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  1. The long pentraxin PTX3 promotes fibrocyte differentiation.

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    Pilling, Darrell; Cox, Nehemiah; Vakil, Varsha; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte-derived, fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes are associated with fibrotic lesions. The plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP; also known as pentraxin-2, PTX2) inhibits fibrocyte differentiation in vitro, and injections of SAP inhibit fibrosis in vivo. SAP is a member of the pentraxin family of proteins that includes C-reactive protein (CRP; PTX1) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3). All three pentraxins are associated with fibrosis, but only SAP and CRP have been studied for their effects on fibrocyte differentiation. We find that compared to SAP and CRP, PTX3 promotes human and murine fibrocyte differentiation. The effect of PTX3 is dependent on FcγRI. In competition studies, the fibrocyte-inhibitory activity of SAP is dominant over PTX3. Binding competition studies indicate that SAP and PTX3 bind human FcγRI at different sites. In murine models of lung fibrosis, PTX3 is present in fibrotic areas, and the PTX3 distribution is associated with collagen deposition. In lung tissue from pulmonary fibrosis patients, PTX3 has a widespread distribution, both in unaffected tissue and in fibrotic lesions, whereas SAP is restricted to areas adjacent to vessels, and absent from fibrotic areas. These data suggest that the relative levels of SAP and PTX3 present at sites of fibrosis may have a significant effect on the ability of monocytes to differentiate into fibrocytes. PMID:25774777

  2. TNF-α–stimulated fibroblasts secrete lumican to promote fibrocyte differentiation

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    Pilling, Darrell; Vakil, Varsha; Cox, Nehemiah; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In healing wounds and fibrotic lesions, fibroblasts and monocyte-derived fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes help to form scar tissue. Although fibrocytes promote collagen production by fibroblasts, little is known about signaling from fibroblasts to fibrocytes. In this report, we show that fibroblasts stimulated with the fibrocyte-secreted inflammatory signal tumor necrosis factor-α secrete the small leucine-rich proteoglycan lumican, and that lumican, but not the related proteoglycan decorin, promotes human fibrocyte differentiation. Lumican competes with the serum fibrocyte differentiation inhibitor serum amyloid P, but dominates over the fibroblast-secreted fibrocyte inhibitor Slit2. Lumican acts directly on monocytes, and unlike other factors that affect fibrocyte differentiation, lumican has no detectable effect on macrophage differentiation or polarization. α2β1, αMβ2, and αXβ2 integrins are needed for lumican-induced fibrocyte differentiation. In lung tissue from pulmonary fibrosis patients with relatively normal lung function, lumican is present at low levels throughout the tissue, whereas patients with advanced disease have pronounced lumican expression in the fibrotic lesions. These data may explain why fibrocytes are increased in fibrotic tissues, suggest that the levels of lumican in tissues may have a significant effect on the decision of monocytes to differentiate into fibrocytes, and indicate that modulating lumican signaling may be useful as a therapeutic for fibrosis. PMID:26351669

  3. TNF-α-stimulated fibroblasts secrete lumican to promote fibrocyte differentiation.

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    Pilling, Darrell; Vakil, Varsha; Cox, Nehemiah; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-09-22

    In healing wounds and fibrotic lesions, fibroblasts and monocyte-derived fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes help to form scar tissue. Although fibrocytes promote collagen production by fibroblasts, little is known about signaling from fibroblasts to fibrocytes. In this report, we show that fibroblasts stimulated with the fibrocyte-secreted inflammatory signal tumor necrosis factor-α secrete the small leucine-rich proteoglycan lumican, and that lumican, but not the related proteoglycan decorin, promotes human fibrocyte differentiation. Lumican competes with the serum fibrocyte differentiation inhibitor serum amyloid P, but dominates over the fibroblast-secreted fibrocyte inhibitor Slit2. Lumican acts directly on monocytes, and unlike other factors that affect fibrocyte differentiation, lumican has no detectable effect on macrophage differentiation or polarization. α2β1, αMβ2, and αXβ2 integrins are needed for lumican-induced fibrocyte differentiation. In lung tissue from pulmonary fibrosis patients with relatively normal lung function, lumican is present at low levels throughout the tissue, whereas patients with advanced disease have pronounced lumican expression in the fibrotic lesions. These data may explain why fibrocytes are increased in fibrotic tissues, suggest that the levels of lumican in tissues may have a significant effect on the decision of monocytes to differentiate into fibrocytes, and indicate that modulating lumican signaling may be useful as a therapeutic for fibrosis. PMID:26351669

  4. Aging promotes pro-fibrotic matrix production and increases fibrocyte recruitment during acute lung injury.

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    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Neveu, Wendy A; Neujahr, David C; Mills, Stephen T; Rojas, Mauricio; Roman, Jesse; Guidot, David M

    2014-01-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases increase with age. Previously we determined that senescence increases tissue expression of fibronectin EDA (Fn-EDA) and decreases fibroblast expression of Thy-1, and that fibrocytes contribute to fibrosis following bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. In this study we hypothesized that fibroblasts lacking Thy-1 expression produce an extracellular matrix that promotes fibrocyte retention and myofibroblast transdifferentiation, thereby promoting fibrogenesis. Young and old mice were treated with bleomycin intratracheally; fibrocytes in the bone marrow, blood, and lungs were quantified, and lung fibroblast Thy-1 expression assessed. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes were cultured on matrices derived from Thy-1(+) or Thy-1(-) fibroblasts ± the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFβ1. Older mice had more fibrocytes in their bone marrows at baseline and more fibrocytes in their lungs following bleomycin treatment. In parallel, lung fibroblasts in older mice had lower expression of Thy-1 at baseline that increased transiently 7 days after bleomycin treatment but then rapidly waned such that 14 days after bleomycin treatment Thy-1 expression was again markedly lower. Fibrocytes cultured on matrices derived from Thy-1(-) fibroblasts + TGFβ1 had increased gene expression for collagen type 1, fibronectin, Fn-EDA, and α-smooth muscle actin. In parallel, whereas the matrices derived from Thy-1(-) fibroblasts stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in cultured fibrocytes, the matrices derived from Thy-1(+) fibroblasts induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that senescence increases fibrocyte recruitment to the lung following injury and that loss of Thy-1 expression by lung fibroblasts promotes fibrocyte retention and myofibroblast trans-differentiation that renders the "aging lung" susceptible to fibrosis. PMID:24596659

  5. Fibrocyte and T cell interactions promote disease pathogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Galligan, Carole L; Keystone, Edward C; Fish, Eleanor N

