WorldWideScience

Sample records for agent-based national radioactive

  1. Architectural considerations for agent-based national scale policy models : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-09-01

    The need to anticipate the consequences of policy decisions becomes ever more important as the magnitude of the potential consequences grows. The multiplicity of connections between the components of society and the economy makes intuitive assessments extremely unreliable. Agent-based modeling has the potential to be a powerful tool in modeling policy impacts. The direct mapping between agents and elements of society and the economy simplify the mapping of real world functions into the world of computation assessment. Our modeling initiative is motivated by the desire to facilitate informed public debate on alternative policies for how we, as a nation, provide healthcare to our population. We explore the implications of this motivation on the design and implementation of a model. We discuss the choice of an agent-based modeling approach and contrast it to micro-simulation and systems dynamics approaches.

  2. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  3. National radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article briefs out the strategic management of radioactive wastes in Malaysia. The criteria and methods discussed are those promoted by UTN (Nuclear Energy Unit) which has been given the authority to carry out local research programs in nuclear energy

  4. An Agent-based Manufacturing Management System for Production and Logistics within Cross-Company Regional and National Production Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal is the development of a simultaneous, dynamic, technological as well as logistical real-time planning and an organizational control of the production by the production units themselves, working in the production network under the use of Multi-Agent-Technology. The design of the multi-agent-based manufacturing management system, the models of the single agents, algorithms for the agent-based, decentralized dispatching of orders, strategies and data management concepts as well as their integration into the SCM, basing on the solution described, will be explained in the following.

  5. National policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every country should have some form of policy and strategy for managing its spent fuel and radioactive waste. Such policies and strategies are important; they set out the nationally agreed position and plans for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste and are visible evidence of the concern and intent of the government and the relevant national organisations to ensure that spent fuel and radioactive waste are properly taken care of in the country. There is a large diversity in the types and amounts of radioactive waste in the countries of the world and, as a result of this diversity, the strategies for implementing the policies may be different, although the main elements of policy are likely to be similar from country to country. In some countries, the national policy and strategy is well established and documented, while in others there is no explicit policy and strategy statement and, instead, it has to be inferred from the contents of the laws, regulations and guidelines. The present paper describes the work undertaken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) related to identifying the main elements of national policies for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, recognising that policies and strategies vary considerably depending on, among other things, the nature and scale of applications of radioactive material in a country. An indication is provided of what might be contained in national policies recognizing that national policy and strategy has to be decided at the national level taking into account national priorities and circumstances. The paper is concerned with the contents of policies and strategies and does not address the development of national laws, regulations and guidelines - although these are clearly related to the contents of the national policy and strategy. (author)

  6. National inventory of radioactive wastes; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.). 16 refs.

  7. National network of radioactivity measurement in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes the report of management for the year 2006 of the national network of measurement of radioactivity in environment, instituted by the article R.1333-11 of the Public Health code. According to the 5. of the decree of 27. june 2005, the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) has for mission to write every year a report of management of the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment. This report has for principal objectives: to do an evaluation on organisation and functioning of the piloting committee; to realize a synthesis on the different tasks lead by the working groups; as well as on the human and financial resources devoted to this project; to debrief on the development project of the national network information system. This report must allow to the network actors, as to the professional people and the public, to understand the functioning of the national network and the process implemented for the development of centralization, management and public diffusion tools, of the radioactivity data in environment. The year 2006 was marked by the opening of an Internet gate of the national network. (N.C.)

  8. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  9. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  10. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. In short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet gives a summary of the national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). Intended for public information, the booklet explains the basics of radioactive materials and wastes and waste management, and gives some data on present and future waste volumes, information about radioactive waste classification, the geographical distribution of waste sites in France, etc. The various types of radioactive wastes are described (classified by their lifetime and activity level) as well as historical storage sites, polluted areas where wastes are stored, radioactive objects, etc. and their respective management approaches are presented

  11. Radioactive waste management national policy and strategy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the use of sources of ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes are generated which require an adequate management in conditions of radiological safety and protection during all phases; from their generation to their final disposal, for protecting human health and the environment, both currently and in the future, without imposing undue burden upon the next generations. Therefore there was a need for the establishment of a National Policy and Strategy with regard to the management of the radioactive wastes generated, in a way such that allows long term considerations in conception and vision, having as a reference; the legal framework in force in Cuba, the IAEA's recommendations, as well as the diagnosis and assessment of the current and future situation in Cuba. This work deals with key issues for the safe management of the radioactive wastes such as; objectives and goals, responsibilities and role of the organizations involved in the management, possible management options for each type of radioactive waste generated in the country, manpower and funding for an adequate management, control over the generation of the radioactive wastes, and the need for availability of a facility for their final disposal, among other issues. The Policy and Strategy for the management of radioactive wastes will serve as a basis for the users/facilities, that generate and manage radioactive wastes, to draft their own strategies, and for the achievement of a harmonized level of radioactive wastes in the country. Furthermore, they would contribute to enhance the National Environmental Strategy implemented in Cuba. (author)

  12. Regulating Radioactive Waste Management at the National Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National and local governments design and enforce rules concerning the safe transport, treatment, storage, disposal, and classification of radioactive waste. These rules are intended to protect people and the environment, and to provide a legal and regulatory framework within which radioactive waste management can be planned and safely carried out. Radioactive waste regulations also cover “who” is responsible for “what” at each stage of the waste management process, and define the optimal decision making process over the different stages in the lifetime of the waste facility, including development, operation, and closure or decommissioning

  13. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). PMID:18442873

  14. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  15. National radioactive waste repository draft EIS. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Australians benefit either directly or indirectly from the medical, industrial and scientific use of radioactive materials. This use produces a small amount of radioactive waste, including low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive waste such as lightly contaminated soil, plastic, paper, laboratory equipment, smoke detectors, exit signs and gauges.This waste is temporarily stored at more than 100 urban and rural locations around Australia, much of it in buildings that were neither designed nor located for the long-term storage of radioactive material and that are nearing or have reached capacity. Storage locations include hospitals, research institutions, and industry and government stores. Storing such waste in many locations in non-purpose built facilities potentially poses greater risk to the environment and people than disposing of the material in a national, purpose-built repository where the material can be safely managed and monitored. The objectives of the national repository are to: 1. strengthen Australia's radioactive waste management arrangements by promoting the safe and environmentally sound management of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive waste 2. provide safe containment of these wastes until the radioactivity has decayed to background levels. To meet these objectives, it is proposed to construct a national near-surface repository at either the preferred site on the Woomera Prohibited Area (WPA) or either of the two nearby alternative sites. The facility is not intended for the disposal of radioactive ores from mining. A national store for long-lived intermediate level waste will not be co-located with the national repository, and would be subject to a separate environmental assessment process.One preferred and two alternative sites have been selected for the national repository, following an extensive site selection process. All three sites are located in northern South Australia in a region known as central

  16. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  17. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  18. Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent...

  19. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This educative booklet give a general overview of radioactivity: history, structure of matter, radiations, radioactivity law, origin of radioactivity, radioactivity uses, radioprotection and measurement units. (J.S.)

  20. National network of environment radioactivity measurements. Press kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document first presents the objectives, challenges, context, operation and actors of the French national network of environment radioactivity measurements. It discusses the reasons for these measurements, the way they are performed, who perform them and how they are transmitted to the national network. It describes the quality policy for these measurements, and how this network is at the service of authorities, experts and population. It outlines the originality of the French approach within the European Union, and how this network takes the population expectations and their evolution into account

  1. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  2. Swedish national plan for the management of all radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority has been assigned by the government to develop a national plan for the management of all radioactive waste. This report was presented to the government 30 June 2009. The report has been developed in coordination with representatives from other authorities, trade and industry organizations, operators and other parties interested, forming a joint action group. The action proposals in this report are focused on bringing waste management outside the nuclear field, where requirements are essentially regulated by the Act on Radiation Protection, to a level comparable with the management of nuclear waste (including the management of spent nuclear fuel). The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority believes that the objective of the national waste plan is that Sweden, by 2020, will have a comprehensive waste management system whereby all types of radioactive waste will be disposed of in a safe manner. The plan will make it easier to ensure that waste sub-systems for nuclear and non-nuclear waste - which could otherwise easily be regarded as being separated from each other - do not need to be distinguished to any great extent. To ensure continuity in the work in the future, with regard to the follow-up of plans for all radioactive waste, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority propose that the national waste plan is updated every three years. The plan can then function as the strategy document or the action plan it is intended to be, ensuring that the focus remains on the various problems associated with waste management at different times, so that the set objective can be reached by 2020. A survey was carried out to identify the problems and shortcomings that were found in the waste-management system and what measures are required to resolve them within the near future. The joint action group has contributed by describing various problems as well as by offering points of view on the action proposals which the Swedish Radiation Safety

  3. Institutional collaboration for the development of the first national radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The national radioactive waste inventory represents a public record of information on radioactive waste stored or disposed in waste management facilities, according to the waste classification scheme(s). The goal is to provide, in an open and transparent manner, a comprehensive and up-to-date assay (e.g. sources, amounts and waste characterization) for those interested in radioactive waste issues. It will enable Romania to meet international reporting obligations and to develop strategic plans for the management of radioactive waste. This paper presents the software application for the national radioactive waste inventory and the planned collaboration for the development of first national radioactive waste inventory for Romania. (authors)

  4. The national approach to radioactive waste management: the Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is tasked, among others, with the legally-mandated twin function of advancing and regulating the beneficial uses of nuclear energy and radiation technology. The PNRI is also responsible, among others, for the safe management of radioactive wastes generated by all licensed users of radioisotopes, including about 100 medical and industrial users. This papers describes the efforts taken by the PNRI, with technical assistance provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency to establish a low level radioactive waste management facility in the country and the subsequent upgrading of its waste management infrastructure. The conceptual approach and sebsequent implementation of the work programme is presented. Problems attendant to these efforts are briefly outlined including treatment methodologies for specific wastes. The commissioning and operational experiences using a batch type chemical precipitation plant appropriate for the volume of liquid wastes generated in the country is also presented. Data on radioactive waste arisings from 1980 are also presented including anticipated or projected wastes arisings should the repair of the PRR-1 (Philippine Research Reactor-1) research reactor be completed. The government initiatives towards the organizational development of a centralized waste management facility for low level wastes are also discussed. The formulation and adoption of a waste acceptance criteria and the R and D activities on various treatment procedures are also described. The current activities of the PNRI, as the lead agency in two important areas, one of which is in radioactive waste management, will be reported. National, regional and international cooperation in radioactive waste management will also be presented

  5. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  6. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  7. National audit of radioactivity measurements in Nuclear Medicine Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine activity measurements of radiopharmaceutical solutions in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) are carried out with the help of radionuclide calibrators (RC). These solutions are either ingested or injected to the patient for diagnosis or therapy. However, for the realization of an optimized examination, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined accurately before administering it to patients. The primary standards are maintained by Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division. National audit programmes of Iodine -131 activity measurements with RCs are conducted biannually to establish traceability to national standards and to check the status of nuclear medicine practice followed at the NMC. The results of fifteenth audit of 131I activity measurements with RC are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to two hundred and thirty three NMCs in-the country. One hundred and nine NMC's agreed for participation and accordingly, glass vials containing radioactive 131I solution of nominal activity of 100 MBq were procured from Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with high pressure re-entrant gamma ionisation chamber (GIC), a secondary standard maintained by this laboratory. The sensitivity coefficient of GIC is traceable to the primary standard. The standardized radioactive solution of 131I in glass vial was sent to each participant. Measurements results were reported in the reporting form sent. This audit was conducted in four schedules in Jan 2013. One hundred and sixty six results were received from one hundred and nine participants as many participants took measurements on more than one isotope calibrator

  8. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  9. National policy for control of radioactive sources and radioactive waste from non-power applications in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national policy for control of radioactive sources and radioactive waste from non-power applications is discussed in the paper. The Radiation Protection Centre is the regulatory authority responsible for the radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources from the beginning of their 'life cycle', when they are imported, used, transported and placed as disused into the radioactive waste storage facilities. For the proper implementation of this task, an authorisation system and appropriate radiation protection infrastructure was established in Lithuania. It allows for the control of activities with radioactive sources and radioactive waste in an effective manner. (author)

  10. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  11. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    vehicle can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic......When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail of...... the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each...

  12. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the...... beginning of the project were not previously considered. We define a special inseparable cost function and develop a solution complex capable of using this cost function. In relation to calibration and estimation of statistical models used for dynamic route guidance we worked with generating random number...

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes as a overall national task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final disposal of radioactive wastes is a problem that needs to be solved in overall national responsibility. It mustn't be delayed for forthcoming generations. For the Konrad repository the planning approval notice was given on 22.05.07 and it was appealed. The exploration in Gorleben is stopped since October 2000. This is a factual moratorium. It is the political aim of the Federal Government to search for a single repository for all radioactive wastes at the expense of the nuclear enterprises. A draft will be presented already announced for autumn 2004. The Bundesrat opposes the single-repository-aim. The majority of the Federal States calls for the fast commissioning of ''Schacht Konrad'' for wastes of negligible heat emission and the further exploration of Gorleben salt mine. Lower Saxony argues that Gorleben should be opened additionally to research and to the interested public to raise acceptance. To balance the special burdens of the repositories a new agreement between Federal Government, Federal States and industry is to be made that meliorates sustainably the infrastructure of the affected locations

  14. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. Broad in scope and balanced in approach, its coverage extends from technological and organizational questions to political ramifications...the environmental impact of building repositories...and even dealing with Indian tribes affected by repository site selection and development. Emphasis is on workable strategies for implementing the National Waste Policy Act of 1982, including a mission plan for the program...a monitored retrievable storage proposal...and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the program. Nine appendicies are included. They furnish additional data on such topics as policymaking, history, and the system issues resolved in NWPA

  15. Progress on the national radioactive waste repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the Commonwealth Government commenced an Australia-wide search for a suitable site for the national radioactive waste repository for Australia's low level and short lived intermediate level waste. In 1998 the central north region of South Australia was chosen as the preferred area in which to undertake detailed site investigations. An intensive public consultation process was begun in the region in 1998, followed by a first stage of investigative drilling, which commenced in May 1999. Eleven sites have been drilled in the first stage, and the results will be assessed to select five sites for follow-up drilling. Of these, one preferred and two alternative sites will be chosen, and will be subject to environmental and safety assessment

  16. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  17. Report on the evaluation of the national plan on radioactive wastes and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes the evaluation of the first edition of the National Plan on radioactive wastes and materials management. It presents the definitive or temporary solutions for the radioactive wastes management, the national plan juridical framework defined by the laws of 1991 and 2006 and the first evaluation and perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  18. Establishing a national system for radioactive waste management. A publication within the RADWASS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Standard is intended to cover the requirements for establishing a national system for safe management of radioactive wastes especially, for solid, liquid and airborne radioactive waste resulting from the nuclear fuel cycle. The main text of the Safety Standard is organized as follows: (a) Section 2 sets out the main objective for radioactive waste management and the principle on which radioactive waste management policy and strategies should be based; (b) Section 3 presents the basic components of a national framework for radioactive waste management; (c) Section 4 outlines the responsibilities of the Member State, the regulatory body and the waste generators and operators of radioactive waste management facilities; and (d) Section 5 describes important features of radioactive waste management

  19. Agent-Based Simulation and Assessment of NAS Security and Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation proposed here is the use of agent-based modeling and simulation to evaluate the safety of the National Airspace under crisis operations and...

  20. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  1. National policy for control of radioactive sources and radioactive waste from non-power applications in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Law on Radiation Protection of the Republic of Lithuania (passed in 1999), the Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for the radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources from the beginning of their 'life cycle', when they are imported in, used, transported and placed as spent into the radioactive waste storage facilities. For the effective control of sources there is national authorization system (notification- registration-licensing) based on the international requirements and recommendations introduced, which also includes keeping and maintaining the Register of Sources, controlling and investigating events while illegally carrying on or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and performing the state radiation protection supervision and control of users of radioactive sources, controlling, within the limits of competence, the radioactive waste management activities in nuclear and non-nuclear power applications. According to the requirements set out in the Law on Radiation Protection and the Government Resolution 'On Establishment of the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers' (1999) and supplementary legal acts, all licence-holders conducting their activities with sources of ionizing radiation have to present all necessary data to the State Register after annual inventory of sources, after installation of new sources, after decommissioning of sources, after disposal of spent sources, after finishing the activities with the generators of ionizing radiation. The information to the Radiation Protection Centre has to be presented every week from the Customs Department of the Ministry of Finance about all sources of ionizing radiation imported to or exported from Lithuania and the information about the companies performed these

  2. Agent-Based Data Integration Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Faber

    2014-01-01

    Combining data from diverse, heterogeneous sources while facilitating a unified access to it is an important (albeit difficult) task. There are various possibilities of performing it. In this publication, we propose and describe an agent-based framework dedicated to acquiring and processing distributed, heterogeneous data collected from diverse sources (e.g., the Internet, external software, relational, and document databases). Using this multi-agent-based approach in the aspects of the gener...

  3. On Agent-Based Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, N. R.

    2000-01-01

    Agent-based computing represents an exciting new synthesis both for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more generally, Computer Science. It has the potential to significantly improve the theory and the practice of modeling, designing, and implementing computer systems. Yet, to date, there has been little systematic analysis of what makes the agent-based approach such an appealing and powerful computational model. Moreover, even less effort has been devoted to discussing the inherent disadvanta...

  4. National system for radioactive waste management in Lithuania and its harmonization with the European Union legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management philosophies and technologies are still emerging, and there is therefore a need to reorganize and improve the national system for radioactive waste management in Lithuania. Lithuania's Law on Radioactive Waste Management and the new regulations will be harmonized with the European Union legislation in this field, with the IAEA general principles and with the obligations of the Republic of Lithuania under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Different organizational and financial schemes available in the EU countries for radioactive waste management are described and analyzed. The most important aspects needed to establish the Lithuania's Radioactive Waste Management Agency and Fund are defined and developed. (author)

  5. National plan of radioactive wastes and matters 2007-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Plan aims to propose a global framework allowing the management of radioactive wastes, whatever the producers in order to control the safety and the choice of adapted disposal sites. The first part is devoted to the description of solutions of radioactive wastes management for existing or engaged wastes. The second part concerns radioactive materials of the nuclear industry which are not considered as wastes, but as recycling materials for future nuclear reactors. For instance, this part discusses the particular case of the depleted uranium. The third part examines the different channels of the long dated management. The last part brings together the all data and in particular problematic points which must be discussed and analyzed in a logic framework. Propositions and recommendations are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Radioactive waste: from national programmes to community cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major Community programme for the management and storage of radioactive waste was launched five years ago in the wake of twenty years of broadly based R and D activities in this sector. There was nothing wrong with the timing of the Community programme, however; it was simply that knowledge of the composition of radioactive waste had increased with the development of nuclear power. The need for action had become more imperative while at the same time availability of a large number of possible management systems was reflected in a tendency to postpone the taking of decisions. Close Community cooperation in this field ought to help us not only to optimize our choices but also to decide how far we should go; it ought, furthermore, to help us achieve a generally accepted consensus as far as the management of radioactive waste is concerned

  7. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  8. Evaluation of national cements for the conditioning of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary research studies carried out to implement the liquid radioactive waste conditioning by cementation are described. First of all, different kind of commercial cements in Peru are analyzed. In the first step, the analysis were made without using the radioactive material. The analyzed parameters were density, porosity, setting time and mechanical strength of a cement type called 'Atlas'. Samples of two geometries were used. One of them was a cylindrical sample (48mm diameter and 48mm height) and the another one was a prismatic sample (40x40x160mm). The results of the different kind of analysis are presented in this paper. (authors). 2 refs., 3 tabs

  9. National environmental radioactivity networks-1993; Reti nazionali si sorveglianza della radioattivita` ambientale in Italia-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M; Notaro, M.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U; Tommasi, R.

    1998-12-31

    This report contains the environmental radioactivity data collected in Italy during 1993, by the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The data contained in this report have been provided by the institutions participating in the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) is law-fully responsible for publishing the report. The results of the measurements of radioactivity, are generally reported by only one significant figure. An arithmetical average of a series of figures, some of which are preceded by the sign `less than` (<), is given with this sign only when the figures bearing < affect remarkably (more then 50%) the value resulting from the average. Reproduction of the data contained in this report is authorized, provided the source is acknowledged.

  10. National strategies in managing radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management in the Philippines is described. The paper traces the historical development of the program along with the development of nuclear energy in the country itself. Present strategies are described in response to the situation obtaining in the country. Lessons learned from the experience are also identified and some observations in resolving issues delaying problem are mentioned. (author)

  11. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  12. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables are presented of trends in annual emissions of radioactive gaseous effluents at sites of civil establishments in the U.K. Trends in the discharge to surface and coastal water sites in the U.K. and trends in the radioactivity of solid wastes dumped in the N.E. Atlantic and in the volume and activity level of wastes disposed at sites in the U.K. are presented. Tables of radioactivity in samples of fish and shellfish at selected sites are presented. Radioactivity from global fallout and the annual mean ratio of 90Sr to calcium, and concentrations of 137Cs in milk are given. Trends in estimated collective doses from the consumption of fish and shellfish in the U.K. and Europe are presented. (U.K.)

  13. National radioactive waste management agencies potential models for Central and Eastern European countries, Cassiopee management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing institutional arrangements for radioactive waste disposal organizations particular attentions paid to the relationships between - and the responsibilities of the State, the Regulator, Waste Producer, and the national Waste Management Organization. The IAEA provide guidance relating to the establishment of appropriate radioactive waste management structures. The model of the IAEA guidance on radioactive waste management infrastructure is sometimes referred to as the 'classical triangle' principle. The model separates the three roles of the Regulator, the Waste Producer and the Waste Disposer. Each has separate responsibilities and must exhibit independence from the other. However the triangle also has another dimension, in that the arrangements should be underpinned by from government policy on radioactive waste, on the basis of the guidance on responsibilities set out by the IAEA. Models of the institutional arrangements in the countries of the European Union (EU) typically follow the principles set out by the above. Since the break up of Soviet Union, economic and political changes in the Newly Independent States and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have, in turn, inspired changes in the management of nuclear power related activities including radioactive waste management, bringing them more in line with practices adopted in the UE. In 1993 the European Commission encouraged the creation of Cassiopee, a Consortium of EU national radioactive waste agencies comprising ANDRA (France), COVRA (The Netherlands), DBE (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), Nirex (UK), ONDRAF/ NIREX (Belgium). The consortium combines the individual members competence and capabilities and provides assistance and advice through the EU programmes to beneficiary countries in two main ways: Developing national radioactive waste management strategies; Advising on the implementation of projects. As such Cassiopee has undertaken two projects of direct relevance to the Bulgarian

  14. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  15. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1974. The analytical method for 131I in milk was improved to give a lower detection limit, and the gamma background survey now also includes a more specific measurement for 131I. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of gamma-spectrometric 131I and 90Sr analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of effluent releases which were well below the permissible levels. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear bomb tests are reported. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the fallout levels

  16. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1978. Results of gamma-spectrometic 131I and 0Sr analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results are also given of regular investigations of the composition of effluent releases which were below the permissible levels. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the fallout levels

  17. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  18. The international radioactive transportation regulations: A model for national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab

  19. For a national reference inventory of of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the second volume of the report concerning the mission of the ANDRA on the radioactive wastes inventory methodology. It presents the annexes of the mission management, the main channels of wastes production, the existing inventories, the foreign experiments, a first version of the specification of the inventories data management united system, the management system of reprocessing wastes for foreigner customers, order of magnitude, bibliography and glossary. (A.L.B.)

  20. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1981. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131I, 90Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are also presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear bomb tests are reported. Due to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. The α- and β-activities of a number of grass and soil samples collected around the NNRC have been measured and compared to the results of similar measurements performed in 1966. The results confirm that nuclear activities over the past 15 years did not result in measurable radioactive contamination of the environment

  1. Safety and security of radioactive sources in the Republic of Albania. National Report: Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Republic of Albania, practices involving radioactive sources are established in medicine, agriculture, industries, research and education. It is now a concern that radioactive sources can also be used in terrorist activities, if effective safety and security mechanisms are not well established. It is necessary to ensure safety and security from cradle to grave the use of the radioactive source. Adequate safety and security measures needed to put in place to prevent related malevolent acts. The paper describes safety and security of radioactive sources in Albania. Infrastructure for regulatory control, Training of regulatory staff and stakeholders, long-term management of radioactive sources, national strategies for gaining or regaining control over orphan sources, including arrangements for reporting loss of control and monitoring to detect orphan sources, international cooperation, experience with implementation of the import-export provisions of the Code and Guidance. (author)

  2. National Report of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands support both the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (CoC) and the IAEA Guidance on Export and Import of Radioactive Sources (Guidance). The content of both the CoC and Guidance is implemented in the Dutch legally framework. Like other European countries, the Netherlands is bound to and has implemented the various EURATOM directives and regulations in their national legislation and regulations. The self-assessment questionnaire of the Code of Conduct has not yet been sent back to the IAEA. Nevertheless the Netherlands has already started filling in this questionnaire and can in the mean time postulate that: 1. The legislation, regulations and authorizations specify the requirements for protections against exposure to ionizing radiation, the requirements for the safety and security of radioactive sources and provide for effective control of radioactive sources. 2. There are facilities and services available to the persons authorized to manage radioactive sources. These include emergency response services, personal dosimetry services, environmental monitoring services and calibration of radiation monitoring services. 3. All staff in the Regular Authorities, e.g. law enforcement agencies and emergency organizations, that need specific training to perform their duties are trained properly. 4. A national register of radioactive sources is available. The Netherlands considers to change to RAIS-software of the IAEA for its national register in future. 5. National strategies for gaining or regaining control over orphan sources, including arrangements for reporting loss of control over radioactive sources and for monitoring orphan sources are established. Plans to manage security events and cover malicious acts exist at a national level, the Netherlands defined a Design Basis Threat in relation to radioactive sources. 6. The options to manage sources at the end of their life cycles are established. 7. In the Netherlands

  3. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  4. Review of national research programmes on the microbiology of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published results on the microbial effects of relevance to radioactive waste disposal are reviewed. The subjects covered by each of the various national programmes are considered in turn and the important themes that emerge from these are summarised. Finally the relevance of this microbiological research to the Nirex Safety case is discussed in brief. All references to research papers that deal with microbial aspects of radioactive waste disposal are listed and the key publications identified. (author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an overview of the low-level radioactive waste management practices and treatment systems at Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E). It addresses the systems, processes, types of waste treated, and the status and performance of the systems. ANL-E is a Department of Energy laboratory that is engaged in a variety of research projects, some of which generate radioactive waste, in addition a significant amount of radioactive waste remains from previous projects and decontamination and decommissioning of facilities where this work was performed

  6. Evaluation of national strategies for regaining control over radioactive sources in the United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, almost every part of the world there is a global warning of terrorist. In this matter the safety and security of radioactive materials are very important. In Tanzania technologies that make use of radiation sources and radioactive material is growing day to day. Radioactive materials in the country are used in Agricultural, research establishments, biological and medical laboratories, industrial, universities, mining and medical centers. The safety record of the technologies and their application is good, but the security of radioactive materials has been an issue of concern. The first incidence of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials has been reported in 1996 and other more reported events in 2002. This paper intends to evaluate the national strategies for regaining control over radioactive sources in the country. The evaluation strategies involve regulatory framework; radioactive sources inventories; import/export of radioactive sources; management of disused sources; scrap metal monitoring. Others are search of orphan sources; illicit trafficking in country; USDOE and INNSErv mission and projects and activities Tanzania participating in IAEA. (author)

  7. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts

  8. Agent Based Image Segmentation Method : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Mishra; Navita Srivastava; Shukla, K. K.; Achintya Singlal

    2011-01-01

    Image segmentation is an important research area in computer vision and many segmentation methods have been proposed. This paper attempts to provide a brief overview of elemental segmentation techniques based on boundary or regional approaches. It focuses mainly on the agent based image segmentation techniques

  9. Agent Based Modelling for Social Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Ubink, E.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Langley, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This document is the result of an exploratory project looking into the status of, and opportunities for Agent Based Modelling (ABM) at TNO. The project focussed on ABM applications containing social interactions and human factors, which we termed ABM for social simulation (ABM4SS). During the course

  10. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1982. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartebeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131I, 90Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Due to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity due to releases from the Pelindaba site could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. Unplanned releases of UF6 occur sometimes. Accordingly, some of the environmental samples were also analysed for uranium. The results obtained so far do not indicate an increase in uranium levels in the environment

  11. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1977. The analytical method for 131l in milk was improved to give a lower detection limit, and the gamma background survey now also includes a more specific measurement for 131l. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131l, 0Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are also given of regular investigations of the composition of effluent releases which were well below the permissible levels. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the fallout levels

  12. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1979. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of gamma-spectrometric 131I and 0Sr analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb test are reported. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the fallout levels. Due to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen to below the limit of detection

  13. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1975. The analytical method for 131I in milk was improved to give a lower detection limit, and the gamma background survey now also includes a more specific measurement for 131I. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of gamma-spectrometric 131I and 0Sr analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of effluent releases which were well below the permissible levels. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the fallout levels

  14. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey programme, introduced during 1970, with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1985. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River are given and discussed. Results of 131I, 90Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Owing to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity due to releases from the Pelindaba site could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. Unplanned releases of UF6 sometimes occur. Accordingly, some of the environmental samples were also analysed for uranium. The results obtained so far do not indicate an increase in uranium levels in the environment

  15. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1976. The analytical method for 131I in milk was improvedaths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1976. The analytical method for 131I in milk was improved 131I. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of gamma-spectrometric 131I and 0Sr analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of effluent releases which were well below the permissible levels. Levels of deposits and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the fallout levels

  16. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1980. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131I, 0Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborn activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Due to the absence of fresh fallout, the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels

  17. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey programme, introduced during 1970, with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1984. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River are given and discussed. Results of 131I, 90Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Owing to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity due to releases from the Pelindaba site could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. Unplanned releases of UF6 sometimes occur. Accordingly, some of the environmental samples were also analysed for uranium. The results obtained so far do not indicate an increase in uranium levels in the environment

  18. National plan for the radioactive and recyclable wastes management of the national inventory of the radioactive and recyclable wastes to an account and a prospective outlook of the pathways of long dated management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction recalls the context of the development of the national plan of radioactive and recyclable wastes management (PNGDR-MV), its objectives and its position in the today studies on radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to the description of existing radioactive wastes management solutions, or engaged by today activities. The second part concerns the radioactive materials of the nuclear industry, which are not considered as wastes, but which can be recyclable because of their high energy potential as fuels for reactors of the future. The third part examines the pathways coherence. The last part is a synthesis of the evaluation, with more attention on the identifies problems. (A.L.B.)

  19. National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes 2013-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new release of the National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) first addresses the principles and objectives of this management: presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define the different management ways, legal and institutional framework for waste management, societal dimension and memory safeguarding, waste management cost and financing. It proposes an assessment and draws perspectives for the existing management practices: management of historical situations, management of residues of mine processing and mine tailings, management of radioactive wastes, waste management with respect to radioactive decay, valorization of radioactive wastes, incineration of radioactive wastes, storage of very-low-activity wastes, of storage of low- and medium-activity and short-life wastes, management of reinforced natural radioactivity wastes. The third part gives an overview of needs and perspectives for management methods: wastes requiring a specific processing, low-activity long-life wastes, and high-activity and medium-activity long-life wastes

  20. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  1. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  2. Strengthening the national infrastructure and regulatory framework for the safe management of radioactive waste in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Commission on Atomic Energy -Regulatory Authority is actively participating of the IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/055 Strengthening the National Infrastructure and Regulatory Framework for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste in Latin America. This Project has proved very helpful for the country because it allowed the creation of the Policy and National Strategy for the management of Radioactive waste, the National Standards regarding this management, the Exposure Control of the Public to Radioactive content in Food and Goods, the Exposure Control of the Public to Recycled Material. The above mentioned documents are all contemplated in this Project and they were recently elaborated through an IAEA Expert Mission in accordance with the work plan. These documents will then be derived to superior instances for their approval and subsequent implementation. The work plan contemplates also the training of the operators that will carry out the management as well as the training of the regulators for the Authorization of operation of a Central Transitory Warehouse that is already under construction and that will under the CNEA-DGICT-UNA direction. This Warehouse will allow us to centrally manage all sealed sources in disuse located in different points of the country. The main objective of the Policy and National Strategy is the establishment of the base line for the safe management of radioactive waste in the country as well as the establishment of the roles and responsibilities of the organizations and institutions involved in the management of radioactive waste. At the moment, the radioactive waste generated in the country are only sealed sources in disuse, coming from medical, industrial, research and teaching applications, and open sources (liquids and gases) coming from medical and research applications. They are all stored in their own facilities, under the regulatory control of CNEA-DGICT-UNA. (author)

  3. The French national inventory of radioactive waste. Elements of openness and responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article 13 of the Waste Act of 30 December 1991 calls for the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA) ''to register the condition and location of all radioactive waste on national territory''. The establishment of a national inventory of radioactive waste and the broad distribution of inventory report to ensure that it becomes a matter of public record constitute a new approach to public information and an effective means of fulfilling the responsibility of the present generation vis-a-vis posterity. The National Waste Register goes beyond the low level radioactive waste disposal facilities to encompass 'all' waste, wherever it may be, including waste in storage at sites where waste is produced. As a result, the Register is multi-faceted, containing information on a variety of elements, from highly radioactive waste to hospital waste collected by ANDRA and to repositories with very low level radioactive material. Information must be provided about all of these widely divergent components. ANDRA has already published two inventories, which demonstrates the durability of its new mission. The Register now contains the inventory of radioactive waste generated by some activities connected with the defence programme. Data collection for the Register involves contacting the generators of waste and working with these entities, whether they are nuclear industry companies, defence organizations, non-nuclear industries, or the 25 Regional Directorates of Industry, Research and Environment, the control institutions or the environmental protection organizations. The yearly exchange of information among all partners involved in radioactive waste management is one of the basic tools of ANDRA, allowing it to be recognized as open and responsible, and to be more credible, fulfilling in this way one of the essential criteria for acceptability. (author). 4 refs

  4. Agent Based Modeling in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman SEYHAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the role of agent based modeling (ABM as a simulation method in analyzing and formulating the policy making processes and modern public management that is under the pressure of information age and socio-politic demands of open societies. ABM is a simulative research method to understand complex adaptive systems (cas from the perspective of its constituent entities. In this study, by employing agent based computing and Netlogo language, twocase studies about organizational design and organizational riskanalyses have been examined. Results revealed that ABM is anefficient platform determining the optimum results from various scenarios in order to understand structures and processes about policy making in both organizational design and risk management. In the future, more researches are needed about understanding role of ABM on understanding and making decision on future of cas especially in conjunction with developments in computer technologies.

