染问题。本文从合成革表面处理剂的应用现状、合成革用高物性水性聚氨酯研发现状、合成革用水性聚氨酯助剂以及水性聚氨酯合成革表面处理剂品种等几方面进行分析和探讨,指出水性聚氨酯合成革表面处理剂的研发方向。%With environmental and non-toxic characteristics , waterborne polyurethane applied to synthetic leather finishing agent can eliminate the environmental pollution problem of the solvent synthetic leather treatment agent .The present situation of the application of synthetic leather surface treatment agent , the present situation of research and development of waterborne polyurethane with high physical properties for synthetic leather , waterborne polyurethane additives for synthetic leather and waterborne polyurethane leather surface treating agent varieties were analyzed and discussed , and the direction of research and development of waterborne polyurethane synthetic leather surface treatment agent was pointed out.

  10. Treatment of impaired affective information processing and social cognition in neuropsychiatric patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting impr

  11. DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine inhibits myeloid-derived suppressor cells induced by tumor growth and cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikysková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Vlková, Veronika; Bieblová, Jana; Símová, Jana; Paracková, Zuzana; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elzbieta; Rossowska, Joanna; Reinis, Milan

    2014-01-01

    MDSCs represent one of the key players mediating immunosuppression. These cells accumulate in the TME, lymphoid organs, and blood during tumor growth. Their mobilization was also reported after CY therapy. DNMTi 5AC has been intensively studied as an antitumor agent. In this study, we examined, using two different murine tumor models, the modulatory effects of 5AC on TU-MDSCs and CY-MDSCs tumor growth and CY therapy. Indeed, the percentage of MDSCs in the TME and spleens of 5AC-treated mice bearing TRAMP-C2 or TC-1/A9 tumors was found decreased. The changes in the MDSC percentage were accompanied by a decrease in the Arg-1 gene expression, both in the TME and spleens. CY treatment of the tumors resulted in additional MDSC accumulation in the TME and spleens. This accumulation was subsequently inhibited by 5AC treatment. A combination of CY with 5AC led to the highest tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro cultivation of spleen MDSCs in the presence of 5AC reduced the percentage of MDSCs. This reduction was associated with an increased percentage of CD11c(+) and CD86(+)/MHCII(+) cells. The observed modulatory effect on MDSCs correlated with a reduction of the Arg-1 gene expression, VEGF production, and loss of suppressive capacity. Similar, albeit weaker effects were observed when MDSCs from the spleens of tumor-bearing animals were cultivated with 5AC. Our findings indicate that beside the direct antitumor effect, 5AC can reduce the percentage of MDSCs accumulating in the TME and spleens during tumor growth and CY chemotherapy, which can be beneficial for the outcome of cancer therapy. PMID:24389335

  12. Hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients is related to residual kidney function and not to treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelke C van der Weerd

    Full Text Available Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7 ± 13.9 [mean SD] enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556 were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001, hsCRP (p<0.001 and the presence of diabetes (p = 0.02 and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01, absolute reticulocyte count (p = 0.02 and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001. Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p = 0.03. Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but

  13. On the use of thermal NF3 as the fluorination and oxidation agent in treatment of used nuclear fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Randall; McNamara, Bruce; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents results of our investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as a fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by exploiting the different volatilities of the constituent fission product and actinide fluorides. Our thermodynamic calculations show that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to produce volatile fission product and actinide fluorides from oxides and metals that can form volatile fluorides. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show that the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, rhodium, and plutonium are fluorinated but do not form volatile fluorides when treated with nitrogen trifluoride at temperatures up to 550 °C. However, depending on temperature, volatile fluorides or oxyfluorides can form from nitrogen trifluoride treatment of the oxides of niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, uranium, and neptunium. Thermoanalytical studies demonstrate near-quantitative separation of uranium from plutonium in a mixed 80% uranium and 20% plutonium oxide. Our studies of neat oxides and metals suggest that the reactivity of nitrogen trifluoride may be adjusted by temperature to selectively separate the major volatile fuel constituent uranium from minor volatile constituents, such as Mo, Tc, Ru and from the non-volatile fuel constituents based on differences in their reaction temperatures and kinetic behaviors. This reactivity is novel with respect to that reported for other fluorinating reagents F2, BrF5, ClF3.

  14. Prevention of ocular toxicity by the intra-carotid perfusion of anticancer agents in the treatment of malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a problem of great concern to prevent ocular toxicity from complicating intra-carotid administration of lipophil anticancer agents. Attempts to prevent such a side effect were made during intra-carotid chemotherapy using remodeled catheter tips for epidural anesthesia. Twenty nine patients with malignant glioma received intra-carotid administration of neocarzinostatin (NCS). Six out of 17 patients (35.3 %) who received intra-carotid perfusion through an original catheter without a remodeled tip, developed ocular toxicity. The catheter tip remained proximal to the ophthalmic artery in all cases. On the other hand, 12 patients with a remodeled catheter tip did not develop ocular toxicity. In the latter group the tip of the catheter was located in the internal carotid artery sufficiently distal to the ophthalmic artery, or beyond the carotid bifurcation in 3 cases. Another advantage of the remodeled catheter was that the intra-carotid perfusion was feasible for a longer period with higher doses of NCS, than treatment with the commercial catheter for superselective embolization, which was found to be easily occluded and often ejected out of the carotid artery. Prior to and during the intra-carotid perfusion selective injection of Angiografin was performed through the catheter and the tumor was enhanced in the area of arterial supply, indicating the extent of chemotherapy and the degree of destruction of the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  15. Recognition and Treatment of Nerve Agent Casualties: Evidence of Reduced Learner Engagement During Video-based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukoski, Alex; Uhlich, Rindi; Tucker, Johnny; Cooper, Chris; Barnes, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Changes in electrodermal activity (EDA) correlate with arousal and stress during stimulating experiences. We hypothesized that associations exist between short-term performance gains and changes in EDA. A total of 187 combat medics were randomly assigned to simulation (S), live tissue (L), or video (V) based training in the recognition and treatment of nerve agent casualties. Change in EDA from baseline to training was quantified for tonic and phasic responses and was categorized as positive (>+10%), no change (±10%), or negative (psychomotor skills assessments were applied before and after the baseline/training period to quantify short-term performance changes. Statistically significant differences in both EDA arousal measures between training modalities (p S ∼ V) were observed. Notably, larger proportions of trainees experienced negative changes in tonic (67%) and phasic (21%) EDA measures in the V group when compared to the L and S groups. Regardless of training modality, negative tonic and phasic EDA responses were associated with lower psychomotor performance gains and this finding approached statistical significance (tonic: p = 0.056, phasic: p = 0.08). No significant differences were noted in pre- to post-training cognitive performance between EDA response categories. As quantified by EDA response to training, reduced arousal was associated with lower short-term psychomotor, but not cognitive, performance gains. PMID:27168569

  16. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Klein, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inf

  17. Use of the Novel Therapeutic Agent Miltefosine for the Treatment of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: Report of 1 Fatal and 1 Surviving Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Jennifer R; Conrad, Dennis A; Cohen, Naiomi; Cotilla, Manuel; DaSilva, Alexandre; Jackson, Jonathan; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2016-03-15

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant central nervous system infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. Few survivals have been documented and adequate treatment is lacking. We report 2 PAM cases, 1 fatal and 1 surviving, treated with the novel antiparasitic agent miltefosine.

  18. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier. PMID:24548171

  19. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Veneraldo Pinheiro; Luís F. Stone; José A. F. Barrigossi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments we...

  20. Endoscopic Laser Treatment for Rectosigmoid Villous Adenoma: Factors Affecting the Results

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetaud, JM; Maunoury, V; Cochelard, D; Boniface, B.; Cortot, A; Paris, JC

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser treatment is now commonly used for palliation of advanced digestive cancers in nonsurgical candidates. lt has also been used for treatment of benign rectosigmoid villous adenoma. The present work reports the long term results in 387 patients with benign rectosigmoid villous adenomas revealed by biopsy. Patients included 39% who had contraindications to surgery, 19% who had a tumour recurrence after a nonlaser treatment, 41 % for whom surgical resection appeared to be too dras...

  1. Factors that affect adherence to recommended treatment among diabetes patients in Kampala

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlén, Elin; Davidsson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an increasing global health problem and this puts high demands on the health care system. Patients with diabetes demand continuous treatment and monitoring in order to control the disease and avoid complications. Adherence to recommended treatment was important in order for the treatment to give positive effect. In this context adherence was defined as the extent to which the patients follow medical instructions.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify factors that c...

  2. MK-801 treatment affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes more than in astrocytes and neuronal cells: insights for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Guest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a multifactorial disease, the underlying causes of schizophrenia require analysis by multiplex methods such as proteomics to allow identification of whole protein networks. Previous post-mortem proteomic studies on brain tissues from schizophrenia patients have demonstrated changes in activation of glycolytic and energy metabolism pathways. However, it is not known whether these changes occur in neurons or in glial cells. To address this question, we treated neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lines with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and measured the levels of six glycolytic enzymes by Western blot analysis. MK-801 acts on the glutamatergic system and has been proposed as a pharmacological means of modeling schizophrenia. Treatment with MK-801 resulted in significant changes in the levels of glycolytic enzymes in all cell types. Most of the differences were found in oligodendrocytes, which had altered levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1, enolase 2 (ENO2, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1 after acute MK-801 treatment (8 hours, and HK1, ENO2, PGK and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI following long term treatment (72 hours. Addition of the antipsychotic clozapine to the cultures resulted in counter-regulatory effects to the MK-801 treatment by normalizing the levels of ENO2 and PGK in both the acute and long term cultures. In astrocytes, MK-801 affected only aldolase C (ALDOC under both acute conditions and HK1 and ALDOC following long term treatment, and TPI was the only enzyme affected under long term conditions in the neuronal cells. In conclusion, MK-801 affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes to a larger extent than neuronal cells and this may be modulated by antipsychotic treatment. Although cell culture studies do not necessarily reflect the in vivo pathophysiology and drug effects within the brain, these results suggest that neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are affected differently in

  3. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  4. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik;

    2009-01-01

    treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers...

  5. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  6. Factors affecting the choice of treatment in occupational therapy practices in hospital-based care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy

  7. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  8. Structural Studies on Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase Directed Towards Development of Therapeutic Biomolecules for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases and Protection Against Chemical Threat Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel

    Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase are important targets for treatment of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, respectively, both of which impose major burdens on the health care systems in Western society. Acetylcholinesterase is the target of lethal nerve agents, and paraoxonase is under consideration as a bioscavenger for their detoxification. Both are thus the subject of research and development in the context of nerve agent toxicology. The crystal structures of the two enzymes are described, and structure/function relationships are discussed in the context of drug development and of development of means of protection against chemical threats.

  9. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071

  10. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. PMID:25424595

  11. Brevibacillus nitrificans sp. nov., a nitrifying bacterium isolated from a microbiological agent for enhancing microbial digestion in sewage treatment tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Fumihiko; Hirota, Kikue; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-09-01

    A heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium, designated strain DA2(T), was isolated from a microbiological agent for enhancing microbial digestion in sewage treatment tanks. Cells of strain DA2(T) were Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, sporulating rods that were motile by means of peritrichous flagella; they were able to grow at pH 5-8. The major isoprenoid quinone of strain DA2(T) was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and its cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of iso-C(15 : 0) (18.6 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (69.1 %). The DNA G+C content was 54.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that strain DA2(T) is a member of the genus Brevibacillus, with highest sequence similarities (in parentheses) to the type strains of Brevibacillus choshinensis (99.7 %), B. formosus (99.4 %), B. brevis (99.4 %), B. agri (99.0 %), B. reuszeri (98.8 %), B. parabrevis (98.7 %), B. centrosporus (98.6 %), B. limnophilus (97.4 %), B. panacihumi (97.3 %) and B. invocatus (97.3 %). DNA-DNA hybridization showed less than 60 % relatedness between strain DA2(T) and type strains of the most closely related species given above. Given the significant differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the isolate merits classification as a novel species, for which the name Brevibacillus nitrificans is proposed; the type strain of this species is DA2(T) (= JCM 15774(T) = NCIMB 14531(T)).

  12. Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive-affective framework and implications for asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Verleden, Geert; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2009-06-01

    Inaccurate perception of respiratory symptoms is often found in asthma patients. Typically, patients who inaccurately perceive asthma symptoms are divided into underperceivers and overperceivers. In this paper we point out that this division is problematic. We argue that little evidence exists for a trait-like stability of under- and overperception and that accuracy of respiratory symptom perception is highly variable within persons and strongly influenced by contextual information. Particularly, expectancy and affective cues appear to have a powerful influence on symptom accuracy. Based on these findings and incorporating recent work on associative learning, attention and mental representations in anxiety and symptom perception, we propose a cognitive-affective model of symptom perception in asthma. The model can act as a framework to understand both normal perception as well as under- and overperception of asthma symptoms and can guide the development of affect-related interventions to improve perceptual accuracy, asthma control and quality of life in asthma patients. PMID:19285771

  13. ‘Short-term treatment with methotrexate does not affect microvascular endothelial function in patients with psoriasis’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, M; Jensen, Peter; Løvendorf, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly due to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment might reduce the risk of CVD. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate if short-term treatment with methotrexate...... of treatment with methotrexate. At the same time points, we recorded anamnestic information, measured body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure, and drew blood samples (lipid profile, HbA1 and hs-CRP). Psoriasis severity was evaluated by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI...... by 7 (from 9 to 2). No significant changes were observed in MEF, expressed by reactive hyperaemia index and augmentation index. Also, we saw no significant changes in BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure and blood samples. CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment with methotrexate did not affect MEF...

  14. Marijuana Use in Hepatitis C Infection does not Affect Liver Biopsy Histology or Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.

  15. The CTRB1/2 locus affects diabetes susceptibility and treatment via the incretin pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    't Hart, Leen M; Fritsche, Andreas; Nijpels, Giel;

    2013-01-01

    locus, also associated with an absolute 0.51±0.16% (5.6±1.7 mmol/mol) lower A1C response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in G allele carriers but there was no effect on GLP-1 RA treatment in type 2 diabetes patients (n=527). Furthermore, in pancreatic tissue we show that rs7202877 acts as expression...... in the regulation of the incretin pathway, development of diabetes and response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment.......The incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes glucose homeostasis and enhances beta-cell function. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which inhibit the physiological inactivation of endogenous GLP-1, are used for the treatment of type 2...

  16. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  17. Factors affecting the choice of treatment in occupational therapy practices in hospital-based care.

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy practice was carried out in The Netherlands. A registration form based on the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicapts (ICIDH) was filled out for 944 patients. This...

  18. Effect of composite surface treatment and aging on the bond strength between a core build-up composite and a luting agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline COTES

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between composite core and resin cement. Material and Methods Eighty blocks (8×8×4 mm were prepared with core build-up composite. The cementation surface was roughened with 120-grit carbide paper and the blocks were thermocycled (5,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a 30 s dwell time in each bath. A layer of temporary luting agent was applied. After 24 h, the layer was removed, and the blocks were divided into five groups, according to surface treatment: (NT No treatment (control; (SP Grinding with 120-grit carbide paper; (AC Etching with 37% phosphoric acid; (SC Sandblasting with 30 mm SiO2 particles, silane application; (AO Sandblasting with 50 mm Al2O3 particles, silane application. Two composite blocks were cemented to each other (n=8 and sectioned into sticks. Half of the specimens from each block were immediately tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS, while the other half was subjected to storage for 6 months, thermocycling (12,000 cycles, between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s in each bath and µTBS test in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05. Results The µTBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (p=0.007 and thermocycling (p=0.000. Before aging, the SP group presented higher bond strength when compared to NT and AC groups, whereas all the other groups were statistically similar. After aging, all the groups were statistically similar. SP submitted to thermocycling showed lower bond strength than SP without thermocycling. Conclusion Core composites should be roughened with a diamond bur before the luting process. Thermocycling tends to reduce the bond strength between composite and resin cement.