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease. We previously identified a circulating cell population, fibrocytes, which is activated early in disease. As RA is characterized by the formation of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells, which often precede symptom onset, the objective of these studies was to characterize fibrocyte activation in the context of T cell activation. Multidimensional flow cytometry was used to characterize the activation status of peripheral blood (PB) fibrocytes and T cells derived from RA patients with different levels of disease activity. Compared to healthy controls, fibrocytes from RA patients exhibited increased activation, denoted as elevated levels of phosphorylation of STAT3 and NF-κB. RA patients had higher numbers of circulating activated Th17 cells and Tregs compared with healthy controls, Th17 cell numbers being higher in patients with moderate to high disease activity. Additionally, increased numbers of FOXP3+ RORγt+ double positive CD4+ T cells were observed in RA patients with more severe disease. Our data confirm that circulating fibrocytes are expanded in RA and that there is a direct correlation between the increase in number of activated fibrocytes and increased number of CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data suggest that interactions between circulating fibrocytes and activated T cells may promote disease activity. Specifically, we provide in vitro evidence that mouse-derived CD4+ T cells produce GM-CSF which induces fibrocyte proliferation. In turn, activated fibrocytes produce IL-6, promoting Th17 polarization. PMID:26948996

  6. Kruppel-like factor KLF4 facilitates cutaneous wound healing by promoting fibrocyte generation from myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

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    Ou, Lingling; Shi, Ying; Dong, Wenqi; Liu, Chunming; Schmidt, Thomas J; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Fan, Daping; Ai, Walden

    2015-05-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are serious skin injuries whereby the wound healing process is frequently stalled in the inflammatory phase. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate as a result of inflammation and promote cutaneous wound healing by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Recently, MDSCs have been shown to differentiate into fibrocytes, which serve as emerging effector cells that enhance cell proliferation in wound healing. We postulate that in wound healing MDSCs not only execute their immunosuppressive function to regulate inflammation but also stimulate cell proliferation once they differentiate into fibrocytes. In the current study, by using full-thickness and PU mouse models, we found that Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) deficiency resulted in decreased accumulation of MDSCs and fibrocytes, and wound healing was significantly delayed. Conversely, KLF4 activation by the plant-derived product Mexicanin I increased the number of MDSCs and fibrocytes and accelerated the wound healing. Collectively, our study revealed a previously unreported function of MDSCs in cutaneous wound healing and identified Mexicanin I as a potential agent to accelerate PU wound healing. PMID:25581502

  7. CCL2 release by airway smooth muscle is increased in asthma and promotes fibrocyte migration

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    S. R. Singh; Sutcliffe, A.; Kaur, D; Gupta, S.; Desai, D; Saunders, R.; Brightling, C E

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is characterized by variable airflow obstruction, airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodelling. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperplasia is a feature of airway remodelling and contributes to bronchial wall thickening. We sought to investigate the expression levels of chemokines in primary cultures of ASM cells from asthmatics vs healthy controls and to assess whether differentially expressed chemokines (i) promote fibrocyte (FC) migration towards ASM...

  8. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma

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    Bianchetti, Lorenza, E-mail: lbianchetti@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Laboratory of Cytopathology and Cytogenetics, Italian ABR Operative Unit, Milan (Italy); Marini, Maurizio A., E-mail: mam.marini@yahoo.com [Multispecialty Outpatient Clinic and Diagnostic Center, Milan (Italy); Isgro, Mirko, E-mail: m.isgro@vtxmail.ch [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Laboratory of Cytopathology and Cytogenetics, Italian ABR Operative Unit, Milan (Italy); Bellini, Alberto, E-mail: abellini@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Schmidt, Matthias, E-mail: mschmidt@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Mattoli, Sabrina, E-mail: smattoli@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 is considered a new therapeutic target for reducing inflammation in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study shows that IL-33 is a potent chemoattractant for fibrocytes in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 also promotes fibrocyte proliferation without reducing collagen production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study uncovers a novel non-inflammatory, profibrotic function of IL-33. -- Abstract: The release of IL-33 increases in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity and several studies have demonstrated that IL-33 may enhance airway inflammation in asthma. This study tested the hypothesis that IL-33 may also contribute to the development of irreversible structural changes in asthma by favoring the airway recruitment and profibrotic function of circulating fibrocytes during episodes of allergen-induced asthma exacerbation. The circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma (PwAA) showed increased expression of the specific IL-33 receptor component ST2L in comparison with the cells from non-asthmatic individuals (NAI). Recombinant IL-33 induced the migration of circulating fibrocytes from PwAA at clinically relevant concentrations and stimulated their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, without affecting the constitutive release of type I collagen. The recombinant protein did not induce similar responses in circulating fibrocytes from NAI. This study uncovers an important mechanism through which fibrocytes may accumulate in the airways of allergic asthmatics when their disease is not adequately controlled by current treatment and provides novel information on the function of IL-33 in asthma.

  9. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► IL-33 is considered a new therapeutic target for reducing inflammation in asthma. ► This study shows that IL-33 is a potent chemoattractant for fibrocytes in asthma. ► IL-33 also promotes fibrocyte proliferation without reducing collagen production. ► The study uncovers a novel non-inflammatory, profibrotic function of IL-33. -- Abstract: The release of IL-33 increases in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity and several studies have demonstrated that IL-33 may enhance airway inflammation in asthma. This study tested the hypothesis that IL-33 may also contribute to the development of irreversible structural changes in asthma by favoring the airway recruitment and profibrotic function of circulating fibrocytes during episodes of allergen-induced asthma exacerbation. The circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma (PwAA) showed increased expression of the specific IL-33 receptor component ST2L in comparison with the cells from non-asthmatic individuals (NAI). Recombinant IL-33 induced the migration of circulating fibrocytes from PwAA at clinically relevant concentrations and stimulated their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, without affecting the constitutive release of type I collagen. The recombinant protein did not induce similar responses in circulating fibrocytes from NAI. This study uncovers an important mechanism through which fibrocytes may accumulate in the airways of allergic asthmatics when their disease is not adequately controlled by current treatment and provides novel information on the function of IL-33 in asthma.

  10. Involvement of fibrocytes in asthma and clinical implications.

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    Mattoli, S

    2015-10-01

    Bloodborne fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived cells that participate in immune responses and exhibit pro-inflammatory and matrix remodelling properties. In patients with asthma receiving an adequate treatment, the blood fibrocyte count is very low and comparable to that obtained in healthy individuals. In these patients, a transient increase in fibrocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and in the airways occurs in concomitance with increased bronchial inflammation and reflects disease worsening and the need for more intensive treatment. Persistently elevated numbers of fibrocytes in the peripheral blood and in the bronchial mucosa are observed in chronically undertreated or corticosteroid-resistant asthma and are associated with persistent airway inflammation and ongoing remodelling of the bronchial wall. The asthmatic bronchial epithelium is the main source of fibrocyte chemoattractants in asthma and contributes with T helper type 2 lymphocytes and eosinophils to promote the proliferation and pro-remodelling function of recruited fibrocytes. The presence of elevated numbers of fibrocytes in the bronchial mucosa of allergic patients with undertreated or treatment-resistant asthma may also increase the risk of acute exacerbations because these cells can amplify T helper type 2 lymphocyte-driven inflammation on every exposure to the clinically relevant allergen and can promote further inflammation on rhinovirus infections by allowing viral replication and releasing additional pro-inflammatory factors. Improved methods for the isolation and functional analysis of pure populations of viable circulating fibrocytes have allowed a better understanding of the effector role of these cells. A reliable and clinically applicable assay has been developed to measure blood fibrocyte counts as outcome measure in future clinical trials. New therapeutic agents are needed to block both persistent inflammation and fibrocytosis in corticosteroid-resistant asthma. PMID:25752439

  11. Human fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells express IDO and promote tolerance via Treg-cell expansion.