  5. Agent-Based Data Integration Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Faber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining data from diverse, heterogeneous sources while facilitating a unified access to it is an important (albeit difficult task. There are various possibilities of performing it. In this publication, we propose and describe an agent-based framework dedicated to acquiring and processing distributed, heterogeneous data collected from diverse sources (e.g., the Internet, external software, relational, and document databases. Using this multi-agent-based approach in the aspects of the general architecture (the organization and management of the framework, we create a proof-of-concept implementation. The approach is presented using a sample scenario in which the system is used to search for personal and professional profiles of scientists.

  6. Agent Based Patient Scheduling Using Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes about an agent based approach to patient scheduling using experience based learning. A heuristic algorithm is also used in the proposed framework. The evaluation on different learning techniques shows that the experience based learning (EBL gives better solution. The processing time decreases as the experience increases. The heuristic algorithm make use of EBL in calculating the processing time. The main objective of this patient scheduling system is to reduce the waiting time of patient in hospitals and to complete their treatment in minimum required time. The framework is implemented in JADE. In this approach the patients and resources are represented as patient agents (PA and resource agents (RA respectively. Even though mathematical model give optimal solution, the computational complexity increases for large size problems. Heuristic solution gives better solution for large size problems. The comparisons of the proposed framework with other scheduling rules shows that an agent based approach to patient scheduling using EBL is better.

  7. Agent Based Process Management Environment – Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Ah Kim; Seung Young Choi; Rhan Jung

    2007-01-01

    In this article, agent based process management model is proposed, which is for the process management of knowledge worker and service workers in order to establish the basis for the new knowledge management system. In this article, we applied several methods from 6-Sigma and personal software process for personal process definition, process execution and process measurement. This study attempts to improve the process execution accuracy through process visualisation and standardisation and to...

  8. Enhancing the Combat ID Agent Based Model

    OpenAIRE

    Spaans, M.; Petiet, P.J.; Dean, D; Jackson, J.; Bradley, W.; Shan, L. Y.; Ka-Yoon, W.; Yongwei, D.W.; Kai, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    During previous Project Albert and International data Farming Workshops (IDFW) and during discussions between Dstl and TNO, the suitability and feasibility of Agent Based Models (ABMs) to support research on Combat Identification (Combat ID) was examined. The objective of this research is to: Investigate the effect of (a large number of) different variations in Situational Awareness, Situation Awareness (SA), Target Identification (Target ID), Human Factors, and Tactics, Techniques, and Proce...

  9. Agent-Based Modeling in Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, J; Butler, J; Alden, K; Read, M; Kumar, V; Cucurull-Sanchez, L; Timmis, J; Coles, M

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) techniques provide a platform for knowledge integration and hypothesis testing to gain insights into biological systems that would not be possible a priori. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an M&S technique that focuses on describing individual components rather than homogenous populations. This tutorial introduces ABM to systems pharmacologists, using relevant case studies to highlight how ABM-specific strengths have yielded success in the area of preclinical mechanistic modeling. PMID:26783498

  10. Agent-based Models of Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Samanidou, E.; E. Zschischang; Stauffer, D.; Lux, T.

    2007-01-01

    This review deals with several microscopic (``agent-based'') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our sel...

  11. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  12. National environmental radiation monitoring program: towards formulating policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though Malaysia has no nuclear power station, but the management of its low level radioactive waste generated from industrial activities involves most of the same issues that must be considered in countries with nuclear power. These include public consultation at all stages, an open approach, high level scientific and engineering input and political decision by the Government. A carefully planned approach, which involves the public and gives time to build trust and confidence, is necessary for success. It is also pertinent to establish accurate and reliable data on environmental radiation to accurately assess possible risk. This is where a national monitoring program on environmental radiation is very important. While accurate data will help formulate sound policy on radioactive waste management, it should also be readily available to the public to gain support and acceptance. This paper presents arguments on the importance of a national monitoring program for environmental radiation as an input for formulating a policy on radioactive waste management in Malaysia. (Author)

  13. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  14. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  15. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given

  16. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  17. The latest from the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late in 1996 is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program is also given

  18. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given.

  19. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania is centralized at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). Final disposal is carried out at the National Repository of Radioactive Wastes (DNDR) at Baita Bihor. Radioactive waste treated at STDR arise from three main sources: 1. Wastes arising from the WWR-S research reactor during operation and the future decommissioning works; 2. Local waste from other facilities operating on IFIN-HH site. These sources include wastes generated during the normal activities of the STDR; 3. Wastes from IFIN-HH off site facilities and activities including medical, biological, and industrial applications all over the country. The Radiochemical Production Center, operating within IFIN-HH is the most important source of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid), as the operational wastes arising from processing at STDR are. The STDR basically consists of liquid and solid waste treatment and conditioning facilities, a radioactive decontamination centre, a laundry and an intermediate storage area. The processing system of the STDR are located at six principal areas performing the following activities: 1. Liquid effluent treatment; 2. Burning of combustible solid stuff; 3. Compaction of solid non-combustible stuff; 4. Cement conditioning; 5. Radioactive decontamination; 6. Laundry. The annual designed treatment capacity of the plant is 1500 m3 Low Level Aqueous Waste, 100 m3 Low Level Solid Waste and shielded drums for Intermediate Level Waste. The temporary storage within and final disposal of waste in the frame of DNDR are explained as well as the up-dating of institutional radioactive waste infrastructure

  20. The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management. 2010-2012 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short presentation, given by the nuclear safety authority (ASN) at the meeting of January 26, 2010 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the different stages of the elaboration of the new edition of the French national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (PNGMDR). The plan comprises 3 parts: the principles and objectives of the radioactive materials and wastes management, the status of existing procedures and of procedures still under development by the end of 2009, the improvements made. The topics concern: the interim storage, the long-term management and the global consistency of the plan. (J.S.)

  1. Ecology studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1977 a radioecological research program was initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex in the southcentral Idaho. The primary goals of the research are to: (1) determine floral and faunal composition in the area; (2) sample various ecosystem components for radionuclides; (3) determine impacts of small mammal burrowing and vegetation growth on movement of radioactive materials; (4) compare ambient radiation exposures to radiation doses received by animals inhabiting the area; and (5) understand the interrelationships between the organisms and their role in radionuclide transport

  2. French National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) - 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced with the high diversity of radioactive materials and waste, it may be difficult to grasp the relevance and consistency of the installed management framework. The purpose of the National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) is to clarify this management framework and improve it. To this end, it draws up an assessment of the management policy, evaluates the needs and determines the objectives to be attained in the future. The PNGMDR's usefulness was confirmed by Parliament. The evaluation report of the PNGMDR 2007-2009 by the Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options thus indicates that 'the interest of a summary document exposing all the problems and the solutions related to the management of radioactive waste was underlined a number of times by the Office. Since such a plan can allow achieving exhaustiveness and introducing a consistency in the management of radioactive waste, the Office deemed it necessary that it be linked to the law in one way or another. Conforming to the Office's recommendations, the Act of 28 June 2006 related to the sustainable management of radioactive waste stipulated that such a plan must be elaborated, updated every three years and published, extending its scope to reusable radioactive materials'. Thus, the PNGMDR provides the public with a global vision of the management of radioactive materials and waste, concerning both topics 'in the news' and those less publicised. Some waste, in fact, attracts momentarily particular attention, for example, on the occasion of a search for a disposal site, such as in 2008-2009, for so-called low level and long lived ('LL-LL') waste. The media also broadcast in 2008 and 2009 special enquiries on the management of mining residues and on reprocessed uranium; all these topics are discussed in detail in the PNGMDR. Other waste topics attract less attention, such as sealed radioactive sources, which are more dispersed throughout France

  3. The IAEA perspective on international and national radioactive waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, two significant developments have taken place relative to international and national information systems for radioactive waste management: (1) The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management came into force 2001.06.18. It establishes commonly shared safety objectives and sets out the specific obligations of Contracting Parties aimed at achieving those objectives. Adherence to these national obligations will be monitored through an international process of peer review by the other Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party must prepare a report on the measures taken to meet its obligations under the Joint Convention, which will be distributed for review by all Contracting Parties. In review meetings, each national report will be discussed along with the comments and questions from other Contracting Parties. (2) Agenda 21 resulted from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development that was held June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. The IAEA was assigned the responsibility to develop Indicators of Sustainable Development (ISD) for radioactive waste management. Among other issues, the ISD are to be developed according to the following criteria: primarily national in scale or scope; relevant to the objective of assessing progress towards sustainable development, and; dependent on data that are readily available or available at a reasonable cost to benefit ratio, adequately documented, of known quality and updated at regular intervals. (author)

  4. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania: 25 years of operation for radioactive waste treatment plant, Bucharest-Magurele, 15 years of operation for national radioactive repository, Baita-Bihor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes in Romania is centralized at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR) Bucharest-Magurele and the National Repository of Radioactive Waste (DNDR) Baita-Bihor. From November 1974 to November 1999 there were treated at STDR nearly 26,000 m3 LLAW, 2,100 m3 LLSW and 4,000 spent sources resulting over 5,500 conditioned packages disposed at DNDR. After 25 years of operation for STDR and 15 years of operation for DNDR an updating programme started in 1991. The R and D programme will improve the basic knowledge and waste management practices for the increasing of nuclear safety in the field. (authors)

  5. Multiscale agent-based consumer market modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, M. J.; Macal, C. M.; St. Aubin, J.; Thimmapuram, P.; Bragen, M.; Hahn, J.; Karr, J.; Brigham, N.; Lacy, M. E.; Hampton, D.; Decision and Information Sciences; Procter & Gamble Co.

    2010-05-01

    Consumer markets have been studied in great depth, and many techniques have been used to represent them. These have included regression-based models, logit models, and theoretical market-level models, such as the NBD-Dirichlet approach. Although many important contributions and insights have resulted from studies that relied on these models, there is still a need for a model that could more holistically represent the interdependencies of the decisions made by consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. When the need is for a model that could be used repeatedly over time to support decisions in an industrial setting, it is particularly critical. Although some existing methods can, in principle, represent such complex interdependencies, their capabilities might be outstripped if they had to be used for industrial applications, because of the details this type of modeling requires. However, a complementary method - agent-based modeling - shows promise for addressing these issues. Agent-based models use business-driven rules for individuals (e.g., individual consumer rules for buying items, individual retailer rules for stocking items, or individual firm rules for advertizing items) to determine holistic, system-level outcomes (e.g., to determine if brand X's market share is increasing). We applied agent-based modeling to develop a multi-scale consumer market model. We then conducted calibration, verification, and validation tests of this model. The model was successfully applied by Procter & Gamble to several challenging business problems. In these situations, it directly influenced managerial decision making and produced substantial cost savings.

  6. Agent-based modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Operational Research (OR) deals with the use of advanced analytical methods to support better decision-making. It is multidisciplinary with strong links to management science, decision science, computer science and many application areas such as engineering, manufacturing, commerce and healthcare. In the study of emergent behaviour in complex adaptive systems, Agent-based Modelling & Simulation (ABMS) is being used in many different domains such as healthcare, energy, evacuation, commerce, manufacturing and defense. This collection of articles presents a convenient introduction to ABMS with pa

  7. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  8. Intelligent agent based control of TL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agent based control of complex systems is becoming popular due to its ability to identify the critical situation and its ability to dynamically search for the best available solution to the problem with constrained optimization of the inputs. In this paper we are presenting the architecture of intelligent agent for automatic control of power supplies of TL-1 (Transfer Line 1) to maximise the injection process against the changes in the input beam obtained from Microtron. The paper discusses the results obtained by applying this agent architecture to the accelerator model comprises of Microtron output, TL-1 and booster. (author)

  9. A national radioactive waste management infrastructure - the must for embarking upon nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During more than half a century of using nuclear techniques and technologies huge amount of radioactive waste of all categories has been generated (in the order of tens of million m3). It has been generally agreed that the safest and most efficient way of managing those waste is their concentration, conditioning and disposal in designated facilities. This strategy has been implemented mostly in countries using advanced nuclear technologies (nuclear power). However, many countries have not reached this status; they are still in a pre-disposal phase of the whole cycle. Just recently, about 40 states revealed their plans for developing a disposal facility and about half of them also consider or even have initiated embarking on nuclear energy. Common problem of these countries is inadequate or even missing radioactive waste management infrastructure and, thus, capacity and capability to safely manage existing and future waste. The radioactive waste management infrastructure consists of several elements, in particular: legislative environment providing rules; allocation of responsibilities among regulators, waste generators and waste disposer; adequate financing scheme; and human capability and technological ability to manage waste. All these elements shall be best established through formulating/implementing a national policy in the area and strategies for managing particular RWM streams. The IAEA systematically supports such approach and requests that the infrastructure is introduced in all Member States. This is, among others, required by the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management (entered into force on 18 June 2001, 42 signatories). In their regular (biannual) reports the signatories shall deliver information about existing spent fuel and waste management policies and practices, infrastructure, responsibilities of involved institutions, inventories, existing facilities, etc., - all being infra

  10. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania: 25 years of operation of radioactive waste treatment plant, Bucharest-Magurele, 15 years of operation at national radioactive repository, Baita-Bihor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania is centralised at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). Final disposal is carried out at the National Repository of Radioactive Wastes (DNDR) at Baita-Bihor. Wastes containing short-lived radionuclides, which do not require any special treatment, after the temporary storage at the producer for decay period, are transferred as normal non-radioactive wastes. Wastes containing long-lived radionuclides are collected, treated and conditioned at IFIN-HH before final disposal. Radioactive wastes treated at STDR arise from three main sources: 1. Wastes arising from the WWR-S research reactor during operation and future decommissioning operations. 2. Local wastes from other facilities operating at IFIN-HH site. These latter sources include wastes generated during the normal activities of STDR. 3. Wastes from IFIN-HH off-site facilities and activities including medical, biological and industrial applications all over the country. The operational wastes are both liquids and solids. The paper takes into account the following matters: solid waste treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste containers, STDR capacity, temporary storage and final disposal, updating the management infrastructure of institutional radioactive waste. From November 1974 to November 1999 there were treated at STDR nearly 26,000 m3 LLAW, 2,100 m3 LLSW and 4,000 spent sources resulting over 5,500 conditioned drums disposed at DNDR. After 25 years of operation for STDR and 15 years of operation for DNDR an updating programme started in 1990. The Research and Development activities are based on the bi- and multilateral co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and nuclear developed countries through research contracts and technical assistance. In the last years STDR and DNDR benefited from IAEA assistance by a WAMAP mission, training courses and grants for international meetings

  11. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex

  12. Panel discussion on 'The need for a national classification system for radioactive wastes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Radioactive waste in Canada is informally classified according to its radiological hazard and mass into one of three categories: -Nuclear fuel waste - all fuel discharged from all types of reactors -Waste derived from uranium or thorium mining and milling -Low-level radioactive waste - all radioactive wastes except for nuclear fuel waste and wastes from uranium or thorium mining and milling. These categories as such do not clearly differentiate wastes based on such practical characteristics as heat generation, required shielding, half-lives of the radionuclides involved, physical state, chemical and biological toxicity, and potential for various types of disposal. Other countries do have more developed classification systems. From their experience, can one judge whether it would be useful for Canada to develop and adopt a more detailed national waste classification scheme to guide waste management programs from waste generation to waste disposal? (author)

  13. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  14. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  15. The IAEA perspective on international and national radioactive waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Over the last decade, two significant developments have taken place relative to international and national information systems for radioactive waste management: (1) The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management came into force 2001.06.18. It establishes commonly shared safety objectives and sets out the specific obligations of Contracting Parties aimed at achieving those objectives. Adherence to these national obligations will be monitored through an international process of peer review by the other Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party must prepare a report on the measures taken to meet its obligations under the Joint Convention, which will be distributed for review by all Contracting Parties. In review meetings, each national report will be discussed along with the comments and questions from other Contracting Parties. (2) Agenda 21 was issued from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development that was held June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. The IAEA was assigned the responsibility to develop Indicators of Sustainable Development (ISD) for radioactive waste management. Among other issues, the ISD are to be developed according to the following criteria: primarily national in scale or scope, relevant to the objective of assessing progress towards sustainable development, and dependent on data that are readily available or available at a reasonable cost to benefit ratio, adequately documented, of known quality and updated at regular intervals. Both the reporting requirements under the Joint Convention and in support of the ISD will likely rely on nationally-based information about radioactive waste management programmes and organizations, activities, plans, policies, relevant laws and regulations and waste inventories. The full or partial use of international radioactive waste information systems to assist reporting is a matter to be decided by Contracting Parties and

  16. Agent-Based Mobile Event Notification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Fahim El-Gazzar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the noticeable move towards using mobile devices (mobile phones and PDAs and wireless technologies have made information available in the context of "anytime, anywhere using any mobile device" experience. Delivering information to mobile devices needs some sort of communication means such as Push, Pull, or mixed (Push and Pull technologies to deliver any chunk of information (events, ads, advisory tips, learning materials, etc.. Events are the most important pieces of information that should be delivered timely wherever the user is. Agent-based technology offers autonomous, flexible, adaptable, and reliable way of delivering events to any device, anywhere, and on time. Publish/subscribe communication model is the basic infrastructure for event-based communication. In this paper, we define the need to mobilize the event notification process in educational environment and the possible categories of event notifications that students can receive from their educational institution. This paper also proposes a framework for agent-based mobile event notification system. The proposed framework is derived from the concept of push–based publish/subscribe communication model but taking advantage from software agents to serve in the mobile environment. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis for the proposed system.

  17. Organizing in a National Sacrifice Area: the radioactive waste campaign in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizing in a National Sacrifice Area concerns a citizens' campaign to affect the development of a Federal radioactive waste disposal facility in New Mexico. This facility, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), is intended to be the first permanent radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States. The three principal elements of this work are: (1) demographic, economic and attitudinal information providing the social context for the citizens' campaign; (2) the theory and practice of community organizing with respect to the New Mexico radioactive waste disposal project; and (3) the history of citizen activities to affect the New Mexico state legislature on this issue. The demographic and attitudinal information include: survey research conducted previously concerning nuclear waste and nuclear power; demographic and economic data for New Mexico principally from the 1970 Census; a secondary analysis of a base-line survey concerning nuclear development in New Mexico; and original qualitative and survey research dealing with public attitudes in the state on the WIPP project. The attitude change and maintenance literature are also reviewed. This dissertation covers the events constituting the establishment of the WIPP project in New Mexico and citizen activities both opposed to and in support of the radioactive waste disposal project. In addition, citizen activity to influence the New Mexico state legislature in 1979 with regard to radioactive waste disposal is reviewed. An analysis of the New Mexico state legislature in terms of this issue is made also

  18. An Agent-Based Monetary Production Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable......An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable...

  19. National campaign for the search and recovery of Orphan radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to describe the main initial approaches of the campaign for the 'Recovery of Orphan Radioactive Sources' undertaken in Spain, in addition to the steps taken, the experience gained and the partial results obtained. The campaign began on 19th February 2007 and this paper reports the findings until 31st December 2007. The paper aims to share the experience gained with others who are considering or are already involved in similar campaigns and to enable opinions to be exchanged with those responsible for such campaigns in other countries. The campaign was initiated by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade with the expert assistance of the Nuclear Security Council. The initiative came about as a result of national legislation currently in force regarding the control of highly active and orphan radioactive source, which implements a European Directive. The campaign was commissioned to ENRESA (the Spanish National Company for Radioactive Waste Management) and the work, which began in 2007, will continue into 2008. The campaign aims to seek and recover the largest possible number of orphan radioactive sources (an Orphan radioactive source is understood to be one which is detected outside the standard control system and which, when detected, has an activity level higher than the exemption levels established in national and European regulations), and involves the collaboration of various different agents and organisations where such sources are or may be found. Finally, the paper provides details regarding the number and radiological characteristics of the sources which have already been recovered in Spain during the 2007 campaign. (author)

  20. Royal Decree No. 1522 of 4 July 1984 authorising the establishment of a National Enterprise for Radioactive Waste (ENRESA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Enterprise for Radioactive Waste (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos - ENRESA) will be charged with overall responsibility for the management of radioactive waste. This Enterprise, which was constituted on 22 November 1984 as a Spanish company (''Sociedad Anonima'') with capital to be furnished by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and the National Institute for Industry, will be particularly responsible for: treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste; setting up and operating radioactive waste storage facilities; carrying out all activities associated with the final shutdown of nuclear and radioactive installations; final treatment of wastes resulting from extraction and manufacture of ore concentrates; and for making the technical and economic/financial studies to determine the various costs associated with radioactive waste management. (NEA)

  1. The fundamentals of the Russian Federation National Policy in the non-nuclear fuel cycle radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive manufacture and use of sources of ionizing radiation result inevitably in the generation of a considerable amount of radioactive waste. The crucial objective within the context of the general problem of radioactive waste management involves the safe isolation of radioactive waste from the environment for the entire period of the existence of their potential hazardous impacts upon it. The complex nature of the problem requires substantial efforts to be placed for the establishment of an integrated radioactive waste management system providing a national control in medicine, industry and science. To this end, the fundamentals of the national policy for the safe management of radioactive waste from non-nuclear fuel cycle activities are being developed in the Russian Federation. The essential components of the national policy are: development of a scientifically sound concept of radioactive waste management; adoption of legislative documents such as standards and acts, relevant to this area; implementation and enforcement of state regulations and supervision of the relevant activities; development of a national programme on radioactive waste management; provision and maintaining of a national radioactive waste inventory; radiation monitoring

  2. Republic of Turkey National Report. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Turkey. Regarding to Implementation of Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) as a regulatory body is responsible for peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey for the benefit of the country in conformity with the national development plans and fulfillment of Turkey’s obligations arising from international agreements. By the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority Act, TAEA define and recommend the basic principles and policies; and implement, inspect, organize, support and coordinate scientific, technical and administrative studies and affairs relating with the safe use of atomic energy and sources of ionizing radiation for ensuring the protection of people and environment against ionizing radiation exposures. Turkey’s legislative framework regarding with the radioactive sources cover the fundamental aspects of radiation protection and radiation safety particularly the requirements related to occupational, public and medical exposures, transportation, radioactive source management, emergency preparedness, authorization and inspection of practices containing radioactive sources. It also defines the main responsibilities of regulatory body, law enforcement agencies, emergency organizations and licensees. Turkey has already made political commitment with regard to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Turkey has a national registration system containing all radiation sources. It holds the information of both x-ray devices and all categories of radioactive sources or systems containing radioactive sources. This system provides to ensure management of the sources and enhance controls for high activity sealed radioactive sources. Each radioactive source imported, exported or sent to waste storage facility is registered to the system and according to the information about every source movement/changes, data are updated by TAEA. (author)

  3. Technical handbook on the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity. NAIR technical handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Technical Handbook contains information for radiation specialists participating in the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR). Together with the NAIR Users Handbook 2000 edition, it updates and replaces the NAIR Handbook published in 1995. The Users Handbook was designed for those who might seek assistance through NAIR, principally the police or other emergency services. Both Handbooks are reproduced on the NRPB website (www.nrpb.org) and are available from NRPB

  4. National evaluation commission relative to the researches on the radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implemented in april 1994, the National Evaluation Commission (CNE) continues in this tenth report, its study on the radioactive wastes management following the three axis defined by the 1991 law: separation and transmutation, underground disposal, conditioning and log time storage. This report takes stock on the CNE activity in 2003 as on the researches advances around these three axis. In the framework of the international cooperation, the commission details also the researches and realizations abroad. (A.L.B.)

  5. Identification of gaps in the national research effort related to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on papers submitted to the Government's Radioactivity Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee (RadREM), this report presents a consolidated summary of perceived research requirements for 1988/89 and a comparison with the research proposed for that period. On this basis, discussion is included of gaps in the national research effort to 1989, duplication of research plans and areas where better co-ordination or funding of research might be appropriate. (author)

  6. Decree No. 92-1391 of 30 December 1992 on the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree concerns the arrangement of the National Radioactive Waste Management's (ANDRA) administrative organization. It provides for the resources, type of management and supervision of the new public establishment, as well as for the transfer of assets, rights and obligations which tally with the tasks assigned to ANDRA. The Decree also prescribes that ANDRA must, each year, submit to its Ministerial supervisory authorities a report reviewing its work. (NEA)

  7. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design and shipment of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authorization of packages and shipments of radioactive materials are issued in the form of certificates by the national competent authority of the IAEA Member State in which the package is designed or from which a shipment originates, and may be validated or endorsed by the corresponding authority of other Member States as the need arises. This directory summarizes in tabular form the key information on existing package approval certificates contained in PACKTRAM database. 5 tabs

  8. Strengthening control over radioactive sources in authorized use and regaining control over orphan sources. National strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to provide practical guidance to States on the development of a national strategy for improving control over radioactive sources, particularly dangerous sources (Categories 1-3). Part of this process involves the determination of the magnitude of the potential problem with orphan and vulnerable sources and indeed, whether or not a national strategy is needed. The ultimate objective is that States will use this report to develop and then implement a plan of action that will result in all significant sources being managed in a safe and secure manner. This report attempts to provide both the background knowledge and the methodology necessary for an individual or small team of responsible persons to develop a national strategy for improving control over all radioactive sources, but especially orphan and vulnerable sources. The background knowledge given in Chapter 3 is an update of the information on practices that was given in IAEA-TECDOC-804, which focused on spent radioactive sources. After some introductory material, this report provides both the factual information and the general steps needed to develop and implement a national strategy. Part I contains background information for those who are not already familiar with the subject including the need for national strategies, the generic causes of loss of control of sources, with specific examples and the common applications of radioactive sources. Part II details the actual process for the development and implementation of a national strategy, which includes assessing the problem by first gathering specific and national information, determining the nature and magnitude of the problem, developing the national strategy by evaluating, and prioritizing possible solutions, implementing the strategy subsequent to a high level decision; and evaluating the effectiveness of the plan and making changes as a result until the desired objective is achieved. Searches for sources will be part of

  9. Spatial interactions in agent-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Merlone, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Agent Based Modeling (ABM) has become a widespread approach to model complex interactions. In this chapter after briefly summarizing some features of ABM the different approaches in modeling spatial interactions are discussed. It is stressed that agents can interact either indirectly through a shared environment and/or directly with each other. In such an approach, higher-order variables such as commodity prices, population dynamics or even institutions, are not exogenously specified but instead are seen as the results of interactions. It is highlighted in the chapter that the understanding of patterns emerging from such spatial interaction between agents is a key problem as much as their description through analytical or simulation means. The chapter reviews different approaches for modeling agents' behavior, taking into account either explicit spatial (lattice based) structures or networks. Some emphasis is placed on recent ABM as applied to the description of the dynamics of the geographical distribution o...

  10. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  11. Agent Based Modeling as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J. H.; Johnson, R.; Castillo, V.

    2012-12-01

    Motivation is a key element in high school education. One way to improve motivation and provide content, while helping address critical thinking and problem solving skills, is to have students build and study agent based models in the classroom. This activity visually connects concepts with their applied mathematical representation. "Engaging students in constructing models may provide a bridge between frequently disconnected conceptual and mathematical forms of knowledge." (Levy and Wilensky, 2011) We wanted to discover the feasibility of implementing a model based curriculum in the classroom given current and anticipated core and content standards.; Simulation using California GIS data ; Simulation of high school student lunch popularity using aerial photograph on top of terrain value map.

  12. A summary of the geotechnical and environmental investigations pertaining to the Vaalputs national radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the geological environmental surveys that lead to the choice and final evaluation of the Vaalputs national facility for the disposal of radioactive waste. This survey looked at the geography, demography, ecology, meteorology, geology, geohydrology and background radiological characteristics of the Vaalputs radioactive waste facility

  13. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  14. Cameroon National Report on Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered by the expansion of national economic and social sectors, the demand for nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon is marking an ever growing trend in scale and scope. Consequently, there is an increasing use of radioactive sources in various socio-economic developmental activities and the above development calls for organized and coherent measures to regulate and control the applications of radioactive sources from a safety and security perspective without impeding on the beneficial application thereof. As of April 2013, 156 radioactive sources have been identified to be extensively in used for beneficial purposes in Cameroon in medical, industrial, agricultural, research and educational applications. Ensuring their safety and security has been done for the past three years by National Radiation Protection Agency (NRPA) and significant improvements have been made in this respect. However, proper legislative framework and adequate resources remain major concerns. Many efforts are being put in place to review the current situation and to identify the means of maintaining the highest possible level of safety and security of radioactive sources throughout their lifecycle and everywhere in Cameroon. The primary foundations through which valuable regulatory exercise could be ensured is by developing and sustaining sound national regulatory infrastructures which is equipped to effectively and efficiently implement regulatory control over the application of nuclear technology and practices involving the use of radiation sources at a national level and by promoting regional cooperation among Regulatory Bodies. In the context of the above development, NRPA has been part of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA) since 2009 and the AFRA Projects on Self-Assessment of Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety and Networking of Regulatory Bodies (RAF 9038) and Sustaining the Regulatory Infrastructure for the Control of Radiation Sources (RAF

  15. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  16. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  17. National remediation program of radioactively contaminated sites in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national remediation program in Croatia consists of three stages: (1) identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites; (2) preparing activities for restoration; and (3) physical restoration at selected (high-prioritized) sites. The program is coordinated by the APO and, in the first stage, performed by both national research institutes of Ruder Boskovi and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. The program supervisors are Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy (Department of Energy) and State Administration for Environmental Protection. There were more than thirty sites suspected to be radioactively contaminated in Croatia. They were classified into four contamination type groups: (1) dumps containing contaminated coal slag and ash; (2) dumps containing contaminated phosphates and phospho-gypsum resulting from fertilizers industry; (3) geothermal springs and gas/oil wells; and (4) sites containing natural radioactive materials (e.g. brickyards, ceramics factories, cement industry etc.). Site prioritization, based on rough characterization of suspected sites, as well as more detailed investigation at one of the high prioritized sites, have been performed so far. The following three sites of highest priority were found: (a) INA-VINIL PVC-factory at Kastel Suurac (contamination group 1); (b) coal-fired power plant PLOMIN (group 2); and (c) INA-VINIL fertilizers factory at Kutina (group 2)

  18. Radioactive wastes and valorizable materials in France: summary of the 2004 national inventory; Dechets radioactifs et matieres valorisables en France: resume de l'inventaire national 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The French national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. This summary document contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - classification of radioactive wastes: the 5 main categories; 3 - origin of the wastes; 4 - processing and conditioning; 5 - inventory of existing wastes: geographical inventory, inventory per category; 6 - prospective inventory: prospective scenarios, forecasting of waste production; 7 - valorizable radioactive materials; 8 - synthesis and perspective; 9 - glossary. (J.S.)

  19. Validating agent based models through virtual worlds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan H.; Lee, Jina; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Cardona-Rivera, Rogelio E.; Bernstein, Jeremy Ray Rhythm

    2014-01-01

    As the US continues its vigilance against distributed, embedded threats, understanding the political and social structure of these groups becomes paramount for predicting and dis- rupting their attacks. Agent-based models (ABMs) serve as a powerful tool to study these groups. While the popularity of social network tools (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) has provided extensive communication data, there is a lack of ne-grained behavioral data with which to inform and validate existing ABMs. Virtual worlds, in particular massively multiplayer online games (MMOG), where large numbers of people interact within a complex environ- ment for long periods of time provide an alternative source of data. These environments provide a rich social environment where players engage in a variety of activities observed between real-world groups: collaborating and/or competing with other groups, conducting battles for scarce resources, and trading in a market economy. Strategies employed by player groups surprisingly re ect those seen in present-day con icts, where players use diplomacy or espionage as their means for accomplishing their goals. In this project, we propose to address the need for ne-grained behavioral data by acquiring and analyzing game data a commercial MMOG, referred to within this report as Game X. The goals of this research were: (1) devising toolsets for analyzing virtual world data to better inform the rules that govern a social ABM and (2) exploring how virtual worlds could serve as a source of data to validate ABMs established for analogous real-world phenomena. During this research, we studied certain patterns of group behavior to compliment social modeling e orts where a signi cant lack of detailed examples of observed phenomena exists. This report outlines our work examining group behaviors that underly what we have termed the Expression-To-Action (E2A) problem: determining the changes in social contact that lead individuals/groups to engage in a particular behavior

  20. Development of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management National Transportation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) designated development of the National Transportation Plan (NTP) as one of his four strategic objectives for the program. The Office of Logistics Management (OLM) within OCRWM was tasked to develop the plan, which will accommodate state, local, and tribal concerns and input to the greatest extent practicable. The plan will describe each element of the national transportation system that OCRWM is developing for shipping spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The plan will bring together OCRWM's approach for acquiring capital assets (casks, rail cars, and a rail line in Nevada) and its operational planning efforts in a single, comprehensive document. It will also provide a timetable for major transportation decisions and milestones needed to support a 2017 start date for shipments to the Yucca Mountain repository. The NTP will be revised to incorporate new developments and decisions as they are finalized. This paper will describe the elements of the NTP, its importance in providing a comprehensive overview of the national transportation system, and the role of stakeholders in providing input on the NTP and the national transportation system. (authors)

  1. Managing the nation's high-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, no unified national plan has been adopted to develop and implement a comprehensive system of management and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Growing public concern about this problem has resulted in a number of recent efforts to develop a national high-level waste management policy. The 96th Congress strove to resolve the central issues, but ultimately failed to pass legislation, partly because of disagreements about the appropriate role of states in the siting of repositories for military waste. Outside government, a number of organizations convened representatives of diverse groups concerned with national high-level radioactive waste management to seek agreement on the major elements of national policy. One such organization was RESOLVE, Center for Environmental Conflict Resolution, which in May 1981 was merged into The Conservation Foundation. RESOLVE convened Forum II, a series of discussions among representatives of environmental, industrial, governmental, and citizen interest groups, in 1981 specifically to address the issues blocking Congressional agreement on high-level waste policy. This report contains the recommendations which resulted from these deliberations. Reprocessing, interim storage, respository development, and licensing requirements are addressed. Federal, state, and public participation in decision making are also discussed

  2. National network of measurement of radioactivity in the environment - 2014 management report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at presenting evolutions of the regulation of the French National network of measurement of radioactivity in the environment (the RNM), of its organisation, of the operation of its steering committee and various work groups. It also presents evolutions implemented in its information system and Internet web-site which gives public access to radioactivity measurements. After presentation of the RNM objectives and challenges, of the legal context, and a description of the RNM operation, the report presents the involved actors (ASN, IRSN, members of the RNM). The operation of the steering committee and work-groups is assessed. A chapter addresses the information system: description, data harmonisation and new information exchange protocol, technical support by the IRSN to data producers, interaction between the IRSN and system host, application management and third-party applications acceptance. Next parts propose an overview of laboratories certification, and activities related to communication and publications

  3. Agent-based models and individualism: is the world agent-based?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, D.; Haklay, M.

    2000-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABMs) are an increasingly popular tool in the social sciences. This trend seems likely to continue, so that they will become widely used in geography and in urban and regional planning. We present an overview of examples of these models in the life sciences, economics, planning, sociology, and archaeology. We conclude that ABMs strongly tend towards an individualist view of the social world. This point is reinforced by closer consideration of particular examples. This disc...