  19. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  20. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  1. Do gender, age or lifestyle factors affect responses to antimuscarinic treatment in overactive bladder patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schneider; D. Marschall-Kehrel; J.U. Hanisch; M.C. Michel

    2010-01-01

    P>Aims: Gender, age, obesity, smoking and alcohol or caffeine intake have been shown or proposed to be risk factors for the prevalence and/or severity of the overactive bladder symptom complex (OAB) or related parameters. We have explored whether any of these factors affect the therapeutic response

  2. Tratamento da cisticercose subcutânea co praziquantel: um novo agente cestoidicida Treatment of dermal cysticercosis with praziquantel: a new cestocidal agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult patients presenting dermal cysticercosis without cerebral or ocular involvement were treated with praziquantel. The first eleven cases received 60 mg/kg/day and the last nine cases 30 mg/kg/day. In both groups the daily dose was split into three oral intakes 4 to 6 hours apart and the drug administration lasted for 6 consecutive days. The latter group of patients also got dexamethasone, 3 mg daily, from one day before until four days after the treatment period with praziquantel. The drug proved to be 100% efficacious as demonstrated histopathologically by the death of the cysticerci of Taenia solium (Cysticercus cellulosae in serial biopsies taken from the 2nd week on after the end of treatment, as well as clinically by the steady disappearence of the dermal nodules during the 6 months following the therapy. Tolerance of praziquantel was good as the incidence and severity of side-effects were not relevant. The drug safety was confirmed through laboratory tests which failed to detect any abnormal findings related to the hematopoietic, liver and kidney functions.

  3. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  4. Short-term teriparatide treatment does not affect NT-proBNP, a marker of cardiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Schwarz, Peter; Hansen, Ann Caroline;

    2012-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is seen in PHPT patients. The N-terminal fragment of the pro-peptide of Brain Natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a risk marker of CVD, has been shown to be elevated in PHPT patients, indicating that continuously high concentrations of PTH affect the heart. Therefore the aim...... of this study was to investigate whether teriparatide treatment is associated with changes in plasma NT-proBNP....

  5. Proposal of “cyclic therapy”, a novel treatment strategy with targeted agents for advanced renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Masahiro; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2013-01-01

    The number of molecular targeted agents for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has gradually increased, but evidence on the optimal order of selection for such agents has not yet caught up with this trend. In addition, timing of switching molecular targeted drugs may also become an important issue for controlling the disease as types of these drugs grow in number. Based on the fact that the efficacy of a rechallenge of the drug previously used suggests the recovery of the sensitivity, a cycl...

  6. 银屑病治疗的生物制剂与抗药物抗体%Biological agents and antidrug antibodies in the treatment of psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 赵恬; 罗权; 张三泉; 张锡宝

    2015-01-01

    Targeted biological agents have shown favorable therapeutic effects and safety in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis.However,the immunogenicity of biological agents can result in the production of antidrug antibodies,which may lead to a decrease in the efficacy and safety of biological agents to different extents.The production of antidrug antibodies is related to the molecular structure of drugs,immune status or genetic background of patients,type of biological agents,route of administration,and so on.Some methods can be used to reduce the immunogenicity of biological agents so as to improve their efficacy,including transformation of molecular structure,optimization of technological design,alteration of dosage forms of biological agents,or combination with immunosuppressant agents.%靶向生物制剂在中重度银屑病治疗中显示了良好的疗效和安全性,但生物制剂的免疫原性可导致抗药物抗体的产生,并引起不同程度的临床疗效下降及安全隐患.抗药物抗体的产生与药物分子结构、患者免疫状态或遗传背景以及生物制剂类型和给药方式等多种因素相关.通过改造分子结构、优化工艺设计、更换生物制剂类型或联合免疫抑制剂治疗等方法,可降低生物制剂的免疫原性以提高临床疗效.

  7. Vitamin D supplementation for treatment of seasonal affective symptoms in healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tenna Bloch; Pareek, Manan; Hansen, Jens Peter;

    2014-01-01

    for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders (SIGH-SAD). The secondary outcome was World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) of the healthcare professionals during the winter period and the exploratory outcome measures were weight, waist circumference, blood pressure......BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been associated with a higher likelihood of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and poor mental well-being, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. Thus, vitamin D supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with SAD. METHODS...... inclusion criterion was 8 points or more on question no. 2 of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ-SAD). During a 3-month period, the participants received a daily dose of 70 μg vitamin D or placebo. The primary outcome was the sum of the self-reported questionnaire Structured Interview Guide...

  8. Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam: two novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination agents for the treatment of resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscio, Jordan L; Mahoney, Monica V; Hirsch, Elizabeth B

    2015-09-01

    The rise in resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a major concern and has led to difficulty in treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections. Two recently approved combination antibiotics, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam, may be effective in treating these resistant infections. Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin that has been developed in combination with tazobactam, a recognised β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI). Avibactam is a novel BLI combined with ceftazidime, a cephalosporin with an established history. Both of these β-lactam/BLI combination agents have been shown to retain in vitro activity against selected resistant Gram-negative pathogens, including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; notably, ceftazidime/avibactam has demonstrated consistent activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms. Both agents have been approved for the indications of complicated intra-abdominal infection (with metronidazole) and complicated urinary tract infection, and have ongoing phase 3 trials for the treatment of ventilator-associated and nosocomial pneumonia. This manuscript will review current data available regarding the spectrum of activity and clinical trials that led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of these agents. Both agents appear to be well tolerated and show promise in the treatment of MDR Gram-negative infections.

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  11. Biologically effective dose and definitive radiation treatment for localized prostate cancer. Treatment gaps do affect the risk of biochemical failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not clear if prolongation of definitive external radiation therapy for prostate cancer has an effect on biochemical failure. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the biologically effective dose (BED), and in particular the duration of radiotherapy, intended as overall treatment time, has an effect on biochemical failure rates and to develop a nomogram useful to predict the 6-year probability of biochemical failure. A total of 670 patients with T1-3 N0 prostate cancer were treated with external beam definitive radiotherapy, to a total dose of 72-79.2 Gy in 40-44 fractions. The computed BED values were treated with restricted cubic splines. Variables were checked for colinearity using Spearman's test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR) rates. The Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse in the final most performing model and to create a nomogram. Concordance probability estimate and calibration methods were used to validate the nomogram. Neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation was administered to 475 patients (70 %). The median follow-up was 80 months (range 20-129 months). Overall, the 6-year FFBR rate was 88.3 %. BED values were associated with higher biochemical failure risk. Age, iPSA, risk category, and days of radiotherapy treatment were independent variables of biochemical failure. A prolongation of RT (lower BED values) is associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. The nomogram may be helpful in decision making for the individual patient. (orig.)

  12. METABOLIC SYNDROME - THE CONSEQUENCE OF LIFELONG TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duška; Graovac, Mirjana; Žarković Palijan, Tija

    2010-01-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing ...

  13. Treatment of Ischemic Apoplexy Based on the Theory of "Lingering Illness Affecting Collaterals"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Lingmei; Sun Yan; Duan Shumin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ischemic apoplexy, also called ischemic cerebrovascular disease (including cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism and transient cerebral ischemic attack), belongs to the TCM category of "wind-stroke syndrome". The increasingly high incidence of the disease has imposed serious influence on life quality of people. Based on the theory of "lingering illness affecting collaterals", we have treated the disease by acupuncture and oral administration of leech capsule and centipede capsule,with good therapeutic results reported as follows.

  14. Environmental Parameters Affecting the Algal Diversity in a Sewage Water Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out at a tertiary sewage water treatment plant located at El-Kattameya city, Cairo, Egypt, for a duration period of 12 months during 2004. The present work aimed to study the algal diversity (phyto benthos and phytoplankton) of the different tanks (collector, oxidation, settling and effluent) included in the tertiary sewage treatment system with respect to changes in physico-chemical characteristics of sewage water during the different seasons to be used for golf course irrigation. The treatment system is of the physico-biological type. Representing data of the physico-chemical parameters are air and water temperatures, ph, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended salts (TSS), total alkalinity, nutrients (nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, ortho-phosphorus, phosphorus and silicate), as well as major ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride). In addition, the treatment efficiency of the system was evaluated and the suitability of using the effluent in irrigation purposes was discussed

  15. Methotrexate treatment affects effector but not regulatory T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic-Calasan, Maja; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Scholman, Rianne C.; Verweij, Frederik; Klein, Mark; Wulffraat, Nico W.; Prakken, Berent J.; van Wijk, Femke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The balance between Treg and effector T cells (Teff) is crucial for immune regulation in JIA. How MTX, the cornerstone treatment in JIA, influences this balance in vivo is poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative and qualitative effects of MTX on Treg and T

  16. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of high-pressure (HP) treatment and two different methods of brine addition (important for lysosomal membrane destabilisation) on lysosomal enzymes activity and protein degradation, pork semitendinosus muscle was brine enhanced by injection or tumbling, and HP treated...

  17. Analysis of factors affecting the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It is a retrospective study designed to evaluate the early therapeutic outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and determine whether the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyreo-stasis, therapeutic dosage, 131I uptake, age, sex, and absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. Methods: One year after treatment, 342 patients were divided into two groups according to whether there was hypothyroidism, t test and x2 test were used to compare the variable parameters between the two groups. Results: 92.1% were cured with a single dose of 131I, and 21.2% contracted hypothyroidism at 12 months after treatment. The outcome of treatment at 12 months depended on the volume of thyroid and the absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. And pretreatment with thyreo-stasis did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of 131I in hyperthyroidism if antithyroid drugs were discontinued at least 3 days before 131I treatment. Conclusions: Since most hypothyroidism occurred in patients whose thyroid volume is small, appropriate reduction of target dose is recommended here for those patients

  18. Some physiological changes in faba bean seedlings as affected by the treatment with the fungicide zineb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effect of 10 ppm of the fungicide zineb (zine ethylene -1,2-bis dithiocarbamate) on photosynthesis, respiration and endogenous hormones levels of faba bean seedlings were studied after seed treatment or foliar application utilizing radiotracer techniques. A suggested scheme for faba bean treatment with zineb and a flow diagram for extraction, purification and separation of endogenous hormones are presented. The data obtained (seed treatment) revealed a marked reduction (41.8%) in the amount of 14CO2 fixed or incorporated in different cell components of seedlings. On the other hand, respiratory activity was significantly increased recording 176.5% and manifesting a respired/fixed radio about 4 times of the corresponding control. In case of foliar application, the amount of 14CO2 fixed showed remarkable decrease (50%) after 24 h of application then declined to reach almost control values after 72 h. The respiratory 14CO2 showed a continuos increase with time reaching 398% after 72 h. Respired/fixed ratio amounted 0.8 after 72 h. Both treatments led to an increase in the amounts of endogenous hormones; cytokinines, auxins and ABA when compared with control values recording the highest values after 24 h. A substational reduction in the amount of gibberellin-like substances was observed. Zineb induced high stress on faba bean seedlings and had the impact to reduce the intensity of certain natural processes such as photosynthesis and respiration and increased the endogenous hormones

  19. Psychosocial co-morbidity affects treatment outcome in children with fecal incontinence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen-Faasen, E.Q. van; Gerritsen, B.J.; Mulder, P.G.; Fliers, E.A.; Groeneweg, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in children. Many children with fecal incontinence have psychosocial co-morbidity. In this study, the effect of psychosocial co-morbidity on the treatment outcome of children with fecal incontinence was evaluated. One hundred and fifty children with fecal inco

  20. Transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of affective disorders in patients with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, A T; Vil'yanov, V B; Raigorodskii, Yu M; Rogozina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Transcranial magnetotherapy (TMT) was used in 32 patients with alcoholism (study group) on the background of basal treatment (nootropes, hepatoprotectors, vitamin/mineral formulations, etc.). The influence of this treatment was compared with a control group (30 subjects), in which TMT was replaced with an appropriate (placebo) procedure. All patients, who were aged from 35 to 64 years, had second-degree alcoholism with disease durations of 4-12 years. Patients were in a post-abstinence state during the treatment period. Courses of TMT consisted of 10 daily procedures with exposures of 10-20 min. Somatic, neurological, and laboratory studies were performed before and after treatment and included cardiointervalography, electroencephalography, assessments of the state of the autonomic nervous system, and use of psychometric scales to evaluate levels of anxiety and depression. TMT was followed by improvements in wellbeing, mood, and sleep, with increases in physical exercise tolerance and decreases in alcohol craving in 75% of patients in the study group and 30% of patients in the control group. Improvements in patients' status were supported by paraclinical investigations (electrophysiological, measures of the state of the autonomic nervous system, etc.) and psychometric scales. PMID:19430982

  1. Applications of text messaging, and bibliotherapy for treatment of patients affected by depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Taleban

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment.

  2. Ruby laser for treatment of tattoos: technical considerations affecting clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert E.

    1990-06-01

    Recent clinical research on the use of ruby lasers for the treatment of tattoos and FIlk approval of a commercial system have renewed interest in this device. In this paper the principles of Q-switched ruby laser operation are reviewed, and potential sources of error in the estimation of delivered fluence are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Endodontic Treatment Failure of Teeth With Periapical Radiolucent Areas and Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khedmat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Failure of endodontic treatment is determined on the basis of radiographic findings and clinical signs and/ or symptoms of the treated teeth.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine endodontic treatment failure in relation to various factors influencing it in teeth with periapical lesions (clinically and radiographically.Materials and Methods: Teeth which had periapical lesions before treatment were selected from a series of teeth treated by endodontics’ postgraduate students over 5-year period (1997-2001 in Faculty of Dentistry Tehran university of Medical Science.post operative follow up in 50 patients was possible .The patient’s ages ranged between 16 to 62 years old. 40 of patients were female and 10 were male. At the recall appointment,first the clinical information (pain, swelling, tenderness to palpation, percussion, … were recorded in a questionnaire form, then two radiographies were obtained from each tooth.The radiographies were assessed separately by three to five endodontists. Strindberg's criteria were used to Judge the failure of endodontic treatment. The observation periodranged from 1 to 5 years. The Data were analyzed statistically by using chi-square, Fisher’s exact test and MC Nemar test.Results: Among different factors considered in this study, Fistula and sensation to percussion were reduced significantly (MC Nemar test, P=0.004. There were no significant difference between the extention of root canal filling, age and type of coronal restorationand endodontic failure which may be due to the small sample size of this study.Conclusion: The rate of endodontic failure was 16%, which means 84% success rate,which is similar to results obtained from previous studies. The high success rate of endodontic treatment in teeth with periapical lesion may be explained by the fact that obturation has a definitive effect on reducing inflammation in periradicular area.

  4. Measurement bias between optical coherence tomography instruments can affect access to treatment: a new lottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidess A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrej Kidess, Adonis El Salloukh, Poonam Dutt, Pearse A Keane, Marie D Tsaloumas, Alastair K DennistonQueen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UKIt is with great interest that we read the publication entitled "Critical appraisal of ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema" by Stewart.1 The author emphasized the importance of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME. As highlighted in that article, the anti-VEGF ranibizumab is a superior treatment compared to traditional argon photocoagulation, leading to better anatomical and functional results.In April 2013, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE of the UK approved the use of ranibizumab as a treatment option to treat diabetic macular edema of the eye if it has a central macular thickness (CMT of 400 μm or more at the beginning of the treatment.2 The guidelines did not specify which optical coherence tomography (OCT device(s should be used for this assessment. This is important as, although good consistency has been shown in using the same instrument, there is a known divergence in CMT measurements between different instruments.3–6 For example, the Spectralis® OCT (Heidelberg Engineering; Carsbad, CA, USA generally shows higher values of mean CMT in a normal eye compared to most other instruments, in part due to the retinal segmentation algorithm that it employs.4 We hypothesized that similar (or increased differences might be observed in DME, and that for those countries (such as the UK where a fixed CMT is used to define eligibility for treatment, the "lottery" of OCT instruments may influence eligibility.View original paper by Stewart.