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    Zoso, Alessia; Mazza, Emilia M C; Bicciato, Silvio; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo; Serafini, Paolo; Inverardi, Luca

    2014-11-01

    By restraining T-cell activation and promoting Treg-cell expansion, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tolerogenic DCs can control self-reactive and antigraft effector T cells in autoimmunity and transplantation. Their therapeutic use and characterization, however, is limited by their scarce availability in the peripheral blood of tumor-free donors. In the present study, we describe and characterize a novel population of human myeloid suppressor cells, named fibrocytic MDSC, which are differentiated from umbilical cord blood precursors by 4-day culture with FDA-approved cytokines (recombinant human-GM-CSF and recombinant human-G-CSF). This MDSC subset, characterized by the expression of MDSC-, DC-, and fibrocyte-associated markers, promotes Treg-cell expansion and induces normoglycemia in a xenogeneic mouse model of Type 1 diabetes. In order to exert their protolerogenic function, fibrocytic MDSCs require direct contact with activated T cells, which leads to the production and secretion of IDO. This new myeloid subset may have an important role in the in vitro and in vivo production of Treg cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, and in either the prevention or control of allograft rejection. PMID:25113564

  12. Fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrosis: a brief synopsis

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    Shyam Maharaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived, circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells that play a role in several fibrotic disorders, including lung fibrosis. They are attracted to injured tissue by various chemokines. It is likely that fibrocytes play a detrimental role in tissue homeostasis and promote fibrosis, although this paradigm needs further confirmation. This would make fibrocytes a possible novel treatment target for fibrotic disorders. Fibrocytes also have some potential as a biomarker for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and other diseases, but the promising preliminary data from single centre studies still require independent validation. Despite several, as yet, unresolved issues, it has become clear that fibrocytes are more than an incidental finding in lung injury and repair, and may hold great promise for the future of IPF management.

  13. TSH-receptor-expressing fibrocytes and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

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    Smith, Terry J

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a vexing and undertreated ocular component of Graves disease in which orbital tissues undergo extensive remodelling. My colleagues and I have introduced the concept that fibrocytes expressing the haematopoietic cell antigen CD34 (CD34(+) fibrocytes), which are precursor cells of bone-marrow-derived monocyte lineage, express the TSH receptor (TSHR). These cells also produce several other proteins whose expression was traditionally thought to be restricted to the thyroid gland. TSHR-expressing fibrocytes in which the receptor is activated by its ligand generate extremely high levels of several inflammatory cytokines. Acting in concert with TSHR, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expressed by orbital fibroblasts and fibrocytes seems to be necessary for TSHR-dependent cytokine production, as anti-IGF-1R blocking antibodies attenuate these proinflammatory actions of TSH. Furthermore, circulating fibrocytes are highly abundant in patients with TAO and seem to infiltrate orbital connective tissues, where they might transition to CD34(+) fibroblasts. My research group has postulated that the infiltration of fibrocytes into the orbit, their unique biosynthetic repertoire and their proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotype account for the characteristic properties exhibited by orbital connective tissues that underlie susceptibility to TAO. These insights, which have emerged in the past few years, might be of use in therapeutically targeting pathogenic orbit-infiltrating fibrocytes selectively by utilizing novel biologic agents that interfere with TSHR and IGF-1R signalling. PMID:25560705

  14. Spontaneous recovery of cochlear fibrocytes after severe degeneration caused by acute energy failure

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    KunioMizutari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear fibrocytes in the lateral wall region play a critical role in the regulation of inner ear ion and fluid homeostasis, although these are nonsensory cells. Along with other nonsensory cells, fibrocytes in the spiral ligament have been reported to repopulate themselves after damage. However, the studies of regeneration of cochlear fibrocytes have been difficult because a suitable fibrocyte-specific degeneration model did not exist. Therefore, we analyzed cochlear fibrocytes using a rat model of acute cochlear energy failure induced by a mitochondrial toxin. This model is unique because hearing loss is caused by apoptosis of fibrocytes in the cochlear lateral wall not by damage to sensory cells. Although this model involves severe damage to the cochlear lateral wall, delayed spontaneous regeneration occurs without any treatment. Moreover, partial hearing recovery is accompanied by morphological remodeling of the cochlear lateral wall. Two hypotheses are conceivable regarding this spontaneous recovery of cochlear fibrocytes. One is that residual cochlear fibrocytes proliferate spontaneously, followed by remodeling of the functional region of the lateral wall. Another is that some foreign cells such as bone marrow-derived cells promote morphological and functional recovery of the lateral wall. Acceleration of the lateral wall recovery promoted by these mechanisms may be a new therapeutic strategy against hearing loss.

  15. Spontaneous recovery of cochlear fibrocytes after severe degeneration caused by acute energy failure.

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    Mizutari, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear fibrocytes in the lateral wall region play a critical role in the regulation of inner ear ion and fluid homeostasis, although these are non-sensory cells. Along with other non-sensory cells, fibrocytes in the spiral ligament have been reported to repopulate themselves after damage. However, the studies of regeneration of cochlear fibrocytes have been difficult because a suitable fibrocyte-specific degeneration model did not exist. Therefore, we analyzed cochlear fibrocytes using a rat model of acute cochlear energy failure induced by a mitochondrial toxin. This model is unique because hearing loss is caused by apoptosis of fibrocytes in the cochlear lateral wall not by damage to sensory cells. Although this model involves severe damage to the cochlear lateral wall, delayed spontaneous regeneration occurs without any treatment. Moreover, partial hearing recovery is accompanied by morphological remodeling of the cochlear lateral wall. Two hypotheses are conceivable regarding this spontaneous recovery of cochlear fibrocytes. One is that residual cochlear fibrocytes proliferate spontaneously, followed by remodeling of the functional region of the lateral wall. Another is that some foreign cells such as bone marrow-derived cells promote morphological and functional recovery of the lateral wall. Acceleration of the lateral wall recovery promoted by these mechanisms may be a new therapeutic strategy against hearing loss. PMID:25206337

  16. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially regulate human fibrocyte differentiation.