  4. Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. National Report by Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) is the competent authority with regulatory, monitoring and advisory responsibilities in matters pertaining to ionising radiation in Ireland. The Radiological Protection Act 1991 (Ionising Radiation) Order S. I. No. 125 of 2000 provides for a system of regulatory control for the management and protection of radioactive sources in Ireland. The RPII regulates the use and control of ionising radiation in Ireland through a system of licensing, guidance, inspection, and enforcement activities. The RPII’s licensing system is based on statutory requirements and the day-to-day responsibility for implementing the system has been delegated to the Regulatory Service of the RPII. Inspections undertaken by the RPII are designed to verify compliance with legislative requirements as well as specific licence conditions. The legislation and licensing system in place provides for adequate controls for the verification of safety and security of radioactive sources as well as enforcement measures for the protection of individuals, society and the environment from the use of radioactive sources. The likelihood of loss of control of a radioactive source is minimised through several regulatory initiatives including a joint programme of work by the RPII and An Garda Síochána (National Police) aimed at assessing security provisions of licensees. The purpose of this work programme, which includes joint inspections, is to improve security and safety of sources through the promotion of best international security practice appropriate to the type of radioactive source and the facility. This is ongoing and achieved through a partnership approach between An Garda Síochána, RPII and the relevant licensees. This initiative has had huge benefits in the promotion of safety and security culture amongst licensed holders of radioactive sources. In 2011 the Irish Government approved a temporary operational protocol which sets out a national

  5. Construct validity of agent-based simulation of normative behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Xenitidou, M; Elsenbroich, C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the construct validity and theoretical emdeddedness of agent-based models of normative behaviour drawing on experimental social psychology. We contend that social psychology and agent-based modelling share the focus of ‘observing’ the processes and outcomes of the interaction of individual agents. The paper focuses on two from a taxonomy of agent-based models of normative behaviour. This enables the identification of the assumptions the models are built on and in turn,...

  6. A generic testing framework for agent-based simulation models

    OpenAIRE

    Gürcan, Önder; Dikenelli, Oguz; Bernon, Carole

    2013-01-01

    International audience Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) had an increasing attention during the last decade. However, the weak validation and verification of agent-based simulation models makes ABMS hard to trust. There is no comprehensive tool set for verification and validation of agent-based simulation models, which demonstrates that inaccuracies exist and/or reveals the existing errors in the model. Moreover, on the practical side, many ABMS frameworks are in use. In this sen...

  7. Agent Based Modelling and Simulation of Social Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Armano Srbljinovic; Ognjen Skunca

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to agent-based modelling and simulation of social processes. Reader is introduced to the worldview underlying agent-based models, some basic terminology, basic properties of agent-based models, as well as to what one can and what cannot expect from such models, particularly when they are applied to social-scientific investigation. Special attention is given to the issues of validation. Classification-ACM-1998: J.4 [Computer Applications]; Social and behavior...

  8. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  9. National strategy for safety and security of radioactive sources in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tanzania, practices involving radioactive sources are found in medicine, agriculture, industries, research and education. Apart from known stochastic and deterministic effects, it is now of great concern that radioactive sources can also be deployed in terrorist activities if effective safety and security mechanisms are not instituted. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that from the initial stage of the source use to its final disposal stage, adequate security measures are put in place to prevent any related malevolent acts. In this paper, we describe the national strategy to meet this noble objective. The strategy involves the institution of regulatory control, education and training of regulatory staff and stake holders, collection of disused sources, security upgrading of facilities with high risk, emergency preparedness and international cooperation. While the situation is encouraging and the need for improvements desirable, future needs have been identified as searching, locate and recover orphan and disused sources, monitoring of border crossing for detecting illegal sources movements, strengthening security during the transport of radioactive sources, increasing the capability and basic knowledge of the first respondents, collection and conditioning of the sources no longer used as well as scrap metal monitoring. (author)

  10. National strategy for the safety and security of radioactive sources in the United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United Republic of Tanzania, practices involving radioactive sources are found in medicine, agriculture, industries, research and education. Apart from known stochastic and deterministic effects, it is now of great concern that radioactive sources can also be deployed in terrorist activities if effective safety and security mechanisms are not instituted. Therefore it is necessary to ensure that, from the initial stage of use of the source to its final disposal, adequate security measures are put in place to prevent any related malevolent acts. The paper describes Tanzania's national strategy to meet this objective. The strategy involves the institution of regulatory control, the education and training of regulatory staff and stakeholders, the collection of disused sources, the security upgrading of facilities with high risk, emergency preparedness and international cooperation. While the situation is encouraging, future needs have been identified as searching, locating and recovering orphan and disused sources, monitoring of border crossings to detect illegal source movements, strengthening security during the transport of radioactive sources, increasing the capability and basic knowledge of first responders, collection and conditioning of sources no longer being used, and scrap metal monitoring. (author)

  11. Transcript of the workshop to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the ''First International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams'' in Berkeley, a workshop was held on October 19, 1989 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam (RNB) Facility. The purpose of the workshop was -- after having discussed during the conference the physics question that can be addressed with RNBs -- to evaluate more concretely the possibilities for actually constructing such a facility in this country. It is becoming increasingly apparent that facility producing beams of radioactive nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios is of high scientific interest and technically feasible. It would allow the study of nuclear structure and astrophysical reactions very far from the line of stable nuclei, and could provide new possibilities of reaching the long-sought island of stability of superheavy nuclei. Such facilities are under advanced consideration in Japan and at CERN in Europe. This paper contains a slightly edited transcript of the tape recording that was made of the workshop

  12. Transcript of the workshop to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M. (ed.)

    1989-10-19

    Following the First International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams'' in Berkeley, a workshop was held on October 19, 1989 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam (RNB) Facility. The purpose of the workshop was -- after having discussed during the conference the physics question that can be addressed with RNBs -- to evaluate more concretely the possibilities for actually constructing such a facility in this country. It is becoming increasingly apparent that facility producing beams of radioactive nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios is of high scientific interest and technically feasible. It would allow the study of nuclear structure and astrophysical reactions very far from the line of stable nuclei, and could provide new possibilities of reaching the long-sought island of stability of superheavy nuclei. Such facilities are under advanced consideration in Japan and at CERN in Europe. This paper contains a slightly edited transcript of the tape recording that was made of the workshop.

  13. History of disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1943, shallow land burial has been used for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste. These wastes have originated from nearly every operating facility, and from 1955 to 1963, ORNL's solid waste storage areas were designated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) as the Southern Regional Burial Ground. During this period, about one million cubic feet of solid waste from various off-site installations were buried in solid waste storage areas (SWSAs) 4 and 5. Six SWSAs have been used since land burial operations began at ORNL in early 1944. ORNL has generated liquid radioactive waste since the separation of plutonium began in 1944. The majority of these wastes are classified as process (low-level) waste and are derived from evaporator condensate and cooling water from process vessels, and from building drains and surface drainage from contaminated areas. Process wastes are monitored at sampling stations located strategicially throughout the plant, and for nearly 15 years (1944 to 1957) they were discharged directly into White Oak Creek without being treated chemically to remove radionuclides. A smaller quantity of intermediate-level wastes (ILW) originate from the radiochemical separation process and from test reactors. The collection, treatment, and methods of disposal of ILW from the years 1943 to 1981 are described. Over this period of time there was a great deal of variation in the amounts and types of radioactive liquid wastes generated

  14. System of quality assurance for the location of the national disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows like inside the final administration of the radioactive waste, the search and selection of the best location for the location of a Disposal to evacuate the radioactive waste is one from the main aspects to take into account for the sure isolation of those waste. The selection of a correct location redounds in an outstanding way in the security and the future acting of the waste disposal, of here the importance that has to establish a system of quality insurance in this sensitive aspect. The experiences accumulated in the execution from the inherent investigative works to the given Process, demonstrate that alone with the parsonage of a System of Insurance of the Quality, the results can be achieved with the security that requires and it demands the national disposal of radioactive waste. It can make sure that the elaboration and implementation of the System of Quality in the works developed in the topic, they guarantee the good organization and development of the same ones, allowing to verify and to control their execution in each one of the stages

  15. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  16. Endogenizing geopolitical boundaries with agent-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling promises to overcome the reification of actors. Whereas this common, but limiting, assumption makes a lot of sense during periods characterized by stable actor boundaries, other historical junctures, such as the end of the Cold War, exhibit far-reaching and swift transformations of actors' spatial and organizational existence. Moreover, because actors cannot be assumed to remain constant in the long run, analysis of macrohistorical processes virtually always requires “sociational” endogenization. This paper presents a series of computational models, implemented with the software package REPAST, which trace complex macrohistorical transformations of actors be they hierarchically organized as relational networks or as collections of symbolic categories. With respect to the former, dynamic networks featuring emergent compound actors with agent compartments represented in a spatial grid capture organizational domination of the territorial state. In addition, models of “tagged” social processes allows the analyst to show how democratic states predicate their behavior on categorical traits. Finally, categorical schemata that select out politically relevant cultural traits in ethnic landscapes formalize a constructivist notion of national identity in conformance with the qualitative literature on nationalism. This “finite-agent method”, representing both states and nations as higher-level structures superimposed on a lower-level grid of primitive agents or cultural traits, avoids reification of agency. Furthermore, it opens the door to explicit analysis of entity processes, such as the integration and disintegration of actors as well as boundary transformations. PMID:12011409

  17. Endogenizing geopolitical boundaries with agent-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2002-05-14

    Agent-based modeling promises to overcome the reification of actors. Whereas this common, but limiting, assumption makes a lot of sense during periods characterized by stable actor boundaries, other historical junctures, such as the end of the Cold War, exhibit far-reaching and swift transformations of actors' spatial and organizational existence. Moreover, because actors cannot be assumed to remain constant in the long run, analysis of macrohistorical processes virtually always requires "sociational" endogenization. This paper presents a series of computational models, implemented with the software package REPAST, which trace complex macrohistorical transformations of actors be they hierarchically organized as relational networks or as collections of symbolic categories. With respect to the former, dynamic networks featuring emergent compound actors with agent compartments represented in a spatial grid capture organizational domination of the territorial state. In addition, models of "tagged" social processes allows the analyst to show how democratic states predicate their behavior on categorical traits. Finally, categorical schemata that select out politically relevant cultural traits in ethnic landscapes formalize a constructivist notion of national identity in conformance with the qualitative literature on nationalism. This "finite-agent method", representing both states and nations as higher-level structures superimposed on a lower-level grid of primitive agents or cultural traits, avoids reification of agency. Furthermore, it opens the door to explicit analysis of entity processes, such as the integration and disintegration of actors as well as boundary transformations. PMID:12011409

  18. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL

  19. The Gap of Current Agent Based Simulation Modeling Practices and Feasibility of a Generic Agent Based Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yim Ling Loo; Alicia Y.C. Tang; Azhana Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling had been revolving to be established approach in modeling simulation systems which are used to understand and predict certain real-life scenarios in specific domains. Past researches which are domain-specific caused repetitive building of new models from scratch and restrict replication and reuse because of limitation of models’ description. This paper presents a review of gaps between domain-specific agent-based simulation modeling and the recent practices of agent-based...

  20. Agent-based models of financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with several microscopic ('agent-based') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our selective review then outlines the main ingredients of some influential early models of multi-agent dynamics in financial markets (Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon). As will be seen, these contributions draw their inspiration from the complex appearance of investors' interactions in real-life markets. Their main aim is to reproduce (and, thereby, provide possible explanations) for the spectacular bubbles and crashes seen in certain historical episodes, but they lack (like almost all the work before 1998 or so) a perspective in terms of the universal statistical features of financial time series. In fact, awareness of a set of such regularities (power-law tails of the distribution of returns, temporal scaling of volatility) only gradually appeared over the nineties. With the more precise description of the formerly relatively vague characteristics (e.g. moving from the notion of fat tails to the more concrete one of a power law with index around three), it became clear that financial market dynamics give rise to some kind of universal scaling law. Showing similarities with scaling laws for other systems with many interacting sub-units, an exploration of financial markets as multi-agent systems appeared to be a natural consequence. This topic has been pursued by quite a number of contributions appearing in both the physics and economics literature since the late nineties. From the wealth of different flavours of multi-agent models that have appeared up to now, we discuss the Cont

  1. Agent-based models of financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, E.; Zschischang, E.; Stauffer, D.; Lux, T.

    2007-03-01

    This review deals with several microscopic ('agent-based') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our selective review then outlines the main ingredients of some influential early models of multi-agent dynamics in financial markets (Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon). As will be seen, these contributions draw their inspiration from the complex appearance of investors' interactions in real-life markets. Their main aim is to reproduce (and, thereby, provide possible explanations) for the spectacular bubbles and crashes seen in certain historical episodes, but they lack (like almost all the work before 1998 or so) a perspective in terms of the universal statistical features of financial time series. In fact, awareness of a set of such regularities (power-law tails of the distribution of returns, temporal scaling of volatility) only gradually appeared over the nineties. With the more precise description of the formerly relatively vague characteristics (e.g. moving from the notion of fat tails to the more concrete one of a power law with index around three), it became clear that financial market dynamics give rise to some kind of universal scaling law. Showing similarities with scaling laws for other systems with many interacting sub-units, an exploration of financial markets as multi-agent systems appeared to be a natural consequence. This topic has been pursued by quite a number of contributions appearing in both the physics and economics literature since the late nineties. From the wealth of different flavours of multi-agent models that have appeared up to now, we discuss the Cont

  2. Agent-based models of financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanidou, E [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Zschischang, E [HSH Nord Bank, Portfolio Mngmt. and Inv., Martensdamm 6, D-24103 Kiel (Germany); Stauffer, D [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Cologne University, D-50923 Koeln (Germany); Lux, T [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    This review deals with several microscopic ('agent-based') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our selective review then outlines the main ingredients of some influential early models of multi-agent dynamics in financial markets (Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon). As will be seen, these contributions draw their inspiration from the complex appearance of investors' interactions in real-life markets. Their main aim is to reproduce (and, thereby, provide possible explanations) for the spectacular bubbles and crashes seen in certain historical episodes, but they lack (like almost all the work before 1998 or so) a perspective in terms of the universal statistical features of financial time series. In fact, awareness of a set of such regularities (power-law tails of the distribution of returns, temporal scaling of volatility) only gradually appeared over the nineties. With the more precise description of the formerly relatively vague characteristics (e.g. moving from the notion of fat tails to the more concrete one of a power law with index around three), it became clear that financial market dynamics give rise to some kind of universal scaling law. Showing similarities with scaling laws for other systems with many interacting sub-units, an exploration of financial markets as multi-agent systems appeared to be a natural consequence. This topic has been pursued by quite a number of contributions appearing in both the physics and economics literature since the late nineties. From the wealth of different flavours of multi-agent models that have appeared up to now, we

  3. The national network of measurements of radioactivity in the environment. Management report - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the objectives and challenges of the French national network for the measurement of radioactivity in the environment, its legal and regulatory context, its operation, its actors (ASN, IRSN and other actors). It proposes the moral report on the steering committee and work-groups. It describes the development of the information system: main stages, synthetic description, process from data transmission to edition on Internet sites, exploitation of the public Internet site, of the requester internet site, of hosting platforms, harmonization of transmitted data, planning for 2011. It presents the exploitation assessment for 2011: technical support activities, interactions between the IRSN and the national network information system host, and so on. The last part deals with communication and publication activities

  4. National plan for siting high-level radioactive waste repositories and environmental assessment. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Plan for Siting High-Level Radioactive Waste Repositories describes the process the Department of Energy (DOE) is using to find sites suitable for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Potential environmental impacts of implementing the Plan are included in an attached Environmental Assessment. The Plan is one element of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program being conducted by DOE to develop the necessary technology and to qualify sites to establish mined geologic repositories for these wastes. The Plan describes existing and planned activities for screening successively smaller portions of land within the United States to identify suitable candidate sites, and for subsequently selecting one or more of these sites, for permanent disposal of radioctive wastes. Environmental effects of the proposed action, including the anticipated range of field studies to characterize various land areas and reasonable alternative siting strategies, are assessed. The Environmental Assessment provides the basis for a finding of whether or not implementation of this plan will result in signficant environmental impacts

  5. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  6. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth update of ''Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration.'' It completely replaces the fifth update (15 September 1984). The updated report covers low-level radioactive waste compacts, and the administration, the legislature and the laws related to radioactive waste management in each of the fifty states. The report is organized by low-level waste compact regions. Each section begins with a description of the low-level waste compact, followed by reports on each state within the region. There are also sections for states which have made plans to dispose of waste independently of a compact, and for those states which have not yet declared their intentions. The report on each compact is divided into four sections: Cover Page, Chair Organization, State Delegations, and Compact

  7. Agent-based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI has successfully used principal component analysis to detect even subtle latent faults in a subsystem. An advantage of the PCA for this application is that the...

  8. Role of National Academies in radioactive waste disposal projects. Implications from the comparison of the science council of Japan with the U.S. National Academies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We made a descriptive inference about the role of the U.S. National Academies in the U.S. radioactive waste disposal projects on the basis of literature-based information and compared the U.S. National Academies with the Science Council of Japan to determine their implications on the progress of social acceptability of radioactive waste disposal projects in Japan. The descriptive inference was made as follows. We described the organizational characteristics of the U.S. National Academies and the U.S. federal governments related to the projects. We outlined the related bills and demonstrated chronologically the activities related to the projects by the U.S. National Academies and the U.S. Government. As a consequence, we identified some specific roles that the U.S. National Academies played in the U.S. radioactive waste disposal projects. The U.S. National Academies have acted not only as a scientific and engineering adviser for the governments but also as an anchor for some political decision making or judicial actions. Furthermore, we analyzed the credibility of the Science Council of Japan and the U.S. National Academies from the viewpoint that a reliable third party must exhibit fairness, expertise and continuity. From the results of the comparison, it was found that the Science Council of Japan has the possibility to become a reliable third party that can help the radioactive waste disposal projects in Japan. (author)

  9. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 31 August 1984

  10. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  11. Preliminary shielding estimates for the proposed National ISOL Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) Facility at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORNL built a first-generation Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility for astrophysics and nuclear physics research; it was named Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) and is based on the Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) technique. Planning is underway for a second- generation facility, the National ISOL RIB facility at Oak Ridge; it will build on the existing HRIBF and may utilize many existing components and shielded areas. Preliminary upgrade plan for the new facility includes: adding a superconducting booster for the tandem accelerator; replacing the 1960-vintage, 60-MeV proton, 50-microamp ORIC (Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron) with a modern 200-MeV proton, 200-microamp cyclotron; and building a high-power 238U fission target to accept the 200-MeV proton beam. This report summarizes the results of a preliminary 1-D shielding analysis of the proposed upgrade, to determine the shielding requirements for a 0.25 mrem/h dose rate at the external surface of the exclusion area. Steel shielding weights ranging from 60 to 100 metric tons, were considered manageable; these could be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 if the orientation of the proposed target station was changed

  12. Radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Report no. 3 from the national surveillance programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brungot, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Caroll, J.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Brown, J.; Rudjord, A.L.; Boee, B.; Hellstroem, T

    1999-07-01

    The data collected as part of the National Surveillance Programme indicate that radioactivity in the water surrounding Norway remains at low levels. In fish and shrimps, {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations are approximately 1.2 Bq/kg or less. {sup 137}Cs levels in the water surrounding Norway have decreased significantly since their peak concentrations detected around 1980. However, in recent years the variation in radiocesium concentration in the sea water can largely be explained by variations in the water exchange with the Baltic Sea. The influence of Chernobyl fallout on the concentrations of these radionuclides is clearly seen. The levels decrease with increasing distance away from the Baltic Sea. Other radionuclides, i.e. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 60}Co and {sup 241}Am were found in low concentrations only. The reprocessing plant at Sellafield in United Kingdom began operating a new waste treatment in 1994. This has resulted in changes in the composition of radionuclides being discharged into the sea as waste. As a result, the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the waters surrounding Norway has increased in recent years and the highest levels of radioactivity detected in marine biota during the surveillance program were for {sup 99}Tc in lobster. The increase in {sup 99}Tc is also clearly observed in seaweed.

  13. Kingdom of Morocco national report to share experiences and lessons learned in implementing the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive sources and its Supplementary Guidance on Import and Export of Radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Morocco, the National Center for Radiation Protection (CNRP) is the regulatory body on safety and security of radioactive sources. Appropriate facilities and services for radiation protection, safety and security are available to the persons who are authorized to manage radioactive sources. National register of radioactive sources is established and maintained. The CNRP has developed national strategies to foster awareness of radiological risk associated to orphan sources, to minimize the likelihood of a loss of control and to gain or regain control over orphan sources. A lot of measures and actions have been taken and others are underway to better manage radioactive sources at the end of their life cycles, but our country encounters many problems for returning and repatriation of disused radioactive sources to the country of origin. Regarding to import and export provisions, more efforts are to deploy for the effective and efficient implementation of these provisions, in particular for categories 1 and 2 of radioactive sources. (author)

  14. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites

  15. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  16. National organization for management and disposal of radioactive wastes in Bulgaria -- Roles and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final product of almost every usage of radioactive substances is a radioactive waste in some form: reprocessed nuclear fuel sources; radioactive solutions; materials which are contaminated by radioactive substances; by-products of biological tests and etc. All these substances are subject to temporary storage either till their radioactivity fully vanished and treated after that as a usual waste, or till their final collection for reprocessing and disposal in a final radioactive waste repository. The paper presented here deals with the Bulgarian organization for radioactive inspection of the registration and movement of the radioactive substances and their disposal as radioactive wastes in the country. It is important to note that the reprocessed nuclear fuel obtained from NPP ''Kozloduy'' is not kept on the territory of Republic of Bulgaria

  17. 1st Quarter Transportation Report FY 2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 1st quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report include minor volumes of non-radioactive classified waste/material that were approved for disposal (non-radioactive classified or nonradioactive classified hazardous). Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to rounding conventions for volumetric conversions from cubic meters to cubic feet.

  18. Palaeomagnetism of major rock units surrounding the Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaeomagnetic measurements were made on the major rock units in the area surrounding the Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in the north-western Cape, South Africa. This study formed part of the structural evaluation during the site-suitability investigations. Three of the five rock units sampled yielded significantly grouped magnetization directions. Northward rotation of the Garies Terrane with respect to the Okiep Terrane about the Buffels River Shear Zone is postulated by comparing virtual geomagnetic pole positions of equivalent rock units on either side of this transcurrent fault. Thrust faulting in the Vaalputs area is tentatively dated at approximately 1 000 Ma by comparing the antipole obtained in the hanging wall rocks with that yielded by the Port Edward charnockite. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  20. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  1. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  2. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  3. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  4. Management of radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: a technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review was performed for the US Department of Energy by a panel of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management under the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. In summary, ORNL's waste management practices have kept offsite doses low; some of the practices are temporary and improvised - they may not be as satisfactory in the future; reducing anticipated future releases will be difficult because the limited number of candidate waste disposal locations are characterized by topographic peculiarities; and a major ORNL accomplishment has been the demonstration that hydrofracture can be a successful method of disposal for at least low- and intermediate-level waste. The panel obtained its information over a 2-year period by examining a large body of technical literature, by making six visits to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and through briefings by representatives of government agencies and their subcontractors. Chapter 2 contains the charge to the panel. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 describe the site, the waste that is present, and the methods used to handle it. Chapters 6 through 10 treat the manner in which the performance of the waste-handling system is monitored, the criteria against which performance is assessed, the panel's assessment of performance, and consideration of alternative methods for future handling of radioactive waste. Chapter 11 contains a brief comparison of ORNL with other sites. The panel's principal conclusions and recommendations are summarized below and treated in detail in subsequent chapters. In general, the conclusions and recommendations considered by the panel to be the most important are provided first. 123 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs

  5. National Report of Poland on implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national infrastructure for regulatory control of safety and security of radioactive sources covers two integrated systems: legislative system and regulatory system described below. National legislative system of control over the management and protection of radioactive sources: The effective Polish legal framework for radiological safety and security of radioactive sources has been established by the Act of Parliament of 29 November 2000 the Atomic Law (Journal of Laws of 2012, Item 264 with later amendments), which encompasses all the activities involving actual and potential exposures to ionizing radiation. According to this act, performing of the following types of activities require a license or a notification (depending on the total radioactivity in one place or possibility of receiving a dose of radiation) involved: • manufacturing, processing, storage, disposal, transport or use of radioactive sources and its associated radioactive waste, as well as the trade in these sources, and also isotopic enrichment; • production, installation, use and maintenance of the equipment containing radioactive sources and trade in such equipment; • commissioning and use of the equipment generating ionizing radiation; • commissioning of laboratories and workrooms using ionizing radiation sources, including Xray laboratories; • intentional introduction of radioactive substances into consumer products and medical devices; • intentional addition of radioactive substances in the processes of manufacturing consumer products and medical products as defined in Act of Parliament on Medical Devices of 20 May 2010 (Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland No 107 Item 679) and trade in such products, and also the import into the Republic of Poland’s territory, and export from this territory, of consumer and medical products to which radioactive substances have been added; • intentional administration of radioactive substances to humans and animals, for the purposes

  6. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  7. Agent-Based Modeling of Growth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Growth processes abound in nature, and are frequently the target of modeling exercises in the sciences. In this article we illustrate an agent-based approach to modeling, in the case of a single example from the social sciences: bullying.

  8. SICS MarketSpace: an agent-based market infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Joakim; Finne, Niclas; Janson, Sverker

    1998-01-01

    We present a simple and uniform communication framework for an agent-based market infrastructure, the goal of which is to enable automation of markets with self-interested participants distributed over the Internet.

  9. Presentation the national Plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes. Friday, the 4. of June 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a synthesis of the national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR for Plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs), this document contains the main conclusions of this plan for the period 2010-2012, a presentation of its elaboration modalities, a presentation of the basic principles regarding radioactive materials and wastes (definitions, origins, waste types and categories, waste management types), a presentation of the main actors of their management (agencies, ministries, authorities, research organizations, institutional bodies, associations). A glossary and other documents are provided, notably a presentation of the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority), a report by the ANDRA agency giving an inventory of radioactive materials and wastes, and a chapter of a report on nuclear safety and radioprotection status in France in 2009

  10. An Agent-Based Analysis of Tax Compliance for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oguz ARSLAN; Ozgur Ican

    2013-01-01

    An agent-based tax compliance model for Turkey is developed in this paper. In this model, four kinds of agent archetypes as honest, strategic, defiant, and random are employed. The model is used for simulating evolutionary changes in tax compliance behavior of a population of 10,000 taxpayer agents. The implementation of the model via four simulation scenarios points out that an agent-based evolutionary strategy simulation for Turkish case is valid. Also, the neighbourhood effect is not found...

  11. Social scientists, qualitative data, and agent-based modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Empirical data obtained with social science methods can be useful for informing agent-based models, for instance, to fix the profile of heterogeneous agents or to specify behavioral rules. For the latter in particular, qualitative methods that investigate the details of individual decision processes are an option. In this paper, I highlight the challenges for social scientists who investigate social/psychological phenomena but at the same time have to consider the properties of agent-based si...

  12. Agent-based Models for Economic Policy Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dawid, Herbert; Neugart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Agent-based simulation models are used by an increasing number of scholars as a tool for providing evaluations of economic policy measures and policy recommendations in complex environments. On the basis of recent work in this area we discuss the advantages of agent-based modeling for economic policy design and identify further needs to be addressed for strengthening this methodological approach as a basis for sound policy advice.

  13. The Promises and Perils of Agent-Based Computational Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Richiardi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I analyse the main strengths and weaknesses of agent-based computational models. I first describe how agent-based simulations can complement more traditional modelling techniques. Then, I rationalise the main theoretical critiques against the use of simulation, which point to the following problematic areas: (i) interpretation of the simulation dynamics, (ii) estimation of the simulation model, and (iii) generalisation of the results. I show that there exist solutions for all th...

  14. Ad Hoc Protocols Via Multi Agent Based Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bazghandi; Mehdi Bazghandi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigating behaviors of Ad Hoc protocols in Agent-based simulation environments. First we bring brief introduction about agents and Ad Hoc networks. We introduce some agent-based simulation tools like NS-2. Then we focus on two protocols, which are Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). At the end, we bring simulation results and discuss about their reasons.

  15. Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 72. Iraqi Radioactive Source Regulatory Authority. Iraq National Report. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRSRA shall promulgate and enforce regulations to allow for beneficial uses of radioactive sources, to provide for adequate protection of human beings against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and to ensure the safety and security of radioactive sources. The IRSRA shall also investigate technical issues associated with low level radioactive waste disposal

  16. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  17. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the JointConvention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14-23 May 2012. (Author)

  18. Transport of radioactive materials by air: a national approach to cope with denials and delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Around 300 nuclear medicine services in the Greater Caribbean depend, almost exclusively, on the airlines to receive radiopharmaceuticals. Less than 20 % of the regional airlines accept radioactive materials in addition to delays and denials, altogether, result in hardships to patients undergoing diagnosis and treatment, despite compliance with regulations. In the international framework leaded by the IAEA to alleviate the difficulties encountered, national approaches are needed to support this effort. The paper presents the Cuban experience regarding statistics of denials and delays by air, generic examples and classification of causes. The role of a Facilitation Working Group and actions taken in communication, awareness, harmonization of regulations, education and training are discussed. The results show a sensitive improvement in the reported instances of denials and delays at domestic level, strongly influenced by the corporative social responsibility of the main national airline and the actions underway. On the other hand, the increasing number of reported denials by international airlines in the last two years, demonstrate how much work must be done at regional and international level. (author)

  19. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required

  20. Evaluating public involvement in the national low-level radioactive-waste-management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive public involvement approach has been developed to obtain the views and assistance of state and local governments, citizen groups, industry, professional societies and other organizations in the preparation and review of a national strategy document on low-level radioactive wastes. Six evaluators who have a wide diversity of backgrounds were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. This final report presents findings discussed under the headings: Introduction to the Recent History of Low-level Waste Policy Development (LLWMP) and the Role of Public Participation; Public Participation Mechanisms Employed in Preparing the National Strategy Document; the Keystone's Evaluation Process; and Findings. The overall evaluation of the process was very positive. It was clear that the LLWMP staff was seriously committed to building a credible public participation process. The evaluation team was provided rough cost figures for the various components of the LLWMP effort and concluded that, in its opinion, the public participation process provided benefits to the federal government that exceeded its costs. Moreover, the costs of the individual components were not out of line with each one's usefulness and contribution to the overall effort

  1. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-10-15

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value.

  2. Summary of national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs are summarized. Several trends have developed in waste management strategy: All countries having to dispose of reprocessing wastes plan on conversion of the high-level waste (HLW) stream to a borosilicate glass and eventual emplacement of the glass logs, suitably packaged, in a deep geologic repository. Countries that must deal with plutonium-contaminated waste emphasize pluonium recovery, volume reduction and fixation in cement or bitumen in their treatment plans and expect to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal. Commercially available, classical engineering processing are being used worldwide to treat and immobilize low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW, ILW); disposal to surface structures, shallow-land burial and deep-underground repositories, such as played-out mines, is being done widely with no obvious technical problems. Many countries have established extensive programs to prepare for construction and operation of geologic repositories. Geologic media being studied fall into three main classes: argillites (clay or shale); crystalline rock (granite, basalt, gneiss or gabbro); and evaporates (salt formations). Most nations plan to allow 30 years or longer between discharge of fuel from the reactor and emplacement of HLW or spent fuel is a repository to permit thermal and radioactive decay. Most repository designs are based on the mined-gallery concept, placing waste or spent fuel packages into shallow holes in the floor of the gallery. Many countries have established extensive and costly programs of site evaluation, repository development and safety assessment. Two other waste management problems are the subject of major R and D programs in several countries: stabilization of uranium mill tailing piles; and immobilization or disposal of contaminated nuclear facilities, namely reactors, fuel cycle plants and R and D laboratories

  3. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value

  4. Remediation and assessment of the national radioactive waste storage and disposal site in Tajikistan - 59110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Site was established in 1959 in the Faizabad region approximately 50 km east of the capital, Dushanbe. The site is located on the southern flank of the Fan Mountains facing the Gissar Valley in a sparsely populated agricultural area, with the nearest villages located a few km from the site. The site was initially designed to accept a wide range of contaminated materials, including obsolete smoke detectors, sealed radioactive sources, waste from medical institutions, and radioactive liquids. Between 1962 and 1976, 363 tonnes and 1146 litres of material, contaminated with a range of radionuclides were shipped to the site. Between 1972 - 1980 and 1985 - 1991, ∼4.8 x 1014 and 2 x 1013 Bq, respectively, were shipped to the site. An additional 7 x 1014 Bq was shipped to the site in 1996. Partly as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the disposal site had fallen into disrepair and currently presents both an environmental hazard and a potential for the proliferation of radionuclides that could potentially be used for illicit purposes. Remediation of the disposal site was started in 2005. New security fences were erected and a new superstructure over an in-ground storage site constructed. A central alarm monitoring and observation station has been constructed and is now operational. The geology, flora, and fauna of the region have been documented. Radiation surveys of the buildings and the storage and disposal sites have been carried out. Samples of soil, surface water and vegetation have been taken and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Results show a slight extent of contamination of soils near the filling ports of the underground liquid storage container where a Cs-137 concentration of 2.3 x 104 Bq/kg was obtained. Similar values were obtained for Ra- 226. Radiation fields of the in-ground storage site were generally 3. Most of the activity appears to be associated with the sediments in the tank

  5. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  6. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1999 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the tenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC), formerly known as the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM and endorsed by TRANSSAC, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  7. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1995 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  8. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1996 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificated (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the then Standing Advisory Group on the Sate Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The functions of SAGSTRAM were taken over in 1996 by the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'', highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  9. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  10. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1994 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  11. Firms, Innovation, Export and the Policy Regime: An Agent-based model of the Defence Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The defence industry has traditionally been a heavily regulated and protected market. A new EU Directive being implemented in Norway, January 2012, intends to reform the European defence market towards a higher degree of openness and liberalization. It is therefore vital for the Norwegian Government and national defence authorities to explore the impacts this new EU Directive will have in the near future. This thesis presents a computational agent-based model of the Norwegian defence industry...

  12. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  13. Analyzing the ENRON Communication Network Using Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinako Matsuyama

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based modeling, simulation, and network analysis approaches are one of the emergent techniques among soft computing literature. This paper presents an agent-based model for analyzing the characteristics of peer-to-peer human communication networks. We focus on the process of the collapse of Enron Corporation, which is an interesting topic among the business management domain. The Enron email dataset is available for the analysis. Our approach consists of the four steps: First, macro-level characteristics of the Enron email dataset is analyzed from the viewpoints of social network theory: (i the degrees of the communication networks and contents information, and (ii the changes of network structures among the major events. Second, for the micro-level analysis, an agent-based simulator is implemented using the Enron email dataset. Third, both micro- and macro- level characteristics are calculated on the simulator to ground the model to the dataset. Finally, a different artificial society from the Enron email dataset is developed the simulator and we compare its characteristics of communication patterns with the result of the ones in the agent-based simulation with the Enron email dataset. The investigation suggests that the agent-based model is beneficial to uncover the characteristics of implicit communication mechanisms of the firm.