  5. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  6. Productivity of sugar beet as affected by salinity and radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of experiments were carried out in the two successive seasons,1983 and 1984 at the agricultural department for soils and water researches, A.E.A., to investigate the response of two sugar beet varieties; namely maribomaroc - poly and monopour to saline conditions and irradiation treatments signly or in combination. Saline conditions were performed by using different salt types, viz. sodium chloride 'Nacl; sodium bicarbonate 'NaHCO3' and potassium chloride 'KC1'. Each at 25,50,100 and 200 mel-1, beside the control treatment 'zero level 0.0'. In addition, irradiation doses that had been applied to seeds before sowing were 50, 100 and 200 gray, beside the unirradiated ones

  7. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele OA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion: The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fathia AOUIDI; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It ...

  9. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  10. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregna...

  11. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    OpenAIRE

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchic...

  12. Does a true knowledge of dental crowding affect orthodontic treatment decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, Hywel J; Dunbar, Claire; Crouch-Baker, James; Shah, Kiran; Wallis, Colin; Atack, Nicola E; Sherriff, Martyn; Jonathan R. Sandy; Ireland, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether a true knowledge of crowding alters treatment decisions compared with estimates of crowding.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six orthodontists were asked to estimate crowding using visualization on eight mandibular arch study models and to indicate possible extraction choices. For each model, the intermolar widths, intercanine widths, and clinical scenarios were identical, but the true crowding varied from 0.2 to 8.4mm as to a lesser extent did the curve of Spee. El...

  13. Variables affecting compliance with treatment of post-hospitalized patients with chronic mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Linsky, Miles A.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects in this study were 33 patients aged 18 to 60 years who were first admitted to an outpatient mental health department in a 1-year period and were known to have had two or more hospitalizations in State or private psychiatric institutions in the 2 years before intake. The relationships between four patient variables and compliance with recommended treatment were studied. The four variables were (a) severity of psychopathology at intake, (b) evidence of negative communication in a p...

  14. Modulating affect, cognition and behavior – prospects of deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Schlaepfer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported both for Major Depression (MD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disor-der (OCD. Given the fact that patients studied had been treated unsuc-cessfully for many years renders these findings remarkable. Remarkable is the fact, that in case of the long-term studies underway for MD, patients show a stable response. This gives hope to a substantial percentage of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients requiring new therapy approaches. There are no fundamental ethic objections to its use in psychiatric disor-ders, but until substantial clinical data is available, mandatory standards are needed. DBS is a unique and very promising method for the treat-ment of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients. The method allows ma-nipulating pathological neuronal networks in a very precise way.

  15. Biologically effective dose and definitive radiation treatment for localized prostate cancer. Treatment gaps do affect the risk of biochemical failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpaolo, P.; Barbieri, V. [CROB, Rionero in Vulture (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.; Genovesi, D. [' ' G. D' Annunzio Univ., Chieti (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.

    2014-08-15

    It is not clear if prolongation of definitive external radiation therapy for prostate cancer has an effect on biochemical failure. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the biologically effective dose (BED), and in particular the duration of radiotherapy, intended as overall treatment time, has an effect on biochemical failure rates and to develop a nomogram useful to predict the 6-year probability of biochemical failure. A total of 670 patients with T1-3 N0 prostate cancer were treated with external beam definitive radiotherapy, to a total dose of 72-79.2 Gy in 40-44 fractions. The computed BED values were treated with restricted cubic splines. Variables were checked for colinearity using Spearman's test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR) rates. The Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse in the final most performing model and to create a nomogram. Concordance probability estimate and calibration methods were used to validate the nomogram. Neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation was administered to 475 patients (70 %). The median follow-up was 80 months (range 20-129 months). Overall, the 6-year FFBR rate was 88.3 %. BED values were associated with higher biochemical failure risk. Age, iPSA, risk category, and days of radiotherapy treatment were independent variables of biochemical failure. A prolongation of RT (lower BED values) is associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. The nomogram may be helpful in decision making for the individual patient. (orig.) [German] Es ist nicht geklaert, ob die Verlaengerung einer definitiven Strahlentherapie bei der Behandlung von Prostatakarzinompatienten einen Effekt auf das biochemische Versagen hat. Die vorliegende Studie hat das Ziel zu evaluieren, ob biologisch die effektive Dosis und insbesondere die Gesamtdauer der Behandlung eine Wirkung auf das biochemisches Rezidiv haben koennte. Ferner

  16. A comparison of the effect of doxorubicin and phenol on the skeletal muscle. May doxorubicin be a new alternative treatment agent for spasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullu, Emre; Ozkan, Ilhan; Culhaci, Nil; Alparslan, Bulent

    2005-03-01

    Since spasticity is still an unsolved problem for orthopaedic surgeons, different chemical agents are tried before surgery. Phenol is a chemical agent which has been used for spasticity treatment for a long time. Doxorubicin is an antitumoral agent that has recently been used for chemomyectomy. The intramuscular effects of phenol and two different dose of doxorubicin were compared in that experimental study. In the first group 0.5 mg/0.5 cm3 doxorubicin, in the second group 1 mg/0.5 doxorubicin and in the third group 5% aqueous solution of fenol/0.5 injection were applied into left quadriceps muscle of rats. Degeneration areas were wider in the high dose doxorubicin group (29.9%; 8.5-61), in comparison with the low dose doxorubicin group (6.4%; 3.1-12) and phenol group (4%; 0-14) after 6 weeks. Differences in degeneration area among three groups were statistically significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant between the high dose doxorubicin group and the phenol group (P=0.001) and also between the high dose doxorubicin group and the low dose doxorubicin group (P<0.001). The results of this study suggested that doxorubicin could provide an alternative treatment modality for neuromuscular disease causing spasticity and it has a dose-dependent effect. Further studies are needed for long-term comparison and clinical use of doxorubicin for spasticity treatment. PMID:15703526

  17. Antihypertensive treatment differentially affects vascular sphingolipid biology in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon J A Spijkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that essential hypertension in humans and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, is associated with increased levels of ceramide and marked alterations in sphingolipid biology. Pharmacological elevation of ceramide in isolated carotid arteries of SHR leads to vasoconstriction via a calcium-independent phospholipase A(2, cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane synthase-dependent release of thromboxane A(2. This phenomenon is almost absent in vessels from normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats. Here we investigated whether lowering of blood pressure can reverse elevated ceramide levels and reduce ceramide-mediated contractions in SHR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this purpose SHR were treated for 4 weeks with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or the vasodilator hydralazine. Both drugs decreased blood pressure equally (SBP untreated SHR: 191±7 mmHg, losartan: 125±5 mmHg and hydralazine: 113±14 mmHg. The blood pressure lowering was associated with a 20-25% reduction in vascular ceramide levels and improved endothelial function of isolated carotid arteries in both groups. Interestingly, losartan, but not hydralazine treatment, markedly reduced sphingomyelinase-induced contractions. While both drugs lowered cyclooxygenase-1 expression, only losartan and not hydralazine, reduced the endothelial expression of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2. The latter finding may explain the effect of losartan treatment on sphingomyelinase-induced vascular contraction. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study corroborates the importance of sphingolipid biology in blood pressure control and specifically shows that blood pressure lowering reduces vascular ceramide levels in SHR and that losartan treatment, but not blood pressure lowering per se, reduces ceramide-mediated arterial contractions.

  18. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  19. Timing of IUI Treatment after hCG Administration 1-48 h Affecting Pregnancy Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan YANG; Zu-mei SHI; Hui JIN; Li-ping ZHU; Kun-ming LI; Jian-zhi YANG; Zhi-qin CHEN; Xiao-ming TENG; Hui-fen CHEN; Yu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the different time of administration of hCG affecting pregnancy rate of IUI. Methods A total of 189 infertile couples underwent 331 cycles of IUI with husband’s sperm.They were separated into 3 groups according to the time of hCG administration in IUI:hCG 1-23 h(group A):hCG 24-36 h (group B);hCG 37—48 h(group C). Results There were no statistical differences among 3 groups.None of the other relative factors,such as the female age,the different methods of ovulation and the cause of infertility,showed differences in pregnancy rate among 3 groups. Conclusion IUI can be performed any time after administration of hCG(1—48 h).

  20. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  1. Factors affecting adherence to the treatment regimen of tuberculosis patients: Assessing the efficiency of health belief model constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Karimy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low adherence to the treatment regimen in tuberculosis patients has been recognized as a major threat for tuberculosis (TB control program. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the factors affecting adherence to the treatment regimen of TB patients via Health Belief Model (HBM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study,110 tuberculosis patients attending anti-TB center in Zabol were selected and included in the study using census method. Data were collected using Health Belief Model (HBM questionnaire and reviewing the patients' medical files. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis with 95 % confidence level. Results: The mean age of the participants was 55.7±18.6 years. 89% of the patients had pulmonary tuberculosis and 11% had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The multiple regression analysis showed knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and perceived threat were significant predictors of adherence to the treatment regimen. The HBM constructs accounted for 29% of the variance observed in adherence to the treatment regimen. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight the need to increase awareness and change the patients’ beliefs about the risks of low adherence to the treatment regimen in patients.

  2. TRIM5α and TRIMCyp form apparent hexamers and their multimeric state is not affected by exposure to restriction-sensitive viruses or by treatment with pharmacological inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthoux Lionel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins of the TRIM5 family, such as TRIM5α and the related TRIMCyp, are cytoplasmic factors that can inhibit incoming retroviruses. This type of restriction requires a direct interaction between TRIM5 proteins and capsid proteins that are part of mature, intact retroviral cores. In such cores, capsids are arranged as hexameric units. Multiple lines of evidence imply that TRIM5 proteins themselves interact with retroviral cores as multimers. Accordingly, stabilization by crosslinking agents has revealed that TRIM5α and TRIMCyp are present as trimers in mammalian cells. We report here that TRIM5 proteins seem to form dimers, trimers, hexamers and multimers of higher complexity in mammalian cells. The hexameric form in particular seems to be the most abundant multimer. Multimerization did not involve disulfide bridges and was not affected by infection with restriction-sensitive viruses or by treatment with the known TRIM5 inhibitors arsenic trioxide, MG132 and cyclosporine A. We conclude that TRIM5 multimerization results from more than one protein-protein interface and that it is seemingly not triggered by contact with retroviral cores.

  3. Discovery of Narrow Spectrum Kinase Inhibitors: New Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of COPD and Steroid-Resistant Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions, Stuart T; Ito, Kazuhiro; Charron, Catherine E; Brown, Richard J; Colucci, Marie; Frickel, Fritz; Hardy, George; Joly, Kevin; King-Underwood, John; Kizawa, Yasuo; Knowles, Ian; Murray, P John; Novak, Andrew; Rani, Anjna; Rapeport, Garth; Smith, Alun; Strong, Peter; Taddei, David M; Williams, Jonathan G

    2016-03-10

    The discovery of a novel series of therapeutic agents that has been designed and optimized for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reported. The pharmacological strategy was based on the identification of compounds that inhibit a defined subset of kinase enzymes modulating inflammatory processes that would be effective against steroid refractory disease and exhibit a sustained duration of action after inhaled delivery. PMID:26800309

  4. pH and solute concentration of suspension media affect the outcome of high hydrostatic pressure treatment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2006-09-01

    The effect of pH and solute concentration of suspension media on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) induced inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes (approximate 10(8) CFU/ml) was investigated by the using treatment between 300 MPa and 600 MPa at 25 degrees C for 10 min. The suspension media used in this study represented different concentrations (0.1% to 10%) of buffered peptone water (BPW) with an adjusted pH of 4 to 7. An increase in the concentration of BPW resulted in a decreased HHP-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes that was dependent on the pH of the medium. HHP-treatment at 300 MPa showed no bactericidal effect at neutral pH regardless of the BPW concentration. When the pH of BPW (0.1% to 5%) was reduced to 4, L. monocytogenes was completely inactivated (more than an 8 log cycle reduction) with a HHP-treatment of at least 300 MPa. HHP-treatment above 400 MPa completely inactivated L. monocytogenes in a relatively dilute BPW (0.1% and 1%) with an adjusted pH below 6. While only a 2 log cycle reduction was observed in 10% BPW at the pH ranging from 5 to 7 after treatment with 600 MPa, L. monocytogenes in 10% BPW at pH 4 was completely inactivated. Even though a significant bactericidal effect of HHP-treatment was not observed when applied with a low pressure such as 300 MPa or suspended in higher BPW at neutral pH, a reduction of the pH greatly affected the HHP-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes. These results indicated that information concerning the pH of food or media would greatly assist an optimization of HHP-treatment for the inactivation of bacteria.

  5. Bisphosphonate Treatment in a Patient Affected by MPS IVA with Osteoporotic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummolo, Albina; Gabrielli, Orazio; Gaeta, Alberto; Masciopinto, Maristella; Zampini, Lucia; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Di Natale, Paola; Papadia, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Morquio A syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA) (MPS IVA) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the defective degradation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. Classically, MPS IVA patients present with severe multisystemic involvement and have a short life expectancy. Attenuated forms with clinical features limited to minor skeletal abnormalities and short stature have also been described, sometimes associated to an early-onset osteoporotic phenotype. No treatment with allogenic bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy is currently available for Morquio A syndrome, and enzyme replacement therapy is under evaluation. We report a case of MPS IVA, who manifested tardily attenuated phenotype and significant bone mass reduction, which was treated with a bisphosphonate (BPN), resulting in an improvement of X-ray skeletal aspects and functional bone performance. We suggest that the use of bisphosphonates may be an interesting supportive therapeutic option for Morquio A patients with osteoporotic phenotype, but further studies involving more patients are necessary to confirm our findings.

  6. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified...... matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes...... in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 May...

  7. Experimentally studied dynamic dose interplay does not meaningfully affect target dose in VMAT SBRT lung treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Dilling, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The effects of respiratory motion on the tumor dose can be divided into the gradient and interplay effects. While the interplay effect is likely to average out over a large number of fractions, it may play a role in hypofractionated [stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)] treatments. This subject has been extensively studied for intensity modulated radiation therapy but less so for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particularly in application to hypofractionated regimens. Also, no experimental study has provided full four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction in this scenario. The authors demonstrate how a recently described motion perturbation method, with full 4D dose reconstruction, is applied to describe the gradient and interplay effects during VMAT lung SBRT treatments.Methods: VMAT dose delivered to a moving target in a patient can be reconstructed by applying perturbations to the treatment planning system-calculated static 3D dose. Ten SBRT patients treated with 6 MV VMAT beams in five fractions were selected. The target motion (motion kernel) was approximated by 3D rigid body translation, with the tumor centroids defined on the ten phases of the 4DCT. The motion was assumed to be periodic, with the period T being an average from the empirical 4DCT respiratory trace. The real observed tumor motion (total displacement ≤8 mm) was evaluated first. Then, the motion range was artificially increased to 2 or 3 cm. Finally, T was increased to 60 s. While not realistic, making T comparable to the delivery time elucidates if the interplay effect can be observed. For a single fraction, the authors quantified the interplay effect as the maximum difference in the target dosimetric indices, most importantly the near-minimum dose (D{sub 99%}), between all possible starting phases. For the three- and five-fractions, statistical simulations were performed when substantial interplay was found.Results: For the motion amplitudes and periods obtained from

  8. Mechanical biological treatment of organic fraction of MSW affected dissolved organic matter evolution in simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Silvia; Scaglia, Barbara; di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the evolution of DOM during 1 year of observation in simulated landfill, of aerobically treated vs. untreated organic fraction of MSW. Results obtained indicated that aerobic treatment of organic fraction of MSW permitted getting good biological stability so that, successive incubation under anaerobic condition in landfill allowed biological process to continue getting a strong reduction of soluble organic matter (DOM) that showed, also, an aromatic character. Incubation of untreated waste gave similar trend, but in this case DOM decreasing was only apparent as inhibition of biological process in landfill did not allow replacing degraded/leached DOM with new material coming from hydrolysis of fresh OM. PMID:23743423

  9. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature. PMID:25270993

  10. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature.