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    Anu S Maharjan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following tissue injury, monocytes can enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, but little is known about what regulates this differentiation. Extracellular matrix contains high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMWHA; ∼2×10(6 Da. During injury, HMWHA breaks down to low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA; ∼0.8-8×10(5 Da. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this report, we show that HMWHA potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes into fibrocytes, while LMWHA inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Digestion of HMWHA with hyaluronidase produces small hyaluronic acid fragments, and these fragments inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. Monocytes internalize HMWHA and LMWHA equally well, suggesting that the opposing effects on fibrocyte differentiation are not due to differential internalization of HMWHA or LMWHA. Adding HMWHA to PBMC does not appear to affect the levels of the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44, whereas adding LMWHA decreases CD44 levels. The addition of anti-CD44 antibodies potentiates fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that CD44 mediates at least some of the effect of hyaluronic acid on fibrocyte differentiation. The fibrocyte differentiation-inhibiting factor serum amyloid P (SAP inhibits HMWHA-induced fibrocyte differentiation and potentiates LMWHA-induced inhibition. Conversely, LMWHA inhibits the ability of HMWHA, interleukin-4 (IL-4, or interleukin-13 (IL-13 to promote fibrocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that hyaluronic acid signals at least in part through CD44 to regulate fibrocyte differentiation, with a dominance hierarchy of SAP>LMWHA≥HMWHA>IL-4 or IL-13.

  17. Fibrocytes are not an essential source of type I collagen during lung fibrosis.

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    Kleaveland, Kathryn R; Velikoff, Miranda; Yang, Jibing; Agarwal, Manisha; Rippe, Richard A; Moore, Bethany B; Kim, Kevin K

    2014-11-15

    Progressive fibrosis involves accumulation of activated collagen-producing mesenchymal cells. Fibrocytes are hematopoietic-derived cells with mesenchymal features that potentially have a unique and critical function during fibrosis. Fibrocytes have been proposed as an important direct contributor of type I collagen deposition during fibrosis based largely on fate-mapping studies. To determine the functional contribution of hematopoietic cell-derived type I collagen to fibrogenesis, we use a double-transgenic system to specifically delete the type I collagen gene across a broad population of hematopoietic cells. These mice develop a robust fibrotic response similar to littermate genotype control mice injured with bleomycin indicating that fibrocytes are not a necessary source of type I collagen. Using collagen-promoter GFP mice, we find that fibrocytes express type I collagen. However, fibrocytes with confirmed deletion of the type I collagen gene have readily detectable intracellular type I collagen indicating that uptake of collagen from neighboring cells account for much of the fibrocyte collagen. Collectively, these results clarify several seemingly conflicting reports regarding the direct contribution of fibrocytes to collagen deposition. PMID:25281715

  18. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

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    Lin, Rong-Jie; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Liang, Shu-Min; Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis. Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed. The search terms were “circulating fibrocytes” and “cardiac fibrosis”. Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected. Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+). They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines. It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis. Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts. Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26831236

  19. Pentraxin-3 Is a TSH-Inducible Protein in Human Fibrocytes and Orbital Fibroblasts.

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    Wang, Hao; Atkins, Stephen J; Fernando, Roshini; Wei, Rui-Li; Smith, Terry J

    2015-11-01

    CD34(+) fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived monocyte progenitor cells that traffic to sites of tissue injury and repair. They putatively infiltrate the orbit in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy where they appear to transition into CD34(+) orbital fibroblasts (OFs) that interact with residential CD34(-) fibroblasts. A unique phenotypic attribute of fibrocytes and CD34(+) OFs is their expression of the functional thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and other "thyroid-specific" proteins. When activated through TSHR, fibrocytes express a number of cytokines and other inflammatory genes. Here we sought to determine whether pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), an acute-phase protein involved in inflammation and autoimmunity, might be induced by TSH in fibrocytes and OFs. These cells were collected from patients with Graves disease and healthy individuals. PTX-3 mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR, protein was determined by ELISA and Western blot, and PTX-3 gene promoter activity was assessed with reporter assays. PTX-3 expression was induced by TSH in both cell types, regardless of the health status of the donor and was a consequence of increased steady-state PTX-3 mRNA levels. M22, a TSHR-activating monoclonal antibody, also induced PTX-3. The induction could be attenuated by dexamethasone and by IGF-I receptor-blocking antibodies, teprotumumab and 1H7. TSH effects were mediated through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin/p70(s6k), Janus tyrosine kinase 2 pathways, and enhanced PTX-3 mRNA stability. These findings indicate that PTX-3 is a TSH target gene, the expression of which can be induced in fibrocytes and OFs. They suggest that PTX-3 might represent a previously unidentified nexus between the thyroid axis and the mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling. PMID:26287404

  20. Contribution of bone marrow-derived fibrocytes to liver fibrosis.

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    Xu, Jun; Cong, Min; Park, Tae Jun; Scholten, David; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2015-02-01

    Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I producing CD45(+) cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Despite recent reports on the emerging contribution of fibrocytes to fibrosis of parenchymal and non-parenchymal organs and tissues, fibrocytes remain the most understudied pro-fibrogenic cellular population. In the past years fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis by giving rise to collagen type I producing cells/myofibroblasts. Hence, the role of fibrocytes in fibrosis is not well defined since different studies often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury versus the number of fibrocyte-derived myofibroblasts in the same fibrotic organ. Furthermore, many studies were based on the in vitro characterization of fibrocytes formed after outgrowth of BM and/or peripheral blood cultures. Therefore, the fibrocyte function(s) still remain(s) lack of understanding, mostly due to (I) the lack of mouse models that can provide complimentary in vivo real-time and cell fate mapping studies of the dynamic differentiation of fibrocytes and their progeny into collagen type I producing cells (and/or possibly, other cell types of the hematopoietic system); (II) the complexity of hematopoietic cell differentiation pathways in response to various stimuli; (III) the high plasticity of hematopoietic cells. Here we summarize the current understanding of the role of CD45(+) collagen type I(+) BM-derived cells in the pathogenesis of liver injury. Based on data obtained from various organs undergoing fibrogenesis or other type of chronic injury, here we also discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25713803

  1. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

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    Maharjan Anu S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fibrocyte differentiation, even though enhanced extracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α accumulation and/or increased cell surface CD86 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II levels were observed. However, all TLR2 agonists tested inhibited fibrocyte differentiation without any significant effect on cell survival. Adding TLR2 agonists to purified monocytes had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation. However, some TLR2 agonists caused PBMCs to secrete a factor that inhibits the differentiation of purified monocytes into fibrocytes. This factor is not interferon (IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-12, aggregated immunoglobulin G (IgG or serum amyloid P (SAP, factors known to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. TLR2 agonist-treated PBMCs secrete low levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor growth factor β1, but combinations of these factors had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation from purified monocytes. Conclusions Our results indicate that TLR2 agonists indirectly inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and that, for some TLR2 agonists, this inhibition involves other cell types in the PBMC population secreting an unknown factor that inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Together, these data suggest that the presence of some bacterial signals can inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and may thus slow wound closure.