  14. Vitrification of low-level radioactive mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is proceeding with plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated on-site. The objective is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the entire annual generation of selected LLMW streams. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced sodium borosilicate glasses under conditions achievable in commercially available melters. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals above the expected levels in actual wastes, pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Earlier evaluations of the likely off-gases that will result from vitrification indicated that the primary off-gases will include compounds of SOx, NOx, and CO2. These evaluations are being experimentally confirmed with a mass spectrometer analysis of the gases evolved from samples of the ANL-E wastes. The composition of the melter feed can be adjusted to minimize volatilization of some components, if necessary. The full-scale melter will be designed to handle the annual generation of at least three LLMW waste streams: evaporator concentrator bottoms sludge (ECB), storage tank sludge (STS), and HEPA filter media. Each waste stream is mixed waste by virtue of its failure to pass the TCLP test with respect to toxic metal leaching. Additional LLMW streams under consideration for vitrification include historical mixed waste glass from past operations and spent abrasive from a planned decontamination facility

  15. Recommendations of treatment technologies for radioactively contaminated lead at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately one million pounds of radioactively contaminated lead are currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and must be treated according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This excess lead exists in various forms, including brick, sheet, shot, wool, blankets, steel-jacketed casks, scrap, and miscellaneous solids. Several lead treatment technologies were evaluated based on effectiveness, applicability, feasibility, availability of equipment and materials, health and safety, generation of secondary waste streams, cost, and flexibility. Emphasis is given in this report to those treatment technologies that yield recyclable lead products. Methods that treat lead for storage and disposal were also investigated. Specific treatment technologies for decontaminating the excess lead at the INEL are recommended. The proposed treatment for lead brick, sheet, shot, blankets, and scrap is a series of surface decontamination techniques followed by melt-refining, if necessary. The recommended series of treatments for lead casks begins with removing and macroencapsulating the steel jackets, followed by size reducing and melt-refining the lead. Macroencapsulation is the proposed treatment for miscellaneous lead solids. Recycling lead that has been successfully decontaminated and macroencapsulating or stabilizing the treatment residuals is also recommended

  16. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: national commitment, local and regional involvement - A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement. This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward

  17. Approaches to comparative risk assessments of national and international radioactive waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangea Resources International AG, Switzerland, has put forward the concept of an international geological repository in an Australian desert area, for final disposal of certain of the world's high-level radioactive wastes and surplus fissile materials. Already publicly contentious in Australia, the concept raises unusual issues in safety and environmental assessment. It is timely, therefore, to consider why and how an initial case for such a repository might be made, in comparison with national options for high-level waste disposal that it might displace. There are several stages ahead of development of a formal safety case for an international repository. The first, and almost certainly the most challenging, is winning of public and political acceptance in the host country that such a repository is the 'best' solution to a global problem. We consider the basic need to identify and encompass the concerns of widely disparate stakeholders - industry, governments, national and international regulators, environmental interest groups and the public at large - so that public and political debates can be informed effectively. Many key issues will require comparison both of risks arising from very different operations, and of dissimilar prospective safety performances of complete disposal systems over periods spanning thousands of generations. Nevertheless, we conclude that the validity of such a comparative assessment could be assured by consistent application of a judicious blend of assessment techniques across the alternatives. We also conclude that its usefulness as a vehicle for public discussion would be enhanced by careful attention to public concerns, and by transparently independent review by scientific, technical, sociological and ethical specialists. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  18. A distributed agent-based architecture for dynamic services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype system for agent-based distributed dynamic services that will be applied to the development of Data Grids for high-energy physics is presented. The agent-based systems we are designing and developing gather, disseminate and coordinate configuration, time-dependent state and other information in the Grid system as a whole. These systems are being developed as an enabling technology for workflow-management and other forms of end-to-end Grid system monitoring and management. This prototype is being developed in Java and is based on the JINI support for distributed applications

  19. Report on the evaluation of the national plan on radioactive wastes and materials management; Rapport sur l'evaluation du plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs (PNG-MDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document constitutes the evaluation of the first edition of the National Plan on radioactive wastes and materials management. It presents the definitive or temporary solutions for the radioactive wastes management, the national plan juridical framework defined by the laws of 1991 and 2006 and the first evaluation and perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  20. Design and implementation of a national center for storage and management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the benefits of the radioactive sources use, waste generated by radioactive sources, may have harmful effects on human health and the environment. According to principle number 9 of the radioactive waste management, 'the safety of facilities for radioactive waste management should be provided as appropriate throughout their lifetime' radioactive waste must be managed safely, because they are potentially dangerous. By remedy this problem, it well necessary for each waste radioactive producer to establish, an infrastructure for waste radioactive management and storage. For this, the knowledge of climatic, meteorological, geological, seismic and hydrological conditions is a prerequisite for achieving the realization of the storage site. The room storage greatness, offices and other rooms depends on the nature of radiation and characteristics of materials used for construction of walls, as part the construction safety.The strictly tell management must be strictly observed during all operations. The acquisition of equipments for measurement, detection, decontamination and accessories for operations management should not be neglected. After performing the inventory and characterizing all the spent sealed radioactive sources existing in Madagascar (about 130 sealed sources), for to achieve such construction, we would need a capital budget that varies between 250 000 and 300 000 USD (including apparatus detection and accessories for the management of the construction).

  1. National programme, legal framework and experience with the management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of radioactive waste management in the Slovak Republic is described. This system follows the policy set out by the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. Radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants and stored on the plant sites will be solidified and packed in fibre-concrete containers, and in this form it will be disposed of in a near surface repository. Such near surface radioactive waste repository located close to the Mochovce site is in the phase of commissioning. The radioactive waste that will not comply with the acceptance criteria for near surface disposal, will be stored on the plant sites and will be disposed of in a geological repository to be constructed. The amounts and characteristics of the most important types of radioactive waste generated in nuclear power plants, as well as in industry, medicine and research are given. The technologies for processing this radioactive waste are outlined. In the second part of the paper, the activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR) which is the central government authority in the area of nuclear regulations, are presented for the field of radioactive waste management. The fundamental legal documents dealing with radioactive waste management are described briefly. (author). Tabs

  2. National inventory of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials. Synthesis report; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables. Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. It contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - the radioactive wastes: definition, classification, origin and management; 3 - methodology of the inventory: organization, accounting, prospective, production forecasting, recording of valorizable materials, exhaustiveness, verification tools; 4 - general results: radioactive waste stocks recorded until December 31, 2002, forecasts for the 2003-2020 era, post-2020 prospects: dismantling operations, recording of valorizable materials; 5 - inventory per producer or owner: front-end fuel cycle facilities, power generation nuclear centers, back-end fuel cycle facilities, waste processing or maintenance facilities, civil CEA research centers, non-CEA research centers, medical activities (diagnostics, therapeutics, analyses), various industrial activities (sources fabrication, control, particular devices), military research and experiment centers, storage and disposal facilities; 6 - elements about radioactive polluted sites; 7 - examples of foreign inventories; 8 - conclusion and appendixes. (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts

  4. Agent-based modelling of socio-technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    van Dam, Koen H; Lukszo, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Here is a practical introduction to agent-based modelling of socio-technical systems, based on methodology developed at TU Delft, which has been deployed in a number of case studies. Offers theory, methods and practical steps for creating real-world models.

  5. Engineering Agent-Based Social Simulations: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Peer-Olaf Siebers; Paul Davidsson

    2015-01-01

    This special section on "Engineering Agent-Based Social Simulations" aims to represent the current state of the art in using Software Engineering (SE) methods in ABSS. It includes a mixture of theoretically oriented papers that describe frameworks, notations and methods adapted from SE and practice-oriented papers that demonstrate the application of SE methods in real world ABSS projects.

  6. Multi-level agent-based modeling - Bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Morvan, Gildas

    2012-01-01

    This very short article aims to bring together the available bibliography on multi-level (or multi-layer, multi-perspective, multi-view, multi-scale, multi-resolution) agent-based modeling so that it is accessible to interested researchers.

  7. Agent-based analysis of organizations : formalization and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dignum, M.V.; Tick, C.

    2008-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness depends on many factors, including individual excellence, efficient structures, effective planning and capability to understand and match context requirements. We propose a way to model organizational performance based on a combination of formal models and agent-based simulation that supports the analysis of the congruence of different organizational structures to changing environments

  8. Complete agent based simulation of mini-grids

    OpenAIRE

    González de Durana García, José María; Barambones Caramazana, Oscar; Kremers, Enrique; Viejo, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    EuroPES 2009 With eyes focused on simulation we review some of the main topics of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES). Then we describe an Agent Based model of a simple example of one of such systems, a micro-grid, oriented to designing a decentralized Supervisor Control. The model has been implemented using AnyLogic.

  9. Agent-Based Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Tourism Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, Sarah; Amelung, B.; Student, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a way of representing complex systems of autonomous agents or actors, and of simulating the multiple potential outcomes of these agents’ behaviors and interactions in the form of a range of alternatives or futures. Despite the complexity of the tourism system, and the p

  10. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  11. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets : a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sector in Europe and North America is undergoing considerable changes as a result of deregulation, issues related to climate change, and the integration of renewable resources within the electricity grid. This article reviewed agent-based simulation methods of analyzing electricity markets. The paper provided an analysis of research currently being conducted on electricity market designs and examined methods of modelling agent decisions. Methods of coupling long term and short term decisions were also reviewed. Issues related to single and multiple market analysis methods were discussed, as well as different approaches to integrating agent-based models with models of other commodities. The integration of transmission constraints within agent-based models was also discussed, and methods of measuring market efficiency were evaluated. Other topics examined in the paper included approaches to integrating investment decisions, carbon dioxide (CO2) trading, and renewable support schemes. It was concluded that agent-based models serve as a test bed for the electricity sector, and will help to provide insights for future policy decisions. 74 refs., 6 figs

  12. The role of stake holders in the Italian debate on the national radioactive waste deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In early 2003, following an increased concern about the international terrorist threat, the Italian Government declared an emergency status for national nuclear installations, and in particular for radioactive waste deposits. A working group of experts - mainly from the Society for the Management of Nuclear Installations (SOGIN) and the Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA) - was appointed and charged with the analysis of the technical aspects implied in the creation of a repository to host permanently LLRW and MLRW as well as to host temporarily HLRW. In November 2003 the Italian Government passed a decree to authorize the creation of a national nuclear waste repository within a geological salt deposit in the territory of Scanzano Jonico, in the Basilicata Region. The decision was made without any negotiation with the local population and the authorities of Scanzano Jonico. The lack of transparent communication and the attempt to impose the project 'from the top' was perceived as a 'deceptive strategy'. The population of the entire region spontaneously organized a mass protest movement against the project; blockades were carried out on the major highway connecting Northern to Southern Italy and the controversy gained the attention of the national mass media. Two weeks later, the Italian government withdrew the decree. Presently, the Italian nuclear waste is distributed over more than 20 locations in 11 different Regions, and the creation of a national disposal site has been postponed. The present study aims at highlighting the reasons behind social conflicts on nuclear waste risks. We will examine the attitudes and the communication strategies of the different stake holders which took part in the public debate on the Italian nuclear waste dump. Drawing on methodologies used in media studies, we are carrying out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the main national and local newspapers in order to draw a 'map' of the

  13. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables 2006. Catalogue descriptif des familles de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  14. National Plan for radioactive material and waste management, 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents radioactive materials and wastes (definition, origins, and classification), principles to take into account when defining management pathways, and the legal and institutional framework of waste management in France. It gives an assessment of the existing and developing management practices: warehousing, long term management of valuable materials, long term waste management for different kinds of radioactive materials (low, intermediate or high level of activity). It describes how to improve these different practices. Two annexes give information on realizations and researches in foreign countries, and on the adequacy between storage capacities and prospective radioactive waste volumes

  15. Classification of radioactive self-luminous light sources. American national standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard establishes the classification of certain radioactive self-luminous light sources according to radionuclide, type of source, activity, and performance requirements. The objectives are to establish minimum prototype testing requirements for radioactive self-luminous light sources, to promote uniformity of marking such sources, and to establish minimum physical performance for such sources. This standard is primarily directed toward assuring adequate containment of the radioactive material. Testing procedures and classification designations are specified for discoloration, temperature, thermal shock, reduced pressure, impact, vibration, and immersion. A range of test requirements is presented according to intended usage and source activity

  16. Radioactive waste management: a comparative study of national decision-making processes. Final report, September 15, 1978-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented resulting from a comparative study of national decision-making processes in radioactive waste management. By seeking out the variations among the socio-political and institutional components of the nuclear power and radioactive waste policies in ten countries, the authors have attempted to identify means to improve national and international responses to a seemingly intractable problem, the management of wastes from military and commercial nuclear programs worldwide. Efforts were focused on evaluation of comparative national policy formulation processes. Mapping national programs in conjunction with social, political and administrative structure and comparing the similarities and differences among them has revealed six major issues: (1) technological bias in decision-making; (2) lack of natioal strategies for the RWM programs; (3) fragmentation of governmental power structures; (4) crippled national regulatory bodies; (5) complex and competing relations among local, state and federal levels of government; and (6) increased importance of non-governmental actors and public participation. The first two issues are overarching, encompassing the fundamental approach to policy, whereas the last four describe more specific aspects of the decision-making structures

  17. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C

    2006-07-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  18. Research procedure and criteria for analysis and choice of variants for construction of national radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General principles, overlying objectives and basic radioactive waste management strategy future priorities are considered. The research procedure is based on system approach and analysis, decision making theory, basic objectives and principles of the national repository construction. Main criteria and some basic notions (like radioactive wastes environment and radioactive wastes barriers - input and output) are introduced. Six environment elements are identified: surroundings and natural environment, economic, scientific and technical-technological, socio-psychological, legal and institutional-political. Flow charts of the hierarchical structure of research procedure, decision making levels and direct and back feeds are presented and a scenario analysis is proposed as one of the tools for reflection of uncertainty. The hierarchical structure of the high level waste repository construction scenarios and variants tree (8 levels) is defined. The methodology and methods of analysis, screening and choice of variants is considered. A 7-group system of criteria and constrains for analysis, screening and choice of variants is formulated. One implementation of the proposed methodology and procedure is the technological choice for radioactive waste conditioning and solving of a preliminary site selection problem. 4 figs., 25 refs. (author)

  19. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1997 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the eighth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the then Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The functions of SAGSTRAM were taken over in 1996 by the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consisted of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who showed a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. TRANSSAC underscores the importance of data collecting activities and recommends the continued publication of this annual report. The 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'', highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. The issuance of package approval certificates is an important aspects of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  20. Socioeconomic aspects in the development and operation of the national radioactive waste repository - Rozan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radioactive Waste Repository in Rozan (NRWR) has been operated since 1961. It is located on the territory of a former military fort, which was built in the years 1905-1908. The waste repository consists of four concrete constructions of the fort and a section of a dry moat adopted for the purpose of disposal. The NRWR is a near surface type repository assigned for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste and for temporary storage of long lived waste. The operation of the repository is conducted by the Radioactive Waste Management Plant (RWMP) which is a state public utility established by provision of Atomic Law in 2002. The access of the local community to information on the siting of the repository, performed during 1957 to 1960, as well as information about the assignment and construction of this facility was very limited. Also during its operation from 1961 to 1988, the information about the repository, including the results of the radiological monitoring and the impact of the repository on the environment reached the local community and the Rozan authorities only occasionally and in a limited scope. The situation was considerably changed in 1988, when a group of IAEA and other experts, invited by the Polish government, visited Poland to estimate the safety of the NRWR operation as part of the WAMAP Mission. Documents prepared for IAEA experts, including an up-dated safety report became accessible for the local authorities and the community of Rozan. On one hand this improved the cold relations of the local public and the Rozan authorities with the operator of the repository. And on the other hand, it made the local community realize that the information had been hidden from them, and it deepened the mistrust of the people and regarding the location and operation of the repository. Actions aiming at confidence building focused on the conclusion of an agreement with authorities of the community of Rozan, including the involvement of

  1. National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info' 2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings published in two volumes contain materials presented at the National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info' 2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry - held on 5th September to 8th September 2000 at Baita - Bihor, Romania. The proceedings are structured in 4 sections: 1. Management of radioactive wastes arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning; 2. Uranium mine closing down; 3. Environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites; 4. Management of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear applications. The contributions in this volume debate the issues of environment restoration at uranium ore mining and management of radioactive wastes resulted from nuclear applications

  2. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no 28. 1997 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist Member States in implementing IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA maintains an updated list of national competent authorities designated for this purpose

  3. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2003 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourteenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC). It supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1302 'Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2002 Edition'. Through the database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The PACKTRAM database only contains information that has been provided to the IAEA. The data are not complete nor guaranteed to be accurate. If detailed information is required, the original package approval certificates must be consulted. If information is required about package approval certificates that are not contained in the database, the issuing competent authority must be consulted

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [NSTec

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  5. Preliminary Calculation of the Indicators of Sustainable Development for National Radioactive Waste Management Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow up to the Agenda 21's policy statement for safe management of radioactive waste adopted at Rio Conference held in 1992, the UN invited the IAEA to develop and implement indicators of sustainable development for the management of radioactive waste. The IAEA finalized the indicators in 2002, and is planning to calculate the member states' values of indicators in connection with operation of its Net-Enabled Waste Management Database system. In this paper, the basis for introducing the indicators into the radioactive waste management was analyzed, and calculation methodology and standard assessment procedure were simply depicted. In addition, a series of innate limitations in calculation and comparison of the indicators was analyzed. According to the proposed standard procedure, the indicators for a few major countries including Korea were calculated and compared, by use of each country's radioactive waste management framework and its practices. In addition, a series of measures increasing the values of the indicators was derived so as to enhance the sustainability of domestic radioactive waste management program.

  6. Security Framework for Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venkateshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agent can play a key role in bringing suitable cloud services to the customer based on their requirements. In agent based cloud computing, agent does negotiation, coordination, cooperation and collaboration on behalf of the customer to make the decisions in efficient manner. However the agent based cloud computing have some security issues like (a. addition of malicious agent in the cloud environment which could demolish the process by attacking other agents, (b. denial of service by creating flooding attacks on other involved agents. (c. Some of the exceptions in the agent interaction protocol such as Not-Understood and Cancel_Meta protocol can be misused and may lead to terminating the connection of all the other agents participating in the negotiating services. Also, this paper proposes algorithms to solve these issues to ensure that there will be no intervention of any malicious activities during the agent interaction.

  7. Tutorial on agent-based modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C. M.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous, interacting agents. ABMS promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to support their research. Some have gone so far as to contend that ABMS is a third way of doing science besides deductive and inductive reasoning. Computational advances have made possible a growing number of agent-based applications in a variety of fields. Applications range from modeling agent behavior in the stock market and supply chains, to predicting the spread of epidemics and the threat of bio-warfare, from modeling consumer behavior to understanding the fall of ancient civilizations, to name a few. This tutorial describes the theoretical and practical foundations of ABMS, identifies toolkits and methods for developing ABMS models, and provides some thoughts on the relationship between ABMS and traditional modeling techniques.

  8. Agent-Based Decentralized Control Method for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an agent-based decentralized control model for islanded microgrids is proposed, which consists of a two-layer control structure. The bottom layer is the electrical distribution microgrid, while the top layer is the communication network composed of agents. An agent is regarded...... is processed according to control laws, agents adjust the production of distributed generators to which they connect. The main contributions of this paper are (i) an agent-based model for decentralized secondary control is introduced and the rules to establish the communication network are given; (ii...... agents use the proposed control laws. Finally, the simulation results show that frequency and voltage fluctuations are small and meet the requirements....

  9. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  10. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  11. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday 24 June 1985. Trades Union Congress with the National Union of Seamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received memoranda from the Trades Union Congress and from the National Union of Seamen on radioactive waste management including the following aspects: TUC concern in radioactive waste management, organisation of committees; public safety; public opinion; functions of bodies, e.g. NIREX responsible for radioactive waste management; independent review of disposal of radioactive waste in the North Atlantic; London Dumping Convention; meetings with Government; Sellafield Reprocessing Plant; transport of nuclear cargoes; disposal site selection - land based disposal; storage e.g. at Drigg; categories of radioactive waste. Representatives of the TUC and of the National Union of Seamen were examined on the subject of the memoranda and the Minutes of Evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  12. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Present status and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a first generation national user facility for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The reconfiguration, construction, and equipment commissioning phases have been completed and the beam development program is in progress. In this article, descriptions of the facility and newly implemented experimental equipment for use in the nuclear and astrophysics programs will be given and an outline of the initial experimental program will be presented. Special target ion source related problems, endemic to the production of specific short lived RIBs will be discussed. In addition, plans, which involve either a 200 MeV or a 1 GeV proton linac driver for a second generation ISOL facility, will be presented

  13. Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources National Report: République du Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senegal has declared its support to the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources in November 2010. Since its last report significant progress can be reported with respect of the implementation of the regulatory authority that is “Autorité de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (ARSN)”. Trained staffs (most of them by IAEA) of ARSN have been recruited. Some measurement equipments have been given to ARSN by the Agency National training courses for users of radioactive sources and first responders have been organized. Memorandum of understanding has been signed with gendarmerie and Customs. Many challenges need to be faced like recruiting more staffs, adequate funding of the regulatory authority, establishment of at least one secondary standard dosimetry laboratory etc. (author)

  14. Sources of ionizing radiation, radioactive or nuclear materials out of control. National system of response in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper authors deals with the Customs inspection of radioactive materials - present situation as well as with situation after accession of the Slovak Republic process to European Union (EU). he actual response system to incidents with orphan sources or radioactive material occurring in metal scrap, illicit trafficking and disused sources out of control is laid down on the following scheme. The national strategy is aimed to establish a more effective responding system preventing further illegal trafficking with regard to the acceding process which will require for new member states joining EU proper arrangements in improving the safety of radiation sources over the life-cycle to ensure the effective functioning in the conditions of the Slovak Republic's membership in the European Union

  15. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Present status and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a first generation national user facility for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBS). The reconfiguration, construction, and equipment-commissioning phases have been completed and the beam development program is in progress. In this article, descriptions of the facility and newly implemented experimental equipment for use in the nuclear and astrophysics programs will be given and an outline of the initial experimental program will be presented. Special target/ion source related problems, endemic to the production of specific short-lived RIBs will be discussed. In addition, plans, which involve either a 200-MeV or a 1-GeV proton-linac driver for a second-generation ISOL facility, will be presented

  16. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for packages, shipments, special arrangements and special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's transport regulations prescribe various requirements for the authorization of packages and shipments in respect of both national and international movement of radioactive material. These authorizations are issued by the relevant competent authority of the country concerned; they take the form of package approval and/or shipment approval certificates. At the request of the Standing Advisory Group of the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Agency has established a programme to maintain a file of those certificates for packages and shipments which are either transported internationally or used outside the country of origin. The purpose of this directory is to facilitate the transfer of information to competent authorities and any other person wishing details on the packaging, authorized contents or special conditions pertinent to any package or shipment. The directory enables competent authorities to be aware of the status of any certificate submitted for validation. It also indicates any change in status of any certificate already validated

  17. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2004 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PACKTRAM database contains administrative and technical information provided annually by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. This is the fifteenth PACKTRAM annual report to being published by the IAEA. It is distributed worldwide mainly to designated competent authorities, as well as to registered interested parties. The database itself is maintained at www.packtram.org and can be accessed by the general public

  18. National plan for the radioactive and recyclable wastes management of the national inventory of the radioactive and recyclable wastes to an account and a prospective outlook of the pathways of long dated management of radioactive wastes in France; Plan national de gestion des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables de l'inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisable a un bilan et une vision prospective des filieres de gestion a long terme des dechets radioactifs en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    The introduction recalls the context of the development of the national plan of radioactive and recyclable wastes management (PNGDR-MV), its objectives and its position in the today studies on radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to the description of existing radioactive wastes management solutions, or engaged by today activities. The second part concerns the radioactive materials of the nuclear industry, which are not considered as wastes, but which can be recyclable because of their high energy potential as fuels for reactors of the future. The third part examines the pathways coherence. The last part is a synthesis of the evaluation, with more attention on the identifies problems. (A.L.B.)

  19. Multi-agent based cooperative search in combinatorial optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative search provides a class of strategies to design more effective search methodologies by combining (meta-) heuristics for solving combinatorial optimisation problems. This area has been little explored in operational research. This thesis proposes a general agent-based distributed framework where each agent implements a (meta-) heuristic. An agent continuously adapts itself during the search process using a cooperation protocol based on reinforcement learning and pattern matching. G...

  20. Cognitive Modeling for Agent-Based Simulation of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard

    This paper extends previous work to develop cognitive modeling for agent-based simulation of child maltreatment (CM). The developed model is inspired from parental efficacy, parenting stress, and the theory of planned behavior. It provides an explanatory, process-oriented model of CM and incorporates causality relationship and feedback loops from different factors in the social ecology in order for simulating the dynamics of CM. We describe the model and present simulation results to demonstrate the features of this model.

  1. Opinion transmission in organizations: an agent-based modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rouchier, Juliette; Tubaro, Paola; Emery, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    This paper builds a theoretical framework to detect the conditions under which social influence enables persistence of a shared opinion among members of an organization over time, despite membership turnover. It develops agent-based simulations of opinion evolution in an advice network, whereby opinion is defined in the broad sense of shared understandings on a matter that is relevant for an organization’s activities, and on which members have some degree of discretion. We combine a micro-lev...

  2. From agent-based models to artificial economies

    OpenAIRE

    Teglio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to propose and illustrate an alternative approach to economic modeling and policy design that is grounded in the innovative field of agent-based computational economics (ACE). The recent crisis pointed out the fundamental role played by macroeconomic policy design in order to preserve social welfare, and the consequent necessity of understanding the effects of coordinated policy measures on the economic system. Classic approaches to macroeconomic modeling, mainly rep...

  3. Operational-level naval planning using agent-based simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ercetin, Askin.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis uses agent-based modeling techniques to develop a simulation of the operational-level naval planning process. The simulation serves as an initial exploratory laboratory for analyzing the consequences of the force allocation, force deployment, and force movement decisions made by operational-level naval commanders during times of conflict or crisis. This model will hopefully help decision-makers in gaining insight into the naval planning process and enable them to make more informe...

  4. Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable distributed control and management for microgrids, this paper explores the application of information consensus and local decisionmaking methods formulating an agent based distributed hierarchical control system. A droop controlled paralleled DC/DC converter system is taken as ....... Standard genetic algorithm is applied in each local control system in order to search for a global optimum. Hardware-in-Loop simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method....

  5. The fractional volatility model: An agent-based interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2008-06-01

    Based on the criteria of mathematical simplicity and consistency with empirical market data, a model with volatility driven by fractional noise has been constructed which provides a fairly accurate mathematical parametrization of the data. Here, some features of the model are reviewed and extended to account for leverage effects. Using agent-based models, one tries to find which agent strategies and (or) properties of the financial institutions might be responsible for the features of the fractional volatility model.

  6. An Agent-based Framework for Speech Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Michael; O'Hare, G.M.P.; Carson-Berndsen, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based framework for investigating speech recognition which combines statistical data and explicit phonological knowledge in order to explore strategies aimed at augmenting the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. This line of research is motivated by a desire to provide solutions to some of the more notable problems encountered, including in particular the problematic phenomena of coarticulation, underspecified input...

  7. An Agent-Based Dialogical Model with Fuzzy Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Piter Dykstra; Wander Jager; Corinna Elsenbroich; Rineke Verbrugge; Gerard Renardel de Lavalette

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension to an agent-based model of opinion dynamics built on dialogical logic DIAL. The extended model tackles a pervasive problem in argumentation logics: the difference between linguistic and logical inconsistency. Using fuzzy logic, the linear ordering of opinions, used in DIAL, is replaced by a set of partial orderings leading to a new, nonstandard notion of consistency as convexity of sets of statements. DIAL allows the modelling of the interplay of social struct...

  8. A multi-agent based Tourism Kiosk on Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, CSK; Tung, PF; Yen, JCH

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of a multi agent based Tourism Kiosk for Hong Kong tourism industry on the Internet. This system allows the users to retrieve the most updated information about Hong Kong through any Java enabled Web browser. The complete system consists of a set of software agents who handle various information categories, such as hotels, shopping centres, and cinemas, etc. The Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language (KQML) was selected as the agent communication language to d...

  9. Scalable, distributed data mining using an agent based architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargupta, H.; Hamzaoglu, I.; Stafford, B.

    1997-05-01

    Algorithm scalability and the distributed nature of both data and computation deserve serious attention in the context of data mining. This paper presents PADMA (PArallel Data Mining Agents), a parallel agent based system, that makes an effort to address these issues. PADMA contains modules for (1) parallel data accessing operations, (2) parallel hierarchical clustering, and (3) web-based data visualization. This paper describes the general architecture of PADMA and experimental results.

  10. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  11. Online analysis and visualization of agent based models

    OpenAIRE

    Grignard, Arnaud; Drogoul, Alexis; Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience Agent-based modeling is used to study many kind of complex systems in different fields such as biology, ecology, or sociology. Visualization of the execution of a such complex systems is crucial in the capacity to apprehend its dynamics. The ever increasing complexification of requirements asked by the modeller has highlighted the need for more powerful tools than the existing ones to represent, visualize and interact with a simulation and extract data online to disc...

  12. Agent-based Model Construction in Financial Economic System

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Yohanes Surya

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives picture of enrichment to economic and financial system analysis using agent-based models as a form of advanced study for financial economic data post-statistical-data analysis and micro- simulation analysis. Theoretical exploration is carried out by using comparisons of some usual financial economy system models frequently and popularly used in econophysics and computational finance. Primitive model, which consists of agent microsimulation with fundamentalist strategy, chartis...

  13. Agent Based Model of Young Researchers in Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Stepanic; Mirjana Pejic Bach; Josip Kasac

    2013-01-01

    Group of young researchers in higher education institutions in general perform demandable tasks with relatively high contribution to institutions’ and societies’ innovation production. In order to analyse in more details interaction among young researchers and diverse institutions in society, we aim toward developing the numerical simulation, agent-based model. This article presents foundations of the model, preliminary results of its simulation along with perspectives of its further deve...

  14. Agent-Based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the agent-based modeling and mapping i n manufacturing system, some system models are described in this paper, which are included: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Structure (CAS), Proximity Relation Structure (PRS), and Bus-based Network Structure (BNS ). In DBHS, one sort of agents, called static agents, individually acts as Domai n Agents, Resources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents. And the oth ers, named mobile agents, are the brokers of task and ...

  15. Container Terminal Operations Modeling through Multi agent based Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayub, Yasir; Faruki, Usman

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims to propose a multi-agent based hierarchical model for the operations of container terminals. We have divided our model into four key agents that are involved in each sub processes. The proposed agent allocation policies are recommended for different situations that may occur at a container terminal. A software prototype is developed which implements the hierarchical model. This web based application is used in order to simulate the various processes involved in the following ...

  16. AGENT-BASED NEGOTIATION PLATFORM IN COLLABORATIVE NETWORKED ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Georgeta CREȚAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an agent-based platform to model and support parallel and concurrent negotiations among organizations acting in the same industrial market. The underlying complexity is to model the dynamic environment where multi-attribute and multi-participant negotiations are racing over a set of heterogeneous resources. The metaphor Interaction Abstract Machines (IAMs is used to model the parallelism and the non-deterministic aspects of the negotiation processes that occur in Collaborative Networked Environment.

  17. An Agent Based Simulation Of Smart Metering Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang,Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classic behavioural theory ?the Theory of Planned Behaviour?, we develop an agent-based model to simulate the diffusion of smart metering technology in the electricity market. We simulate the emergent adoption of smart metering technology under different management strategies and economic regulations. Our research results show that in terms of boosting the take-off of smart meters in the electricity market, choosing the initial users on a random and geographically dispersed basis...

  18. Agent-based decision making through intelligent knowledge discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Caballero, Antonio; Sokolova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of negative effects of urban pollution and real-time decision making allow to clarify consequences upon human health. Large amounts of raw data information describe this situation, and to get knowledge from it, we apply intelligent agents. Further modeling and simulation gives the new knowledge about the tendencies of situation development and about its structure. Agent-based decision support system can help to foresee possible ways of situation development and contribute to effect...

  19. Deep Learning in Agent-Based Models: A Prospectus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoog, Sander van der

    2016-01-01

    A very timely issue for economic agent-based models (ABMs) is their empirical estimation. This paper describes a line of research that could resolve the issue by using machine learning techniques, using multi-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs), or so called Deep Nets. The seminal contribution by Hinton et al. (2006) introduced a fast and efficient training algorithm called Deep Learning, and there have been major breakthroughs in machine learning ever since. Economics has not yet benefit...

  20. Agent-based transportation planning compared with scheduling heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mes, MRK Martijn; Heijden, van der, T.G.C.; Harten, van, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Here we consider the problem of dynamically assigning vehicles to transportation orders that have di¤erent time windows and should be handled in real time. We introduce a new agent-based system for the planning and scheduling of these transportation networks. Intelligent vehicle agents schedule their own routes. They interact with job agents, who strive for minimum transportation costs, using a Vickrey auction for each incoming order. We use simulation to compare the on-time delivery percenta...

  1. Agent-based modeling and simulation Part 3 : desktop ABMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C. M.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous, interacting agents. ABMS promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to support their research. Some have gone so far as to contend that ABMS 'is a third way of doing science,' in addition to traditional deductive and inductive reasoning (Axelrod 1997b). Computational advances have made possible a growing number of agent-based models across a variety of application domains. Applications range from modeling agent behavior in the stock market, supply chains, and consumer markets, to predicting the spread of epidemics, the threat of bio-warfare, and the factors responsible for the fall of ancient civilizations. This tutorial describes the theoretical and practical foundations of ABMS, identifies toolkits and methods for developing agent models, and illustrates the development of a simple agent-based model of shopper behavior using spreadsheets.

  2. National plan for siting high-level radioactive waste repositories and environmental assessment: Public draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    The process used to find sites suitable for disposal of high level radioactive waste is described. Existing and planned activities for screening successively smaller portions of land to identify suitable candidate sites, and for subsequently selecting one or more of these sites for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed. Environmental effects of the proposed action, including the anticipate range of field studies to characterize various land areas and reasonable alternative siting strategies, are assessed. The environmental assessment provides the basis for a finding of whether or not implementation of this plan will result in significant environmental impacts.