  11. Flotation of agent for breach of emulsion oil/water aiming treatment of water produced for the industry petroleum; Agente de flotacao (Tanfloc) para quebra de emulsao oleo/agua visando tratamento de aguas produzidas pela industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C. de; Andrade, J.M. de; Melo, M.A.A.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work was studied the action of an agent of flotation TanFloc broken emulsion in oil / water when its concentration varies and salinity. This material is used by Petroleum brazilian for removal of turbidity in the water from the petroleum industry. For the test set up a bench in the laboratory of the Environmental Technology UFRN for simulation of tests made on the field. To do so, was studied the concentration of TanFloc and it was found that the best concentration for removal of turbidity was 11ppm such material. It was found that the level of salinity affects particularly the results of turbidity therefore this was also one of the parameters studied. (author)

  12. Renal function affects absorbed dose to the kidneys and haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Johanna; Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Waengberg, Bo [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, Maria [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Bernhardt, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Bioengineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become an important treatment option in the management of advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Long-lasting responses are reported for a majority of treated patients, with good tolerability and a favourable impact on quality of life. The treatment is usually limited by the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys, where the radiopharmaceutical is reabsorbed and retained, or by evident haematological toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate how renal function affects (1) absorbed dose to the kidneys, and (2) the development of haematological toxicity during PRRT treatment. The study included 51 patients with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour who received {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment during 2006 - 2011 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. An average activity of 7.5 GBq (3.5 - 8.2 GBq) was given at intervals of 6 - 8 weeks on one to five occasions. Patient baseline characteristics according to renal and bone marrow function, tumour burden and medical history including prior treatment were recorded. Renal and bone marrow function were then monitored during treatment. Renal dosimetry was performed according to the conjugate view method, and the residence time for the radiopharmaceutical in the whole body was calculated. A significant correlation between inferior renal function before treatment and higher received renal absorbed dose per administered activity was found (p < 0.01). Patients with inferior renal function also experienced a higher grade of haematological toxicity during treatment (p = 0.01). The residence time of {sup 177}Lu in the whole body (range 0.89 - 3.0 days) was correlated with grade of haematological toxicity (p = 0.04) but not with renal absorbed dose (p = 0.53). Patients with inferior renal function were exposed to higher renal absorbed dose per administered activity and developed a higher grade of haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. The study confirms the

  13. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  14. Follow-up of patients affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism after treatment with CaNa2EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Hernandez, Elena; Discalzi, Gianluigi; Valentini, Consuelo; Venturi, Fabrizio; Chiò, Adriano; Carmellino, Caterina; Rossi, Luigi; Sacchetti, Anna; Pira, Enrico

    2006-05-01

    In the period of 1998-2004, seven workers affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism were diagnosed, studied and treated with CaNa2EDTA at our Occupational Health Ward. Biological markers, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations, were used to assess the disease trend. Those workers still employed were immediately removed from exposure. Our results seem to confirm that very good clinical, biological and neuroradiological results can be obtained by timely removal from exposure and chelating treatment, and that amelioration can persist in time. Manganism is, however, a severe condition that can also progress independent of further exposure. Therefore, chelating treatment can be a great aid in overt manganism, but particular attention must be paid to primary prevention, as this disease should now be totally preventable and definitely merits eradication. PMID:16271769

  15. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 2. Forecasting effects of feebates based on energy-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we simulate the car market in order to forecast the effects of feebate systems based on an energy-labeling scheme using categories A to G. Very fuel-efficient (A) cars receive a cash incentive, highly inefficient (G) cars pay additional fees. Consumers have different price elasticities and behavioral options to react to feebates. They can switch to a smaller sized car, but as energy-efficiency varies widely within size segments, they can also stick to the preferred size class and choose a more efficient (smaller) engine. In addition, previously owned cars influence the next car to be chosen. We use an agent-based microsimulation approach particularly suited to predict environmental and market effects of feebates. Heteorogeneous agents choose from a choice set drawn from a detailed fleet of new cars. Incentives of EUR2000 for A-labeled cars induce an additional rated CO2 emission decrease of new car registrations between 3.4% and 4.3%, with CO2 abatement costs between EUR6 and EUR13 per ton, and otherwise little undesired market disturbance. The risk of rebound effects is estimated to be low. After adopting the frequencies of consumer segments to a given country, the model presented is applicable to all European car markets. (author)

  16. Psychosocial and medical factors affecting treatment compliance in patients attending psychiatric hospital: a study from Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Shoib

    2014-02-01

    Results: Out of 200 respondents studied in the study 41.5 % were males and 58.5% were females. Maximum number of patients (31.5% studied were in the age group below the 30 years. 3.5% of respondents were in the age group above 70 years. Out of total 200 respondents in the study 74 % of the respondents are in compliance with recommended medicine whereas non-compliance was found in the 26% of studied population. Complications (13.46% ascending out by usage of psychiatric medicine can be attributed as one of the major case of treatment non-compliance in psychiatric patients, among the psychiatric patients. Accessibility of psychiatric medicine and Financial constrain was also one of the reasons behind the medicine non-compliance (7.69%. Patients with no insight to psychiatric disease also include a good percentage of (5.76 % of medicine non- compliance. Conclusions: Non-compliance is a dominant factor which causes possibly causes readmission in psychiatric wards. Compliance in psychiatric patients in general could be enhanced and improved by adequate intervention via patient counselling and patient medicinal care and education. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 220-224

  17. The effectiveness of external beam radiotherapy for acromegaly is not affected by previous pituitary ablative treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.I.; Joplin, G.F. (Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Speirs, C.J. (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Morrison, R. (Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Aber, V. (Department of Medical Physics, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three acromegalic patients were treated with radiotherapy and followed up for at least 3 years (mean 6 years, range 3 to 12). Seventeen had not had previous pituitary ablative therapy and 16 had. The mean GH level for these two groups before radiotherapy was comparable at 98 and 119 mlU/l. The observed frequency of reaching <10 mlU/L was 53% and 75% of patients in the two groups, respectively, the mean observed falls in growth hormone level were 81 and 85% of the initial level, and the calculated exponential decline rate of GH level was 72 and 52% per fyear. Considering all 35 patients, requirement for pituitary hormone replacement therapy increased from 15 patients before radiotherapy to 20 after radiotherapy, being mostly those who had had prior ablative therapies. There were no complications attributable to the radiotherapy treatment. It appears that radiotherapy is equally efficacious whether a prior unsuccessful ablative procedure had been used or not. (author).

  18. Factors affecting population of filamentous bacteria in wastewater treatment plants with nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Witeska, Anna; Muszyński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous population in activated sludge and key operational parameters of full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bulking problems representative for Poland were investigated with quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed few relationships between operational parameters and biovolume of filamentous bacteria. Sludge age was not only positively correlated with abundance of Chloroflexi (parametric correlation and principal component analysis (PCA)), but also differentiated Microthrix population (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Phylum Chloroflexi and pH presented a negative relation during the study (PCA). ANOVA showed that pH of influent and sludge volume index (SVI) differentiated abundance of types 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi and candidate division TM7. SVI increased along with higher abundance of Microthrix (positive parametric and non-parametric correlations and positive relation in PCA). Biovolumes of morphotypes 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi were differentiated by organic matter in influent, also by nutrients in the case of Chloroflexi type 1851. Chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD5, respectively) were negatively correlated with Microthrix. COD also differentiated the abundance of Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Results of the study can be used to prevent WWTPs from excessive proliferation of filamentous bacteria and operational problems caused by them--bulking and foaming of activated sludge.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  20. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident affecting the UK, regulation of contamination in the foodchain would involve both the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Restrictions would be based on intervention levels imposed by the Council of the European Communities (often referred to as Council Food Intervention Levels, CFILs). FSA would be responsible for preventing commercial foodstuffs with concentrations of radionuclides above the CFILs from entering the foodchain, while EA would regulate the storage and disposal of the waste food. Milk is particularly important in this respect because it is produced continually in large quantities in many parts of the UK. An evaluation of various options for the management of waste foodstuffs has been carried out by NRPB, with support from FSA and its predecessor, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and EA. This report describes an evaluation of the practicability of one of those options, namely the biological treatment of contaminated milk. Whole milk has a high content of organic matter and in consequence a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). If not disposed of properly, releases of whole milk into the environment can have a substantial detrimental effect because of the high BOD. Biological treatments are therefore potentially an attractive management option because the fermentation by bacteria reduces the BOD in the resultant liquid effluent. The objectives of this study were as follows: a. To compile information about the options available for the biological treatment of milk; b. To establish the legal position; c. To assess practicability in terms of technical feasibility, capacity, cost, environmental and radiological impacts and acceptability; d. To assess the radiation doses that might be received by process operators, contractors, farmers and the general public from the biological treatment of contaminated milk. The radionuclides of interest were 131II

  1. SU-E-J-175: Comparison of the Treatment Reproducibility of Tumors Affected by Breathing Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the dose distribution simulations was to form a global idea of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) realization, by its comparison to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) delivery for tumors affected by respiratory motion. Methods: In the group of 10patients both 3DCRT and IMRT plans were prepared.For each field the motion kernel was generated with the largest movement amplitude of 4;6 and 8mm.Additionally,the sets of reference measurements were made in no motion conditions(0 mm).The evaluation of plan delivery,using a diode array placed on moving platform,was based on the Gamma Index analysis with distance to agreement of 3mm and dose difference of 3%. Results: IMRT plans tended to spare doses delivered to lungs compared to 3DCRT.Nonetheless,analyzed volumes showed no significant difference between the static and dynamic techniques,except for the volumes of both lungs receiving 10 and 15Gy.After adding the components associated with the respiratory movement,all IMRT lung parameters evaluated for the ipsilateral,contralateral and both lungs together,revealed considerable differences between the 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes.Similar results were obtained for the 3DCRT lung measurements,but without significance between the 0vs.6-mm amplitude.Taking into account the CTV score parameter in 3DCRT and IMRT plans,there was no statistically significant difference between the motion patterns with the smallest amplitudes.The differences were found for the 8-mm amplitude when it was compared both with static conditions and 4-mm amplitude (for 3DCRT) and between 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes (for IMRT).All accepted and measured 3DCRT and IMRT doses to spinal cord,esophagus and heart were always below the QUANTEC limits. Conclusion: The application of IMRT technique in lung radiotherapy affords possibilities for reducing the lung doses.For maximal amplitudes of breathing trajectory below 4mm,the disagreement between CTV

  2. SU-E-J-175: Comparison of the Treatment Reproducibility of Tumors Affected by Breathing Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, M; Piotrowski, T; Adamczyk, S [Medical Physics Department, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Poznan (Poland)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the dose distribution simulations was to form a global idea of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) realization, by its comparison to three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) delivery for tumors affected by respiratory motion. Methods: In the group of 10patients both 3DCRT and IMRT plans were prepared.For each field the motion kernel was generated with the largest movement amplitude of 4;6 and 8mm.Additionally,the sets of reference measurements were made in no motion conditions(0 mm).The evaluation of plan delivery,using a diode array placed on moving platform,was based on the Gamma Index analysis with distance to agreement of 3mm and dose difference of 3%. Results: IMRT plans tended to spare doses delivered to lungs compared to 3DCRT.Nonetheless,analyzed volumes showed no significant difference between the static and dynamic techniques,except for the volumes of both lungs receiving 10 and 15Gy.After adding the components associated with the respiratory movement,all IMRT lung parameters evaluated for the ipsilateral,contralateral and both lungs together,revealed considerable differences between the 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes.Similar results were obtained for the 3DCRT lung measurements,but without significance between the 0vs.6-mm amplitude.Taking into account the CTV score parameter in 3DCRT and IMRT plans,there was no statistically significant difference between the motion patterns with the smallest amplitudes.The differences were found for the 8-mm amplitude when it was compared both with static conditions and 4-mm amplitude (for 3DCRT) and between 0vs.6, 0vs.8 and 4vs.8-mm amplitudes (for IMRT).All accepted and measured 3DCRT and IMRT doses to spinal cord,esophagus and heart were always below the QUANTEC limits. Conclusion: The application of IMRT technique in lung radiotherapy affords possibilities for reducing the lung doses.For maximal amplitudes of breathing trajectory below 4mm,the disagreement between CTV

  3. MORTALITY DURING TREATMENT: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SURVIVAL OF OILED, REHABILITATED COMMON MURRES (URIA AALGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2016-07-01

    After major oil spills, hundreds to thousands of live stranded birds enter rehabilitative care. To target aspects of rehabilitative efforts for improvement and to evaluate which initial physical examination and biomedical parameters most effectively predict survival to release, medical records were examined from 913 Common Murres ( Uria aalge ; COMUs) oiled during the November 2001-January 2003 oil spill associated with the sunken S.S. Jacob Luckenbach off San Francisco, California, US. Results showed that 52% of all deaths occurred during the first 2 days of treatment. Birds stranding closest to the wreck had greater amounts of oil on their bodies than birds stranding farther away. More heavily oiled birds were in better clinical condition than birds with lesser amounts of oil, as shown by higher body mass (BM), packed cell volumes (PCV), total plasma protein (TP), and higher survival proportions. Additionally, BM, PCV, TP, and body temperature were positively correlated. For comparison, medical records from all nonoiled COMUs admitted for rehabilitation at the same facility during 2007-09 (n=468) were examined, and these variables were also found to be positively correlated. Oiled birds with BM under 750 g had approximately 5% lower PCV than BM-matched nonoiled COMUs. More heavily oiled COMUs may be in better condition than less oiled birds because heavily oiled birds must beach themselves immediately to avoid drowning and hypothermia, whereas lightly oiled birds may postpone beaching until exhausted due to extreme body catabolism. The strong relationship of PCV to BM regardless of oiling provides evidence that anemia commonly encountered in oiled seabirds may be a sequela to overall loss of body condition rather than solely due to toxic effects of oiling. Clinical information garnered in this study provides guidance for triage decisions during oil spills. PMID:27187030

  4. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 ...

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae as an agent of nosocomial infection: treatment in the era of penicillin-resistant strains

    OpenAIRE

    F. Paradisi; Corti, G.; R. Cinelli

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known agent of community-acquired infections such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. However, the role of S.pneumoniae as a cause of nosocomial infections of respiratory tract, bloodstream, and central nervous system is more and more recognised, primarily in high-risk patients with depression of their immune function. Therapy of pneumococcal infections is made diff...

  6. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  7. Effect of Contrast Agent on IMRT Treatment Plan for Esophageal Carcinoma%造影剂对食管癌调强放疗计划的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志安; 张清罗; 侯如蓉; 潘惠敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of contrast agent on IMRT treatment plan for esophageal carcinoma. Meth-ods Ten patients of esophageal carcinoma treated with IMRT,were planned by CT image with contrast agent or not. Isodose dis-tribution of PTV and dose-volume histogram of organ at risk were compared. Results The maximum dose,, the minimum dose、 the mean dose and the median dose of PTV have a mean increase of 30 cGy in plan with contrast agent than in plan without contrast agent. No significant difference was found in the maximum dose of spinal corcKthe V20 and V30 of lung 、the conforms! index and the homogeneity index between the two plans. The mean dose of heart and lung were spared more in plan without contrast agent. Conclusion On the IMRT treatment plan for esophageal carcinoma, contrast agent has little effect and can be neglected.%目的 探讨增强造影剂对食管癌调强放疗计划的影响.方法 对10例食管癌进行CT平扫与增强造影,分别设计调强放疗计划,比较2个计划靶区剂量分布和危及器官的剂量体积受量.结果 增强影像计划的靶区最大剂量、最小剂量、平均剂量及中位剂量,较平扫影像计划的平均高30 cGy,适形度指数和均匀性指数的比较无差异,增强影像计划的双肺平均剂量、心脏平均剂量受量高.2种计划的双肺V20、V30和脊髓最大剂量比较无差异.结论 造影剂对食管癌调强放疗剂量有影响,但影响较小,可以直接在增强影像上设计放疗计划.