  2. Deficiency of Kruppel-like factor KLF4 in myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibits tumor pulmonary metastasis in mice accompanied by decreased fibrocytes.

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    Shi, Y; Ou, L; Han, S; Li, M; Pena, M M O; Pena, E A; Liu, C; Nagarkatti, M; Fan, D; Ai, W

    2014-01-01

    The importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) bearing monocyte markers in tumor metastasis has been well established. Recently, it was reported that these cells possess phenotypic plasticity and differentiate into fibrocytes, very distinct cells that are precursors of tumorigenic myofibroblasts. However, the importance of this transdifferentiation in tumor metastasis has not been explored. Here, we describe the role of MDSC-derived fibrocytes in tumor metastasis that is regulated by Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a transcription factor that is critical to monocyte differentiation and to promotion of cancer development. Using mouse metastasis models of melanoma and breast cancer, we found that KLF4 knockout was associated with significantly reduced pulmonary metastasis, which was accompanied by decreased populations of MDSCs, fibrocytes and myofibroblasts in the lung. Cause-effect studies by adoptive transfer revealed that KLF4 deficiency in MDSCs led to significantly reduced lung metastasis that was associated with fewer MDSC-derived fibrocytes and myofibroblasts. Mechanistically, KLF4 deficiency significantly compromised the generation of fibrocytes from MDSCs in vitro. During this process, KLF4 expression levels were tightly linked with those of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), deficiency of which resulted in no metastasis in mice as has been previously reported. In addition, KLF4 bound directly to the FSP-1 promoter as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation and overexpression of KLF4 increased the FSP-1 promoter activities. Taken together, our results suggest that MDSCs not only execute their immunosuppressive function to promote metastatic seeding as reported before, but also boost metastatic tumor growth after they adopt a fibrocyte fate. Therefore, KLF4-mediated fibrocyte generation from MDSCs may represent a novel mechanism of MDSCs contributing to tumor metastasis and supports the feasibility of inhibiting KLF4 or

  3. The role of fibrocytes in sickle cell lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Field

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease is a frequent complication in sickle cell disease and is characterized by vascular remodeling and interstitial fibrosis. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of other interstitial lung diseases. The goal of this study was to define the contribution of fibrocytes to the pathogenesis of sickle cell lung disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fibrocytes were quantified and characterized in subjects with sickle cell disease or healthy controls, and in a model of sickle cell disease, the NY1DD mouse. The role of the chemokine ligand CXCL12 in trafficking of fibrocytes and phenotype of lung disease was examined in the animal model. We found elevated concentration of activated fibrocytes in the peripheral blood of subjects with sickle cell disease, which increased further during vaso-occlusive crises. There was a similar elevations in the numbers and activation phenotype of fibrocytes in the bone marrow, blood, and lungs of the NY1DD mouse, both at baseline and under conditions of hypoxia/re-oxygenation. In both subjects with sickle cell disease and the mouse model, fibrocytes expressed a hierarchy of chemokine receptors, with CXCR4 expressed on most fibrocytes, and CCR2 and CCR7 expressed on a smaller subset of cells. Depletion of the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, in the mouse model resulted in a marked reduction of fibrocyte trafficking into the lungs, reduced lung collagen content and improved lung compliance and histology. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the notion that activated fibrocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell lung disease.

  4. Class I HDACs regulate angiotensin II-dependent cardiac fibrosis via fibroblasts and circulating fibrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah M; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Ferguson, Bradley S; Schuetze, Katherine B; Cavasin, Maria A; Demos-Davies, Kim; Yeager, Michael E; Stenmark, Kurt R; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2014-02-01

    Fibrosis, which is defined as excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue, contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases involving diverse organ systems. Cardiac fibrosis predisposes individuals to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death, and is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block cardiac fibrosis in pre-clinical models of heart failure. However, which HDAC isoforms govern cardiac fibrosis, and the mechanisms by which they do so, remains unclear. Here, we show that selective inhibition of class I HDACs potently suppresses angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis by targeting two key effector cell populations, cardiac fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Class I HDAC inhibition blocks cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression through derepression of the genes encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p15 and p57. In contrast, class I HDAC inhibitors block agonist-dependent differentiation of fibrocytes through a mechanism involving repression of ERK1/2 signaling. These findings define novel roles for class I HDACs in the control of pathological cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, since fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including heart, lung and kidney failure, our results suggest broad utility for isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors as anti-fibrotic agents that function, in part, by targeting these circulating mesenchymal cells. PMID:24374140

  5. Distinct Fcγ receptors mediate the effect of serum amyloid p on neutrophil adhesion and fibrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2014-08-15

    The plasma protein serum amyloid P (SAP) reduces neutrophil adhesion, inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, and promotes phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages. Together, these effects of SAP reduce key aspects of inflammation and fibrosis, and SAP injections improve lung function in pulmonary fibrosis patients. SAP functions are mediated, in part, by FcγRs, but the contribution of each FcγR is not fully understood. We found that aa Q55 and E126 in human SAP affect human fibrocyte differentiation and SAP binding to FcγRI. E126, K130, and Q128 affect neutrophil adhesion and SAP affinity for FcγRIIa. Q128 also affects phagocytosis by macrophages and SAP affinity for FcγRI. All the identified functionally significant amino acids in SAP form a binding site that is distinct from the previously described SAP-FcγRIIa binding site. Blocking FcγRI with an IgG-blocking Ab reduces the SAP effect on fibrocyte differentiation, and ligating FcγRIIa with Abs reduces neutrophil adhesion. Together, these results suggest that SAP binds to FcγRI on monocytes to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation, and binds to FcγRIIa on neutrophils to reduce neutrophil adhesion. PMID:25024390

  6. Circulating fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels during angiogenesis in a paracrine manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqing; Tan, Hong; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Samuelson, Lisa; Li, Xueyong; Cui, Caibin; Gerber, David A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that circulating fibrocytes play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the specific role of fibrocytes in angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that fibrocytes stabilized newly formed blood vessels in a mouse wound-healing model by inhibiting angiogenesis during the proliferative phase and inhibiting blood vessel regression during the remodeling phase. Fibrocytes also inhibited angiogenesis in a Matrigel mouse model. In vitro study showed that fibrocytes inhibited both the apoptosis and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a permeable support (Transwell) co-culture system. In a three-dimensional collagen gel, fibrocytes stabilized the VEC tubes by decreasing VEC tube density on stimulation with growth factors and preventing VEC tube regression on withdrawal of growth factors. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that fibrocytes expressed many prosurvival factors that are responsible for the prosurvival effect of fibrocytes on VECs and blood vessels. Fibrocytes also expressed angiogenesis inhibitors, including thrombospondin-1 (THBS1). THBS1 knockdown partially blocked the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of VEC proliferation in the Transwell co-culture system and recovered the fibrocyte-induced decrease of VEC tube density in collagen gel. Purified fibrocytes transfected with THBS1 siRNA partially recovered the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in both the wound-healing and Matrigel models. In conclusion, our findings reveal that fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels via prosurvival factors and anti-angiogenic factors, including THBS1. PMID:24300950