  3. National Report: Hungary - Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary is committed to follow the provisions of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (Guidance), since 2004 as a Member State of the European Union (EU) the legal provisions issued by the EU are directly enter into force. In Hungary, the highest level of the legislation in the field of atomic energy is the Act CXVI of 1996 on Atomic Energy (Atomic Law). The Atomic Law establishes the principles of nuclear safety and security and divides the responsibilities among several Ministries and Authorities. The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is a central public administrative organisation with its own scope of authority and its own tasks and regulatory competences supervised by the Minister of National Development. According to the Atomic Law all radioactive sources above the exemption level – excluding RAM under the scope of the Governmental Decree 124/1997. (VII. 18.) on radioactive materials as well as equipment generating ionising radiation, exempted from the scope of the Atomic Energy Act CXVI of 1996 – shall be registered at the HAEA (with the exemption of nuclear fuel, shielding, ballast and counter-weight made of depleted uranium and contaminated or activated material if do not belong to RW or source material). The registration procedure based on the Ministerial decree 11/2010. (III.4.) KHEM issued by the Minister of transport, telecommunication and energy on the rules of accountancy for and control of radioactive materials, and on the corresponding data provisions (Register Decree). According to the provisions of Register Decree the HAEA maintains a computerized national central register (CR). The establishment and the operation of the CR is the duty of the HAEA. CR is a computerized database, wherein the sealed sources, the unsealed sources and the RW are registered separately. Local registries (LR) are maintained by the owner/holder of the NM, RAM and

  4. The role of the Gosatomnadzor of Russia in national regulating of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As at the end of 1999, the Gosatomnadzor of Russia supervised 6551 radiation sources, including 1285 unsealed sources with individual activity from a minimal level to 1x1012 Bq and a total activity of 585x1012 Bq, and also 5266 sealed sources with individual activity from 30 to 1x1017 Bq and the total activity of more than 11x1017 Bq. A national infrastructure has been created in the Russian Federation in order to regulate the safety of nuclear energy use. The infrastructure includes the legal system and the regulatory authorities based on and acting according to it. The regulation of radiation safety, including assurance of radiation source safety and radioactive material security (management of disused sources, planning, preparedness and response to abnormal events and emergencies, recovery of control over orphan sources, informing users and others who might be affected by lost source, and education and training in the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials), is realized within this infrastructure. The legal system includes federal laws ('On the Use of Nuclear Energy' and 'On Public Radiation Safety'), a number of decrees and resolutions of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation, federal standards and rules for nuclear energy use, and also departmental and industrial manuals and rules, State standards, construction standards and rules and other documents. The safety regulation tasks have been defined by these laws, according to which regulatory authorities are entrusted with the development, approval and putting into force of standards and rules in the nuclear energy use, with issuing licenses for carrying out nuclear activities, with safety supervision assurance, with review and inspection implementation, with control over development and realization of protective measures for workers, population and environment in emergencies at nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities. Russian national regulatory authorities

  5. Genetic Algorithms for Agent-Based Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May Permann

    2007-03-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, electric power, telecommunication, and financial networks. This paper describes initial research combining agent-based infrastructure modeling software and genetic algorithms (GAs) to help optimize infrastructure protection and restoration decisions. This research proposes to apply GAs to the problem of infrastructure modeling and analysis in order to determine the optimum assets to restore or protect from attack or other disaster. This research is just commencing and therefore the focus of this paper is the integration of a GA optimization method with a simulation through the simulation’s agents.

  6. Radioactive waste management at the Paul Scherrer Institute, the largest Swiss national research centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Hans-Frieder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current radioactive waste management practices at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI. The PSI contributes to waste related problems in two aspects, namely to the scientific basis of waste management and disposal, and to the practical treatment and storage of radioactive waste. In addition to the tasks of treating on-site generated waste, PSI manages the wastes from medicine, industry, and research throughout Switzerland on behalf of the government. Therefore the Dismantling and Waste Management Section is a part of the Logistics Department at PSI. Proved and accepted methods have to be developed for the safe conditioning and storage of radioactive waste. Various waste treatment facilities exist at PSI. The conditioning facility is dedicated to sorting, compaction by a 120 t press, solidification with special cement, and embedding in concrete. Specialized facilities were constructed for waste from the decommissioning of research reactors. Activated aluminum and its alloys were melted in crucibles and embedded in concrete in a concrete container. After dismantling the structural material of the reactors, it was embedded in concrete in the same manner. For the conditioning of activated reactor graphite, a dedicated method was developed. Graphite was crushed to replace sand in the grout, for embedding radioactive waste in concrete containers. For accelerator waste, a walk-in hot cell equipped with an electrically driven manipulator is available where the highly activated large components (targets, beam dump can be cut into pieces and embedded in concrete in containers. To guarantee the fulfillment of the demands of the regulators, the Dismantling and Waste Management Section applies an accredited quality management system for the safe collection, conditioning, and storage of radioactive waste.

  7. Treatability study for the amalgamation of a radioactively contaminated elemental mercury waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatability studies of radioactively contaminated elemental mercury were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL). The treatment that was used for this waste form was amalgamation, the treatment standard as defined by 40 CFR 268, open-quotes Land Disposal Restrictions.close quotes An investigation team performed initial tests with noncontaminated mercury in order to determine process conditions producing adequate amalgam forms. The team felt that the desired amalgam forms would have the following properties: The initial solid is a malleable mass; Within 24 hours, this solid hardens into a nonmalleable one; There is no free mercury on visual inspection; There is no free mercury upon centrifuge testing

  8. Safe operation of a national centralized processing facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru has a centralized waste processing and storage facility for radioactive wastes. It is placed in the Nuclear Research Center 'RACSO'. It is located 40 km in the north of Lima and started operation in the beginning of 1989. Actually, RACSO, operates a pool type research reactor of 10 Mw to produce radioisotopes. There are many laboratories where a small research program is developed. Iodine-131 and Technetium 99 are produced twice a week. Some kind of radioactive wastes are produced. Other sources are from the application of radioisotopes in hospitals, industry and other institutions. This paper presents the experience gained in the operation of this centralized facility. In twenty years of operation has been produced 15 cubic metres of solid wastes, 532 TBq of activity and approximately standardized 52 drums of 200 litres of conditioned solid wastes. During the period of operation it has not been produced any kind of accident. (author)

  9. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory hazardous and radioactive mixed waste identification and characterization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides updated tabulations of the hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes generated and/or handled during CY 1986 at each INEL facility operated by EG and G, or any other operating contractor at the Site. These wastes are described in tabular form, providing information such as composition, generating process, contact person, EPA hazardous waste designation, quantity shipped off site (if applicable), and quantity in storage. Waste generation projections for the next ten years are also included for all INEL facilities. Finally, since many of EG and G's inactive disposal sites may prove to be significant sources of either hazardous or radioactive mixed wastes as remedial action activities under RCRA or CERCLA progress, information on these sites is provided. 2 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  10. Agent-Based Approaches for Behavioural Modelling in Military Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral modeling of combat entities in military simulations by creating synthetic agents in order to satisfy various battle scenarios is an important problem. The conventional modeling tools are not always sufficient to handle complex situations requiring adaptation. To deal with this Agent-Based Modeling (ABM is employed, as the agents exhibit autonomous behavior by adapting and varying their behavior during the course of the simulation whilst achieving the goals. Synthetic agents created by means of Computer Generated Force (CGF is a relatively recent approach to model behavior of combat entities for a more realistic training and effective military planning. CGFs, are also sometimes referred to as Semi- Automated Forces (SAF and enables to create high-fidelity simulations. Agents are used to control and augment the behavior of CGF entities, hence converting them into Intelligent CGF (ICGF. The intelligent agents can be modeled to exhibit cognitive abilities. For this review paper, extensive papers on stateof-the-art in agent-based modeling approaches and applications were surveyed. The paper assimilates issues involved in ABM with CGF as an important component of it. It reviews modeling aspects with respect to the interrelationship between ABM and CGF, which is required to carry out behavioral modeling. Important CGFs have been examined and a list with their significant features is given. Another issue that has been reviewed is that how the synthetic agents having different capabilities are implemented at different battle levels. Brief mention of state-of-the-art integrated cognitive architectures and a list of significant cognitive applications based on them with their features is given. At the same time, the maturity of ABM in agent-based applications has also been considered.

  11. National plan for achieving the objectives of the OSPAR strategy with regard to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Swedish plans for implementation of the OSPAR strategy with regard to radioactive substances. Revised release regulations for nuclear facilities are the primary tool in the work for achieving the objectives of the OSPAR strategy. The limitation of releases of radioactive substances shall be based on optimisation of radiation protection (ALARA) and the use of best available technique (BAT). Technical improvements to reduce discharges from the nuclear facilities include changes of daily routines in the waste management. Plans for the future include the introduction of new purification techniques and modernisation of waste facilities. The implementation of the new regulations, and in particular the introduction of BAT in terms of reference and target values for nuclear power reactors indicates the foreseen reductions of releases for the forthcoming five years. After that time, new reference and target values will be established. The regulations stipulate that monitoring of releases of radioactive substances shall be reported to the authorities. These reports will fulfil the demand for following-up of the progress of implementing the strategy. In particular, in yearly reports the progress towards reaching the target values will be monitored

  12. Radioactive waste management - a general and specific task of national and international importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning of a durable sustainable development requires balance between economic interests, social consequences and preservation and reproduction of the environment and human potential. For the profound investigation of the ecological problems it is particularly important to run alongside the analysis of the population health status and the growing emphasis on effective measures to be undertaken to solve them on a long-term basis in order to restrict and reduce the potential risk. One special task in this field concerns the radioactive waste in medicine, especially the unsealed radioactive sources for diagnostics and metabolic therapy and those handling after use. In the scope of the European legislature and the respective Bulgarian laws the radioactive waste is subject of severe requirements and special monitoring and control. The present paper describes the situation in the country linked to the organization of the RAW storage, processing and discharging including the prerequisites, the risks factors, the technological solutions and the potentialities for realization as well as the concerned responsible bodies. (author)

  13. On infrastructure network design with agent-based modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Heijnen, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an agent-based model to optimize green-field network design in an industrial area. We aim to capture some of the deep uncertainties surrounding infrastructure design by modelling it developing specific ant colony optimizations. Hence, we propose a variety of extensions to our existing work, first ideas on how to realize them and three cases to explicate our ideas. One case is the design of a CO2 pipeline network in Rotterdam industrial area. First simulation results have sho...

  14. Emergent Macroeconomics An Agent-Based Approach to Business Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Delli Gatti, Domenico; Gallegati, Mauro; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Palestrini, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    This book contributes substantively to the current state-of-the-art of macroeconomics by providing a method for building models in which business cycles and economic growth emerge from the interactions of a large number of heterogeneous agents. Drawing from recent advances in agent-based computational modeling, the authors show how insights from dispersed fields like the microeconomics of capital market imperfections, industrial dynamics and the theory of stochastic processes can be fruitfully combined to improve our understanding of macroeconomic dynamics. This book should be a valuable resource for all researchers interested in analyzing macroeconomic issues without recurring to a fictitious representative agent.

  15. An Agent Based Model for Social Class Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxiang; Rodriguez Segura, Daniel; Lin, Fei; Mazilu, Irina

    We present an open system agent-based model to analyze the effects of education and the society-specific wealth transactions on the emergence of social classes. Building on previous studies, we use realistic functions to model how years of education affect the income level. Numerical simulations show that the fraction of an individual's total transactions that is invested rather than consumed can cause wealth gaps between different income brackets in the long run. In an attempt to incorporate the network effects, we also explore how the probability of interactions among agents depending on the spread of their income brackets affects wealth distribution.

  16. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  17. Agent-based Simulation of Processes in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošanský, Branislav

    Praha : Ústav informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i. & MATFYZPRESS, 2008 - (Hakl, F.), s. 19-27 ISBN 978-80-7378-054-8. [Doktorandské dny 2008 Ústavu informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i.. Jizerka (CZ), 29.09.2008-01.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi - agent system s * agent -based simulation * process modelling * medicine Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. SPY AGENT BASED SECURE DATA AGGREGATION IN WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lathies Bhasker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network consist lot of sensor devices which are activated by using the battery power. These sensor devices are mostly used in hostile environment, military applications etc. So in this type of environment it is highly difficult to collect and transmit the data to the Sink without any data lost. In this paper we proposed SPY Agent based secure data aggregation scheme. Here one SPY Agent moves around the network and monitors the aggregator nodes i.e, the Cluster Heads for secure data collection. In the Simulation section we have analyzed our proposed architecture for both proactive and reactive protocols.

  19. Agent-based computational economics using NetLogo

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based Computational Economics using NetLogo explores how researchers can create, use and implement multi-agent computational models in Economics by using NetLogo software platform. Problems of economic science can be solved using multi-agent modelling (MAM). This technique uses a computer model to simulate the actions and interactions of autonomous entities in a network, in order to analyze the effects on the entire economic system. MAM combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence and evolutionary programming. The Monte Carlo method is also used in this e-book to introduc

  20. Agent-based Algorithm for Spatial Distribution of Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2012-06-02

    In this paper we present an agent-based algorithm for the spatial distribution of objects. The algorithm is a generalization of the bubble mesh algorithm, initially created for the point insertion stage of the meshing process of the finite element method. The bubble mesh algorithm treats objects in space as bubbles, which repel and attract each other. The dynamics of each bubble are approximated by solving a series of ordinary differential equations. We present numerical results for a meshing application as well as a graph visualization application.

  1. Summary of national and international radioactive waste management programs (excluding United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into two parts. Various national fuel cycle and waste management programs are summarized in tabular form in the first part. The second part of the report gives a nation-by-nation overview of fuel cycle and waste management technologies. Brief summaries on the activities of several international organizations are included

  2. Empirical agent-based modelling challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Barreteau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This instructional book showcases techniques to parameterise human agents in empirical agent-based models (ABM). In doing so, it provides a timely overview of key ABM methodologies and the most innovative approaches through a variety of empirical applications.  It features cutting-edge research from leading academics and practitioners, and will provide a guide for characterising and parameterising human agents in empirical ABM.  In order to facilitate learning, this text shares the valuable experiences of other modellers in particular modelling situations. Very little has been published in the area of empirical ABM, and this contributed volume will appeal to graduate-level students and researchers studying simulation modeling in economics, sociology, ecology, and trans-disciplinary studies, such as topics related to sustainability. In a similar vein to the instruction found in a cookbook, this text provides the empirical modeller with a set of 'recipes'  ready to be implemented. Agent-based modeling (AB...

  3. Markov chain aggregation for agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Banisch, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text develops a Markov chain approach that makes the rigorous analysis of a class of microscopic models that specify the dynamics of complex systems at the individual level possible. It presents a general framework of aggregation in agent-based and related computational models, one which makes use of lumpability and information theory in order to link the micro and macro levels of observation. The starting point is a microscopic Markov chain description of the dynamical process in complete correspondence with the dynamical behavior of the agent-based model (ABM), which is obtained by considering the set of all possible agent configurations as the state space of a huge Markov chain. An explicit formal representation of a resulting “micro-chain” including microscopic transition rates is derived for a class of models by using the random mapping representation of a Markov process. The type of probability distribution used to implement the stochastic part of the model, which defines the upd...

  4. Agent-Based Deterministic Modeling of the Bone Marrow Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhekar, Manish; Deshpande, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of stem cells not only describes but also predicts how a stem cell's environment can control its fate. The first stem cell populations discovered were hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this paper, we present a deterministic model of bone marrow (that hosts HSCs) that is consistent with several of the qualitative biological observations. This model incorporates stem cell death (apoptosis) after a certain number of cell divisions and also demonstrates that a single HSC can potentially populate the entire bone marrow. It also demonstrates that there is a production of sufficient number of differentiated cells (RBCs, WBCs, etc.). We prove that our model of bone marrow is biologically consistent and it overcomes the biological feasibility limitations of previously reported models. The major contribution of our model is the flexibility it allows in choosing model parameters which permits several different simulations to be carried out in silico without affecting the homeostatic properties of the model. We have also performed agent-based simulation of the model of bone marrow system proposed in this paper. We have also included parameter details and the results obtained from the simulation. The program of the agent-based simulation of the proposed model is made available on a publicly accessible website. PMID:27340402

  5. A Multi Agent Based Model for Airport Service Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Ip

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aviation industry is highly dynamic and demanding in nature that time and safety are the two most important factors while one of the major sources of delay is aircraft on ground because of it complexity, a lot of machinery like vehicles are involved and lots of communication are involved. As one of the aircraft ground services providers in Hong Kong International Airport, China Aircraft Services Limited (CASL aims to increase competitiveness by better its service provided while minimizing cost is also needed. One of the ways is to optimize the number of maintenance vehicles allocated in order to minimize chance of delay and also operating costs. In the paper, an agent-based model is proposed for support decision making in vehicle allocation. The overview of the aircrafts ground services procedures is firstly mentioned with different optimization methods suggested by researchers. Then, the agent-based approach is introduced and in the latter part of report and a multi-agent system is built and proposed which is decision supportive for CASL in optimizing the maintenance vehicles' allocation. The application provides flexibility for inputting number of different kinds of vehicles, simulation duration and aircraft arrival rate in order to simulation different scenarios which occurs in HKIA.

  6. Role Oriented Test Case Generation for Agent Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE is a rapidly developing area of research. Current research and development primarily focuses on the analysis, design and implementation of agent based software whereas testing is less prioritised. Software testing is an important and indispensable part of software development process. Test case generation is the primary step of any testing process which is followed by test execution and test evaluation. Test case generation is not an easy task but upon automating the test case generation process serves many advantages such as time saving, effort saving and more importantly reduces number of errors and faults. This paper investigates about generating test cases for testing agent based software. We propose a novel approach, which takes advantage of agent’s role as the basis for generating test cases. Role is an important mental attribute of an agent which is simply defined as the set of capabilities that an agent can perform. The main objective of this paper is to generate test cases from role diagram upon converting it to activity diagram.

  7. Agent-based Modelling, a new kind of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, Fabian P.; Wilkinson, Ian F.; Marks, Robert E.;

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of Agent-based Modelling for the development and testing of theories about emergent social phenomena in marketing and the social sciences in general. We address both theoretical aspects about the types of phenomena that are suitably addressed with this approach and practical gu...... development. The main goal of this paper was to make research on complex social systems more accessible and help anticipate and structure the research process. © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy.......We discuss the use of Agent-based Modelling for the development and testing of theories about emergent social phenomena in marketing and the social sciences in general. We address both theoretical aspects about the types of phenomena that are suitably addressed with this approach and practical...... guidelines to help plan and structure the development of a theory about the causes of such a phenomenon in conjunction with a matching ABM. We argue that research about complex social phenomena is still largely fundamental research and therefore an iterative and cyclical development process of both theory...

  8. LEARNING REPOSITORY ADAPTABILITY IN AN AGENT-BASED UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanco Cabukovski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automated e-Learning Systems (AeLS are fundamental to contemporary educational concepts worldwide.It has become a standard not only in support to the formal curriculum, but containing social platform capabilities, gamification elements and functionalities fostering communities of experts, also for faster knowledge dissemination. Additionally, AeLSs support internal communications and customizable analytics and methodologies to quickly identify learning performance, which in turn can be used as feedback to implement adaptability in tailoring the content management to meet specific individual needs. The volume of fast growing AeLS content of supplement material and exchanged communication combined with the already huge material archived in the university libraries is enormous and needs sophisticated managing through electronic repositories. Such integration of content management systems (CMS present challenges which can be solved optimally with the use of distributed management implemented through agent-based systems. This paper depicts a successful implementation of an Integrated Intelligent Agent Based UniversityInformation System (IABUIS.

  9. An agent-based approach to financial stylized facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Kyoko; Misawa, Tadanobu

    2007-06-01

    An important challenge of the financial theory in recent years is to construct more sophisticated models which have consistencies with as many financial stylized facts that cannot be explained by traditional models. Recently, psychological studies on decision making under uncertainty which originate in Kahneman and Tversky's research attract a lot of interest as key factors which figure out the financial stylized facts. These psychological results have been applied to the theory of investor's decision making and financial equilibrium modeling. This paper, following these behavioral financial studies, would like to propose an agent-based equilibrium model with prospect theoretical features of investors. Our goal is to point out a possibility that loss-averse feature of investors explains vast number of financial stylized facts and plays a crucial role in price formations of financial markets. Price process which is endogenously generated through our model has consistencies with, not only the equity premium puzzle and the volatility puzzle, but great kurtosis, asymmetry of return distribution, auto-correlation of return volatility, cross-correlation between return volatility and trading volume. Moreover, by using agent-based simulations, the paper also provides a rigorous explanation from the viewpoint of a lack of market liquidity to the size effect, which means that small-sized stocks enjoy excess returns compared to large-sized stocks.

  10. Radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Report No. 2 from the national surveillance programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brungot, A.L.; Sickel, M.; Bergan, T.D.; Boee, B.; Hellstroem, T.; Strand, P.

    1997-03-01

    During 1995 and 1996 a large number of samples of different types, collected from various fishing grounds of interest for Norwegian commercial fishing, were measured. During these years 50 pooled fish samples from a total of 2525 fish have been measured for gamma emitting radionuclides. Of these eight samples have also been measured for plutoniumisotopes. Thirteen samples of shrimps have also been measured for various radionuclides. In addition 800 samples of fish have been measured for radiocaesium on routine monitoring equipment with higher detection limit. For all those samples the content of radiocaesium fell below the detection limit. The general levels of radioactive contamination in the ocean areas surrounding Norway are low. In fish and shrimps the concentration of {sup 137}Cs is in the order of 1 Bq/kg. This is in the same range as the lowest levels found in products from the terrestrial ecosystem and far below the intervention levels for radioactive contamination of foodstuff. For most of the samples of biota measured for plutonium, the level fell below the limit of detection, a maximum of 5.6 mBq/kg og alpha emitting plutonium isotopes was found. Measurements on a number of samples of seawater, sediments and seaweed further confirms the low levels of radioactive contamination in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. For biota the levels of concerned radionuclides were decreasing towards north. This is due to the main sources of artificial radionuclides being located south of Norway, in the Baltic (Chernobyl fallout) and in the Irish Sea (Sellafield releases). 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Swedish National Report to International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden has a functional legal regulation, based on ICRP, IAEA and on the EU-directives regarding radiation. We have signed the IAEA Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources including the import and export part however all our arrangements can be improved. Such a work to improve is in progress partly based on the outcome of the IRRS that Sweden had in 2012. One major task is the regulations, which the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) just started in a process of rewriting and updating. The regulations are all accessible at the SSM webpage (www.ssm.se) together with additional information. (author)

  12. Aggradational and erosional history of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term performance of the low-level waste disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is partially dependent on the stability of the land surface with respect to erosion of cover materials. This document discusses the aggradational and erosional history of the naturally occurring sediments and soils in and around the RWMC, focusing on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Other related issues include the ages of the various deposits, the extent to which they have been altered by soil formation and other processes, their relationships to the basalt flows in the area, and the impact of human activity on the materials at the RWMC

  13. Characterization of radioactive and hazardous waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive and hazardous waste from actinide processing in nuclear facilities must be characterized in order to ensure safe and regulatory compliant disposal. Nondestructive assay techniques are used to determine nuclear material content and analytical chemistry methods are used to establish composition, but these activities are time-consuming and expensive. Regulations allow acceptable knowledge to be used in order to reduce analytical requirements, provided the integrity of documentation can be demonstrated. The viability of the program is based upon record management and traceability and must withstand the rigors of audit. Electronic inventory and data-gathering systems are implemented to reduce record management and reporting burdens. (author)

  14. An Agent Based Modelling Approach for Multi-Stakeholder Analysis of City Logistics Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, N

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive framework for multi-stakeholder analysis of city logistics solutions using agent based modeling. The framework describes different stages for the systematic development of an agent based model for the city logistics domain. The framework includes a multi-perspective city logistics ontology and its validation, the development of an agent base model using this ontology, and a validation approach for the agent based model using a participatory simulation game.

  15. Republic of Mauritius First National Report (2013) on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritius has, in April 2013, written to the IAEA Director General to express its commitment to the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. However, the country has during the past decade made considerable efforts to improve its national infrastructure for radiation safety. The promulgation of the Radiation Protection Act 2003 and the setting up of the Radiation Protection Authority in 2006 clearly demonstrated the commitment of the country towards the strengthening of its regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety. One of the first activities of the Radiation Protection Authority was to consolidate the national registry of radiation sources. There is a relatively wide range of applications involving the use of radioactive sources in the country. There are more than 160 radioactive sources currently being used in the country, ranging from high activity Cobalt-60 used for radiotherapy to very low activity sources used for education purposes. The RPA currently maintains an updated inventory of all radioactive sources using the RAIS software provided by the IAEA. The RPA has also planned to implement, in several phases, the use the RAIS to manage all its regulation information. Effective systems for regulating the use of radioactive sources in the country have been established by the RPA. The Authority strictly controls all imports of radioactive sources and ensures a cradle-to-grave tracking of all these sources. The RPA also ensure an effective control over all disused sealed sources and is currently planning the construction of a centralised source storage facility to ensure the safe and secure management of all disused sources. There are very limited available services to sustain the national infrastructure for radiation safety. This is one of the major challenges which the country has to address in the coming years. There is a long-term plan to develop adequate

  16. Republic of Bulgaria Third National Report (2010-2013) on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system for regulatory control and the national infrastructure for safety and security of radioactive sources are established in compliance with the provisions and principles laid down in the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom. The Republic of Bulgaria trough the NRA fulfils its obligations under the IAEA Code of Conduct and Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom. Fruitful cooperation is in place in the field of safety and security of radioactive sources, radiation protection, emergency planning and prevention of illegal traffic. With the aid of the European Union, IAEA and the USA, a number of improvements have been achieved regarding management and physical protection of high-activity sources and prevention of incidents with orphan sources and illegal traffic. The strategy for enhancement the effectiveness of the regulatory control and for improvement the safe management of radioactive sources is based on IAEA recommendations and EU legislation in this field. There are measures planned to overcome of some problems and to upgrade the national infrastructure for safety and security of the radioactive sources

  17. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba: report for the year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised environmental survey programme, introduced during 1970, with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1986. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River are given and discussed. Results of 131I, 90Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. In addition, special efforts were made to detect radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Russia but to no avail. Owing to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity due to releases from the Pelindaba site could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. Unplanned releases of UF6 sometimes occur. Accordingly, some of the environmental samples were also analysed for uranium. The results obtained so far do not indicate an increase in uranium levels in the environment

  18. Empirical agent-based land market: Integrating adaptive economic behavior in urban land-use models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces an economic agent-based model of an urban housing market. The RHEA (Risks and Hedonics in Empirical Agent-based land market) model captures natural hazard risks and environmental amenities through hedonic analysis, facilitating empirical agent-based land market modeling. RHEA i

  19. National Concept of the Radioactive Waste Management in the Czech Republic: Public Involvement in the related EIA Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By approval of the Atomic Act in 1997 the state assumed the responsibility for the safe disposal of all existing radioactive waste as well as that be generated in the future in the Czech Republic. Since certain categories of radioactive waste represent a highly hazardous long- term potential, the management and especially disposal of radioactive waste is a very long- term task which has to meet high technical, administrative and financial requirements. This is the main reason why a national policy of waste management is needed. The purpose of such a policy is to determine a long-term government strategy with respect to those organisations generating radioactive waste or otherwise involved in the management system and to provide a general system framework for decisions to be made by any party involved in radioactive waste management. In 2000 the document called Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management in CR was prepared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade in co-operation with many other organisations. The main goal was to come up with generally acceptable ideas for the strategically justified and scientifically, technologically, environmentally, financially and socially acceptable management of radioactive waste. At the same time this document is to serve as a source of clear information for the general public. The document is based on the results of detailed analyses of all reasonable options. Construction of a deep geological repository for the direct disposal of spent fuel and other high level wastes is considered to be the only realistic option for a final solution based on the current state of knowledge, yet this decision on further development could be reversed in the future by a new evaluation of management options, expected in 20 years time. In compliance with the Environmental Impact Assessment Act all similar concepts must be made public and civic organisations and other interested parties in this field should be invited to comment. Only

  20. National Report on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the current status on the implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, and its supplementary Guidance on Import and Export in the Republic of Macedonia. In the Report a brief analysis of Macedonian legislation and regulation currently in force in regard of the issues regulated by the Code and the Guidance is presented. National regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety and nuclear security in the Republic of Macedonia, covering the main functions of the regulatory body, duties and responsibilities of technical service organizations and advisory body of the national regulatory body, is presented as well. Special emphasize on the progress regarding the radiation safety, nuclear security and the overall implementation of the Code and the Guidance in the last three years was made. In addition, the report covers the provisions in regard of import/export and transit of radioactive sources, describing the national system for import/export and transit authorization and presenting the unified electronic system for application and issuing the license for import, export and transit of radioactive material, whereas its main advantages: safe, fast, user friendly full time accessibility, are stressed. The report contains shortly, details for National register of radioactive sources and Macedonian experience in establishing and maintenance the register. The management of radioactive waste and disused radioactive sources is addressed in the report, as well as the national position in regard of orphan sources is stipulated, including some experience concerning orphan sources gained so far. Mitigating and minimizing the radiological consequences of accidents and malicious acts involving radioactive sources, in accordance with the National radiation emergency plan and in line with the Code are also part of this report. Confidentiality of information is covered as well in this report. The report finds

  1. Statistical Agent Based Modelization of the Phenomenon of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Clemente, Riccardo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a statistical agent based model to describe the phenomenon of drug abuse and its dynamical evolution at the individual and global level. The agents are heterogeneous with respect to their intrinsic inclination to drugs, to their budget attitude and social environment. The various levels of drug use were inspired by the professional description of the phenomenon and this permits a direct comparison with all available data. We show that certain elements have a great importance to start the use of drugs, for example the rare events in the personal experiences which permit to overcame the barrier of drug use occasionally. The analysis of how the system reacts to perturbations is very important to understand its key elements and it provides strategies for effective policy making. The present model represents the first step of a realistic description of this phenomenon and can be easily generalized in various directions.

  2. Statistical Agent Based Modelization of the Phenomenon of Drug Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Di Clemente, Riccardo; 10.1038/srep00532

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a statistical agent based model to describe the phenomenon of drug abuse and its dynamical evolution at the individual and global level. The agents are heterogeneous with respect to their intrinsic inclination to drugs, to their budget attitude and social environment. The various levels of drug use were inspired by the professional description of the phenomenon and this permits a direct comparison with all available data. We show that certain elements have a great importance to start the use of drugs, for example the rare events in the personal experiences which permit to overcame the barrier of drug use occasionally. The analysis of how the system reacts to perturbations is very important to understand its key elements and it provides strategies for effective policy making. The present model represents the first step of a realistic description of this phenomenon and can be easily generalized in various directions.

  3. Building Distributed Web GIS: A Mobile-Agent Based Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of GISs and the wide-spread availability of WWWhave l e d to an increasing amount of research on integrating a variety of heterogeneous and autonomous GISs in a cooperative environment to construct a new generation o f GIS characterizing in open architecture, distributed computation, interoperabi lity, and extensibility. Our on-going research project MADGI S (Mobile Agent based Distributed Geographic Information System) is reported, in which we pro pose the architecture of MADGIS to meet the requirements of integrating distribu ted GIS applications under Internet environment. We first describe the architect ure of MADGIS, and detailed discussions focusing on the structure of client site , server site and mobile agent in MADGIS. Then we explore key techniques for MAD GIS implementation.

  4. Autonomous Traffic Control System Using Agent Based Technology

    CERN Document Server

    M, Venkatesh; V, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    The way of analyzing, designing and building of real-time projects has been changed due to the rapid growth of internet, mobile technologies and intelligent applications. Most of these applications are intelligent, tiny and distributed components called as agent. Agent works like it takes the input from numerous real-time sources and gives back the real-time response. In this paper how these agents can be implemented in vehicle traffic management especially in large cities and identifying various challenges when there is a rapid growth of population and vehicles. In this paper our proposal gives a solution for using autonomous or agent based technology. These autonomous or intelligent agents have the capability to observe, act and learn from their past experience. This system uses the knowledge flow of precedent signal or data to identify the incoming flow of forthcoming signal. Our architecture involves the video analysis and exploration using some Intelligence learning algorithm to estimate and identify the...

  5. Design of an Agent Based Traffic-Information Collection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenedy Aliila Greyson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, traffic congestions are common events in road networks of main cities in developing countries. It has been observed that, the size of congestion increases year after year. For traffic congestion management to work efficiently, sufficiently and accurately information are needed. In this research we present an alternative method using agent technology to collect and manipulate data so as to be used in optimizing the vehicle flow within the road networks. The objective is to design an agent based system to provide sufficient and accurate information used in traffic flow management, and vehicle traffic congestion mitigation. The implementation approach is presented. The case study is a portion of the road network from the city of Dar es Salaam.

  6. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

  7. UML MODELING AND SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR AGENT BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muhammad Noorul Mubarak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this current technological era, there is an enormous increase in the information available on web and also in the online databases. This information abundance increases the complexity of finding relevant information. To solve such challenges, there is a need for improved and intelligent systems for efficient search and retrieval. Intelligent Agents can be used for better search and information retrieval in a document collection. The information required by a user is scattered in a large number of databases. In this paper, the object oriented modeling for agent based information retrieval system is presented. The paper also discusses the framework of agent architecture for obtaining the best combination terms that serve as an input query to the information retrieval system. The communication and cooperation among the agents are also explained. Each agent has a task to perform in information retrieval.

  8. Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vaněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent based simulation platform is introduced that focuses on legitimate and illegitimate aspects of maritime traffic, mainly on intercontinental transport through piracy afflicted areas. The extensible architecture presented here comprises several modules controlling the simulation and the life-cycle of the agents, analyzing the simulation output and visualizing the entire simulated domain. The simulation control module is initialized by various configuration scenarios to simulate various real-world situations, such as a pirate ambush, coordinated transit through a transport corridor, or coastal fishing and local traffic. The environmental model provides a rich set of inputs for agents that use the geo-spatial data and the vessel operational characteristics for their reasoning. The agent behavior model based on finite state machines together with planning algorithms allows complex expression of agent behavior, so the resulting simulation output can serve as a substitution for real world data from the maritime domain.

  9. Agent-based multi-optional model of innovations diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Laciana, Carlos E

    2013-01-01

    We propose a formalism that allows the study of the process of diffusion of several products competing in a common market. It is based on the generalization of the statistics Ising model (Potts model). For the implementation, agent based modeling is used, applied to a problem of three options; to adopt a product A, a product B, or non-adoption. A launching strategy is analyzed for one of the two products, which delays its launching with the objective of competing with improvements. The proportion reached by one and another product is calculated at market saturation. The simulations are produced varying the social network topology, the uncertainty in the decision, and the population's homogeneity.

  10. Capacity Analysis for Parallel Runway through Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel runway is the mainstream structure of China hub airport, runway is often the bottleneck of an airport, and the evaluation of its capacity is of great importance to airport management. This study outlines a model, multiagent architecture, implementation approach, and software prototype of a simulation system for evaluating runway capacity. Agent Unified Modeling Language (AUML is applied to illustrate the inbound and departing procedure of planes and design the agent-based model. The model is evaluated experimentally, and the quality is studied in comparison with models, created by SIMMOD and Arena. The results seem to be highly efficient, so the method can be applied to parallel runway capacity evaluation and the model propose favorable flexibility and extensibility.