  8. Evaluation of variables affecting crack propagation by Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zr-2.5Nb with different heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieza, J.I., E-mail: mieza@cnea.gov.ar [CNEA, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Dano por Hidrogeno, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Instituto Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Vigna, G.L.; Domizzi, G. [CNEA, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Dano por Hidrogeno, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) is a failure mechanism that may occur in zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactor core components. The knowledge of the direct effects of the variables affecting the cracking velocity could be used to minimize the risk of crack propagation. In practice, most of these variables - as for example the alloy yield stress and hydrogen diffusion coefficient - are coupled and vary during reactor operation, leading to a complex variable dependence of the cracking mechanism. In order to get an insight into the relative effect of these variables, experimental data and a theoretical approach using a generally accepted DHC model were used in this work. A series of DHC velocity measurements were made in Zr-2.5Nb tube with different heat treatments. The yield stress, the Nb concentration in {beta} phase, and hydrogen solvus of the alloy were measured for different heat treatments. Niobium concentration in {beta} phase gave an indirect indication of {beta}-phase continuity and, with a proper correlation, of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient. The obtained values were used as inputs in a theoretical calculation of cracking velocity. Good agreement between experimental data and predicted values was obtained, showing that hydrogen diffusion coefficient was the most relevant variable affecting DHC velocity cracking. Furthermore, this approach has been demonstrated to be useful in estimating DHC velocity in irradiated materials.

  9. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.

  10. Enhancing User Experience through Emotional Interaction: Determining Users' Interests in Online Art Collections Using AMARA (Affective Museum of Art Resource Agent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Joon

    2013-01-01

    The need for emotional interaction has already influenced various disciplines and industries, and online museums represent a domain where providing emotional interactions could have a significant impact. Today, online museums lack the appropriate affective and hedonic values necessary to engage art enthusiasts on an emotional level. To address…

  11. Quality of medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan as affected by ionizing radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was conducted to study the effect of gamma-radiation doses of 5, 10 and 15 KGy on the microbial and chemical quality as well as antioxidant activity of nine medical plants from 8 plant species grown in Sudan. The plant materials were collected from the country-side of Khartoum State as well as from local markets. Plant parts were selected according to their traditional uses as medicinal plants. Irradiation treatment was carried out or dried ground samples using doses of 5,10, 15 KGy from experimental cobalt-60 gamma source. Plants extracts were prepared using 80% methanol. The control and irradiated samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (cfu/g), secondary compounds, tannin content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. Tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, saponin and phenols were evaluated through major compounds in extracts. The total bacterial count indicated that the non- irradiated samples of Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Cassia senna (pods), Cassia senna (leaves), Acacia nilotica L., Brassica nigra L. Koch, Lepidium sativum L., Cymbopogon citratus and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were highly contaminated with bacteria. The sample of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. showed a lower count of bacteria (9x10'' 3 Cfu/g), which did not exceed the acceptable level. The samples irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 KGy of gamma radiation dose had significantly lower bacterial counts than the non-irradiated control. The highest sensitivity to gamma rays at 5 KGy dose was observed in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Acacia nilotica L. while the lowest sensitivity was in Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. At 15 KGy dose Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Cymbopogon citratus showed complete absence of microorganisms. The highest reduction in tannin content (mg/L catechin) due to irradiation with 15 KGy dose was observed in Cymbopogon citratus, followed by Cymbopogon schoenanthus L., Cassia senna L. leaves Acacia nilotica L. and Hibiscus sabdariffa L.. Irradiation

  12. Zinc treatment increases the titre of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...

  13. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkamu Merid Mengesha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design: Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result: 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06]. Conclusions: Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome.

  14. Iodine-123 as a diagnostic imaging agent in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a comparison with iodine-131 post-treatment scanning and serum thyroglobulin measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urhan, Muammer; Dadparvar, Simin; Mavi, Ayse; Houseni, Mohamed; Chamroonrat, Wichana; Alavi, Abass [Department of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mandel, Susan J. [Department of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Using{sup 123}I for diagnostic purposes avoids the risk of stunning for subsequent radioiodine treatment and affords an excellent image quality. In this study we assessed the role of{sup 123}I in comparison with{sup 131}I post-treatment imaging in patients with thyroid cancer. We compared a total of 292{sup 123}I scans with their corresponding post-treatment{sup 131}I images. Patients received a therapeutic dose of{sup 131}I following diagnostic scanning with 50-111 MBq of{sup 123}I. All patients were in a hypothyroid state (>30 {mu}IU/l) before radioiodine administration for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In 228 out of 263 patients with a positive diagnostic scan,{sup 123}I whole-body scan findings were concordant with those of corresponding post-treatment{sup 131}I images (concordance rate 87%). However, there were 44 additional foci of abnormal uptake on post-treatment{sup 131}I scans in 22 discordant cases with no impact on therapeutic management of the patients. In 13 patients, there was at least one new site on post-treatment images that had been missed on pretreatment{sup 123}I images. Twenty-nine patients with a negative diagnostic scan were treated with{sup 131}I owing to a high serum thyroglobulin level (range 11.3-480 ng/ml). Radioiodine uptake sites were seen in eight post-treatment scans. In 21 pairs of whole-body scans, both the pre- and the post-treatment scan were negative (concordance rate 72.4%). {sup 123}I scanning is comparable to high-dose{sup 131}I post-treatment imaging in thyroid carcinoma patients, and {sup 123}I offers excellent image quality as a diagnostic agent. It avoids disadvantages such as stunning before treatment and delivery of a high radiation dose to patients. (orig.)

  15. Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khalaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth. Absolute risk (AR and risk ratios (RR were also calculated. Results: The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P < 0.05 relationships were found between the presence of WSLs and the following factors: poor oral hygiene (OH, males, increased treatment length, lack of use of fluoride supplements, use of carbonated soft drinks and/or fruit juices and the use of sugary foods. Poor OH posed the highest risk of developing WSL (RR = 8.55. Conclusions: 42% of patients have developed white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene.

  16. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  17. Facile synthesis of α-Fe2O3@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing; Bai, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe2O3@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions.

  18. DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine inhibits myeloid-derived suppressor cells induced by tumor growth and cyclophosphamide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mikyšková, R; Indrová, M. (Marie); Vlková, V. (Veronika); Bieblová, J. (Jana); Šímová, J; Paračková, Z. (Zuzana); Pajtasz-Piasecka, E.; Rossowska, J.; Reiniš, M

    2014-01-01

    MDSCs represent one of the key players mediating immunosuppression. These cells accumulate in the TME, lymphoid organs, and blood during tumor growth. Their mobilization was also reported after CY therapy. DNMTi 5AC has been intensively studied as an antitumor agent. In this study, we examined, using two different murine tumor models, the modulatory effects of 5AC on TU-MDSCs and CY-MDSCs tumor growth and CY therapy. Indeed, the percentage of MDSCs in the TME and spleens of 5AC-treated mice b...

  19. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michel G.; Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J 73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  20. CNS-specific regulatory elements in brain-derived HIV-1 strains affect responses to latency-reversing agents with implications for cure strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, L R; Cowley, D; Welsh, C; Lu, H K; Brew, B J; Lewin, S R; Wesselingh, S L; Gorry, P R; Churchill, M J

    2016-01-01

    Latency-reversing agents (LRAs), including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are being investigated as a strategy to eliminate latency in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The effectiveness of LRAs in activating latent infection in HIV strains derived from the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. Here we show that CNS-derived HIV-1 strains possess polymorphisms within and surrounding the Sp transcription factor motifs in the long terminal repeat (LTR). These polymorphisms result in decreased ability of the transcription factor specificity protein 1 to bind CNS-derived LTRs, reducing the transcriptional activity of CNS-derived viruses. These mutations result in CNS-derived viruses being less responsive to activation by the HDACi panobinostat and romidepsin compared with lymphoid-derived viruses from the same subjects. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 strains residing in the CNS have unique transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, which impact the regulation of latency, the consideration of which is essential for the development of HIV-1 eradication strategies. PMID:26303660

  1. Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, affects the early to late phagosome transition and survives in a Rab5- and Rab7-positive compartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mottola

    Full Text Available Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, inhibits phago-lysosome biogenesis to create a suitable niche for its survival and replication in macrophages. To understand the mechanism by which it subverts phagosome maturation, we used biochemical and cell biological approaches to purify and characterise the intracellular compartment where Tropheryma whipplei resides using mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We showed that in addition to Lamp-1, the Tropheryma whipplei phagosome is positive for Rab5 and Rab7, two GTPases required for the early to late phagosome transition. Unlike other pathogens, inhibition of PI(3P production was not the mechanism for Rab5 stabilisation at the phagosome. Overexpression of the inactive, GDP-bound form of Rab5 bypassed the pathogen-induced blockade of phago-lysosome biogenesis. This suggests that Tropheryma whipplei blocks the switch from Rab5 to Rab7 by acting on the Rab5 GTPase cycle. A bio-informatic analysis of the Tropheryma whipplei genome revealed a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH homologous with the GAPDH of Listeria monocytogenes, and this may be the bacterial protein responsible for blocking Rab5 activity. To our knowledge, Tropheryma whipplei is the first pathogen described to induce a "chimeric" phagosome stably expressing both Rab5 and Rab7, suggesting a novel and specific mechanism for subverting phagosome maturation.

  2. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  3. Free heme pool and activity of key enzyme of heme synthesis in the rat liver under action of agents affecting reduced glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barannik, T V; Inshina, N M; Kaliman, P A

    2005-01-01

    The decrease of GSH level in the rat liver was found to be accompanied by an increase of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation during first hours after HgCl2, phenylhydrazine (Ph) injection or rhabdomyolysis (the coefficient of correlation -0.978). The activity of the key enzyme of heme synthesis--5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) was 2.5-fold increased in the first hours after Ph injection and rhabdomyolysis. Glutathione injection in vivo as well as CdCl2 caused the increase of GSH content and the inhibition of ALAS. The coefficient of correlation for GSH content and ALAS activity under the action of agents altering both these parameters (CdCl2, Ph, GSH injection and rhabdomyolysis) is 0.938. Taking into account the presence of heme regulatory motif with conserved cystein in many proteins, including ALAS and TDO (accession number in SwissProt database AAH61793 and P21643, respectively), the link between alterations of GSH content, ALAS activity and heme saturation of TDO in the rat liver could be proposed. The further experiments should be performed in order to elucidate the mechanisms of GSH level influence on free heme pool formation in the liver cells. PMID:16846079

  4. Structural optimization and evaluation of butenolides as potent antifouling agents: modification of the side chain affects the biological activities of compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-09-01

    A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, a series of new butenolide derivatives with various amine side chains was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-larval settlement activities in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Side chain modification of butenolide resulted in butenolides 3c-3d, which possessed desirable physico-chemical properties and demonstrated highly effective non-toxic anti-larval settlement efficacy. A structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that varying the alkyl side chain had a notable effect on anti-larval settlement activity and that seven to eight carbon alkyl side chains with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) substituent on an amine terminal were optimal in terms of bioactivity. Analysis of the physico-chemical profile of butenolide analogues indicated that lipophilicity is a very important physico-chemical parameter contributing to bioactivity. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Combination chemotherapy versus single-agent therapy as first- and second-line treatment in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensuu, H; Holli, K; Heikkinen, M;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report results of a randomized prospective study that compared single agents of low toxicity given both as the first-line and second-line chemotherapy with combination chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer with distant metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in the single-agent arm...... (n = 153) received weekly epirubicin (E) 20 mg/m2 until progression or until the cumulative dose of 1,000 mg/m2, followed by mitomycin (M) 8 mg/m2 every 4 weeks, and those in the combination chemotherapy arm (n = 150) were first given cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2, E 60 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 500 mg/m2...... three times per week (CEF) followed by M 8 mg/m2 plus vinblastine (V) 6 mg/m2 every 4 weeks. Exclusion criteria included age greater than 70 years, World Health Organization (WHO) performance status greater than 2, prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, and presence of liver metastases in patients...

  6. How will the greening of the Arctic affect an important prey species and disturbance agent? Vegetation effects on arctic ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, H C; Chipperfield, J D; Roland, C; Svenning, J-C

    2015-07-01

    Increases in terrestrial primary productivity across the Arctic and northern alpine ecosystems are leading to altered vegetation composition and stature. Changes in vegetation stature may affect predator-prey interactions via changes in the prey's ability to detect predators, changes in predation pressure, predator identity and predator foraging strategy. Changes in productivity and vegetation composition may also affect herbivores via effects on forage availability and quality. We investigated if height-dependent effects of forage and non-forage vegetation determine burrowing extent and activity of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We collected data on burrow networks and activity of arctic ground squirrels across long-term vegetation monitoring sites in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The implications of height-specific cover of potential forage and non-forage vegetation on burrowing behaviour and habitat suitability for arctic ground squirrels were investigated using hierarchical Bayesian modelling. Increased cover of forbs was associated with more burrows and burrow systems, and higher activity of systems, for all forb heights. No other potential forage functional group was related to burrow distribution and activity. In contrast, height-dependent negative effects of non-forage vegetation were observed, with cover over 50-cm height negatively affecting the number of burrows, systems and system activity. Our results demonstrate that increases in vegetation productivity have dual, potentially counteracting effects on arctic ground squirrels via changes in forage and vegetation stature. Importantly, increases in tall-growing woody vegetation (shrubs and trees) have clear negative effects, whereas increases in forb should benefit arctic ground squirrels. PMID:25666700

  7. Gestational stress and fluoxetine treatment differentially affect plasticity, methylation and serotonin levels in the PFC and hippocampus of rat dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Mary; Rayen, Ine; van Donkelaar, Eva; Loftus, Tiffany; Steinbusch, Harry W; Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2016-07-01

    Women are more likely to develop depression during childbearing years with up to 20% of women suffering from depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Increased prevalence of depression during the perinatal period has resulted in frequent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment; however the effects of such medications on the maternal brain remain limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the SSRI medication, fluoxetine, on neurobiological differences in the maternal brain. To model aspects of maternal depression, gestational stress was used. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed to either gestational stress and/or fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day) to form the following four groups: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Stress+Vehicle, 3. Control+Fluoxetine, and 4. Stress+Fluoxetine. At weaning maternal brains were collected. Main findings show that gestational stress alone increased synaptophysin and serotonin metabolism in the cingulate cortex2 region of the cortex while fluoxetine treatment after stress normalized these effects. In the hippocampus, fluoxetine treatment, regardless of gestational stress exposure, decreased both global measures of methylation in the dentate gyrus, as measured by Dnmt3a immunoreactivity, as well as serotonin metabolism. No further changes in synaptophysin, PSD-95, or Dnmt3a immunoreactivity were seen in the cortical or hippocampal areas investigated. These findings show that gestational stress and SSRI medication affect the neurobiology of the maternal brain in a region-specific manner. This work adds to a much needed area of research aimed at understanding neurobiological changes associated with maternal depression and the role of SSRI treatment in altering these changes in the female brain. PMID:27060483

  8. Affects, agency, and self-regulation: complexity theory in the treatment of children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly unsettled and violent world, with swelling numbers of children who are abused, abandoned, or neglected, emotionally if not physically, and an increasing population of aggressive preschool children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders who cannot be contained in ordinary settings, psychoanalysts can make a contribution. Early intervention is essential. In very early childhood, new procedural memories for interacting with others and for regulating affects can be formed more easily than they can ever be again. Intervention should aim toward helping the child develop a sense of agency, establish moral standards, assume self-responsibility, and attain the capacity for emotional regulation. The principles of complex dynamic systems can inform psychoanalytic treatment strategies, as demonstrated with five children whose cases are presented.