  7. Fibrocytes and the tissue niche in lung repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Nihlberg, Kristian; Eriksson, Leif; Bjermer, Leif; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Human fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and a diverse set of fibroblast phenotypes. Fibrocytes can be recruited from the circulation to the tissue where they further can differentiate and proliferate into various mesenchymal cell types depending on the tissue niche. This local tissue niche is important because it modulates the fibrocytes and coordinates their role in tissue behaviour and repair. However, plasticity of a niche may be co-opted in chronic airway diseases such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and obliterative bronchiolitis. This review will therefore focus on a possible role of fibrocytes in pathological tissue repair processes in those diseases. PMID:21658209

  8. Fibrocytes and the tissue niche in lung repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and a diverse set of fibroblast phenotypes. Fibrocytes can be recruited from the circulation to the tissue where they further can differentiate and proliferate into various mesenchymal cell types depending on the tissue niche. This local tissue niche is important because it modulates the fibrocytes and coordinates their role in tissue behaviour and repair. However, plasticity of a niche may be co-opted in chronic airway diseases such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and obliterative bronchiolitis. This review will therefore focus on a possible role of fibrocytes in pathological tissue repair processes in those diseases.

  9. BM-derived fibrocytes contribute to liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver injury often leads to hepatic fibrosis, a condition associated with increased levels of circulating TGF-β1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), activation of myofibroblasts, and extensive deposition of extracellular matrix, mostly collagen type I. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are considered to be the major [1] but not the only source of myofibroblasts in the injured liver [2]. Hepatic myofibroblasts may also originate from portal fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells and fibrocytes [3]. Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I-producing CD45+ cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Due to the ability to differentiate into collagen Type I producing cells/myofibroblasts, fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis. However, studies of different organs often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury, and their biological function. Furthermore, fibrocytes were implicated in pathogenesis of sepsis, and were shown to possess anti-microbial activity. Finally, in response to specific stimuli, fibrocytes can give rise to fully differentiated macrophages, suggesting that in concurrence with high plasticity of hematopoietic cells, fibrocytes exhibit progenitor properties. Here we summarize our current understanding of the role of CD45+Collagen Type I+ BM-derived cells in response to fibrogenic liver injury and septicemia and discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25966982

  10. Circulating fibrocytes as predictors of adverse events in unstable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Ellen C; Schutt, Robert C; Marinescu, Mark A; Burdick, Marie D; Strieter, Robert M; Mehrad, Borna

    2016-06-01

    Half of the patients who present with unstable angina (UA) develop recurrent symptoms over the subsequent year. Identification of patients destined to develop such adverse events would be clinically valuable, but current tools do not allow for this discrimination. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that co-express markers of leukocytes and fibroblasts and are released into the circulation in the context of tissue injury. We hypothesized that, in patients with UA, the number of circulating fibrocytes predicts subsequent adverse events. We enrolled 55 subjects with UA, 18 with chronic stable angina, and 22 controls and correlated their concentration of circulating fibrocytes to clinical events (recurrent angina, myocardial infarction, revascularization, or death) over the subsequent year. Subjects with UA had a >2-fold higher median concentration of both total and activated fibrocytes compared with subjects with chronic stable angina and controls. In UA subjects, the concentration of total fibrocytes identified those who developed recurrent angina requiring revascularization (time-dependent area under the curve 0.85) and was superior to risk stratification using thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels (area under the curve, 0.53 and 0.56, respectively, P fibrocyte level was associated with recurrent angina (hazard ratio, 1.016 per 10,000 cells/mL increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.024; P fibrocytes are elevated in patients with UA and successfully risk stratify them for adverse clinical outcomes. Fibrocytes may represent a novel biomarker of outcome in this population. PMID:27012475

  11. Pathogenetic and prognostic roles of bloodborne fibrocytes in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoli, Sabrina

    2015-08-01

    Bloodborne fibrocytes are cells mobilized from the bone marrow, which express surface antigens commonly ascribed to hematopoietic progenitors and have phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of immature mesenchymal cells. They exhibit predominant proinflammatory or profibrotic activities at tissue sites, depending on the host's response to environmental insults and on the characteristics of the cell infiltrate and cytokine milieu. In patients with allergic asthma, fibrocytes egress from the bone marrow and are recruited into the airways after every allergen exposure and during viral infections. Recruited fibrocytes amplify the inflammatory responses driven by T helper type 2 lymphokines and favor viral replication and further inflammation on respiratory virus infections. Persistently elevated blood fibrocyte counts and persisting airway fibrocytosis are present in patients with chronically undertreated or corticosteroid-insensitive asthma, and are linked to an enhanced risk of adverse outcomes because of the major involvement of fibrocytes in the development of structural abnormalities that lead to chronic airflow obstruction in these patients. Consequently, blood fibrocyte count is an emerging biomarker of asthma control and disease progression and its clinical applicability as a new outcome measure deserves further evaluation in large clinical trials. PMID:26238540

  12. Flow Cytometric Identification of Fibrocytes in the Human Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinyuan; DeBiasi, Erin M; Herzog, Erica L

    2015-01-01

    Because the incidence of organ fibrosis increases with age, various fibrosing disorders are projected to account for significant increases in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs in the years to come. Treatments for these diseases are scarce and better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of fibrosis and its relationship to aging are sorely needed. One area of interest in this field is the role that fibrocytes might play in the development of tissue remodeling and fibrosis. Fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitor cells presumed to be of monocyte origin that possess the tissue remodeling properties of tissue resident fibroblasts such as extracellular matrix production and α-SMA-related contractile properties, as well as the immunologic functions typically attributed to macrophages including production of cytokines and chemokines, antigen presentation, regulation of leukocyte trafficking, and modulation of angiogenesis. Fibrocytes could participate in the development of age-related fibrosing disorders through any or all of these functions. This chapter presents methods that have been developed for the study of circulating human fibrocytes. Protocols for the quantification of fibrocytes in the human circulation will be presented along with discussion of the technical challenges that are frequently encountered in this field. It is hoped that this information will facilitate further investigation of the relationship between fibrocytes, aging, and fibrosis, and perhaps uncover new areas of study in these difficult-to-treat and deadly diseases. PMID:26420706

  13. Detection of Alveolar Fibrocytes in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Borie, Raphael; Quesnel, Christophe; Phin, Sophie; Debray, Marie-Pierre; Marchal-Somme, Joelle; Tiev, Kiet; Bonay, Marcel; Fabre, Aurélie; Soler, Paul; Dehoux, Monique; Crestani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibrocytes are circulating precursors for fibroblasts. Blood fibrocytes are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to determine whether alveolar fibrocytes are detected in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), to identify their prognostic value, and their potential association with culture of fibroblasts from BAL. Methods We quantified fibrocytes in BAL from 26 patients with IPF, 9 patients with Systemic Sclerosis(SSc)-interstitial lung d...