  11. Complexity and agent-based modelling in urban research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    influence on the bigger system. Traditional scientific methods or theories often tried to simplify, not accounting complex relations of actors and decision-making. The introduction of computers in simulation made new approaches in modelling, as for example agent-based modelling (ABM), possible, dealing...... with issues of complexity. Also in urban research, computer simulation is becoming popular for more and more issues, aiming at a new understanding of urban systems. The essay is based on some recent articles as well as some relevant websites. Due to the use of ABM in many scientific fields and the relevance......Urbanisation processes are results of a broad variety of actors or actor groups and their behaviour and decisions based on different experiences, knowledge, resources, values etc. The decisions done are often on a micro/individual level but resulting in macro/collective behaviour. In urban research...

  12. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    modelling, and relying on empirical data from fieldwork and observations for parameterization of variables, the level of clustering in agricultural fields observed around a study village is reproduced. Agents in the model act to maximize labour productivity, which is based on potential yield and labour......Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent-based...... costs associated with fencing of fields, and are faced with physical constraints. The simulation results are compared with land-cover data obtained from remote sensing. Comparisons are made on patterns as detected visually and using the mean nearest-neighbour ratio. Baseline simulation outputs show high...

  13. Return Migration After Brain Drain: An Agent Based Simulation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Biondo, A E; Rapisarda, A

    2012-01-01

    The Brain Drain phenomenon is particularly heterogeneous and is characterized by peculiar specifications. It influences the economic fundamentals of both the country of origin and the host one in terms of human capital accumulation. Here, the brain drain is considered from a microeconomic perspective: more precisely we focus on the individual rational decision to return, referring it to the social capital owned by the worker. The presented model, restricted to the case of academic personnel, compares utility levels to justify agent's migration conduct and to simulate several scenarios with a NetLogo agent based model. In particular, we developed a simulation framework based on two fundamental individual features, i.e. risk aversion and initial expectation, which characterize the dynamics of different agents according to the random evolution of their personal social networks. Our main result is that, according to the value of risk aversion and initial expectation, the probability of return migration depends on...

  14. Next frontier in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on automated negotiations based on multi-agent systems. It is intended for researchers and students in various fields involving autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as e-commerce tools, decision-making and negotiation support systems, and collaboration tools. The contents will help them to understand the concept of automated negotiations, negotiation protocols, negotiating agents’ strategies, and the applications of those strategies. In this book, some negotiation protocols focusing on the multiple interdependent issues in negotiations are presented, making it possible to find high-quality solutions for the complex agents’ utility functions. This book is a compilation of the extended versions of the very best papers selected from the many that were presented at the International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations.

  15. Using Agent Based Modeling (ABM) to Develop Cultural Interaction Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Nick; Jones, Phillip N.

    2012-01-01

    Today, most cultural training is based on or built around "cultural engagements" or discrete interactions between the individual learner and one or more cultural "others". Often, success in the engagement is the end or the objective. In reality, these interactions usually involve secondary and tertiary effects with potentially wide ranging consequences. The concern is that learning culture within a strict engagement context might lead to "checklist" cultural thinking that will not empower learners to understand the full consequence of their actions. We propose the use of agent based modeling (ABM) to collect, store, and, simulating the effects of social networks, promulgate engagement effects over time, distance, and consequence. The ABM development allows for rapid modification to re-create any number of population types, extending the applicability of the model to any requirement for social modeling.

  16. AGENT based structural static and dynamic collaborative optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A static and dynamic collaborative optimization mode for complex machine system and itsontology project relationship are put forward, on which an agent-based structural static and dynamiccollaborative optimization system is constructed as two agent colonies: optimization agent colony andfinite element analysis colony. And a two-level solving strategy as well as the necessity and possibilityfor handing with finite element analysis model in multi-level mode is discussed. Furthermore, the coop-eration of all FEA agents for optimal design of complicated structural is studied in detail. Structural stat-ic and dynamic collaborative optimization of hydraulic excavator working equimpent is taken as an ex-ample to show that the system is reliable.

  17. Mobile Agent Based Framework for Integrating Digital Library System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Few of the current approaches to achieve the integration of digital library system have considered the influence of network factors on quality of service for the integration system of digital libraries. For this reason, a mobile agent based framework for integrating digital library system is proposed. Based on this framework, a prototype system is implemented and the key technique for it are described. Compared with the current approaches, using mobile agent technique to achieve the integration of digital library system can not only avoid transmitting a lot of data on the network, lower the dependence on network bandwidth for the system, but also improve the quality of service for the integration system of digital libraries in intermitted or unreliable network connection settings.

  18. Survey of the agent-based approach to intelligent manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Summary of the state-of-the-art of the Distributed Artificial Intelligence applied to Intelligent Manufacturing. Main applications are presented along with different technologies applied in these areas.Design/methodology/approach: Intelligent Manufacturing area was split into many segments, which require different approach to intelligent problem solving. Multiagent systems negotiation needs were analysed and cooperation issues in the form of clustering, cloning, and learning were analysed in search for the relevant tools.Findings: Detailed review of the approach to development of the agent based Intelligent Manufacturing from the fundamental considerations to the latest hands-on developments.Research limitations/implications: Many presented technologies call for detailed study before they can be implemented in practice.Originality/value: Thorough review of the Distributed Artificial Intelligence approach to current agile manufacturing needs. Key technologies are pointed out along with the main areas in which they can be implemented, and which require further research.

  19. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for packages, shipments, special arrangements and special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's transport regulations prescribe various requirements for the authorization of packages and shipments in respect of both national and international movement of radioactive materials. These authorizations are issued by the relevant competent authority of the country concerned; they take the form of package approval and/or shipment approval certificates. At the request of the Standing Advisory Group of the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Agency has established a programme to maintain a file of those certificates for packages and shipments which are either transported internationally or used outside the country of origin. The purpose of this directory is to facilitate the transfer of information to competent authorities and any other person wishing details on the packaging, authorized contents or special conditions pertinent to any package or shipment. The directory enables competent authorities to be aware of the status of any certificate submitted for validation. It also indicates any change in status of any certificate already validated. Future updates of the complete data will be distributed annually in a TECDOC form and, in addition, summary listings of the certificates will be issued every six months thereafter

  20. Subsurface Investigations Program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual progress report, FY-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work conducted in FY-85 in support of the Subsurface Investigation Program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The work is part of a continuing effort to define and predict radionuclide migration from buried waste. The Subsurface Investigation Program is a cooperative study conducted by EG and G Idaho and the US Geological Survey, INEL Office. EG and G is responsible for the shallow drilling, solution chemistry, and net downward flux portions of this program, while the US Geological Survey is responsible for the weighing lysimeters and test trench. Data collection was initiated by drilling, sampling, and instrumenting shallow wells, continuing the installation of test trenches, and modifying the two weighing lysimeters. Twenty-one shallow auger holes were around the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to evaluate radionuclide content in the surficial sediments, to determine the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the surficial sediments, and to provide as monitoring sites for moisture in these sediments. Eighteen porous cup lysimeters were installed in 12 auger holes to collect soil water samples from the surficial sediments. Fourteen auger holes were instrumented with tensiometers, gypsum blocks and/or psychrometers at various depths throughout the RWMC. Readings from these instruments are taken on a monthly basis

  1. An agent-based model for energy service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An agent-based model for household energy efficiency upgrades is considered. • Energy service companies provide an alternative to traditional utility providers. • Household self-financing is a limiting factor to widespread efficiency upgrading. • Longer term service contracts can lead to reduced household energy costs. • Future energy price increases enable service providers to retain their customer base. - Abstract: The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy accounting for approximately one third of carbon emissions in the United Kingdom. Achieving a sustainable, low-carbon infrastructure necessitates a reduced and more efficient use of domestic energy supplies. Energy service companies offer an alternative to traditional providers, which supply a single utility product to satisfy the unconstrained demand of end users, and have been identified as a potentially important actor in sustainable future economies. An agent-based model is developed to examine the potential of energy service companies to contribute to the large scale upgrading of household energy efficiency, which would ultimately lead to a more sustainable and secure energy infrastructure. The migration of households towards energy service companies is described by an attractiveness array, through which potential customers can evaluate the future benefits, in terms of household energy costs, of changing provider. It is shown that self-financing is a limiting factor to the widespread upgrading of residential energy efficiency. Greater reductions in household energy costs could be achieved by committing to longer term contracts, allowing upgrade costs to be distributed over greater time intervals. A steadily increasing cost of future energy usage lends an element of stability to the market, with energy service companies displaying the ability to retain customers on contract expiration. The model highlights how a greater focus on the provision of energy services, as

  2. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. PMID:20530861

  3. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Clive [Environment Agency, Block 1, Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom); Burns, Philip [Formerly of the Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Solihull B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Wakerley, Malcolm [Formerly of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Ergon House, 17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR (United Kingdom); Watson, Isabelle [Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 5 Redwood Crescent, Peel Park, East Kilbride G74 5PP (United Kingdom); Cook, Marianne [Scottish Government, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh EH6 6QQ (United Kingdom); Moloney, Barry [Safeguard International (now EnergySolutions), B168, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10{sup 14} Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  4. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 1014 Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  5. Catching the PHEVer: Simulating Electric Vehicle Diffusion with an Agent-Based Mixed Logit Model of Vehicle Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell Brown

    2013-01-01

    This research develops then merges two separate models to simulate electric vehicle diffusion through recreation of the Boston metropolitan statistical area vehicle market place. The first model is a mixed (random parameters) logistic regression applied to data from the US Department of Transportation's 2009 National Household Travel Survey. The second, agent-based model simulates social network interactions through which agents' vehicle choice sets are endogenously determined. Parameters fro...

  6. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-01

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents. PMID:25587896

  7. Criteria needs for siting, licensing, operation, closure, stabilization, and decommissioning of shallow land-disposal sites for radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identified criteria needs are as follows: (1) long-term objective and time frame for the isolation of radioactive waste in a shallow land burial site must be specified; objective for optimum and minimum acceptable geological formations for the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste must be specified; type of radioactive waste acceptable for shallow land burial must be specified; appropriate segregation of radioactive waste for burial into shallow land must be specified; acceptability of site design for both dry and humid regions must be specified; objectives to be accomplished through proper operational methods and procedures during burial must be specified; minimum acceptable nonradiological occupational protection program for a shallow land burial site must be identified; objectives of a recordkeeping system for burial of radioactive waste in shallow land must be identified; objectives of an emergency response plan for a shallow land burial site for radioactive waste must be identified; recommended limits of radiation exposure to the general population from the disposal of radioactive waste into shallow land must be identified; what constitutes a stabilized site, acceptable for final closure must be identified; long-term objectives during institutional care by a governmental agency following closure must be specified; minimum financial surety required to avoid expenditure of government funds in the event of premature closure of a shallow land burial site must be identified;long-term financial requirements to properly maintain a shallow land burial site after closure must be identified; objectives of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the burial of radioactive waste into shallow land must be identified; objectives of environmental monitoring during preoperational, operational, closure, and postclosure of a shallow land burial site muste be specified

  8. Modeling and simulation of complex systems a framework for efficient agent-based modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Siegfried, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Robert Siegfried presents a framework for efficient agent-based modeling and simulation of complex systems. He compares different approaches for describing structure and dynamics of agent-based models in detail. Based on this evaluation the author introduces the "General Reference Model for Agent-based Modeling and Simulation" (GRAMS). Furthermore he presents parallel and distributed simulation approaches for execution of agent-based models -from small scale to very large scale. The author shows how agent-based models may be executed by different simulation engines that utilize underlying hard

  9. Radionuclides and radioactivity in soils within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1974 through 1994: Concentrations, trends, and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Ferenbaugh, J.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perona, R.A. [ERM/Golder Los Alamos Project Team, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A soil sampling and analysis program is the most direct means of determining the concentration, inventory, and distribution of radionuclides and radioactivity in the environment within and around nuclear facilities. This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, total uranium, and gross alpha, beta, and gamma activity in soils collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), perimeter, and regional (background) areas over a 21-year period (1974 through 1994). Also, trends in radionuclide concentrations and radioactivity over time and the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) were determined for each site. The upper-limit regional background concentration (95% upper-confidence level) for each radionuclide and level of radioactivity were as follows: {sup 3}H (6.34 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}), {sup 137}Cs (1.13 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 238}Pu (0.008 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 239,240}Pu (0.028 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 241}Am (0.208 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 90}Sr (0.82 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), total uranium (4.05 {micro}g dry g{sup {minus}1}); and gross alpha (35.24 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), beta (13.62 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), and gamma (7.33 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}) activity. Based on the average over the years, most LANL and perimeter soils contained three or more radionuclides and/or gross radioactive that were significantly higher in concentration (p < 0.05) than regional background. The net dose (TEDE minus background) for residents living on-site at LANL or along its perimeter ranged from {minus}0.3 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (east of TA-54) to 3.8 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (east of Ta-53) and from {minus}0.4 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (White Rock) to 3.6 mrem yy{sup {minus}1} (west of LANL on Forest Service land across from TA-8GT site).

  10. REVISED INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE A AND B RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINES TRENCH BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the verification survey was to obtain evidence by means of measurements and sampling to confirm that the final radiological conditions were less than the established release criteria. This objective was achieved via multiple verification components including document reviews to determine the accuracy and adequacy of FSS documentation. During the period between September 28 and 29, 2009 and December 9 and 10, 2009 an independent verification team with the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education conducted measurements and sampling of the A and B Radioactive Waste Transfer Line Trench at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site. Gamma walkover scans did not identify radiation levels that warranted additional investigation. ORISE collected ten judgmental soil samples. All individual samples and the corresponding mean concentration were determined to be below the established cleanup goals. Therefore, it is the opinion of ORISE that the remedial actions implemented by BNL sufficiently meet the established clean-up goals.

  11. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora.

  12. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora

  13. Report on the evaluation of the national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the French national plan for the management of nuclear materials and wastes (PNGMDR), its elaboration approach and its needed evolutions when taking new objectives into account. It addresses the difficulties faced in the development of the transmutation technology, but stresses the need to keep on looking this way. It discusses the storage of radioactive wastes (low level wastes, deep geological storage for high and intermediate level wastes). It comments how public consultation operates, its challenges, its limitations, and its shortcomings. Then, it gives an overview of the situation of the nuclear sector and outlines the lack of coordination with foreign countries. Among the appendices, one can notably find a presentation of the management of nuclear wastes in Germany, a presentation of fourth generation reactors, and a synthesis note on tarring

  14. Accreditation to ISO 17025:2005 for the Radioactivity Metrology Group of the UK's National Physical Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mid 1990s, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) took the decision to seek external accreditation to the then UK national accreditation standard (M10, M10 supplement and M11) through the NPL's National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS). This paper details the reasoning behind that initial decision and, in particular, how this impinged on the day-to-day activities of the NPL's Radioactivity Metrology Group (RMG). In the intervening decade, the accreditation standard has changed considerably; accreditation is now to the international standards ISO 9001:2000 (Quality Management Systems: Requirements) and ISO 17025:2005 (General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories); accreditation is now carried out by a wholly separate successor organization to NAMAS, the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). To meet the new accreditation requirements the RMG: realigned it's scope of work; streamlined and consolidated written procedures, references and appendices; centralized the collection of written procedures, and clarified the document identification system. Future developments will include efforts for RMG accreditation for conducting proficiency tests and providing reference materials. (author)

  15. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The format of this report is a result of recommendations made by the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) at its 6th meeting in November 1987. The database was at that time maintained on the main frame and it was felt that adapting it for use on a personal computer would allow more flexibility in data processing and reporting. This document supersedes TECDOC-552 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design and Shipment of Radioactive Material 1990 Edition''. Since publication of TECDOC-552, some modifications affecting the structure of the database and reporting formats were undertaken. These are fully described in ''Working Material: The PACKTRAM Database National Competent Authority Package Approval Certificates, User Guide Rev. 1'', which was released in early 1991. The present report is contained in five tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. This is composed of the issuing Member State's VRI code, followed by a slash, then a three- or four-digit number, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expire, dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table. 5

  16. National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info'2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings published in two volumes contain materials presented at the National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info'2000, Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry, held on 5. September to 8. September 2000 at Baita Bihor, Romania. As the name of Symposium indicates, this manifestation is addressed not only to specialists but rather to the public at large. The proceedings are structured in 4 sections: 1. Management of radioactive waste arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning; 2. Uranium mine close-down; 3. Environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites; 4. Management of radioactive waste arising from nuclear applications. The first volume also contains an inaugural session dedicated to nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and development of uranium industry in Romania. The contributions in the first volume deal with the management of radioactive waste arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning and uranium mine close-out

  17. The Infrastructure for regulatory Control of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Sierra Leone. National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory control of radioactive materials and source commenced in 2001 with the enactment of the Protection from Radiation Act, 2001. The Act established the Radiation Protection Board as the sole regulatory body for the control of the uses of radiation. The Act was found to be inconsistent with the IAEA and other International Requirements by an Integral Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Mission in 2008. The Act was revised and replaced by the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act, 2012. The 2012 Act established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority as the sole regulatory body for control of the use of radiation in Sierra Leone. The Authority has a supervisory Board known as the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board, comprising of 11 (eleven) Members and a Chairman. All the eleven Board Members are Ex-officio representing various Stakeholder Institutions/Establishments. The Chairman is the Dean of the Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone. The Board has a Secretariat which carries out the day-to-day technical duties of the Authority. There are 14 (Fourteen) Scientists and 10 (Ten) Support Staff Members making a total of 24 (Twenty-Four) Staff Members. Through the Secretariat, the Authority now undertakes Notification, Inspection, Authorization and Enforcement for all radiation sources in the country. Inspections are regularly conducted on all radiation facilities in the country. An Inventory of radiation sources has been developed and a National Register of all radiation sources prepared. There are 148 facilities registered in the source register and a total of 741 radiation sources in the country. Monitoring of occupational exposed workers is being carried out using a Rados Semi-Automatic TLD Readers. Most of the monitored workers are at the Mines, Medical Facilities, Construction Companies and the Brewery. Some monitoring of NORMS is carried out particularly at the Mines. Some minerals

  18. Summary of non-US national and international radioactive waste management programs 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nations and international agencies are working to develop improved technology and industrial capability for neuclear fuel cycle and waste management operations. The effort in some countries is limited to research in university laboratories on treating low-level waste from reactor plant operations. In other countries, national nuclear research institutes are engaged in major programs in all phases of the fuel cycle and waste management, and there is a national effort to commercialize fuel cycle operations. Since late 1976, staff members of Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working under US Department of Energy sponsorship to assemble and consolidate openly available information on foreign and international nuclear waste management programs and technology. This report summarizes the information collected on the status of fuel cycle and waste management programs in selected countries making major efforts in these fields as of the end of May 1981

  19. Summary of non-US national and international radioactive waste management programs 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nations and international agencies are working to develop improved technology and industrial capability for nuclear fuel cycle and waste management operations. The effort in some countries is limited to research in university laboratories on treating low-level waste from reactor plant operations. In other countries, national nuclear research institutes are engaged in major programs in all phases of the fuel cycle and waste management, and there is a national effort to commercialize fuel cycle operations. Since late 1976, staff members of Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working under US Department of Energy sponsorship to assemble and consolidate openly available information on foreign and international nuclear waste management programs and technology. This report summarizes the information collected on the status of fuel cycle and waste management programs in selected countries making major efforts in these fields as of the end of January 1980

  20. Implementation of the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and its supplementary Import/Export Guidance. National Report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the Norwegian Report to the IAEA International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining the Continuous Global Control of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 27–31 October 2013. This report outlines the Norwegian legislative and regulatory systems of radiation protection. It describes functions and responsibilities of the national regulatory body, to show that the Norwegian radiation protection system is well developed and in accordance with the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. However, the Norwegian authorities will aim to improve the radiation protection policy to further enhance safety and security of radioactive sources, in line with the Code and its supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. In Norway both services and facilities are available for persons authorized to manage radioactive sources. The national source register is a combined electronic register and notification system for users of radiation sources. Presently the system is being improved to be able to give geographical overviews, to make it possible to search for serial numbers of radiation sources and to make it easier to keep the information in the system updated at any time. These improvements will both contribute to prevent loss of control of radioactive sources and to help in situations with orphan sources. Norway has a well working radioactive waste management system. The general current status is emphasized in this report, but it also contains more specific examples and a short account for the new national administrative practice regarding outphasing of gamma blood irradiators. (author)

  1. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings

  3. Alteration of national glass in radioactive waste repository host rocks: A conceptional review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The storage of high-level radioactive wastes in host rocks containing natural glass has potential chemical advantages, especially if the initial waste temperatures are as high as 250/sup 0/C. However, it is not certain how natural glasses will decompose when exposed to an aqueous phase in a repository environment. The hydration and devitrification of both rhyolitic and natural basaltic natural glasses are reviewed in the context of hypothetical thermodynamic phase relations, infrared spectroscopic data and laboratory studies of synthetic glasses exposed to steam. The findings are compared with field observations and laboratory studies of hydrating and devitrifying natural glasses. The peculiarities of the dependence of hydration and devitrification behavior on compositional variation is noted. There is substantial circumstantial evidence to support the belief that rhyolitic glasses differ from basaltic glasses in their thermodynamic stability and their lattice structure, and that this is manifested by a tendency of the former to hydrate rather than devitrify when exposed to water. Further research remains to be done to confirm the differences in glass structure, and to determine both physically and chemically dependent properties of natural glasses as a function of composition.

  4. Population ecology of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Species composition, diversity, biomass, population dynamics, absolute density, and movements of small mammal populations were examined on and adjacent to a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in marking 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. Three vegetation types were sampled: crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on the disposal area and native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats as well as the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. The annual total small mammal biomass of 346 kg for the entire disposal area represents a potentially large vector for movement of radionuclides off the disposal area. However, the number of animals known to contact waste areas and traverse at least 50 m beyond the perimeter of the SDA appears to be small (8.7%)

  5. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Review of contributed papers. Session IIb: National strategies to ensure the safe disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper identifies and summarizes the main issues arising from the 32 contributed papers to the session. The main topics covered are addressed under the headings: national strategies, waste processing, storage, disposal and clearance. The paper concludes by summarizing the main common issues arising from the papers. (author)

  7. Serious games experiment toward agent-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the potential for serious games to be used as a scientifically based decision-support product that supports the United States Geological Survey’s (USGS) mission--to provide integrated, unbiased scientific information that can make a substantial contribution to societal well-being for a wide variety of complex environmental challenges. Serious or pedagogical games are an engaging way to educate decisionmakers and stakeholders about environmental challenges that are usefully informed by natural and social scientific information and knowledge and can be designed to promote interactive learning and exploration in the face of large uncertainties, divergent values, and complex situations. We developed two serious games that use challenging environmental-planning issues to demonstrate and investigate the potential contributions of serious games to inform regional-planning decisions. Delta Skelta is a game emulating long-term integrated environmental planning in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, that incorporates natural hazards (flooding and earthquakes) and consequences for California water supplies amidst conflicting water interests. Age of Ecology is a game that simulates interactions between economic and ecologic processes, as well as natural hazards while implementing agent-based modeling. The content of these games spans the USGS science mission areas related to water, ecosystems, natural hazards, land use, and climate change. We describe the games, reflect on design and informational aspects, and comment on their potential usefulness. During the process of developing these games, we identified various design trade-offs involving factual information, strategic thinking, game-winning criteria, elements of fun, number and type of players, time horizon, and uncertainty. We evaluate the two games in terms of accomplishments and limitations. Overall, we demonstrated the potential for these games to usefully represent scientific information

  8. Security Analysis of Selected AMI Failure Scenarios Using Agent Based Game Theoretic Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) functional domain which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) working group has currently documented 29 failure scenarios. The strategy for the game was developed by analyzing five electric sector representative failure scenarios contained in the AMI functional domain. From these five selected scenarios, we characterize them into three specific threat categories affecting confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the AMI functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the AMI network with respect to CIA.

  9. Investigation of the subsurface environment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive, 10-year plan to investigate radionuclide migration in the subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been prepared and initiated (in FY-84). The RWMC Subsurface Investigation is designed to address two objectives set forth by the DOE Idaho Operations Office: (1) determine the extent of radionuclide migration, if any, from the buried waste, and (2) develop and calibrate a computer model to simulate long-term radionuclide migration. At the RWMC, the Snake River Plain Aquifer underlies about 177 m of partially saturated, fractured basalts and thin sedimentary units. Three sedimentary units, accounting for no more than 20 m of the partially saturated thickness, appear to be continuous throughout the area. Thinner sedimentary units are discontinuous. Low-level waste and (prior to 1970) transuranic waste have been buried in the surficial sediments at the RWMC. The first burials took place in 1952. Due to the complicated disposal system, a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art vadose zone monitoring instrumentation and techniques, an analysis of conceptual migration pathways, and an evaluation of potential hazard from buried radionuclides were conducted to guide preparation of the investigation plan. The plan includes an overview of the RWMC facility, subsurface work conducted to date at the RWMC and other DOE laboratory facilities, an evaluation and selection of the methods and studies to be used, a radionuclide hazard evaluation, a cost analysis, and external peer review results. In addition, an Appendix contains the details for each method/study to be employed. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  10. Radioactivity in the marine environment. Report from the national surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1994 a large number of samples from the marine environment have been measured. Regarding fish, 22 samples have been measured for all gamma emitting radioisotopes using HPGe detectors. Four pooled samples have been analyzed for 90Sr, three pooled and seven single samples have been measured for plutonium. Approximately 900 samples have been analyzed for radiocaesium using equipment with higher detection limit. In addition, 21 samples of minke whale, one sample of prawns, ten samples of seaweed, and four samples of sea-water have been analyzed for gamma emitters. Three seaweed samples and three sea-water samples have been analyzed for 90Sr and plutonium. So far, all the samples have confirmed the low levels of radioactivity in the North Atlantic Ocean. The fish samples which have been measured for all gamma emitting isotopes show activity levels of 137Cs of approximately 1 Bq/kg and up to 3 Bq/kg for one single sample of meat. In addition, selected samples are measured for 90Sr and plutonium isotopes. These radionuclides are found in levels up to 0.5 Bq/kg and 1.3 mBq/kg for 90Sr and 239,240Pu, respectively. Compared to the intervention levels for foodstuffs, the levels found in marine fish from the Norwegian fishing areas are negligible. Measurements have also been carried out on other kinds of seafood, i.e. prawns and whale meat. These samples showed a maximum value of 0.18 and 5.9 Bq/kg137Cs, respectively. Samples of seaweed and sea-water also confirm these low levels of contamination. 19 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Implementation of environmental compliance for operating radioactive liquid waste systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses methods being implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continue operating while achieving compliance with new standards for liquid low level waste (LLLW) underground storage tank systems. The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) required that the Department of Energy (DOE) execute a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within 6 months of listing of the ORNL on the National Priorities List. An FFA for ORNL became effective January 1, 1992 among the EPA, DOE, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The agreement ensures that environmental impacts resulting from operations at the Oak Ridge Reservation are investigated and remediated to protect the public health, welfare, and environment

  12. National strategy and practice for disposal of radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D program for deep geological disposal of high level waste (HLW) in China (SDC programme) is presented in the paper. Host rock investigations, site selection and study of the scientific basis are being conducted in the programme. The national policy regarding regional disposal of low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) is also described. Two repositories will be operated at the northwest and south areas of China by the end of the 1990s. (author)

  13. The mexican case of a stolen radioactive source during December 2013. The actions to be taken in and beyond national borders and the demand of the situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this paper is to give the legal advice in case that a country suffers the thieve of a radioactive source; keeping in mind that this put in risk the environment, people, the national and international safety and security. The recent Mexican case is a good example. (author)

  14. A National Report to Share the Experiences and Lessons Learned in the Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: The Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This national report aims to present the Philippines’ experiences and lessons learned by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources”. The successes and difficulties experienced by the Institute following its commitment to the Code of conduct are presented

  15. Multi-agent Based Charges subsystem for Supply Chain Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Rani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to design charges subsystem using multi agent technology which deals with calculation, accrual and collection of various charges levied at the goods in a supply chain Logistics. Accrual of various charges such as freight, demurrage, and wharfage take place implicitly in the SC system at the various events of different subsystems which is collected and calculated by software agents. An Agent-based modeling is an approach based on the idea that a system is composed of decentralized individual ‘agents’ and that each agent interacts with other agents according to its localized knowledge. Our aim is to design a flexible architecture that can deal with next generation supply chain problems based on a multi-agent architecture. In this article, a multi agent system has been developed to calculate charges levied at various stages on good sheds.. Each entity is modeled as one agent and their coordination lead to control inventories and minimize the total cost of SC by sharing information and forecasting knowledge and using negotiation mechanism.

  16. DAIDS: a Distributed, Agent-based Information Dissemination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Haglich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Distributed Agent-Based Information Dissemination System (DAIDS concept was motivated by the need to share information among the members of a military tactical team in an atmosphere of extremely limited or intermittent bandwidth. The DAIDS approach recognizes that in many cases communications limitations will preclude the complete sharing of all tactical information between the members of the tactical team. Communications may be limited by obstructions to the line of sight between platforms; electronic warfare; or environmental conditions, or just contention from other users of that bandwidth. Since it may not be possible to achieve a complete information exchange, it is important to prioritize transmissions so the most critical information from the standpoint of the recipient is disseminated first. The challenge is to be able to determine which elements of information are the most important to each teammate. The key innovation of the DAIDS concept is the use of software proxy agents to represent the information needs of the recipient of the information. The DAIDS approach uses these proxy agents to evaluate the content of a message in accordance with the context and information needs of the recipient platform (the agent's principal and prioritize the message for dissemination. In our research we implemented this approach and demonstrated that it provides nearly a reduction in transmission times for critical tactical reports by up to a factor of 30 under severe bandwidth limitations.

  17. Agent-based modelling of consumer energy choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Henry, Adam Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to mitigate global climate change should be grounded in a rigorous understanding of energy systems, particularly the factors that drive energy demand. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a powerful tool for representing the complexities of energy demand, such as social interactions and spatial constraints. Unlike other approaches for modelling energy demand, ABM is not limited to studying perfectly rational agents or to abstracting micro details into system-level equations. Instead, ABM provides the ability to represent behaviours of energy consumers -- such as individual households -- using a range of theories, and to examine how the interaction of heterogeneous agents at the micro-level produces macro outcomes of importance to the global climate, such as the adoption of low-carbon behaviours and technologies over space and time. We provide an overview of ABM work in the area of consumer energy choices, with a focus on identifying specific ways in which ABM can improve understanding of both fundamental scientific and applied aspects of the demand side of energy to aid the design of better policies and programmes. Future research needs for improving the practice of ABM to better understand energy demand are also discussed.

  18. Patient-centered appointment scheduling using agent-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkcan, Ayten; Toscos, Tammy; Doebbeling, Brad N

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced access and continuity are key components of patient-centered care. Existing studies show that several interventions such as providing same day appointments, walk-in services, after-hours care, and group appointments, have been used to redesign the healthcare systems for improved access to primary care. However, an intervention focusing on a single component of care delivery (i.e. improving access to acute care) might have a negative impact other components of the system (i.e. reduced continuity of care for chronic patients). Therefore, primary care clinics should consider implementing multiple interventions tailored for their patient population needs. We collected rapid ethnography and observations to better understand clinic workflow and key constraints. We then developed an agent-based simulation model that includes all access modalities (appointments, walk-ins, and after-hours access), incorporate resources and key constraints and determine the best appointment scheduling method that improves access and continuity of care. This paper demonstrates the value of simulation models to test a variety of alternative strategies to improve access to care through scheduling. PMID:25954423

  19. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Jusup, Marko; Podobnik, Boris; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital. PMID:25945790

  20. Simulation of convoy of unmanned vehicles using agent based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Singh, Harpreet; Gerhart, G. R.

    2007-10-01

    There has been an increasing interest of unmanned vehicles keeping the importance of defense and security. A few models for a convoy of unmanned vehicle exist in literature. The objective of this paper is to exploit agent based modeling technique for a convoy of unmanned vehicles where each vehicle is an agent. Using this approach, the convoy of vehicles reaches a specified goal from a starting point. Each agent is associated with number of sensors. The agents make intelligent decisions based on sensor inputs and at the same time maintaining their group capability and behavior. The simulation is done for a battlefield environment from a single starting point to a single goal. This approach can be extended for multiple starting points to reach multiple goals. The simulation gives the time taken by the convoy to reach a goal from its initial position. In the battlefield environment, commanders make various tactical decisions depending upon the location of an enemy outpost, minefields, number of soldiers in platoons, and barriers. The simulation can help the commander to make effective decisions depending on battlefield, convoy and obstacles to reach a particular goal. The paper describes the proposed approach and gives the simulation results. The paper also gives problems for future research in this area.

  1. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital.

  2. Using the Agent-Based Modeling in Economic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mihail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years of the XX century has been the witnesses of the apparition of a new scientific field, which is usually defined as the study of “Complex adaptive systems”. This field, generic named Complexity Sciences, shares its subject, the general proprieties of complex systems across traditional disciplinary boundaries, with cybernetics and general systems theory. But the development of Complexity Sciences approaches is determined by the extensive use of Agent-Based-Models (ABM as a research tool and an emphasis on systems, such as markets, populations or ecologies, which are less integrated or “organized” than the ones, such as companies and economies, intensively studied by the traditional disciplines. For ABM, a complex system is a system of individual agents who have the freedom to act in ways that are not always totally predictable, and whose actions are interconnected such that one agent’s actions changes the context (environment for other agents. These are many examples of such complex systems: the stock market, the human body immune system, a business organization, an institution, a work-team, a family etc.

  3. Mobile Agent-Based Directed Diffusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Taekyoung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the environments where the source nodes are close to one another and generate a lot of sensory data traffic with redundancy, transmitting all sensory data by individual nodes not only wastes the scarce wireless bandwidth, but also consumes a lot of battery energy. Instead of each source node sending sensory data to its sink for aggregation (the so-called client/server computing, Qi et al. in 2003 proposed a mobile agent (MA-based distributed sensor network (MADSN for collaborative signal and information processing, which considerably reduces the sensory data traffic and query latency as well. However, MADSN is based on the assumption that the operation of mobile agent is only carried out within one hop in a clustering-based architecture. This paper considers MA in multihop environments and adopts directed diffusion (DD to dispatch MA. The gradient in DD gives a hint to efficiently forward the MA among target sensors. The mobile agent paradigm in combination with the DD framework is dubbed mobile agent-based directed diffusion (MADD. With appropriate parameters set, extensive simulation shows that MADD exhibits better performance than original DD (in the client/server paradigm in terms of packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and end-to-end delivery latency.

  4. Measure of Landscape Heterogeneity by Agent-Based Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, Gy.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid increase of the world's population, the efficient food production is one of the key factors of the human survival. Since biodiversity and heterogeneity is the basis of the sustainable agriculture, the authors tried to measure the heterogeneity of a chosen landscape. The EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity, nevertheless exact measurements and calculations apart from statistical parameters (standard deviation, mean), do not really exist. In the present paper the authors' goal is to find an objective, dynamic method that measures landscape heterogeneity. It is achieved with the so called agent-based modelling, where randomly dispatched dynamic scouts record the observed land cover parameters and sum up the features of a new type of land. During the simulation the agents collect a Monte Carlo integral as a diversity landscape potential which can be considered as the unit of the `greening' measure. As a final product of the ABM method, a landscape potential map is obtained that can serve as a tool for objective decision making to support agricultural diversity.