  9. Evaluation of three different agents for in-office treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: A controlled clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti A Patil; Balaram D Naik; Suma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Dentin desensitizers are used for in-office treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. They block the open tubules and bring about a reduction in hypersensitivity. Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare the clinical effectiveness of a dentin desensitizer, a combination of a dentin desensitizer + adhesive and one-bottle self-etching adhesive for in-office treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Settings and Design: Institutional, prospective double-blind parallel clinical design....

  10. Popliteal artery injuries in an urban trauma center with a rural catchment area: do delays in definitive treatment affect amputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jon D; Gunter, Joseph W; Schmieg, Robert E; Manley, Justin D; Rushton, Fred W; Porter, John M; Mitchell, Marc E

    2011-11-01

    Extended length of time from injury to definitive vascular repair is considered to be a predictor of amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries. In an urban trauma center with a rural catchment area, logistical issues frequently result in treatment delays, which may affect limb salvage after vascular trauma. We examined how known risk factors for amputation after popliteal trauma are affected in a more rural environment, where patients often experience delays in definitive surgical treatment. All adult patients admitted to the Level I trauma center, the University of Mississippi Medical Center, with a popliteal artery injury between January 2000 and December of 2007 were identified. Demographic information management and outcome data were collected. Body mass index, mangled extremity severity score (MESS), Guistilo open fracture score, injury severity score, and time from injury to vascular repair were examined. Fifty-one patients with popliteal artery injuries (53% blunt and 47% penetrating) were identified, all undergoing operative repair. There were nine amputations (17.6%) and one death. Patients requiring amputation had a higher MESS, 7.8 versus 5.3 (P amputation rate compared with those with penetrating trauma, 25.9 per cent versus 8.3 per cent (P = non significant). MESS, though not perfect, is the best predictor of amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries. Morbid obesity is not a significant predictor for amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries. Time from injury to repair of greater than 6 hours was not predictive of amputation. This study further demonstrates that a single scoring system should be used with caution when determining the need for lower extremity amputation.

  11. Measures to reduce the impact of anti-icing agents on the environment and on the work of wastewater treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the excess of chemical agents in the snow on the environment and on the working waste water treatment facilities. The article presents some suggestions for improvement of regulatory requirements concerning design engineering of snow melting facilities in the water disposal system. This suggestion was substantiated to assess snow as waste disposed from road surface, and to register snow mass delivered to snow melting facilities in equivalent units. It is assumed that snow melting stations are facilities designed for waste treatment, and this is why the project documentation for construction of these facilities has to undergo a state expertise for Environmental Impact Assessment. Completed studies provide estimates of the receipted snow, its pollution, etc. But at the same time these studies serve as the basis for approving the necessity of developing a unified system for monitoring the city's snow-melting plants to ensure the reliability.

  12. Normal tissue toxicity of upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) when used as a non-cross resistant agent in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies at this Institute have investigated the use of HBI as a consolidation agent in the treatment of SCLC. The present Phase I-II study investigates the toxicity and efficacy of UHBI used as a non-cross resistant alternating agent with chemotherapy early in the induction phase of treatment of all stages of SCLC. Toxicity due to the combined effects of chemotherapy plus UHBI is reported as well as effects on bone marrow, lungs and GI tract. The increased incidence of pneumonitis observed in the present study points to a possible interaction of these modalities when HBI is being used as an alternating agent with Cisplatin and Adriamycin

  13. The outcomes of two different bulking agents (dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate-polyalcohol copolymer in the treatment of primary vesico-ureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Taşkinlar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Subureteral injection of bulking agents in the endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux is widely accepted therapy with high success rates. Although the grade of vesicoureteric reflux and experience of surgeon is the mainstay of this success, the characteristics of augmenting substances may have an effect particularly in the long term. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR with two different bulking agents: Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA and Polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (PPC. Materials and Methods A total 80 patients (49 girls and 31 boys aged 1-12 years (mean age 5.3 years underwent endoscopic subureteral injection for correction of VUR last six years. The patients were assigned to two groups: subureteral injections of Dx/HA (45 patients and 57 ureters and PPC (35 patients and 45 ureters. VUR was grade II in 27 ureters, grade III in 35, grade IV in 22 and grade V in 18 ureters. Results VUR was resolved in 38 (66.6% of 57 ureters and this equates to VUR correction in 33 (73.3% of the 45 patients in Dx/HA group. In PPC group, overall success rate was 88.8% (of 40 in 45 ureters. Thus, Thus, this equates to VUR correction in 31 (88.5% of the 35 patients. Conclusions Our short term data show that two different bulking agent injections provide a high level of reflux resolution and this study revealed that success rate of PPC was significantly higher than Dx/HA with less material.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of CTP synthetase inhibitors as potential agents for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Lucia; Pinto, Andrea; Smith, Terry K; Major, Louise L; Iannuzzi, Maria C; Cosconati, Sandro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Lo Presti, Leonardo; Wong, Pui E; Barrett, Michael P; De Micheli, Carlo; Conti, Paola

    2012-09-01

    Acivicin analogues with an increased affinity for CTP synthetase (CTPS) were designed as potential new trypanocidal agents. The inhibitory activity against CTPS can be improved by increasing molecular complexity, by inserting groups able to establish additional interactions with the binding pocket of the enzyme. This strategy has been pursued with the synthesis of α-amino-substituted analogues of Acivicin and N1-substituted pyrazoline derivatives. In general, there is direct correlation between the enzymatic activity and the in vitro anti-trypanosomal efficacy of the derivatives studied here. However, this cannot be taken as a general rule, as other important factors may play a role, notably the ability of uptake/diffusion of the molecules into the trypanosomes. PMID:22865834

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of CTP synthetase inhibitors as new potential agents for the treatment of African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Acivicin analogues with an increased affinity for CTP synthetase (CTPS) were designed as potential new trypanocidal agents. The inhibitory activity against CTPS can be improved by increasing the molecular complexity, by inserting groups able to establish additional interaction with the binding pocket of the enzyme. This strategy has been pursued with the synthesis of α-amino-substituted analogues of Acivicin and N1-substituted-pyrazoline derivatives. In general, there is a direct correlation between the enzymatic activity and the in vitro anti-trypanosomal efficacy of the derivatives studied here. However, this cannot be taken as a general rule, since other important factors may play a role, notably the ability of uptake / diffusion of the molecules into the trypanosomes. PMID:22865834

  16. Multifunctional PEG modified DOX loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle@CuS nanohybrids as photo-thermal agent and thermal-triggered drug release vehicle for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of a multi-therapeutic mode with a controlled fashion is a key improvement in nanomedicine. Here, we synthesized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) @CuS nanohybrids as efficient drug delivery carriers, combined with photothermal therapy and chemotherapy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The physical properties of the nanohybrids were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption and desorption experiments and by the Vis-NIR absorption spectra. The results showed that the doxorubicin could be stored in the inner pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles; the CuS nanoparticles, which are coated on the surface of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle, could serve as efficient photothermal therapy (PTT) agents; the loaded drug release could be easily triggered by NIR irradiation. The combination of the PTT treatment with controlled chemotherapy could further enhance the cancer ablation ability compared to any of the single approaches alone. Hence, the reported PEG-modified DOX-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle@CuS nanohybrids might be very promising therapeutic agents for HCC treatment. (paper)

  17. Development and initial psychometric examination of the Home Safety and Beautification Assessment in mothers referred to treatment by child welfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Pitts, Michelle; Chow, Graig M; Benning, Stephen D; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Plant, Christopher P; Allen, Daniel N

    2016-05-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors' safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors' global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants' overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors' overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants' ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors' overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants' scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors' home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322799

  18. Antibiotic-loaded, silver core-embedded mesoporous silica nanovehicles as a synergistic antibacterial agent for the treatment of drug-resistant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Ding, Xiali; Chen, Yuan; Guo, Mingquan; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Xiaokui; Gu, Hongchen

    2016-09-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections have become one of the most serious risks in public health as they make the conventional antibiotics less efficient. There is an urgent need for developing new generations of antibacterial agents in this field. In this work, a nanoplatform of LEVO-loaded and silver core-embedded mesoporous silica nanovehicles (Ag@MSNs@LEVO) is demonstrated as a synergistic antibacterial agent for the treatment of drug-resistant infections both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of the inner Ag core and the loaded antibiotic drug in mesopores endows the single-particle nanoplatform with a synergistic effect on killing the drug-resistant bacteria. The nanoplatform of Ag@MSNs@LEVO exhibits superior antibacterial activity to LEVO-loaded MSNs (MSNs@LEVO) and silver core-embedded MSNs (Ag@MSNs) in vitro. In the in vivo acute peritonitis model, the infected drug-resistant Escherichia coli GN102 in peritoneal cavity of the mice is reduced by nearly three orders of magnitude and the aberrant pathological feature of spleen and peritoneum disappears after treatment with Ag@MSNs@LEVO. Importantly, this nanopaltform renders no obvious toxic side effect to the mice during the tested time. There is no doubt that this study strongly indicates a promising potential of Ag@MSNs@LEVO as a synergistic and safety therapy tool for the clinical drug-resistant infections. PMID:27294538

  19. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  20. Demyelinizing neurological disease after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha-inhibiting agents in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theibich, Ali; Dreyer, Lene; Magyari, Melinda;

    2014-01-01

    multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described as a rare AE. During about 10-year use of anti TNF-alpha, the Danish Medicines Agency has recorded eight cases of MS like AEs. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of demyelinizing AEs both in the central and peripheral nervous system after......Biological treatment with inhibitors of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha has dramatically improved the disease course of several chronic rheumatologic conditions. Adverse events (AEs) are primarily infections and hypersensitivity reactions. Demyelinizing neurological symptoms resembling...... treatment with anti TNF-alpha in a cohort of patients from a large rheumatologic outpatient clinic in Copenhagen. In a 4-year period from January 2008 to December 2011, approximately 550 patients annually were undergoing treatment with anti TNF-alpha inhibitors in our department. We collected data on all...

  1. Amino acid PET tracers are reliable markers of treatment responses to single-agent or combination therapies including temozolomide, interferon-β, and/or bevacizumab for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We examined whether the amino acid PET tracers, trans-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-18F-FACBC) and 11C-methyl-L-methionine (11C-Met), are suitable for detecting early responses to combination therapies including temozolomide (TMZ), interferon-β (IFN), and bevacizumab (Bev) in glioblastoma. Methods: Human glioblastoma U87MG (U87) cells were incubated with low dose TMZ to induce chemoresistance. Both trans-1-amino-3-fluoro-1-14C-cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-14C-FACBC) and 3H-methyl-L-methionine (3H-Met) uptake were quantified using triple-label accumulation assays to examine the relationship between tracer uptake and proliferation (3H-thymidine (TdR) accumulation) in vitro. U87 and U87R (TMZ-resistant subculture) cells were inoculated into the right and left basal ganglia, respectively, of F344/N-rnu rats. The efficacy of single-agent (TMZ, Bev) and combination therapy (TMZ/IFN, TMZ/Bev, TMZ/IFN/Bev) was examined in orthotopic gliomas using MRI, Evans blue extravasation, anti-14C-FACBC, and 3H-Met autoradiography, and MIB-1 immunostaining. Results: TMZ treatment decreased 3H-TdR accumulation and the volume distribution of anti-14C-FACBC and 3H-Met in U87 but not U87R cells. TMZ/IFN combination therapy significantly decreased these parameters in U87R cells; however, Bev had no additional effect in vitro. In vivo, U87R-derived gliomas were observed as equivocal tumors on MRI and T2-high intensity lesions. Bev treatment, either alone or in combination, markedly decreased U87 enhancing lesions. By contrast, autoradiographic images using anti-14C-FACBC and 3H-Met clearly delineated tumor extent, which spread widely beyond T2-high intensity lesions and enhancing lesions. TMZ therapy significantly decreased tracer accumulation and proliferation of U87- but not U87R-derived tumors. TMZ/IFN combination treatment significantly decreased these parameters in U87R tumors, which were further reduced (in both tumor types) by Bev addition

  2. Short-term prolactin administration causes expressible galactorrhea but does not affect bone turnover: pilot data for a new lactation agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Patricia C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medications used to augment lactation increase prolactin secretion but can have intolerable side effects. We examined the biological activity of recombinant human prolactin (r-hPRL as preliminary data for its use to augment lactation. Methods Healthy, non-postpartum women (n = 21 with regular menstrual cycles underwent a seven day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of r-hPRL. Expressible galactorrhea, markers of bone turnover, calcium homeostasis and gonadal function were measured and side effects recorded. Results Prolactin levels increased during r-hPRL administration (20.0 ± 2.8 to 231.7 ± 48.9 μg/L at 6 hours; p Conclusion In summary, r-hPRL can cause expressible galactorrhea. Seven days of r-hPRL administration does not adversely affect bone turnover or menstrual cyclicity. Thus, r-hPRL may be a viable option for short-term lactation augmentation. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00438490

  3. Immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506: a novel class of topical agents for treatment of skin diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meingassner, J G; Stütz, A

    1992-06-01

    The immunosuppressive macrolide antibiotics FK 506 and rapamycin were tested for topical activity in experimental allergic contact dermatitis of farm pigs. This species was used because pig skin, in comparison to rodent skin, resembles human skin more closely. For comparison, cyclosporine A (CyA), which is orally but not topically active in patients with skin disease, dexamethasone, and clobetasol propionate were used. Treatment was performed twice, 30 min and 6 h after elicitation of challenge reaction. Topical application of 0.4 to 0.04% FK 506 caused a pronounced inhibition of inflammatory skin reactions of hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. The treatment response was similar to the activity of 0.13% clobetasole. Dexamethasone (1.2%) was less active than clobetasol. In contrast, rapamycin and CyA were inactive at concentrations of 1.2 and 10%, respectively. Because the pig data on corticosteroids and cyclosporine A are in agreement with clinical findings, these studies indicate that immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506 may be useful drugs for the topical treatment of human skin diseases that respond to local corticosteroids and oral treatment with cyclosporine A.

  4. 75 FR 11189 - Expanded Access to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... with decompensated cirrhosis and in patients undergoing liver transplant. One option for these patients...) (74 FR 40900, August 13, 2009). Under these regulations, a treatment IND, which permits patients... with the greatest risk of progression of liver disease and/or the lowest predicted virologic...