  14. Health-promoting changes with children as agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2012-01-01

    carried out following the single case analyses. Findings – The study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, pupils can act as agents of health-promoting changes on both school and local community level; they were involved in actions which improved school policies, provisions and affordances for......Purpose – With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled Shape Up: a school...... related to extensive non-contextualised generalisation of the findings. However, valuable implications for research and practice can be drawn, especially in relation to structural barriers for participatory health promotion. Originality/value – The paper is of value for researchers as well as...

  15. Fibroblasts secrete Slit2 to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Darrell; Zheng, Zhichao; Vakil, Varsha; Gomer, Richard H

    2014-12-23

    Monocytes leave the blood and enter tissues. In healing wounds and fibrotic lesions, some of the monocytes differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. In healthy tissues, even though monocytes enter the tissue, for unknown reasons, very few monocytes differentiate into fibrocytes. In this report, we show that fibroblasts from healthy human tissues secrete the neuronal guidance protein Slit2 and that Slit2 inhibits human fibrocyte differentiation. In mice, injections of Slit2 inhibit bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. In lung tissue from pulmonary fibrosis patients with relatively normal lung function, Slit2 has a widespread distribution whereas, in patients with advanced disease, there is less Slit2 in the fibrotic lesions. These data may explain why fibrocytes are rarely observed in healthy tissues, may suggest that the relative levels of Slit2 present in healthy tissue and at sites of fibrosis may have a significant effect on the decision of monocytes to differentiate into fibrocytes, and may indicate that modulating Slit2 signaling may be useful as a therapeutic for fibrosis. PMID:25489114

  16. Fibrocytes Regulate Wilms Tumor 1-Positive Cell Accumulation in Severe Fibrotic Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K; DiPasquale, Betsy A; Reddy, Geereddy B; Medvedovic, Mario; Hardie, William D; White, Eric S; Madala, Satish K

    2015-10-15

    Collagen-producing myofibroblast transdifferentiation is considered a crucial determinant in the formation of scar tissue in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Multiple resident pulmonary cell types and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been implicated as contributors to fibrotic lesions because of the transdifferentiation potential of these cells into myofibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the expression of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), a known marker of mesothelial cells, in various cell types in normal and fibrotic lungs. We demonstrate that WT1 is expressed by both mesothelial and mesenchymal cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lungs but has limited or no expression in normal human lungs. We also demonstrate that WT1(+) cells accumulate in fibrotic lung lesions, using two different mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and WT1 promoter-driven fluorescent reporter mice. Reconstitution of bone marrow cells into a TGF-α transgenic mouse model demonstrated that fibrocytes do not transform into WT1(+) mesenchymal cells, but they do augment accumulation of WT1(+) cells in severe fibrotic lung disease. Importantly, the number of WT1(+) cells in fibrotic lesions was correlated with severity of lung disease as assessed by changes in lung function, histology, and hydroxyproline levels in mice. Finally, inhibition of WT1 expression was sufficient to attenuate collagen and other extracellular matrix gene production by mesenchymal cells from both murine and human fibrotic lungs. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate a novel association between fibrocyte-driven WT1(+) cell accumulation and severe fibrotic lung disease. PMID:26371248

  17. Biphasic presence of fibrocytes in a porcine hypertrophic scar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Taryn E; Mino, Matthew J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Mauskar, Neil A; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However, little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3" x 3") with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06 inches or 0.09 inches. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and biopsies were done at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry, an immunocytochemistry. Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06 inches deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09 inches deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffused in all samples. Cultured cells were stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is an evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

  18. IL-33 enhanced the proliferation and constitutive production of IL-13 and IL-5 by fibrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Yasutomi, Motoko; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses. PMID:24822215

  19. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  20. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  1. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Magno Macedo-Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L. amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internaliseLeishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.

  2. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira dos; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; Carvalho, Jorge José de; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2014-02-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  3. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; dos Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; de Carvalho, Jorge José; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  4. Deafness and Cochlear Fibrocyte Alterations in Mice Deficient for the Inner Ear Protein Otospiralin

    OpenAIRE

    Delprat, Benjamin; Ruel, Jérôme; Matthieu J. Guitton; Hamard, Ghyslaine; Lenoir, Marc; Pujol, Rémy; Puel, Jean-Luc; Brabet, Philippe; Hamel, Christian P.

    2005-01-01

    In the cochlea, the mammalian auditory organ, fibrocytes of the mesenchymal nonsensory regions play important roles in cochlear physiology, including the maintenance of ionic and hydric components in the endolymph. Occurrence of human deafness in fibrocyte alterations underlines their critical roles in auditory function. We recently described a novel gene, Otos, which encodes otospiralin, a small protein of unknown function that is produced by the fibrocytes of the cochlea and vestibule. We n...

  5. Fibrocytes in the fibrotic lung: altered phenotype detected by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Charles; Lee, Rebecca; Bonner, Michael; Perry, Beth; Heywood, Jonathan; Silver, Richard M; Tourkina, Elena; Visconti, Richard P; Hoffman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Fibrocytes are bone marrow hematopoietic-derived cells that also express a mesenchymal cell marker (commonly collagen I) and participate in fibrotic diseases of multiple organs. Given their origin, they or their precursors must be circulating cells before recruitment into target tissues. While most previous studies focused on circulating fibrocytes, here we focus on the fibrocyte phenotype in fibrotic tissue. The study's relevance to human disease is heightened by use of a model in which bleomycin is delivered systemically, recapitulating several features of human scleroderma including multi-organ fibrosis not observed when bleomycin is delivered directly into the lungs. Using flow cytometry, we find in the fibrotic lung a large population of CD45(high) fibrocytes (called Region I) rarely found in vehicle-treated control mice. A second population of CD45+ fibrocytes (called Region II) is observed in both control and fibrotic lung. The level of CD45 in circulating fibrocytes is far lower than in either Region I or II lung fibrocytes. The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are expressed at higher levels in Region I than in Region II and are present at very low levels in all other lung cells including CD45+/collagen I- leucocytes. The collagen chaperone HSP47 is present at similar high levels in both Regions I and II, but at a higher level in fibrotic lung than in control lung. There is also a major population of HSP47(high)/CD45- cells in fibrotic lung not present in control lung. CD44 is present at higher levels in Region I than in Region II and at much lower levels in all other cells including CD45+/collagen I- leucocytes. When lung fibrosis is inhibited by restoring caveolin-1 activity using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSD), a strong correlation is observed between fibrocyte number and fibrosis score. In summary, the distinctive phenotype of fibrotic lung fibrocytes suggests that fibrocyte differentiation occurs primarily within the target organ. PMID