  5. E-laboratories : agent-based modeling of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. Agent-based models can provide such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices

  6. Smart Agent Based Mobile Tutoring and Querying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With our busy schedules today and the rising cost of education there is a need to find a convenient and cost effective means of maximizing our educational/training experiences. New trends in the delivery/access of information are becoming more technology based in all areas of society with education being no exception. The ubiquitous use of mobile devices has led to a boom in m-commerce. Mobile devices provide many services in commercial environments such as mobile banking, mobile purchasing, mobile learning, etc. It is therefore fitting that we seek to use mobile devices as a platform in delivering our convenient and cost effective solution. The proposed agent based Mobile tutoring system seeks to provide a student with a rich learning experience that will provide them with the relevant reading material based on their stage of development which allows them to move at their own pace. The system will allow the user to be able to ask certain questions and get explanations as if they were interacting with a human tutor but with the added benefit of being able to do this anytime in any location via their mobile phone.

  7. Agent-based modeling to simulate the dengue spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengbin; Tao, Haiyan; Ye, Zhiwei

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method ABM in simulating the unique process for the dengue spread. Dengue is an acute infectious disease with a long history of over 200 years. Unlike the diseases that can be transmitted directly from person to person, dengue spreads through a must vector of mosquitoes. There is still no any special effective medicine and vaccine for dengue up till now. The best way to prevent dengue spread is to take precautions beforehand. Thus, it is crucial to detect and study the dynamic process of dengue spread that closely relates to human-environment interactions where Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) effectively works. The model attempts to simulate the dengue spread in a more realistic way in the bottom-up way, and to overcome the limitation of ABM, namely overlooking the influence of geographic and environmental factors. Considering the influence of environment, Aedes aegypti ecology and other epidemiological characteristics of dengue spread, ABM can be regarded as a useful way to simulate the whole process so as to disclose the essence of the evolution of dengue spread.

  8. Agent-based simulation of alternative classroom evacuation scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of emergency accidents occurring around students, evacuation issues have become significantly important for both school officials and architects. Simply following construction codes cannot ensure that a building׳s layout is suitable for evacuation behaviors; therefore, to discover the suitable planning schemes, we have introduced an agent-based simulation model via Netlogo to investigate the interrelationships between evacuation efficiency and classroom layouts. Before conducting modeling experiments, both the simulation structure and the sensitivity to its parameter settings are examined by validation research and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of conducting fire drills with students, two different types of behavior rules are designed to reflect the distinctive characteristics of students evacuating without instructions and students evacuating in good order. The general comparison results show us that the classroom layout with two exits shortens students׳ evacuation time, and the premeditated behavior rules, meaning that students who follow preset instructions to arrange their activities, not only escape faster but also have some advantages in ensuring their safety during the evacuation process. Moreover, at the end of this paper, several methods of improving this simulation model are proposed for more complex research in the future.

  9. An Agent-Based Model of Institutional Life-Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Wäckerle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We use an agent-based model to investigate the interdependent dynamics between individual agency and emergent socioeconomic structure, leading to institutional change in a generic way. Our model simulates the emergence and exit of institutional units, understood as generic governed social structures. We show how endogenized trust and exogenously given leader authority influences institutional change, i.e., diversity in institutional life-cycles. It turns out that these governed institutions (destructure in cyclical patterns dependent on the overall evolution of trust in the artificial society, while at the same time, influencing this evolution by supporting social learning. Simulation results indicate three scenarios of institutional life-cycles. Institutions may, (1 build up very fast and freeze the artificial society in a stable but fearful pattern (ordered system; (2 exist only for a short time, leading to a very trusty society (highly fluctuating system; and (3 structure in cyclical patterns over time and support social learning due to cumulative causation of societal trust (complex system.

  10. Agent-based Market Research Learning Environment for New Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of creating alternative mechanisms to generate know-how on potential markets for new entrepreneurs this paper proposes an agent-based learning environment to help them learning market research strategies within new businesses. An instructor agent, serving as a learning assistant within the MAS environment guides new entrepreneurs to identify their most adequate market niche. The integration of MAS-CommonKADS and GAIA methodologies is used along with AUML diagrams in order to design and develop this agentbased learning environment, called MaREMAS. The paper thus describes all the stages concerning MaREMAS construction focusing on the conceptualization, analysis, design, prototype development, and validation. The tests developed in the MaREMAS learning environment were satisfactory, however, it is proposed as future work to provide the system a more robust statistical module that allows a better analysis of the research variables and hence be able to generate more useful suggestions to the entrepreneur.

  11. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1992 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being in a unique position to facilitate information exchange, the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency was requested by its Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) to collate package approval data and publish periodical reports thereon. A database was implemented on the mainframe computer in the mid-1980s but this was soon adapted for use on a personal computer. A fully menu-driven system programme was designed that allows both contributing Member States and the Secretariat more flexibility in data processing and reporting. Complete documentation is available in the form of a user guide. The cut-off date used for this report is 31 August 1992. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-617 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 1991 Edition''. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. The certificate number is identical with the competent authority identification mark. It is composed of the issuing Member State's international vehicle registration identification (VRI) code, followed by a slash, then a unique number specific to a particular design or shipment that is assigned by the competent authority, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6

  12. National survey of potential scenarios for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) unchanged in its natural state has been considered that can pose a problem from the radiological point of view; however, that are monitored by regulators has been rare. Furthermore, exposures to NORMs that have been altered during the exploitation of natural resources can in principle be regulated. The NORMs have found in some waste generated in various industries, e.g. metal scrap, sludge, slag and fluids. These materials, by-products and the end products of processing, can increase the exposure of both workers and members of the public. Besides, can have a significant environmental damage. Two important situations of exploitation of natural resources which may be present NORMs relevant in relation to the potential effects of these materials on human health and the environment, are: (1) when NORMs concentrations have risen above their natural levels in a product, byproduct or waste, (2) when the release of NORMs to the biosphere may increase due to physicochemical changes or the method by which the wastes are managed. This problem is considered and in Cuba has done a survey of all those potential scenarios of occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Documents and ongoing work carried out by the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency, have been taken as reference, to identify potential scenarios for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in Cuba. The availability of information is taken into account, and the level of care that has received this problem within the community of nations. Recommendatory criteria are developed for countries that can serve as an excellent reference for a study of this type. This issue is still in development in other regions, its relevance and importance from the point of view of radiation safety. The handling, storage, transport and use of equipment or contaminated waste with NORMs

  13. A systems modeling approach for performance assessment of the Mochovce national radioactive waste repository, Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Mochovce repository is a shallow land burial facility for disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Slovak Republic. Waste generators include nuclear power plants, laboratories, hospitals, research institutes, and other radiological facilities. A performance assessment (PA) is required to determine the degree of potential risk posed to workers and the future public by these wastes, and to inform decisions about how that potential risk might be reduced. Since 1993, PAs of Mochovce have evolved as knowledge has improved, as computerbased analytical platforms have become more sophisticated, and as the repository has been upgraded to improve its operational capabilities and its long-term performance. The experience gained in this evolutionary modeling informs the current chain of deterministic one- and two-dimensional process models that constitute the bulk of the PA modeling. In order to evaluate the significance of different modeling techniques and of the uncertainty inherent in the parameters that are entered into such models, a probabilistic modeling framework has been developed using the GoldSim systems analysis computer program. In the new GoldSim model presented here, the essential behaviors of the process models are captured in simpler equivalent functions that are implemented in the GoldSim model. The uncertainty inherent in the imperfect state of knowledge about the repository's engineering, failure modes, the natural environment surrounding the repository, and the locations and behaviors of potential future human receptors is reflected in the definition of modeling parameters as stochastic variables. The new, integrated 'Mochovce repository GoldSim Model' is part of the evaluation of the facility. The model facilitates comparison of the repository's performance to regulatory dose limit objectives. In this new probabilistic implementation it can be used for other purposes as well. For example, analysis of the

  14. An approach in determining the baseline data on the natural background radioactivity of Batanes province, its implications to national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the dropping of the first atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 1945, the world has lived under the shadow of nuclear threat. This was heightened by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and magnified by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack of the World Trade Center in the USA. While the threat is global, nuclear security is a national responsibility. The Philippine government is presently formulating the Philippine Nuclear Security Plan (PNSP) to address nuclear security and terrorism. It is in this light that this research study was undertaken whose product can be used as input in the PNSP, particularly in the emergency preparedness and response strategy of the plan. The purpose of the study is to pilot a baseline study on the natural background radioactivity of Batan Island, Batanes province, and develop a scheme for replicating the Batan baseline study in other selected sites in the Philippines. Establishing a baseline data on the natural background radioactivity of the country is a proactive stand of trying to be prepared for any untoward nuclear event that can pose harm of the nation, people and environment. The baseline data will provide an important point of reference in assessing increases of radiation caused by serious nuclear and/or radiological incident, either accidentally or intentionally that may occur within and outside the national territory. A modified ground gamma ray spectrometric survey technique with the use of a portable gamma ray spectrometer and global positioning system was used in determining the distribution and abundance of the naturally occurring radioelements potassium (K), uranium (U), thorium (Th) and total natural radiation (TNR) of Batan Island. Prior to the field survey, a thorough calibration of the portable gamma ray instrument was instituted that converted the measured gamma-ray count data into ground concentrations of K, U and Th. This allowed the systematic measurement of 73 sampling/data stations for

  15. Modeling of Agile Manufacturing Execution Systems with an Agent-based Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Agile manufacturing execution systems (AMES) are used to help manufacturers optimize shop floor production in an agile way. And the modeling of AMES is the key issue of realizing AMES. This paper presents an agent-based approach to AMES modeling. Firstly, the characteristics of AMES and its requirements on modeling are discussed. Secondly, a comparative analysis of modeling methods is carried out, and AMES modeling using an agent-based approach is put forward. Agent-based modeling method not only inherit ...

  16. On the acceleration of spatially distributed agent-based computations: a patch dynamics scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ping; Samaey, Giovanni; Gear, C. William; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, individual-based/agent-based modeling has been applied to study a wide range of applications, ranging from engineering problems to phenomena in sociology, economics and biology. Simulating such agent-based models over extended spatiotemporal domains can be prohibitively expensive due to stochasticity and the presence of multiple scales. Nevertheless, many agent-based problems exhibit smooth behavior in space and time on a macroscopic scale, suggesting that a useful coarse-gra...

  17. An Introduction to Agent Based Modelling and Simulation of Social Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjen Skunca; Armano Srbljinovic

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to agent-based modelling and simulation of social processes. Reader is introduced to the worldview underlying agent-based models, some basic terminology, basic properties of agent-based models, as well as to what one can and what cannot expect from such models, particularly when they are applied to social-scientific investigation. Special attention is given to the issues of validation.

  18. Agent-Based Modelling: Tools for Linking NetLogo and r

    OpenAIRE

    Jan C Thiele; Winfried Kurth; Volker Grimm

    2012-01-01

    A seamless integration of software platforms for implementing agent-based models and for analysing their output would facilitate comprehensive model analyses and thereby make agent-based modelling more useful. Here we report on recently developed tools for linking two widely used software platforms: NetLogo for implementing agent-based models, and R for the statistical analysis and design of experiments. Embedding R into NetLogo allows the use of advanced statistical analyses, specific statis...

  19. Using FLAME Toolkit for Agent-Based Simulation: Case Study Sugarscape Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have used agent-based models to understand how individuals interact and behave in various political, ecological and economic scenarios. Agent-based models are ideal for understanding such models involving interacting individuals producing emergent phenomenon. Sugarscape is one of the most famous examples of a social agent-based model which has been used to show how societies grow in the real world. This paper builds on the Sugarscape model, using the Flexible Large scale Age...

  20. Crop - a project for comparative description of national concepts for disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine partners representing Sweden (SKB), Belgium (SCK-CEN). Finland (POSIVA). France (Andra). Germany (GRS), Switzerland (NAGRA), Spain (ENRESA). Canada (OPG), and the US (DOECBFO) participate in the EC-supported project CROP, which is the synonym for Cluster Repository Project and aims at describing the various repository concepts for identifying similarities and differences. The ambition is to assist designers and modelers in the development of the respective concepts. Design, construction and instrumentation of underground laboratories (URLs) and forthcoming repositories as well as modeling the engineered performance of national repository concepts in crystalline rock, salt and clay are defined and compared. The depth of location of the repositories is different - 250 to 1000 m- and also the design: the multi-barrier philosophy is proposed for disposal in all types of rock but for salt the geological medium is considered to be the major barrier. The minimum time for effective isolation of the waste differs among national programs (E4 to E6 years) and so is the effort of modeling physical and chemical degradation of the engineered barrier system (EBS), which consists of canisters, embedding buffer and backfill, and plugs. CROP is focusing on the buffer and backfill and shaft, tunnel and borehole seals including plugs. The temperature in the near-field is a most important factor for the repository performance. It will be in the interval 90-110 deg C for crystalline rock and clay, and up to 200 deg C for salt in the close vicinity of the waste according to the concepts, attenuating with increased distance from it. The heat and temperature gradient affects the groundwater flow and rock strain and thereby the evolution of the EBS in the first few hundred years and they are determinants of the chemical stability and hence required dimensions of the engineered barriers. Both the short- and long-term performance of the EBS are significantly affected by the groundwater

  1. The state of the art on the dry decontamination technologies applicable to highly radioactive contaminants and their needs for the national nuclear fuel cycle developent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended to establish their needs to support the dry decontamination activities applicable to highly radioactive contaminants based on the requirement of technologies development suggested from the national nuclear fuel cycle projects, such as DUPIC, advanced spent fuel management and long-lived radionuclides conversion. The technology needs associated with decontamination addressed the requirements associated with the efficiency of decontamination technology, the reduction of secondary wastes, applicabilities and the remote operation. And also, Characterization and decontamination technologies for various contaminants are reviewed and analysed. Based on the assessment, Unit dry decontamination processes are selected and the schematic flow diagram for decontamination of highly radioactive contaminants

  2. The state of the art on the dry decontamination technologies applicable to highly radioactive contaminants and their needs for the national nuclear fuel cycle developent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K.W.; Won, H.J.; Jung, C.H.; Chol, W.K.; Kim, G.N.; Moon, J.K

    2000-12-01

    This report is intended to establish their needs to support the dry decontamination activities applicable to highly radioactive contaminants based on the requirement of technologies development suggested from the national nuclear fuel cycle projects, such as DUPIC, advanced spent fuel management and long-lived radionuclides conversion. The technology needs associated with decontamination addressed the requirements associated with the efficiency of decontamination technology, the reduction of secondary wastes, applicabilities and the remote operation. And also, Characterization and decontamination technologies for various contaminants are reviewed and analysed. Based on the assessment, Unit dry decontamination processes are selected and the schematic flow diagram for decontamination of highly radioactive contaminants.

  3. Intelligent Agent based Flight Search and Booking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd Garvey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The world globalization is widely used, and there are several definitions that may fit this one word. However the reality remains that globalization has impacted and is impacting each individual on this planet. It is defined to be greater movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to increased economic integration, which in turn is propelled, by increased trade and investment. It is like moving towards living in a borderless world. With the reality of globalization, the travel industry has benefited significantly. It could be said that globalization is benefiting from the flight industry. Regardless of the way one looks at it, more persons are traveling each day and are exploring several places that were distant places on a map. Equally, technology has been growing at an increasingly rapid pace and is being utilized by several persons all over the world. With the combination of globalization and the increase in technology and the frequency in travel there is a need to provide an intelligent application that is capable to meeting the needs of travelers that utilize mobile phones all over. It is a solution that fits in perfectly to a user’s busy lifestyle, offers ease of use and enough intelligence that makes a user’s experience worthwhile. Having recognized this need, the Agent based Mobile Airline Search and Booking System is been developed that is built to work on the Android to perform Airline Search and booking using Biometric. The system also possess agent learning capability to perform the search of Airlines based on some previous search pattern .The development been carried out using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit on Android.

  4. Germany: National Report on the Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and its supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German governmental system is a federal system of 16 independent Federal States (Länder). A regulatory infrastructure on the supreme level and also the subordinate level supported by a clear legal system ensures the safety and security of radioactive sources. The Federal Republic of Germany fully supports and endorses the IAEA’s efforts to enhance the safety and security of radioactive sources and is working toward following the guidance provided by the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Code). The German commitment was expressed with reference to the letter of the IAEA from 22 January 2004. In Germany there are mainly three levels of binding regulations in the field of radiation protection, especially at the safety of radiation sources outside of the nuclear industry. The regulatory arrangements are consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards Series and the European Directive 96/29/EURATOM on the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation (currently in revision). In the last ten years Germany has increasingly intensified its efforts to enhance regulatory control over radioactive material focussing on high radioactive sources. Key activities can be summarized as follows: • Germany transformed largely the recommendations of the Code into national legislation in the framework of the implementation of the EU-Council Directive 2003/122/EURATOM on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. • Germany published a national Act on high-activity sealed radioactive sources (Act on HASS) in August 2005. • Germany established a national register of high-activity sealed sources (Category 1 to Category 2 and for few nuclides even down to Category 3) in 2006 required by the Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act). • Germany is continuously

  5. Evaluating network analysis and agent based modeling for investigating the stability of commercial air carrier schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila Ruth

    For a number of years, the United States Federal Government has been formulating the Next Generation Air Transportation System plans for National Airspace System improvement. These improvements attempt to address air transportation holistically, but often address individual improvements in one arena such as ground or in-flight equipment. In fact, air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional Operations Research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovative operations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be deployed with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. The literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful for complex system development and analysis. The purpose of this research is to evaluate these two techniques as applied to analysis of commercial air carrier schedule (route) stability in daily operations, an important component of air transportation. Airline-like routing strategies are used to educe essential elements of applying the method. Two main models are developed, one investigating the network properties of the route structure, the other an Agent-based approach. The two methods are used to predict system properties at a macro-level. These findings are compared to observed route network performance measured by adherence to a schedule to provide validation of the results. Those interested in complex system modeling are provided some indication as to when either or both of the techniques would be applicable. For aviation policy makers, the results point to a toolset capable of providing insight into the system behavior during the formative phases of development and transformation with relatively low investment

  6. Regional Overview of National Reports on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (the Code) and Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (the Guidance), Americas region States prepared the national reports, described the current status in States with regard to the implementation of the Code and Guidance. From the Americas region, which includes 35 States, 9 national reports were delivered (compared with 8 in 2010). Nineteen States expressed support for the Code (compared with 16 in 2010) and 15 to the Guidance (compared with 10 in 2010). Twenty-two States have designated at least a point of contact. Fourteen States have sent questionnaires and 15 represented in the conference. The information exchange process is voluntary and it is recommended to describe the current circumstances in the State with regard to suggested topics. Three Americas region States followed the default structure and four reported on all recommended topics of Code, some States followed partially, and others did not follow it. It is observed that the following topics are often missing: facilities and services available to persons authorized to manage radioactive sources (para. 9 of the Code); and national strategies for gaining or regaining control over orphan sources. One State submitted its national report even though it has not expressed support of the code. All national reports in the Americas region identify progress, successes, challenges or areas for improvement in their national reports. Security of radioactive sources, information for the public and stakeholders, emergency preparedness are the most often reported parts as the other relevant issues. (author)

  7. Soil moisture transport in arid site vadose zones. [Evaluation of Hanford as national site for radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, L.E.; Backer, J.G.; Isaacson, R.E.; Brown, D.J.

    1975-07-01

    Data are presented from measurements of soil moisture at the Hanford Reservation. Possible mechanisms for moisture transport in arid and semi-arid climates were studied. Measurements for the lysimeter experiment and the thermocouple psychrometer experiment were continued with a new series of measurements using closely spaced sensors installed to a depth of 1.52 meters. During the 1973-1974 water year the percolation envelope of higher moisture content penetrated to a depth of four meters in the closed-bottom lysimeter and then was eliminated by upward transport of water in late summer. Precipitation during the 1973-1974 water year percolated to a depth of about six meters in the open-bottom lysimeter and remains as a residual perched envelope. The increase over normal percolation was due in part to a residual envelope of higher moisture content from the previous water year. Results obtained indicate the advantages of Hanford as a site for a national repository for radioactive waste. (CH)

  8. National Commission of Assessment of researches and studies related to the management of radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an assessment of progress realized by studies and researches on the geological storage of long-life high- and intermediate-activity wastes, and on the separation-transmutation of actinides present in the spent fuel of nuclear reactors. The first part deals with storages and disposal, discusses the evolution of the deep storage concept since 2005, and the storage cost, analyses the storage operation (exploitation, closure, corrosion, lixiviation, dissolution and diffusion), reports the assessment of studies and researches (about radioactive wastes and sizing inventory models of geologic storage projects, in situ experiences, thermal load, phenomenological analysis of storage, researches performed to select a site), and more precisely discusses the storage cost issue. The second part deals with the separation-transmutation technology: the ASTRID programme, nuclear stock development scenarios and their consequences, impact of separation-transmutation on storage piece of land, fuel cycle. The third part gives an overview of other national actions and of experiences in other countries

  9. A comparison of national dose and risk criteria for deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulators Forum of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) undertook, as one of its first actions after it was formed in 1999, a comparative study of the regulation of proposed repositories for long-lived high-level waste in member countries. One particular aspect of this study was a comparison of the dose and risk criteria proposed or used in member countries, and of whether and how these criteria depended on the time scale. The first phase of this study revealed that while, broadly speaking, the criteria used in most countries were generally similar, when these criteria were expressed in comparable units the entire range spanned was fairly broad (about two orders of magnitude). The differences are particularly evident when the criteria at long time scales (beyond 103-104 years) are compared. This paper presents the results of this study in tabular form, together with a discussion of some of the possible underlying reasons for the differences between national criteria and of their significance. Work is ongoing to investigate these reasons with the aim of developing a common understanding of the fundamental objectives of the regulation of disposal in order to facilitate discussion of comparative approaches. (author)

  10. Regulatory controls on the hydrogeological characterization of a mixed waste disposal site, Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in the groundwater beneath the SDA in the summer of 1987, hydrogeological characterization of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste site, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), is the subject of a RCRA Corrective Action Program. Regulatory requirements for the Corrective Action Program dictate a phased approach to evaluation of the SDA. In the first phase of the program, the SDA is the subject of a RCRA Facility Investigation (RIF), which will obtain information to fully characterize the physical properties of the site, determine the nature and extent of contamination, and identify pathways for migration of contaminants. If the need for corrective measures is identified during the RIF, a Corrective Measures Study (CMS) will be performed as second phase. Information generated during the RIF will be used to aid in the selection and implementation of appropriate corrective measures to correct the release. Following the CMS, the final phase is the implementation of the selected corrective measures. 4 refs., 1 fig

  11. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. [National report from Norway, fourth review meeting, 14-23 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14 to 23 May 2012. (Author)

  12. National inventory of radioactive materials and wastes for 2012: Abstract, Synthesis report, geographical inventory, Descriptive catalogue of families, The essentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extremely voluminous report first proposes an abstracted overview of the inventory of radioactive materials and wastes in France in 2012. This first part addresses the radioactive wastes globally and then their different categories (very low activity, low and medium activity and short lifetime, low activity and long lifetime, medium activity and long lifetime, high activity, wastes related to radon, wastes with historical management modes). It gives an assessment of already produced wastes and of future wastes. It describes how radioactive wastes are managed, presents the various storage centres, proposes an overview of current investigations for long lifetime or high activity wastes, indicates waste localizations, and addresses the valuable materials. Then a synthesis report addresses the radioactive wastes and their management, gives some general results, proposes a waste inventory with respect to the economic sector (electronuclear, defence, research, non-electronuclear industry, medicine), presents the various historical situations (different types of storage, mining sites, contaminated sites) and proposes fives thematic files (immersed wastes, management of used radioactive sources, wastes with a strengthened natural radioactivity, existing and projected solutions for the management of radioactive wastes in France, foreign inventories of radioactive wastes). The third part is a geographical inventory which proposes sheets of information and data for the different concerned sites in France. The fourth part proposes a presentation of radioactive wastes (classification, origin, and management, families defined with respect to lifetime and activity level, origins, parcels and packaging, production data). A last part evokes the challenges and principles of the management of radioactive materials and wastes, recalls some data from the 2010 inventory, proposes predictions of radioactive waste production by 2020 and 2030, gives a prospective assessment with

  13. Summary of the conference with respect to national, bilateral, regional and international experience and efforts for strengthening control over radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety and security of sources is a global concern, but the responsibility (especially for security) is with national governments. The Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources provides an internationally endorsed benchmark for States to work towards, and the IAEA Categorization of Radioactive Sources provides an internationally approved basis for risk informed decision making. Radioactive sources need to be safely and securely managed throughout their life cycle. States are giving priority to the safe management of high activity sources, and there is much work 'in progress' to supplement and further strengthen existing regulatory controls. A number of countries have implemented successful national source recovery campaigns, and thousands of vulnerable, orphan and disused sources have been recovered. Monitoring at national nodal points, such as scrap dealers and ports, has proved to be useful. Manufacturers are trying to help by taking back disused sources for recycling, but a safe and secure long term solution, supported by governments, is needed. Many countries have benefited from external support through multilateral, regional or international initiatives. A strategic approach is needed to ensure sustainable control over sources 'from cradle to grave'. This should be based on an effective licensing system with on-site inspections (including the physical verification of the location of sources), supported by a national source tracking system and a system of financial guarantees to ensure the safe and secure end-of-life management of sources

  14. National Report of Algeria on the implementation of the Code of Conduct on Safety and security of radioactive sources and its supplementary Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria has expressed his commitment to support the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in November 2004. He also supports the implementation of the supplementary guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources. A primary legislation on radiation safety is in place and the “Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique” (COMENA) is the regulatory authority for the control of the radiation sources in Algeria. This legislative framework provides for an authorization system for the detention and use of radiation sources. A robust system of control of import and export of radioactive sources is in place, based on a close co-operation between the COMENA and the Customs. The COMENA maintains a national register of radiation sources using the RAIS 3.0 provided by the IAEA. The “Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger ”(CRNA) is the national provider of technical services in radiation safety in Algeria. Capabilities for recovery and storage of spent or orphan radioactive sources are also available. (author)

  15. N.590 National assembly. Law project of program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the different articles of the law text n. 590 on the management of the radioactive wastes and materials. It concerns the obligations and the liabilities of producers and users of radioactive spent fuels and wastes. (A.L.B.)

  16. Dangerous materials transport control: The case of radioactive materials. Point of view of the National Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of transport concerning the fuel cycle (nuclear fuels, spent fuels and radioactive wastes) amounts to 0.5 - 1% of the fuel cost and impact of an accident on public opinion explains the control kept by Electricite de France on its radioactive materials transport. Characteristics, planning and optimization of transport are reviewed

  17. From Agents to Continuous Change via Aesthetics: Learning Mechanics with Visual Agent-Based Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pratim; Farris, Amy Voss; Wright, Mason

    2012-01-01

    Novice learners find motion as a continuous process of change challenging to understand. In this paper, we present a pedagogical approach based on agent-based, visual programming to address this issue. Integrating agent-based programming, in particular, Logo programming, with curricular science has been shown to be challenging in previous research…

  18. Multi-level agent-based modeling with the Influence Reaction principle

    OpenAIRE

    Morvan, Gildas; Jolly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the specification and the implementation of multi-level agent-based models, using a formal model, IRM4MLS (an Influence Reaction Model for Multi-Level Simulation), based on the Influence Reaction principle. Proposed examples illustrate forms of top-down control in (multi-level) multi-agent based-simulations.

  19. An Agent Based Modelling Approach for Multi-Stakeholder Analysis of City Logistics Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, N.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive framework for multi-stakeholder analysis of city logistics solutions using agent based modeling. The framework describes different stages for the systematic development of an agent based model for the city logistics domain. The framework includes a multi-perspect

  20. Macroeconomic Fluctuations and Propagation Mechanisms: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sella Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based simulation model exploring aggregate business fluctuations in an artificial market economy. It is inspired by the C++ agent-based simulation model in Howitt (2006), and proposes a modified NetLogo model, which provides new procedures and parameters aiming at analyzing the endogenous dynamics of market adjustment processes

  1. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  2. Simulating Emerging Space Industries with Agent-Based Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) calls for encouraging commercial participation as a top-level objective. Given current and future commercial activities, how...

  3. 2010 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2010. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2010 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  4. Regional Overview of National Reports on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Code) and Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (Guidance), African States prepared national reports and described the current status in States with regard to the implementation of the Code and the Guidance. From the African region that includes 52 States, 19 national reports were delivered (compared with 10 in 2010), 31 States expressed support for the Code (compared with 18 in 2010) and 25 expressed support for the Guidance (compared with 13 in 2010). The information exchange process is voluntary, and it is recommended to describe the current circumstances in the country with regard to suggested topics. Only nine African States that sent reports followed the default structure and reported on all recommended topics of the Code, five States followed partially and five States did not follow the default structure. (author)

  5. Regional Overview of National Reports on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to summarize the national reports on the experiences and lessons learned in implementing the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Code) and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (Guidance) submitted by States from the Asia region. The national reports briefly describe the current status in the country with regard to the topics described in the succeeding section. It will also discuss on main progress and achievements and main challenges or difficulties encountered over the last three years in the region. This conference is very timely because it is the tenth year of implementation of the Code since it was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors on 8 September 2003. It will also host or will serve as the third open ended meeting of technical and legal experts to share information on States’ implementation of the Code and its supplementary Guidance. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Xenon Gas Detection as a Means for Identifying Buried Transuranic Waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan; Waichler, Scott R.

    2004-04-01

    Xenon is produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Xenon gas is nearly inert and will be released from buried TRU waste. This document describes and evaluates the potential for analyzing xenon isotopes in soil gas to detect TRU waste in the subsurface at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL STANDARD «SAFE LIFE OF THE POPULATION ON RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES. SAFE USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS. THE BASIC FRAMEWORK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of the Federal target program «Managing the consequences of radiation accidents for the period till 2015» the National Standard «Safe life of the population on radioactive contaminated territories. Safe use of agricultural lands. The basic framework» has been developed. Its aim is to ensure safe use of agricultural lands in the areas affected by radiation incidents, accidents and disasters.

  8. National evaluation commission relative to the researches on the radioactive wastes management; Commission nationale d'evaluation relative aux recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Implemented in april 1994, the National Evaluation Commission (CNE) continues in this tenth report, its study on the radioactive wastes management following the three axis defined by the 1991 law: separation and transmutation, underground disposal, conditioning and log time storage. This report takes stock on the CNE activity in 2003 as on the researches advances around these three axis. In the framework of the international cooperation, the commission details also the researches and realizations abroad. (A.L.B.)

  9. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nourian

    2012-01-01

    and Logistic Regression, M.S. Thesis. Supervisors: Hossein, S.M., and Salman Mahini, A. Advisors: Ghasempouri, M. and Gholamali Fard, M., Faculty of Natural Resource and Marine Science,Tarbiat Modarres University.Lambin, E. F., (1994 Modelling Deforestation Processes: A Review. Luxembourg: European Commission, Directorate-General XIII. Report no. EUR-15744-EN.Ligmann-Zielinska, A., & Jankowski, P. (2010. Exploring normative scenarios of land use development decisions with an agent-based simulation laboratory. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 34, 409–423.Ligmann-Zielinska, A., and Jankowski, P., (2007 Agent-Based Models as Laboratories for Spatially Explicit Planning Policies, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol.34. pp: 316-335.Loibl, W., & Toetzer, T., (2003 Modeling growth and densification in suburban regions-simulation of landscape transition with spatial agents. Environmental Modelling & Software, 18,553-563.Macal C.M. and North M.J., (2007 Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation: Desktop ABMS, In: S. G. Henderson, B. Biller, M.-H. Hsieh, J. Shortle, J. D. Tew, and R. R. Barton, (eds. Proceedings of the 2007 Winter Simulation Conference, Argonne National Laboratory, pp: 743-760.Maes, P., (1994 Modeling adaptive autonomous agents. Artificial Life, 1, 135-162.Malleson, N., Heppenstall A., & See, L. (2010. Crime reduction through simulation: An agent-based model of burglary. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 34, 236–250.Masuda J.R. and Garvin, T., (2008 Whose Heartland?: The politics of place in a rural–urban interface, Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 112-123.Matthews R., Gilbert N., Roach A., Polhill J.G. and Gotts N.M., 2007, Agent-based land-use models: a review of applications, Landscape Ecology, Vol.22, pp:1447-1459.Miller E., Hunt J.D., Abraham J.E. and Salvini P.A., 2004, Microsimulating urban systems, Computers Environment and Urban Systems, Vol.28, pp: 9-44.Mousavi, M.N., Saeidabadi, R., and Fahar, R

  10. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2002 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current edition of the transport Regulations was published in 1996 and is more commonly referred to as 'ST-1'. Earlier Editions were known as Safety Series No. 6. The latest English reprint (2000) is now identified as TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). The transport Regulations elaborate requirements for the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging as well as those for preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt of the packages at final destination. Approval issued in the form of certificates is required for the design or shipment of packages. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1237 Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2001 Edition. It is distributed worldwide to the IAEA Member States' competent authorities for transport, and other entities who have requested copies. Electronic copies of the main data file are provided to registered users of the PACKTRAM database. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of the IAEA Transport Safety Regulations on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6 shows the certificates reported to the Secretariat by each participating Member State

  11. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2001 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current edition of the transport Regulations was published in 1996 and is more commonly referred to as 'ST-1'. Earlier Editions were known as Safety Series No. 6. The latest English reprint (2000) is now identified as TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). The transport Regulations elaborate requirements for the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging as well as those for preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt of the packages at final destination. Approval issued in the form of certificates is required for the design or shipment of packages. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1171 Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2000 Edition. It is distributed worldwide to the IAEA Member States' competent authorities for transport, and other entities who have requested copies. Electronic copies of the main data file are provided to registered users of the PACKTRAM database. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of the IAEA Transport Safety Regulations on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6 shows the certificates reported to the Secretariat by each participating Member State

  12. Using Agent-Based Approaches to Characterize Exposure Related Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tox21 initiative is generating data on biological activity, toxicity, and chemical properties for over 8,000 substances. One of the goals for EPA’s National Exposure Research Lab (NERL) is to assess the magnitude and variability in the public’s exposures to these ...