  5. Higher Decorin Levels in Bone Marrow Plasma Are Associated with Superior Treatment Response to Novel Agent-Based Induction in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Myeloma - A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yi Huang

    Full Text Available The growth of myeloma cells depends on bone marrow (BM stroma consisting of stromal cells, secreted cytokines and the extracellular matrix (ECM. Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan in the ECM, is a signaling ligand and native anti-tumor agent. However, the role of decorin in patients with myeloma is not clear. We evaluated the correlation between the decorin levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in BM plasma from 121 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma based on their clinical features and treatment response. The median decorin levels in the patients and the normal control group were 12.31 ng/mL [standard deviation (SD, 7.50 ng/mL; range, 2.45 to 44.46 ng/mL] and 10.31 ng/mL (SD, 2.42 ng/mL; range, 4.85-15.14 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001. Using 15.15 ng/mL as a cut-off, 46 patients (38% exhibited higher decorin levels (H-DCN, whereas the other patients exhibited normal to lower decorin levels (NL-DCN. Except for the median age, which was significantly younger in the H-DCN than in the NL-DCN group (60.6 ± 14.0 vs. 65.8 ± 12.2 years, respectively; P = 0.034, there were no differences between the two groups. However, in 79 patients who had received novel agent-based induction, the overall response rate was significantly better in the H-DCN than in the NL-DCN (97 vs. 63%, respectively; P < 0.001, as was the depth of responses (P = 0.008, which were not observed in those who had received chemotherapeutic agents alone. Progression-free survival (PFS was significantly longer in H-DCN than NL-DCN (not reached vs. 19.5 mo, respectively; P = 0.0003. Multivariate analyses indicated that H-DCN, as a significantly independent factor, was associated with better treatment response (odds ratio, 20.014; 95% CI, 2.187-183.150; P = 0.008 and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.135; 95% CI, 0.051-0.361; P < 0.001. These findings disclose the potential role of decorin in myeloma and provide a basis for further study on possible synergistic anti

  6. The treatment of advanced stage favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a preliminary report of a randomized trial comparing single agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy, and whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1975 and 1978, 51 patients with favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, pathologic stage III-IV, were treated prospectively on a randomized treatment protocol. Treatment options were single alkylating agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP), or fractionated whole body irradiation followed by low dose involved field irradiation. The median follow-up interval in this group of patients is not 41 mo. Actuarial survival is excellent, 84% at 4 yr for the entire group, with similar survival observed for each of the three treatment options. Initial complete remission rates (64%, 88%, and 71%) were not significantly different in the three treatment arms. Frequent relapse after initial remission induction was noted, however, with a freedom from relapse at 4 yr of only 25%. The toxicities of the three therapies were acceptable. Acute complications of therapy were most numerous in the group of patients treated with CVP; however, long-term hematologic depression was most commonly observed in patients treated with whole body irradiation. In general, hematologic complications were more frequent among patients who had marrow involvement and intact spleens at the time of initial therapy. The relationship of this study to other clinical trials in the management of patients with advanced stage favorable histology lymphomas and its implications for future clinical trials are discussed

  7. Topical agents for hair growth promotion: what is out there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsaldeen, Omar S; Al Mubki, Thamer; Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-06-01

    Hair loss is a widespread complaint that carries a significant psychosocial burden for affected individuals. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the predominant cause of hair loss seen in the dermatology clinic. Although a range of therapies are available, minoxidil remains the only approved topical treatment for AGA. Promising new topical agents are under current investigation. PMID:24310642

  8. Farmer to Pharmacist: Curcumin as an Anti-invasive and Antimetastatic Agent for the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish eBandyopadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A huge number of compounds are widely distributed in nature and many of these possess medicinal/biological/pharmacological activity. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizomes (underground stems of Curcuma longa Linn (a member of the ginger family, commonly known as turmeric is a culinary spice and therapeutic used in India for thousands of years to induce color and flavor in food as well as to treat a wide array of diseases. The origin of turmeric as spice and folklore medicine is so old that it is lost in legend. Curcumin has many beneficial pharmacological effects which includes, but are not limited with, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antiangiogenic, and antidiabetic activities. Most importantly curcumin possesses immense antitumorigenic effect. It prevents tumor invasion and metastasis in a number of animal models, including models of lung, liver, stomach, colon, breast, esophageal cancer etc. Invasion and metastasis are considered as one of the hallmarks in cancer biology. The pertinent recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Curcumin has also demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in clinical trials.

  9. Farmer to Pharmacist: Curcumin as an Anti-invasive and Antimetastatic Agent for the Treatment of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-12-01

    A huge number of compounds are widely distributed in nature and many of these possess medicinal/biological/pharmacological activity. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizomes (underground stems) of Curcuma longa Linn (a member of the ginger family, commonly known as turmeric) is a culinary spice and therapeutic used in India for thousands of years to induce color and flavor in food as well as to treat a wide array of diseases. The origin of turmeric as spice and folklore medicine is so old that it is lost in legend. Curcumin has many beneficial pharmacological effects which includes, but are not limited with, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antiangiogenic, and antidiabetic activities. Most importantly curcumin possesses immense antitumorigenic effect. It prevents tumor invasion and metastasis in a number of animal models, including models of lung, liver, stomach, colon, breast, esophageal cancer etc. Invasion and metastasis are considered as one of the hallmarks in cancer biology. The pertinent recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Curcumin has also demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in clinical trials.

  10. Farmer to pharmacist: curcumin as an anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent for the treatment of cancer1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    A huge number of compounds are widely distributed in nature and many of these possess medicinal/biological/pharmacological activity. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizomes (underground stems) of Curcuma longa Linn (a member of the ginger family, commonly known as turmeric) is a culinary spice and therapeutic used in India for thousands of years to induce color and flavor in food as well as to treat a wide array of diseases. The origin of turmeric as spice and folklore medicine is so old that it is lost in legend. Curcumin has many beneficial pharmacological effects which includes, but are not limited with, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antiangiogenic, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and antidiabetic activities. Most importantly curcumin possesses immense antitumorigenic effect. It prevents tumor invasion and metastasis in a number of animal models, including models of lung, liver, stomach, colon, breast, esophageal cancer etc. Invasion and metastasis are considered as one of the hallmarks in cancer biology. The pertinent recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Curcumin has also demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in clinical trials. PMID:25566531

  11. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  12. Potential Activity of Basil Plants as a Source of Antioxidants and Anticancer Agents as Affected by Organic and Bio-organic Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Anwar Aly TAIE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among species and herbal crops for phenolic compounds, essential oils which are associated with decreasing risks of cancer and aging diseases. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential activity of phenolic, flavonoids and essential oil of basil as antioxidant and anticancer activities by application organic and bio-organic fertilization. A pot experiment was conducted. Basil seeds were grown, with three levels of organic fertilizers (compost in presence or absence of biofertilizer. Growth parameters, pigments content, total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of methanolic plant extract were examined. Application of 50% compost and 50% sand in the presence of biofertilizer resulted in enhancement fresh and dry weights, total phenolics, total flavonoids and pigment content as compared with compost alone. The constituents of essential oils extracted by hydrodistilation of basil leaves were identified by GLC. Eleven components of essential oils were identified. The highest value of antioxidant and anticancer activities were obtained in basil plants grown in 50% and 75% compost treatments in the presence of biofertilizer. These results emphasized the important of bioorganic fertilizers for enhancement the antioxidant activity of phenolics, flavonoids, and essential oils of basil plant extract.

  13. Physical consequences of surgery for breast cancer in the affected upper limb and proposal of preventive physiotherapeutic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is a malignant growth that begins in breast tissue. The incidence rate in Costa Rica, for 2003, was 40.07 per 100,000 inhabitants (Registro Nacional de Tumores, 2007). The most used treatment for this pathology has been the surgery, has many variations; however, in Costa Rica the modified radical mastectomy and quadrantectomy (conservative surgery) are the most performed. Along with this, other treatments are practiced such as: hormonal therapy, radiation and chemotherapy. The physical consequences of such treatments are: lymphedema, decreased mobility of the shoulder joint on the side of surgery and postoperative pain. The consequences have represented an important change for people that live, because they will have limitations in activities of their daily lives. These can be treated, reduced and even avoided, through a program of physical therapy with techniques and exercises. Costa Rica lacks a prevention program, interdisciplinary and postoperative rehabilitation for people with breast surgery. Therefore, the creation of a proposal of physiotherapeutic intervention based on scientific criteria would be an instrument of great importance. The main objective of this transversal, descriptive and analytic study has been to examine the physical consequences of breast cancer surgery in the affected upper limb. A proposal of physiotherapeutic intervention was designed for the prevention of that physical consequences and possible treatments, from the literature review and valuing people post-breast surgery. In total 27 women were assessed post breast surgery (20 mastectomy and 7 with quadrantectomy), whose time post surgery was located at the range of 1 day -12 months (21 people), more than 12 months (6 people). The selection criteria were: unilateral breast surgery, radical type modified or quadrantectomy; located in the ranges of 35-59 years (19 people) and 60-85 years (8 people); no injuries previous in the upper limb the side of the surgery; with or

  14. Injectable Poly-l-Lactic Acid: A Novel Sculpting Agent for the Treatment of Dermal Fat Atrophy After Severe Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Sadove, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, ...

  15. Remediation of polluted soil by a two-stage treatment system: desorption of phenanthrene in soil and electrochemical treatment to recover the extraction agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Alcántara, M T; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2010-01-15

    In this study, the feasibility of a two-stage treatment process for the remediation of soil contaminated with phenanthrene as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) has been assessed at laboratory scale. The initial stage of the process involved contacting contaminated soil with a solution of Tween 80 to enhance the desorption of phenanthrene from soil. In order to simulate a flushing process this initial stage was carried out in a washing packed-bed soil column. At the optimised conditions the total phenanthrene removal attained a value of almost 65% after 3 days. The second stage of the suggested treatment involved regeneration of the washing solution via phenanthrene degradation. The use of an electrochemical treatment was proposed for surfactant recovery and degradation of contaminants present in the solution collected. This oxidation was accomplished via an electrochemical cell by using graphite as electrode material. The phenanthrene was almost totally degraded in 3 days, reaching a degradation of about 96%. In addition, a test in which this regenerated solution was employed in the washing process was carried out in shake flask and washing column. The results demonstrate that selective degradation of pollutants by electrochemical treatment is potentially effective in reusing surfactant in another polluted soil treatment. PMID:19758751

  16. Treatment of paraffin problems in petroleum production with chemicals; Tratamento de problemas parafinicos com agentes quimicos na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; Yin, Ralph; Weispfennig, Klaus; Newberry, Mike [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Paraffin problems can greatly reduce production of certain crude oils, if correct methods to control the problems are not used. These problems are primarily related to flow line deposition and reduction in crude oil flow properties caused by wax network growth. Deep water production and production of high-wax content crude oils can be especially problematic. Much of the petroleum production in Brazil falls in these categories: in the Campos Basin and in Bahia. Paraffin problems can be controlled with diverse methods. These methods include use of: pigging, insulation, heating, and chemicals. Sometimes, the use of chemicals can be very practical, alone or in combination with other methods. This paper discusses the use of chemicals for the treatment of paraffin problems. Three types of treatments are discussed: prevention of deposition in flow lines with paraffin inhibitors; improvement in flow properties of crude oils with pour point depressants, and removal of paraffin deposits with dispersants. The discussion includes the physical effects of the treatment chemicals and field examples. (author)

  17. Patients’ and rheumatologists’ preferences for the attributes of biological agents used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla, Joan M; Rodríguez, Manuel; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Raya, Enrique; Ibero, Isabel; Nocea, Gonzalo; Aragon, Belén; Lizán, Luis; Prades, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define importance values assigned to attributes of biological agents (BAs) by Spanish patients with rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis) and rheumatologists. Patients and methods This was an observational, cross-sectional design based upon a rank-based full-profile conjoint analysis. A literature review and four focus groups were undertaken to identify attributes and levels. An orthogonal matrix, combining the selected levels of attributes, was used to define scenarios. Participants ranked eight scenarios from 1 (most preferred) to 8 (least preferred). The relative importance (RI) of attributes was calculated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics that influenced the values of RI. A total of 488 patients (male 50.9%, mean age 50.6 [standard deviation {SD} 12.06] years, rheumatoid arthritis 33.8%, ankylosing spondylitis 32.4%, psoriatic arthritis 33.8%; mean time since diagnosis 12.6 [SD 8.2] years) and 136 rheumatologists (male 50.4%, mean age 46.4 [SD 9.1] years, mean time of practice 16.7 [SD 8.8] years) participated. Results The ideal BAs for patients and physicians, respectively, should allow pain relief and improvement of functional capacity (RI 39% and 44.7%), with low risk of adverse events (RI 24.9% and 30.5%), a long time prior to perceiving the need for a new dose (RI 16.4% and 12.4%), and self-administration at home (RI 19.7% and 12.5%), as identified through their preferences. Conclusion Although efficacy and safety are paramount for patients and rheumatologists to make a choice regarding BAs, the need for a low frequency of administration and the administration method also play a role as preference attributes for BAs. PMID:27382258

  18. Profile of patients with rheumatic diseases undergoing treatment with anti-TNF agents in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS, Belo Horizonte - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliton Alves de Oliveira Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the functional status of a prospective cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases assisted by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. Data for 302 patients receiving tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (anti-TNF agents was collected through a standard form. Among patients, 229 (75.8% were female and 155 (51.3% were Caucasian; the mean age was 50.3 ± 12.8 years, and the mean disease duration was 9.9 ± 8.7 years. Among them 214 patients (70.9% received adalimumab, 72 (23.8% etanercept, and 16 (5.3% infliximab. Mean Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI was 1.37 ± 0.67 for all participants. Poor functional response was associated with female gender, married patients and with a score of < 0.6 on the EuroQoL-5 dimensions (EQ-5D. Significant correlation was found between the HAQ-DI values, disease activity and quality of life (QOL. The results obtained in this study contribute to a better understanding of the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with rheumatic diseases at the beginning of anti-TNF-agent treatment by SUS. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with another Brazilian and foreign cross-sectional investigations. This knowledge can be of great importance for further studies evaluating the effectiveness of biological agents, as well as, to contribute to improve the well-being of the patients with rheumatic diseases.

  19. APPLICATION OF LYSOZYME AND DEXTRAN CONJUGATED LYSOZYME AS NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL SKIN WOUND IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karachi , H. Rajaian , M. Aminlari M* and A. Tabatabaee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin wound infected by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a common and painful lesion. Tetracycline is commonly used as the antibiotic of choice for its treatment. Aim: to determine the effectiveness of hen egg white lysozyme and dextran conjugated lysozyme in decreasing the bacterial count of experimentally induced skin wound infection in mice. Methods; Lysozyme was conjugated with dextran under mild Maillard reaction conditions. Lysozyme and conjugated lysozyme were tested in vitro for their effectiveness against S. aureus and E. coli. Mouse model of skin wound infection was prepared in 6 group of mices (n=5 by 1cm × 1cm paravertebral laceration, extending to fascia created by scalpel. Five minutes after wounding, 10 µl culture media suspension containing 106 CFU⁄cm2 S. aureus was inoculated. Lysozyme and dextran conjugated lysozyme were applied as a 400µg/ml eucerin ointment base in treatment groups. Tetracycline was applied topically in the third group of mice.Results: Both Lysozyme and conjugated lysozyme exhibited in vitro antibacterial effect against S. aureus at 400µg/ml, but only the conjugated lysozyme was effective against E. coli. Results showed a 2, 2.1 and 3.5 log 106 CFU ⁄cm2 decrease in S. aureus count after 12 days in lysozyme, conjugated lysozyme and tetracycline treated mice, respectively.Conclusion: Although tetracycline appears to be more effective than lysozyme, due to increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance, application of natural antibacterials such as lysozyme and its derivatives is suggested in the treatment of infected skin lesions.

  20. Impaired sleep affects quality of life in children during maintenance treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspers Gertjan JL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase of pediatric cancer survival rates, late effects and quality of life (QoL have received more attention. Disturbed sleep in pediatric cancer is a common clinical observation, but research on this subject is sparse. In general, sleep problems can lead to significant morbidity and are associated with impaired QoL. Information on sleep is essential to develop interventions to improve QoL. Methods Children (2-18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL were eligible for this multi-center study. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ, Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0™ Acute Cancer Version (PedsQL were used to assess sleep and QoL halfway through maintenance therapy. Sleep and QoL were measured during and after dexamethasone treatment (on-dex and off-dex. Results Seventeen children participated (age 6.7 ± 3.3 years, 44% boys. Children with ALL had more sleep problems and a lower QoL compared to the norm. There were no differences on-dex and off-dex. Pain (r = -0.6; p = 0.029 and worry (r = -0.5; p = 0.034 showed a moderate negative association with sleep. Reduced overall QoL was moderately associated with impaired overall sleep (r = -0.6; p = 0.014 and more problems with sleep anxiety (r = -0.8; p = 0.003, sleep onset delay (r = -0.5; p = 0.037, daytime sleepiness (r = -0.5; p = 0.044 and night wakenings (r = -0.6; p = 0.017. Conclusion QoL is impaired in children during cancer treatment. The results of this study suggest that impaired sleep may be a contributing determinant. Consequently, enhanced counseling and treatment of sleep problems might improve QoL. It is important to conduct more extensive studies to confirm these findings and provide more detailed information on the relationship between sleep and QoL, and on factors affecting sleep in pediatric ALL and in children with cancer in general.