  13. IRSRA - Internal System to Control the Use of Radioactive Sources (N0.(1), 2006. Iraq National Report. Appendix 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interior System aims to identify the rules and the regulatory measures which IRSRA put into effect to control the radioactivity practices in Iraq including; ownership, usage and handling of radioactive sources for; medical, educational, industrial, researches and any other purposes in a safe and secure manner, and to ensure; the security of society, safety of environment and protection of; workers, individuals, and patients against hazards of exposure to ionization radiation

  14. The agent-based spatial information semantic grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Zhu, YaQiong; Zhou, Yong; Li, Deren

    2006-10-01

    Analyzing the characteristic of multi-Agent and geographic Ontology, The concept of the Agent-based Spatial Information Semantic Grid (ASISG) is defined and the architecture of the ASISG is advanced. ASISG is composed with Multi-Agents and geographic Ontology. The Multi-Agent Systems are composed with User Agents, General Ontology Agent, Geo-Agents, Broker Agents, Resource Agents, Spatial Data Analysis Agents, Spatial Data Access Agents, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent. The architecture of ASISG have three layers, they are the fabric layer, the grid management layer and the application layer. The fabric layer what is composed with Data Access Agent, Resource Agent and Geo-Agent encapsulates the data of spatial information system so that exhibits a conceptual interface for the Grid management layer. The Grid management layer, which is composed with General Ontology Agent, Task Execution Agent and Monitor Agent and Data Analysis Agent, used a hybrid method to manage all resources that were registered in a General Ontology Agent that is described by a General Ontology System. The hybrid method is assembled by resource dissemination and resource discovery. The resource dissemination push resource from Local Ontology Agent to General Ontology Agent and the resource discovery pull resource from the General Ontology Agent to Local Ontology Agents. The Local Ontology Agent is derived from special domain and describes the semantic information of local GIS. The nature of the Local Ontology Agents can be filtrated to construct a virtual organization what could provides a global scheme. The virtual organization lightens the burdens of guests because they need not search information site by site manually. The application layer what is composed with User Agent, Geo-Agent and Task Execution Agent can apply a corresponding interface to a domain user. The functions that ASISG should provide are: 1) It integrates different spatial information systems on the semantic The Grid

  15. Regional Overview of National Reports on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Code) and Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (Guidance), European region States prepared national reports and described the current status in States with regard to the implementation of the Code and Guidance. From the European region, which includes 53 States, 27 national reports (compared with 10 in 2010) were delivered, 46 States expressed support for the Code (compared with 45 in 2010) and 28 for the Guidance (compared with 21 in 2010). The information exchange process is voluntary, and it is recommended to describe the current circumstances in the State with regard to suggested topics. Seven European region States followed the default structure and reported on all recommended topics of Code, some States followed partially (12 from 27), eight States did not follow it. It is observed that the following topics and supplementary Guidance are often missing: facilities and services available to the persons authorized to manage radioactive sources (para. 9 of the Code); training of staff in the regulatory body, law enforcement agencies and emergency service organizations (para. 10 of the Code); approaches to managing sources at the end of their life cycles (paras 14 and 15 of the Code); and experience with arrangements for implementing the import and export provisions of the Code (paras 23–29 of the Code). A good practice example is one State that used self-assessment according to the IAEA questionnaire and produced a complete report. In addition, 19 European region States identified the progress and successes, challenges, areas for improvement in their national reports. Security of radioactive sources, information for the public and stakeholders, emergency preparedness are the most often reported parts as the other relevant issues. (author)

  16. International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining the Continuous Global Control of Sources throughout their Life Cycle: National Report of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, radioactive sources are used in Medical, Industrial, Research and Teaching applications. Main users include Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine, Irradiators, Nuclear Gauges, Industrial Radiography…etc. The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka is a statutory body functioning under the Ministry of Technology, Research and Atomic Energy and was established by the Atomic Energy Authority Act No.19 of 1969. AEA is the regulatory authority and responsible for implementing regulatory programmes conforming to international standards on radiation safety and security to ensure protection of Sri Lankan community from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. The control of radiation sources used in the country is achieved by annual licensing and inspection as per procedures established in the regulations titled “Regulations on Ionizing Radiation Protection of the Atomic Energy Safety Regulations No. 1 of 1999” promulgated in the year 2000. As the provisions are not given to cover the security aspects of radioactive sources by the current Act and regulations, the security aspects is controlled by the conditions of the licences and inspection of relevant institutes. As the current Act (Act No.19 of 1969) does not clearly address the current national and international legal requirements for nuclear safety, emergency response and security of radioactive materials, AEA is in the process of preparation of new Act to meet the current standards and requirements mentioned in the above. AEA provides services on calibration of radiation monitoring equipment, personal dosimetry and involves searching missing sources, environmental monitoring program, maintenance of the radioactive source registry, securely stored disused sources. The AEA initiated collaboration project with US Department of Energy (DOE) under its Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) programme to obtain technical assistance to provide physical protection system to the facilities where high

  17. Modern Approaches to the Establishment of National Geoinformation Systems as a Means of Combating Nuclear Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the approaches to the establishment of National geoinformation systems as a means of combating nuclear terrorism and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (hereinafter National geoinformation systems), which represent the integration of already existing and brand-new hardware and software into a single system for illicit trafficking control. It illustrates the model of transition from current operation system, which is based on engagement of different resources used by governmental agencies, to network solutions enabling to automatize and optimize the process of radiation control, to organize on-line radiological information exchange, thus, enhancing efficiency of reacting on illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials. The report also describes operational algorithm of National geoinformation systems and experience of implementation of modern radiological network based equipment, which enables to indicate location, to take measurements and transfer results to the remote expert centre on-line using different data transmission means. Web-application of National geoinformation systems enables to automatize processing of radiological information, which is transferred from different users to a single server, to display the location on the map, to maintain the database of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, and to exchange information between concerned member-states and IAEA contact points. In general, the suggested system combines new possibilities, which allow to integrate a number of devices into a single network, to display radiological data with GPS-location marks, to give access to the experts for estimating the results of the radiological measurements, to manage the actions of different users from a single remote expert centre and, if necessary, to render on-line expert assistance. The described in the report National geoinformation system has been adopted by a number of users, has turned

  18. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation. PMID:26648364

  19. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Auchincloss

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.

  20. High Resolution 3d Imaging during the Construction of National Radioactive Waste Repository from BÁTAAPÁTI, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaich, A.; Deák, F.; Pötsch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Hungarian National Radioactive Waste Repository is being built in the neighborhood of the village called Bátaapáti. The program of the new disposal facility for the low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW) is conducted by PURAM (Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management). The Bátaapáti underground research program began in February 2005, with the excavation of the two inclined exploratory tunnels. These tunnels have 30 m distance between their axes, 10% inclination and 1.7 km length, and have reached the 0 m Baltic sea-level in the Mórágy Granite Formation. The safety of nuclear repository mainly is influenced by the ground behaviour and its fracturing hence mapping of the geological features has a great importance. Because of the less stable ground, the cavern walls were shotcreted after every tunnelling advance. The site geologists were required to make the tunnel mapping after every drill and blast cycle. The time interval was short and the documenting work was unrepeatable due to the shotcrete supported walls, so it was very important to use a modern, precise system to create 3D photorealistic models of the rock surfaces on the excavated tunnel walls. We have chosen the photogrammetric method, because it has adequate resolution and quality for the photo combined 3D models. At the beginning, we had used the JointMetriX3D (JMX) system and subsequently ShapeMetriX3D (SMX) in the repository chamber excavation phase. From the acquired 3D images through geological mapping is performed as the system allows directly measuring geometric information on visible discontinuities such as dip and dip direction. Descriptive rock mass parameters such as spacing, area, roughness are instantly available. In this article we would like to continue that research having made by JMX model of a tunnel face of "TSZV" access tunnel and using SMX model of a tunnel face from "DEK" Chamber. Our studies were carried out by field engineering geologists on further

  1. Republic of Cuba National Report on the Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective national legislative and regulatory control of the management and protection of radioactive sources is in place. The National Center for Nuclear Safety (CNSN), founded in 1990, is responsible for the regulation and control of the safety use of the nuclear energy and for the accountability and control of nuclear materials in the country. The CNSN is effective independent from the Nuclear Energy Agency and Advanced Technologies, institution responsible for the promotion and development of nuclear energy in the country. Resolution No. 64/2000 of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment provides for the CNSN, among other, the following functions: a) To develop and propose for approval legal, technical or regulatory documents in relation with the nuclear safety, and the accountability and control of nuclear materials. b) To grant, amend, renew, suspend or revoke authorizations to carry out activities related to the use of nuclear energy, based on the results of the application assessment. c) To organize and conduct inspections in nuclear and radioactive facilities and in any other institutions developing activities related to the use of nuclear energy, aimed at verifying compliance with regulations to ensure that the radiation sources are safely used as prescribed in the authorizations. To verify compliance with the measures established by international safeguards agreements relating to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, signed by the Cuban State. e) Provide technical assistance to agencies involved in the response to radiological emergencies and participate in this response to coordinate the necessary measures for the protection and safety. f) Require applicants or holders of authorizations to stop for security reasons the operation of nuclear and radioactive facilities, or any practice associated with the use of nuclear energy. Additional measures may include withdrawal, retention or assurance of sources

  2. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 35. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  3. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 32. 2001 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  4. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 33. 2002 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  5. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 34. 2003 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material has been widely implemented among the IAEA's Member States since it was first published in 1961. Its objective is to protect people, property and the environment from the direct and indirect effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material. Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States, such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework, the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  6. National report of the Slovak Republic - proposal. Compiled in terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Jun 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief national safety report of the Slovak Republic compiled in terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management in 2008 is presented. This safety report consists of following chapters: (A) Introduction; (B) Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) management conception; (C) Scope of application; (D) Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) management; (E) Legislation and regulatory framework; (F) General safety provisions; (G) Safety of spent nuclear fuel management; (H) Safety of radioactive waste management; (I) Transboundary movement of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; (J) Discussed sealed radioactive sources; (K) Planned measures to improve safety; (L) Annexes

  7. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  8. Iraqi Radioactive Sources Regulatory Authority: Iraq National Report on Implementing the Code of Conduct and the Guidance, Generic Experience and Lesson Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of the Iraqi Radioactive Sources Regulatory Authority in 2004 was based (among other things) on the Code of Conduct. This was clearly stated in the opening of (Order 72 – 2004); “Recalling that on September 8, 2003, the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved a revised Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, IAEA/CODEOC/2004”. And also in Section – 1 of this Order, the paragraph number (4, Establishment); “In carrying out its responsibilities, the IRSRA shall follow, to the extent practicable, the guidance in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and any revisions thereto”. In July 2005, IAEA acknowledged the establishment of IRSRA and the adoption of Code of Conduct as guidelines for its work. The requirement for the safety and security of radioactive sources outlined in the code of Conduct and supplementary guidelines were incorporated in more details in the (Internal System No. 1), which is the first regulation IRSRA promulgated. The progress in the application of guidelines covered by the Code was more advanced in some areas due to safety and security concerns in Iraq. Actions to regain control over orphan sources, establishing of authorization system, regulatory control over entry point to prevent illicit trafficking, securing category 1 and 2 radioactive sources, and establishing the national radiation emergency plan were the initial priorities for IRSRA. Currently, efforts are oriented towards incorporating the whole scope of the Code and the Guidelines with cooperation of IAEA TC-programme to ensure balanced application of its entire requirement. (author)

  9. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-18

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  10. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  11. Practicality of Agent-Based Modeling of Civil Violence: an Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Joshua Epstein (2002) proposed a simple agent-based model to describe the formation and evolution of spontaneous civil violence (such as riots or violent demonstrations). In this paper we study the practical applicability of Epstein's model.

  12. A Guide for Newcomers to Agent-Based Modeling in the Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod, Robert; Tesfatsion, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This guide provides pointers to introductory readings, software, and other materials to help newcomers become acquainted with agent-based modeling in the social sciences. Related work can be accessed at: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/tesfatsi/ace.htm

  13. Agent-based Social Simulation tools: Brahms and NetLogo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2010, 21 September). Agent-based Social Simulation tools: Brahms and NetLogo. Presentation at the Learning Networks Plenary, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  14. Representing a Combat ID Analysis Tool within an Agent Based Constructive Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, D.; Mistry, B.; Spaans, M.; Vincent, A.; Hossain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation - This paper describes an approach for the development of a model which represents complex human factors relationships relating to Combat Identification (Combat ID). Research approach - The human factors relationships were incorporated within an experimental Agent Based Model (ABM), using

  15. Between Complexity and Parsimony: Can Agent-Based Modelling Resolve the Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Malawska, Anna Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    to BR- based policy studies would be to couple research on bounded ra-tionality with agent-based modeling. Agent-based models (ABMs) are computational models for simulating the behavior and interactions of any number of decision makers in a dynamic system. Agent-based models are better suited than...... with regards to behavioral rules. Bounded rationality research therefore could ensure realistic modeling while the ABM approach enhances the predictive value of behavioral modeling. This paper thus discusses the promise and limitations of using agent-based models to advance the use of the bounded rationality......While Herbert Simon espoused development of general models of behavior, he also strongly advo-cated that these models be based on realistic assumptions about humans and therefore reflect the complexity of human cognition and social systems (Simon 1997). Hence, the model of bounded rationality...

  16. Mapping Cyclists’ Experiences and Agent-Based Modelling of Their Wayfinding Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard

    with spatial agents and model calibration data creation This paper has two objectives, which are to develop and present a method for simulating single GPS-based trajectories by applying an agent-based model and to acquire parameter values for CopenhagenABM, an agent-based model of cyclists’ behaviour. The core......This dissertation is about modelling cycling transport behaviour. It is partly about urban experiences seen by the cyclist and about modelling, more specifically the agent-based modelling of cyclists' wayfinding behaviour. The dissertation consists of three papers. The first deals...... into consideration. The resulting routes' overlap with routes taken from the real world was calculated and used as a qualifier for the capacity of the model to explain the real world phenomenon. The analyses and the conclusions from these model results are discussed at the end of the paper. CopenhagenABM: An Agent-based...

  17. Joint Convention On The Safety Of Spent Fuel Management And On The Safety Of Radioactive Waste Management. National Report Of The Kingdom Of The Netherlands. Fourth Review Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    On 10 March 1999, the Netherlands signed the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, which was subsequently formally ratified on 26 April 2000 and entered into force on 18 June 2001. The Joint Convention obliges each contracting party to apply widely recognized principles and tools in order to achieve and maintain high standards of safety during management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. It also requires each Contracting Party to report on the national implementation of these principles to meetings of the parties to this Convention. This report is the fourth in its series. It describes how the Netherlands meets the obligations of each of the articles established by the Joint Convention.

  18. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. National Report of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 10 March 1999, the Netherlands signed the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, which was subsequently formally ratified on 26 April 2000 and entered into force on 18 June 2001. The Joint Convention obliges each contracting party to apply widely recognized principles and tools in order to achieve and maintain high standards of safety during management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. The Joint Convention also requires each party to report on the national implementation of these principles to review meetings of the parties to this Convention. This report describes the manner in which the Netherlands is fulfilling its obligations under the Joint Convention

  19. AGENTS BASED ADAPTIVE HYPERMEDIA SYSTEM WITH THE COMPETENCY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sergio Magdaleno-Palencia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is motivated by the need to propose a model for the study of personalized hypermedia systems with a competency approach, which is one of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and General Administration of Higher Education Technology (DGEST recommendations. We use computer agents, to construct a student model with emphasis on his learning style, multiple intelligences and the competency evaluation to adapt the course material according to the student’s needs. The system will also use artificial intelligence techniques. The systems will be used at a university level; the primary goal is to help each student learn and thus reach a suitable competency level.

  20. A Dynamic Cordon Pricing Scheme combining a Macroscopic and an Agent-based traffic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Nan; Waraich, Rashid A.; Axhausen, Kay W.; Geroliminis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Pricing is considered an effective management policy to reduce traffic congestion in transportation networks. In this paper we combine a macroscopic model of traffic congestion in urban networks with an agent-based simulator to study congestion pricing schemes. The macroscopic model, which has been tested with real data in previous studies, represents an accurate and robust approach to model the dynamics of congestion. The agent-based simulator can reproduce the complexity of travel behavior ...

  1. AGENT-BASED DISTRIBUTION GRID OPERATION BASED ON A TRAFFIC LIGHT CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Drayer, Elisabeth; Hegemann, Jan; Lazarus, Marc; Caire, Raphael; Braun, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Compared to a centralised grid operation management for the distribution grid, a distributed and decentralised agent-based operation has a lot of advantages, like scalability, modularity and robustness. We propose the concept for an agent-based distribution grid operation management based on a traffic light concept. Depending on the situation in the grid, the operation management can be in different modes, which define the way how the grid is operated.

  2. An agent -based Intelligent System to enhance E-Learning through Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    S.Prakasam; Prof.Dr.R.M.Suresh

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Internet has created new ways for education systems. Learners and teachers realize their pedagogic activities with less effort, time and money. Agent Based Intelligent System (ABIS) have proved their worth in multiple ways and in multiple domains in Education. In this paper the application of an agent-based IntelligentSystem for enhancing E-learning is introduced. An ABIS is a system that provides direct customized instruction or feedback to studentswithout the intervention of h...

  3. Agent-based land-use models: a review of applications

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, RB; Gilbert, NG; Roach, A.; Polhill, JG; Gotts, NM

    2007-01-01

    Agent-based modelling is an approach that has been receiving attention by the land use modelling community in recent years, mainly because it offers a way of incorporating the influence of human decision-making on land use in a mechanistic, formal, and spatially explicit way, taking into account social interaction, adaptation, and decision-making at different levels. Specific advantages of agent-based models include their ability to model individual decision-making entities and their interact...

  4. The Third Way of Agent-Based Social Simulation and a Computational Account of Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Wilson

    2010-01-01

    This paper interprets a particular agent-based social simulation (ABSS) in terms of the third way of understanding agent-based simulation proposed by Conte. It is proposed that the normalized compression distance (derived from estimates of Kolmogorov complexity) between the initial and final macrolevel states of the ABSS provides a quantitative measure of the degree to which the results obtained via the ABSS might be obtained via a closed-form expression. If the final macrolevel state of an A...

  5. Getting away from numbers: Using qualitative observation for agent-based modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L; Gilbert, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although in many social sciences there is a radical division between studies based on quantitative (e.g. statistical) and qualitative (e.g. ethnographic) methodologies and their associated epistemological commitments, agent-based simulation fits into neither camp, and should be capable of modelling both quantitative and qualitative data. Nevertheless, most agent-based models (ABMs) are founded on quantitative data. This paper explores some of the methodological and practical problems involved...

  6. Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonabeau, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling is a powerful simulation modeling technique that has seen a number of applications in the last few years, including applications to real-world business problems. After the basic principles of agent-based simulation are briefly introduced, its four areas of application are discussed by using real-world applications: flow simulation, organizational simulation, market simulation, and diffusion simulation. For each category, one or several business applications are described ...

  7. An Agent-Based Model of Behavior in “Beauty Contest” Games

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Mark W.; Michael J. Radzicki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, computer simulation, particularly agent-based modeling, has grown in popularity as a method to uncover macro patterns and developments that emerge from simple micro behavior. The present paper combines both techniques by using protocol analysis to uncover player strategies in an experiment and encoding those strategies in an agent-based computer simulation. In particular, Keynes’ (1936) beauty contest analogy is simulated in a number-guessing context. Several researchers have conduc...

  8. Comparing Stochastic Differential Equations and Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation for Early-Stage Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Figueredo, Grazziela P.; Peer-Olaf Siebers; Owen, Markus R.; Jenna Reps; Uwe Aickelin

    2014-01-01

    There is great potential to be explored regarding the use of agent-based modelling and simulation as an alternative paradigm to investigate early-stage cancer interactions with the immune system. It does not suffer from some limitations of ordinary differential equation models, such as the lack of stochasticity, representation of individual behaviours rather than aggregates and individual memory. In this paper we investigate the potential contribution of agent-based modelling and simulation w...

  9. An Agent-Based Simulation of In-Store Customer Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Celia, Helen; Clegg, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Agent-based modelling and simulation offers a new and exciting way of understanding the world of work. In this paper we describe the development of an agent-based simulation model, designed to help to understand the relationship between human resource management practices and retail productivity. We report on the current development of our simulation model which includes new features concerning the evolution of customers over time. To test some of these features we have conducted a series of ...

  10. Exploring the World of Agent-Based Simulations: Simple Models, Complex Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Susan M.; Lucas, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference E. Yücesan, C.-H. Chen, J. L. Snowdon, and J. M. Charnes, eds. Agent-based simulations are models where multiple entities sense and stochastically respond to conditions in their local environments, mimicking complex large-scale system behavior. We provide an overview of some important issues in the modeling and analysis of agent-based systems. Examples are drawn from a range of fields: biological modeling, sociologic...

  11. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation for Analysis of Transport Policy and Infrastructure Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Johan; Ramstedt, Linda; Davidsson, Paul; Persson, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate on the usage of multi-agent-based simulation (MABS) for quantitative impact assessment of transport policy and infrastructure measures. We provide a general discussion on how to use MABS for freight transport analysis, focusing on issues related to input data management, validation and verification, calibration, output data analysis, and generalization of results. The discussion is built around an agent-based transport chain simulation tool called TAPAS (Transportat...

  12. Agent-based simulation of military operations other than war small unit combat

    OpenAIRE

    Woodaman, Ronald F. A.

    2000-01-01

    A significant challenge to the Armed Forces today is the development of tactics, techniques, procedures, and equipment that will enable success in the small-scale combats that characterize Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). This thesis develops an agent-based simulation methodology for modeling MOOTW combat scenarios. The methodology combines agent-based modeling with discrete event simulation in a software package called AgentKit. AgentKit is used to model a riot control problem for...

  13. Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Volker; Revilla, Eloy; Berger, Uta; Jeltsch, Florian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Railsback, Steven F.; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Weiner, Jacob; Wiegand, Thorsten; Donald L DeAngelis

    2005-01-01

    Agent-based complex systems are dynamic networks of many interacting agents; examples include ecosystems, financial markets, and cities. The search for general principles underlying the internal organization of such systems often uses bottom-up simulation models such as cellular automata and agent-based models. No general framework for designing, testing, and analyzing bottom-up models has yet been established, but recent advances in ecological modeling have come together in a genera...

  14. Using Hybrid Agent-Based Systems to Model Spatially-Influenced Retail Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Heppenstall; Andrew Evans; Mark Birkin

    2006-01-01

    One emerging area of agent-based modelling is retail markets; however, there are problems with modelling such systems. The vast size of such markets makes individual-level modelling, for example of customers, difficult and this is particularly true where the markets are spatially complex. There is an emerging recognition that the power of agent-based systems is enhanced when integrated with other AI-based and conventional approaches. The resulting hybrid models are powerful tools that combine...

  15. Predictability of Shanghai Stock Market by Agent-based Mix-game Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the effort of using agent-based mix-game model to predict financial time series. It introduces the prediction methodology by means of mix-game model and gives an example of its application to forecasting Shanghai Index. The results show that this prediction methodology is effective and agent-based mix-game model is a potential good model to predict time series of financial markets.

  16. Using an agent-based model to simulate children’s active travel to school

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yong; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the multiple advantages of active travel to school, only a small percentage of US children and adolescents walk or bicycle to school. Intervention studies are in a relatively early stage and evidence of their effectiveness over long periods is limited. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the utility of agent-based models in exploring how various policies may influence children’s active travel to school. Methods An agent-based model was developed to simulate children...

  17. National Report submitted by Australia [International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining Continuous Global Control of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), 27-31 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is a federation of six states, which together with two major self-governing territories and the federal government comprise 9 separate legal jurisdictions. Australia no longer manufactures any radioactive sources but continues to use radioactive sources for a broad range of medical, industrial, research and mining purposes. Australia gave a non-binding commitment to work towards implementing the guidance in the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (consistent with the terms of GC(47)/Res/7.B) in May, 2004 and notified the Director General of its intention to act in accordance with the IAEA Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (consistent with the terms of GC(48)/Res/10.D) in November 2004. Australia has longstanding regulatory arrangements to ensure the safety and security of radioactive sources. These regulatory arrangements are consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Series Fundamentals and Recommendations publications as they relate to radioactive sources. Since 2001 Australia has focused upon efforts to enhance regulatory and other controls over radioactive sources consistent with the level of concern the material poses. In summary, Australia has taken the following actions: • published a national report on the control and regulation of security-sensitive radioactive materials agreed by the Council of Australian Governments in April 2007; • published a Code of Practice for the Security of Radioactive Sources (the Code) and developed associated practice specific guidance and templates; • introduced requirements set out in the Code into Australian jurisdictional laws and arrangements related to the safety and security of radioactive sources; • undertaken an extensive and ongoing education and awareness program with industry and government involved in all aspects of the supply chain; • established a national register of category 1 and 2 radioactive sources to

  18. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  2. National plan of radioactive wastes and matters 2007-2009; Plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This Plan aims to propose a global framework allowing the management of radioactive wastes, whatever the producers in order to control the safety and the choice of adapted disposal sites. The first part is devoted to the description of solutions of radioactive wastes management for existing or engaged wastes. The second part concerns radioactive materials of the nuclear industry which are not considered as wastes, but as recycling materials for future nuclear reactors. For instance, this part discusses the particular case of the depleted uranium. The third part examines the different channels of the long dated management. The last part brings together the all data and in particular problematic points which must be discussed and analyzed in a logic framework. Propositions and recommendations are provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  4. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  5. Swiss legislation on radioactive waste management. Obligations under the state treaty; national legal regulations; roles of the players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 23, 1959, the Swiss Parliament adopted the ''Federal Act on Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection.'' The Nuclear Power Act of March 21, 2003 constitutes a comprehensive legal regime on radioactive waste. The article outlines the obligations incurred by Switzerland under the state treaty in the ''Joint Agreement on the Safety of Management of Spent Fuel Elements and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management'' as well as their practical implementation. For the management of radioactive waste, the Nuclear Power Act envisages the concept of underground geologic storage to be transferred into a repository after a phase of observation. The underground geologic store requires a framework permit to be issued by the Federal Council and approved by Parliament. In Switzerland, framework permits are subject to facultative referenda, i.e., there is the possibility of a plebiscite. Article 5 of the Nuclear Power Ordinance regulates the competences in the procedure to build a repository: ''The Federation, in a substantive plan, lays down the objectives and criteria for storing radioactive waste in underground geologic stores in a way binding on the authorities.'' The structure and the duties and obligations of the players involved as set out in the ''Underground Geologic Storage'' plan establish a credible basis of the ongoing site selection procedure and further steps to be taken in building an underground store in Switzerland. (orig.)

  6. Bosnia and Herzegovina: The National Report on Implementing the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina has made a political commitment with regard to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. The State Regulatory Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (SRARNS) is established as the effectively independent regulatory body for radiation and nuclear safety based on the Law on Radiation and Nuclear Safety promulgated in November 2007. Law is compatible with relevant IAEA Safety Standards and Guides for safety and security of radioactive sources. After its complete reorganization in the last few years, the regulatory system reflects the international standards, including most of the requirements of the Code of Conduct and supplementary guidance. The report gives a brief overview of the new regulatory framework in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with special focus on functions and competences of the implementing authority, basic principles of the licensing, inspection and enforcement procedures. The report also includes an overview of the state registry of radioactive sources and the system of prevention and management of orphan sources

  7. Dispersal and density of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1978 a study of small mammal density, species composition, and dispersal patterns for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was initiated. This study will provide data necessary to determine the role of small mammals in the redistribution of transuranics and other radionuclides and the amounts being moved. The problems associated with studying dispersal of rodents from the SDA are discussed

  8. National policy and experience with the management of radioactive wastes from non-fuel cycle activities in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research, production, and application of radioisotopes in many fields of science, industry, agriculture, medicine, education, etc. proceeded in the former Czechoslovak Republic (CSFR) since the mid-fifties. These activities resulted in a great accumulation of relatively large volumes and activities of radioactive wastes. Therefore, in 1959 the Czechoslovak government appointed the Institute for Research, Production, and Application of Radioisotopes (IRPAR), now NYCOM, to be the central authority for collection and disposal of these radioactive wastes. In 1972 these responsibilities were defined in more detail by the decree of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic No. 59/1972 on the protection of public health against the effects of ionizing radiation. From the very beginning the services for collection, transport, and disposal provided by IRPAR (NYCOM) were based on the concept of waste concentration and their safe disposal in well-controlled facilities. The aim of disposal is to guarantee that man and his environment will not suffer, neither at present nor in the future, from these wastes. This aim is achieved by isolation of radioactive wastes from the human environment by a system of multiple barriers for a sufficiently long period of time to allow activity to decay below acceptable limits. The disposal of radioactive wastes in the central repositories started in 1959, when the first repository located near the village Hostim in the Beroun District was put in operation. The operational period of this repository was ended in 1963 and it was closed in 1965. At present, there are other two repositories in operation. The repository Richard serves for disposal of wastes containing artificial radionuclides, i.e., nuclides with induced radioactivity and fission products. The repository Bratrstvi serves for disposal of naturally occurring radionuclides, i.e., nuclides of uranium and thorium and their daughter products. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs

  9. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  10. Global, regional and national nuclear risk management. Use of ALARA in decision-making on costly international cleanup effort of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the national risk management, it's found out that 'external' source of hazard situated at the territory of neighbor country contributes heavily to total public and environment risk of the country. In order to remove such an opportunity, it's necessary to establish for these purposes special international funds ('safety funds') intended for environment pollution international standards. They are used for helping to establish quantitative standards for contribution in such fund from different countries. The authors considered problem of the optimal international investment in risk reducing from radioactive waste dumping in water of oceans. Coordinated mechanism for management and control, international legislative and legal norms are discussed

  11. The PACKTRAM database on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. User's guide for compiled system program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PACKTRAM system program enables Member States to prepare data diskettes on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material, for submission to the IAEA, and facilitates data manipulation and report preparation for the IAEA. The system program is provided as a 424 kbyte executable file, for which this document is the User Guide. The system is fully menu-driven and requires an IBM-compatible personal computer with a minimum of 640 kbyte random access memory, a hard drive and one 3-1/2 inch diskette drive. 3 refs, 6 tabs

  12. Special Analysis of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management

    2012-09-30

    This report describes the methods and results of a special analysis (SA) of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The purpose of the SA is to determine if the approved performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA) (Shott et al., 2001) remain valid. The Area 3 RWMS PA and CA were prepared as a single document and received conditional approval on October 6, 1999. A conditional Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) for the Area 3 RWMS was issued on October 20, 1999. Since preparation of the approved PA and CA, new information and additional environmental monitoring data have been used to update the PA and CA. At the same time, continual advancements in computer processors and software have allowed improvement to the PA and CA models. Annual reviews of the PA and CA required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 435.1 have documented multiple changes occurring since preparation of the PA and CA. Potentially important changes include: Development of a new and improved baseline PA and CA model implemented in the probabilistic GoldSim simulation platform. A significant increase in the waste inventory disposed at the site. Revision and updating of model parameters based on additional years of site monitoring data and new research and development results. Although changes have occurred, many important PA/CA issues remain unchanged, including the site conceptual model, important features, events, and processes, and the points of compliance. The SA is performed to document the current status of the PA/CA model and to quantitatively assess the impact of cumulative changes on the PA and CA results. The results of the SA are used to assess the validity of the approved PA/CA and make a determination if revision of the PA or CA is necessary. The SA was performed using the Area 3 RWMS, version 2.102, GoldSim model, the current baseline PA/CA model. Comparison of the maximum SA results with the PA

  13. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  14. The role of performance assessment in the evaluation of remedial action alternatives for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is involved in nuclear research and development. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL serves as a disposal facility for low level radioactive wastes generated onsite. Transuranic (TRU) wastes received from other DOE sites are currently stored at the RWMC, but were buried at the facility from 1952 until 1970. Recent findings of the Subsurface Investigations Program have determined that migration of TRU nuclides and hazardous materials from the RWMC has occurred. The primary source of organics in the buried TRU waste was generated by the Rocky Flats Plant. The INEL has proposed an aggressive four-year action plan for buried TRU waste. As a part of this plan, a task has been identified to evaluate existing remedial technologies for preventing further contaminant migration or removing the source of TRU radionuclides and nonradioactive hazardous material from the RWMC. A systems approach is being applied to evaluate, compare and recommend technologies or combinations of technologies. One criterion used in the evaluation is the net risk reduction afforded by each proposed remedial action. The method used to develop the criterion relies on models to assess the potential pathways and scenarios for the migration of radioactive and nonradioactive materials and the subsequent exposure of individuals to those materials. This paper describes the approach used to assess the performance of various remedial actions and the results obtained to date

  15. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides present in Operable Unit IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides (americium-241; cobalt-60; cesium-137; europium-152, -154, and -155; plutonium-238, -239, and -240; strontium-90; and uranium-234, -235, and -238) were derived for Operable Unit (OU) IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Single-nuclide guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of OU IV should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for plausible but less likely future use scenarios. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for determining residual radioactive material guidelines. Four potential scenarios were considered; each assumed that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The four scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed

  16. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  17. Indonesia National Report on the Infrastructure for Regulatory Control of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Paragraphs 8, 18-22 of the Code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir, abbreviated as BAPETEN or Indonesia Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency is a national regulatory institution for nuclear energy utilization in Indonesia. BAPETEN has missions to ensure safety and health of public, workers and environment in term of nuclear energy uses and to maintain the legal order in the use of nuclear energy. Based on Indonesia regulatory framework, BAPETEN has followed more than 90% of the infrastructure for regulatory control of safety and security of radioactive sources stated in paragraphs 8 , 18-22 of the Code, except paragraph 2 2 m). BAPETEN has not yet to provide guidance on appropriate levels of information, instruction and training on the safety and security of radioactive sources and the devices or facilities in which they are housed, to manufacturers, suppliers and users of radioactive sources. Inspection can be performed regularly for all licensees or prior to the license granted as a method for verification of licensing data given by the applicant. Inspection frequencies have been established based on legally prescribed risk categories, i.e. GR No.3312007 and GR No.29l2008; this categorization is based on IAEA TECDOC 1526 Inspection of Radiation Sources and Regulatory Enforcement. BAPETEN takes enforcement actions through inspection on radiation safety and security of radioactive sources, as appropriate, to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. BAPETEN is empowered to issue sanctions including written notices of violations, or the revocation of the license. There are also monetary penalties/fines. Guidance on procedures to be followed with enforcement actions has been formalized. Intensive collaborations with other enforcement agencies( e.g. Police, Justice, etc.) have been established.B APETEN has an enforcement procedure to ensure that an operator has effectively implemented any remedial actions within the specified time frame. BAPETEN participates in international conventions, conference and

  18. Home range and local movement of small mammals on the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1978, a study of local movement of small mammals on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was undertaken in conjunction with a study of rodent dispersal. Live trapping in May and June revealed a strong potential for the detection of local movement of at least four species of rodents. Information on this movement is important as each species, during burrowing, may transport radioactive waste from the point of interment to the surface. The area over which contamination may be spread, as fecal deposits or as metabolically incorporated elements, is a function of the daily movement of each animal. At least eight factors may effect size and shape of home range. These factors are discussed, techniques employed in the calculation of home range are outlined, and problems associated with live trapping and studying local movement of small mammals are considered

  19. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  20. National regulatory authorities with competence in the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buenos Aires Conference, hosted by the Government of Argentina, was attended by 89 regulatory officials from 57 Member States. The conference provided a forum for fostering the exchange of information and experience on the development of adequate regulatory systems for effective control of the safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials. This publication contains 64 individual presentations delivered at the Conference. Each of them was indexed separately