  1. New and Emerging Agents for the Treatment of Hemophilia: Focus on Extended Half-Life Recombinant Clotting Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked disorders caused by deficient or defective clotting factor VIII (FVIII) or IX factor (FIX) proteins, and characterized by spontaneous or traumatic bleeding into joints and muscles. Previous use of plasma and plasma-derived clotting factors that lacked appropriate viral inactivation steps in manufacturing led to significant morbidity associated with transfusion-transmitted HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The development of recombinant proteins revolutionized their treatment, and, with no new HIV or HCV infection via clotting proteins for nearly 30 years, greatly improved their lifespan, which now approaches that of the general population, and with the same risks for aging complications. Novel long-acting factor proteins are being licensed to extend FVIII and FIX half-life, thereby reducing infusion frequency and potentially bleed frequency and associated morbidity. Further, novel therapeutics which take advantage of new technologies, including siRNA, monoclonal antibody, and small peptide inhibition technologies, have the potential to simplify treatment and improve outcomes for those with inhibitors. PMID:26310188

  2. Examining substance use and affective processes as multivariate risk factors associated with overweight body mass among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Robles, Zuzuky; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and obesity are two major public health problems. However, factors related to the underlying risk for being overweight are not well established. Certain demographic, smoking, and psychological factors have been linked to overweight/obese body mass. The current study examined a multivariate risk model, stratified by gender, in order to better explicate the nature of overweight body mass among daily smokers. In a sample of treatment-seeking smokers (n = 395), among males and females, (1) older age, (2) stronger expectancies about the weight/appetite control effects of smoking, (3) greater smoking-based inflexibility/avoidance due to smoking-related sensations, and (4) less problematic alcohol use, were associated with being overweight. Additionally, among males, having a tobacco-related medical problem and higher tolerance for physical discomfort aided in the discriminant function model for classifying smokers as overweight. Together, numerous cognitive-affective vulnerabilities and smoking processes may be targetable and potentially inform weight-related prevention programs among smokers. PMID:25263545

  3. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  4. 涂饰-加脂双功能皮革处理剂的研究%Preparation of Finishing and Filling-fat Double Functional Leather Treatment Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安原初

    2000-01-01

    A double functional leather treatment agent,that has filling-fax and surface finishing. Con sists of quaternary cationics as main-emulsifier, mineral oil and chlorinated paraffin as oil solution,water-based polyurethane emulsion as finishing, penetrant accelerating and pH amendment.%采用季胺盐类阳离子表面活性剂为主乳化剂、非离子类表面活性剂为稳定剂、矿物油和氯化石蜡为油剂、水性聚氨酯乳液为涂饰剂,添加适量渗透促进剂、pH调节剂等进行复配,制备了集加脂、表面涂饰于一体的双功能皮革处理剂。

  5. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  6. Hepatoprotective agent tethered isoniazid for the treatment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity: Synthesis, biochemical and histopathological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of isoniazid–curcumin conjugate (INH–CRM in INH-induced hepatic injury by biochemical analysis and histology examination of liver in Wistar rats. The biochemical analysis included determination of the levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, albumin content, and lipid peroxidation (MDA. INH–CRM administration resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, TG, and MDA levels in the liver tissue homogenate with an elevation in albumin level indicating its hepatoprotective activity. Histology of the liver further confirmed the reduction in hepatic injury. The hepatoprotective with INH–CRM can be attributed to the antioxidant activity of curcumin. The conjugate probably stabilizes the curcumin molecule, preventing its presystemic metabolism thereby enhancing its bioavailability and therefore, its hepatoprotective activity. Thus, the novel INH–CRM has the potential to alleviate INH-induced liver toxicity in antitubercular treatment.

  7. Metal-based phthalocyanines as a potential photosensitizing agent in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduray, Kaminee; Odhav, B.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging medical treatment that uses photosensitizers (drug) which are activated by laser light for the generation of cytotoxic free radicals and singlet oxygen molecules that cause tumor cell death. In the recent years, there has been a focus on using and improving an industrial colorant termed phthalocyanines as a prospective photosensitizer because of its unique properties. This in vitro study investigated the photodynamic effect of indium (InPcCl) and iron (FePcCl) phthalocyanine chlorides on human skin cancer cells (melanoma). Experimentally, 2 x 104 cells/ml were seeded in 24-well tissue culture plates and allowed to attach overnight, after which cells were treated with different concentrations (2 μg/ml - 100 μg/ml) of InPcCl and FePcCl. After 2 h, cells were irradiated with constant light doses of 2.5 J/cm2, 4.5 J/cm2 and 8.5 J/cm2 delivered from a diode laser. Post-irradiated cells were incubated for 24 h before cell viability was measured using the MTT Assay. At 24 h after PDT, irradiation with a light dose of 2.5 J/cm2 for each photosensitizing concentration of InPcCl and FePcCl produced a significant decrease in cell viability, but when the treatment light dose was further increased to 4.5 J/cm2 and 8.5 J/cm2 the cell survival was less than 55% for photosensitizing concentrations of InPcCl and FePcCl from 4 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. This PDT study concludes that low concentrations on InPcCl and FePcCl activated with low level light doses can be used for the effective in vitro killing of melanoma cancer cells.

  8. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso; Maha Nasr; Omaima Sammour; Nabaweya A Abd El Gawad

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal inf...

  9. Efficacy of Second Generation Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Treatment Naive Hepatitis C Genotype 1: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanthima Suwanthawornkul

    Full Text Available The treatment of hepatitis C (HCV infections has significantly changed in the past few years due to the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs. DAAs could improve the sustained virological response compared to pegylated interferon with ribavirin (PR. However, there has been no evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs that directly compare the efficacy among the different regimens of DAAs.Therefore, we performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis aiming to compare the treatment efficacy between different DAA regimens for treatment naïve HCV genotype 1.Medline and Scopus were searched up to 25th May 2015. RCTs investigating the efficacy of second generation DAA regimens for treatment naïve HCV genotype 1 were eligible for the review. Due to the lower efficacy and more side effects of first generation DAAs, this review included only second generation DAAs approved by the US or EU Food and Drug Administration, that comprised of simeprevir (SMV, sofosbuvir (SOF, daclatasvir (DCV, ledipasvir (LDV, and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PrOD. Primary outcomes were sustained virological response at weeks 12 (SVR12 and 24 (SVR24 after the end of treatment and adverse drug events (i.e. serious adverse events, anemia, and fatigue. Efficacy of all treatment regimens were compared by applying a multivariate random effect meta-analysis. Incidence rates of SVR12 and SVR24, and adverse drug events of each treatment regimen were pooled using 'pmeta' command in STATA program.Overall, 869 studies were reviewed and 16 studies were eligible for this study. Compared with the PR regimen, SOF plus PR, SMV plus PR, and DVC plus PR regimens yielded significantly higher probability of having SVR24 with pooled risk ratios (RR of 1.98 (95% CI 1.24, 3.14, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.75, and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.46, respectively. Pooled incidence rates of SVR12 and SVR24 in all treatment regimens without PR, i.e. SOF plus LDV with

  10. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc

  11. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Smuin, D.R.; Korte, N.E.; Greene, D.W.; Pickering, D.A.; Lowe, K.S.; Strong-Gunderson, J.

    2000-08-01

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc.

  12. Elimination of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid by photo-Fenton process and enhanced treatment by coupling with electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocos, Elvira; Oturan, Nihal; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-10-01

    The removal of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid (DIA) from water was performed using photo-Fenton (PF) process. First, the effect of H2O2 dosage on mineralization efficiency was determined using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The system reached a maximum mineralization degree of 60 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 4 h with 20 mM initial H2O2 concentration while further concentration values led to a decrease in TOC abatement efficiency. Then, the effect of different concentrations of Fenton's reagents was studied for homogeneous Fenton process. Obtained results revealed that 0.25 mM Fe(3+) and 20 mM H2O2 were the best conditions, achieving 80 % TOC removal efficiency at 4 h treatment. Furthermore, heterogeneous PF treatment was developed using iron-activated carbon as catalyst. It was demonstrated that this catalyst is a promising option, reaching 67 % of TOC removal within 4 h treatment without formation of iron leachate in the medium. In addition, two strategies of enhancement for process efficiency are proposed: coupling of PF with electro-Fenton (EF) process in two ways: photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or PF followed by EF (PF-EF) treatments, achieving in both cases the complete mineralization of DIA solution within only 2 h. Finally, the Microtox tests revealed the formation of more toxic compounds than the initial DIA during PF process, while, it was possible to reach total mineralization by both proposed alternatives (PEF or PF-EF) and thus to remove the toxicity of DIA solution.

  13. Geno2pheno[HCV] – A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Sikorski, Anna Maria; Knops, Elena; Rupp, Daniel; Sierra, Saleta; Heger, Eva; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Beggel, Bastian; Walker, Andreas; Timm, Jörg; Walter, Hauke; Obermeier, Martin; Kaiser, Rolf; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs). RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV]) to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir), the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir), and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir). Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s), predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant, phenotypic

  14. Geno2pheno[HCV] - A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Sikorski, Anna Maria; Knops, Elena; Rupp, Daniel; Sierra, Saleta; Heger, Eva; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Beggel, Bastian; Walker, Andreas; Timm, Jörg; Walter, Hauke; Obermeier, Martin; Kaiser, Rolf; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs). RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV]) to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir), the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir), and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir). Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s), predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant, phenotypic

  15. Geno2pheno[HCV] - A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhav Kalaghatgi

    Full Text Available The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs. RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV] to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir, the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir, and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir. Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s, predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant

  16. Characterization of the Ni–Mo–Cr superalloy subjected to simulated heat-affected zone thermal cycle treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yanming, E-mail: heyanming@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Yang, Jianguo, E-mail: yangjg@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Qin, Chunjie [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Chen, Shuangjian [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The constitution of Ni–17Mo–7Cr alloy was convincingly ascertained by TEM analysis. • The Ni–17Mo–7Cr alloy was thermally cycled with a peak temperature up to 1350 °C. • The lamellar-like phases in the alloy were firstly determined by TEM and HRTEM. • The formation mechanism for the lamellar-like phases was unveiled rigorously. • Effect of lamellar-like phases on the alloy’s performances was evaluated in depth. - Abstract: A representative Ni–Mo–Cr superalloy with basic composition of Ni–17Mo–7Cr (wt.%) was fabricated in the work and the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties while it went through simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ) thermal cycle treatment was investigated. The results reveal that the Ni–Mo–Cr alloy mainly consisted of Ni matrix and MoC carbides. The critical peak temperature that a lamellar-like structure occurred in the alloy was found to be 1300 °C. These products were firstly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis, and they were essentially Ni matrix and carbides (MoC and chromium carbides) generated through local melting. The equivalent mechanical properties of the alloy relative to that of un-treated alloy were received owing to its unique architecture even the peak temperature during thermal cycle was up to 1350 °C. The results obtained suggests these lamellar-like products dispersed near the fusion line in a Ni–Mo–Cr welded joint will not influence the joint’s mechanical strength and stability while the peak temperature in the HAZ was adjusted below 1350 °C, providing valuable guideline in designing and applying the Ni–Mo–Cr system superalloys.

  17. Characterization of the Ni–Mo–Cr superalloy subjected to simulated heat-affected zone thermal cycle treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The constitution of Ni–17Mo–7Cr alloy was convincingly ascertained by TEM analysis. • The Ni–17Mo–7Cr alloy was thermally cycled with a peak temperature up to 1350 °C. • The lamellar-like phases in the alloy were firstly determined by TEM and HRTEM. • The formation mechanism for the lamellar-like phases was unveiled rigorously. • Effect of lamellar-like phases on the alloy’s performances was evaluated in depth. - Abstract: A representative Ni–Mo–Cr superalloy with basic composition of Ni–17Mo–7Cr (wt.%) was fabricated in the work and the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties while it went through simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ) thermal cycle treatment was investigated. The results reveal that the Ni–Mo–Cr alloy mainly consisted of Ni matrix and MoC carbides. The critical peak temperature that a lamellar-like structure occurred in the alloy was found to be 1300 °C. These products were firstly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis, and they were essentially Ni matrix and carbides (MoC and chromium carbides) generated through local melting. The equivalent mechanical properties of the alloy relative to that of un-treated alloy were received owing to its unique architecture even the peak temperature during thermal cycle was up to 1350 °C. The results obtained suggests these lamellar-like products dispersed near the fusion line in a Ni–Mo–Cr welded joint will not influence the joint’s mechanical strength and stability while the peak temperature in the HAZ was adjusted below 1350 °C, providing valuable guideline in designing and applying the Ni–Mo–Cr system superalloys

  18. [Bipolar affective disorders and role of intraneuronal calcium. Therapeutic effects of the treatment with lithium salts and/or calcium antagonist in patients with rapid polar inversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, V

    1991-11-01

    Treatment with lithium salts produces improvements in bipolar affective disorders. Up to date, the relationship between neurochemical and behavioural effects of lithium and its actions on intraneuronal free calcium ions is not well known. Some calcium antagonist drugs resulted active in the treatment of bipolar affective syndromes, with therapeutic effects similar to lithium salts. Some studies suggest that also lithium salts act as calcium antagonist at intraneuronal level. In this preliminary open study the activity of nimodipine, a selective neuronal calcium antagonist drug, was evaluated alone and in association with lithium salts in the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar manic-depressive illness. During three periods of 6 months 12 rapid cycling patients were treated with lithium salts, lithium salts plus nimodipine 30 mg x 3/day, nimodipine 30 mg x 3/day. The association of lithium with nimodipine resulted more effective than lithium alone or nimodipine alone in the reduction of episodes of affective disorder. These results suggest a probable sinergic activity of both treatments. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the mechanism of action, perhaps calcium antagonism, at the basis of therapeutic effects of both treatments. The results seem to confirm the hypothesis that a calcium-ionic disorders play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders.

  19. Research on reusing UF water treatment agent recipe in refinery%炼油回用UF水处理药剂配方的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜云

    2016-01-01

    根据炼油污水深度处理的回用UF水做为循环水补水的实际情况,通过大量的腐蚀、阻垢模拟试验,研究并筛选出高效的水处理药剂配方,使UF水对设备的缓腐蚀和阻垢效果明显,同时节约了水资源,保护了环境。%According to the status of reusing UF water from the oil refinery waste water treatment and the actual situation of circulating water replenishment,the recipe of effective water treatment agent was developed and screened out through a large number of corrosion and scale inhibition simulation tests,which made UF water have significant corrosion inhibition and scale inhibition effect on equipment,while saved water resource and protected the environment.

  20. The Effect of NIR Light and the Light-Activated Antimicrobial Agent on Wound Pathogenic Biofilms; Implication for Nonpharmacologic Chronic Wound Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Baggrund / Background Chronic infected wounds represent a significant cause of morbidity in developed countries and are estimated to affect 1-2 % of the population. In Denmark, 2–3% of the health care budget is used on wound treatment and the socioeconomic problem will keep growing worldwide due...... to the increase of lifestyle diseases, as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. The presence of bacterial biofilms is considered an important factor responsible for wounds chronicity. Therefore, this study investigates the efficacy of near-infrared (NIR) laser in vitro, in disrupting wound pathogenic...... present in chronic wounds....