  6. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  7. Fibrocytes contribute to the myofibroblast population in wounded skin and originate from the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myofibroblasts play a key role in wound closure but their origin is poorly understood. To investigate whether fibrocytes contribute to myofibroblast population, we examined the phenotype of fibrocytes and myofibroblasts present in the wounded skin of BALB/c mice. During wound healing, there was a marked increase in the number of cells expressing the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin in the granulation tissue. Between 4 and 7 days post-wounding, more than 50% of these cells also expressed the CD13 antigen. CD13+/collagen I+ fibrocytes could be isolated at an early stage of the healing process from digested fragments of wounded tissue by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Like authentic fibrocytes, these cells were also CD45+/CD34+/CD14-. Between 4 and 7 days post-injury, 61.4% of the isolated fibrocytes were found to express α-smooth muscle actin gene and protein. We repeated similar experiments in female mice that had received a male whole bone marrow transplant after total body irradiation. By in situ hybridization, we identified the Y chromosome in the nuclei of the majority of fibrocytes isolated from the wounded tissue of these animals. Our data indicate that circulating fibrocytes contribute to the myofibroblast population in the wounded skin and that they originate from the bone marrow

  8. Treg depletion attenuates irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by reducing fibrocyte accumulation, inducing Th17 response, and shifting IFN-γ, IL-12/IL-4, IL-5 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Guo, Renfeng; Yang, Zhihua; Xu, Long; Du, Li; Li, Ruoxi; Xiao, Fengjun; Wang, Qianjun; Zhu, Maoxiang; Pan, Xiujie

    2015-11-01

    Irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiotherapy and severely limits radiotherapy approaches. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in experimentally induced murine lung fibrosis. However, the precise contribution of Tregs to irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis still remains unclear. We have previously established the mouse model of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and observed an increased frequency of Tregs during the process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Treg depletion on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and on fibrocyte, Th17 cell response and production of multiple cytokines in mice. Treg-depleted mice were generated by intraperitoneal injection with anti-CD25 mAb 2h after 20 Gy (60)CO γ-ray thoracic irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Pulmonary fibrosis was semi-quantitatively assessed using Masson's trichrome staining. The proportions of Tregs, fibrocyte and Th17 cells were detected by flow cytometry. Th1/Th2 cytokines were assessed by Luminex assays. We found that Treg depletion decelerated the process of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hindered fibrocyte recruitment to the lung. In response to Treg depletion, the number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and Th17 cells increased. Moreover, Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was disturbed into Th1 dominance upon Treg depletion. Our study demonstrates that Tregs are involved in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by promoting fibrocyte accumulation, attenuating Th17 response and regulating Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in the lung tissues, which suggests that Tregs may be therapeutically manipulated to decelerate the progression of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26224246

  9. First identification of resident and circulating fibrocytes in Dupuytren's disease shown to be inhibited by serum amyloid P and Xiapex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Syed Amir; Hayton, Michael John; Watson, James Stewart; Szczypa, Piotr; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common progressive fibroproliferative disorder causing permanent digital contracture. Proliferative myofibroblasts are thought to be the cells responsible for DD initiation and recurrence, although their source remains unknown. DD tissue has also been shown to harbor mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Fibrocytes are circulating cells that show characteristics of fibroblasts and they express surface markers for both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stromal cells. Fibrocytes differentiate from peripheral CD14+ mononuclear cells, which can be inhibited by serum amyloid P (SAP). In this study we have demonstrated the presence of fibrocytes in DD blood and tissue, moreover we have evaluated the effects of SAP and Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum) on fibrocytes derived from DD. H&E staining showed typical Spindle shaped morphology of fibrocytes. FACS analysis based on a unique combination of 3 markers, revealed the increased presence of fibrocytes in blood and tissue of DD patients. Additionally, immunohistology of DD nodule and cord tissue showed the presence of collagen 1+/CD34+ cells. No difference in plasma SAP levels was observed between DD and control. Higher concentrations of SAP significantly inhibited fibrocytes differentiated from DD derived monocytes compared to control. DD fascia derived fibrocytes showed resistance to growth inhibition by SAP, particularly nodule derived fibrocytes showed robust growth even at higher SAP concentrations compared to control. DD derived fibrocytes were positive for typical fibrocyte dual markers, i.e. Collagen 1/LSP-1 and collagen 1/CD34. Xiapex was more effective in inhibiting the growth of nodule derived cells compared to commercially available collagenase A. Our results show for the first time the increased presence of fibrocytes in DD patient's blood and disease tissue compared to control tissue. Additionally, we evaluate the response of these fibrocytes to SAP and Xiapex

  10. 循环纤维细胞与慢性创面愈合%Circulating fibrocytes and chronic wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍济洪; 杨靖; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Circulating fibrocytes originated from the peripheral blood are a fibroblast-like cel subpopulation of leukocytes. Circulating fibrocytes play an essential role in wound repair by secreting extracel ular matrix proteins and cytokines, initiating antigen-specific immunity, accelerating wound contraction as wel as promoting angiogenesis. However, the potential role for improving chronic wound healing and its mechanism is stil unclear. OBJECTIVE:To summarize the biological features of circulating fibrocytes and its potential role and mechanism in accelerating chronic wound healing. METHODS:A computer-based search of CNKI database from 2000 to 2014, PubMed database from 1994 to 2014 and Foreign Medical Journal Ful-Text Service database from 2000 to 2014 was performed using“circulating fibrocytes, non-healing wounds, diabetic foot ulcer, wound healing, cel therapy”in Chinese and English as the keywords to retrieve articles related to circulating fibrocytes, refractory mechanism of chronic wound healing and cel therapy for chronic wounds. Total y 54 articles meeting the inclusive criteria were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Cel therapy with circulating fibrocytes is a safe and effective treatment for improving wound healing and has been used to repair various chronic wounds in the recent decades. Circulating fibrocytes are a distinct subpopulation of fibroblast-like leukocytes in the peripheral blood. It is able to migrate into wound sites at the early stage of wound repair and plays an active role in the wound healing process by secreting extracel ular matrix proteins, cytokines, presenting antigens, contracting wound and promoting neovascularization. Recently, it has been proved in animal experiments that circulating fibrocytes can accelerate chronic wound healing, especial y diabetic chronic wound.%背景:循环纤维细胞是近些年来在外周血液发现的具有成纤维细胞特性的一种白细胞亚群,由于具有

  11. Fibrocytes Are Not an Essential Source of Type I Collagen During Lung Fibrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Kleaveland, Kathryn R.; Velikoff, Miranda; Yang, Jibing; Agarwal, Manisha; Rippe, Richard A.; Bethany B Moore; Kim, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis involves accumulation of activated collagen producing mesenchymal cells. Fibrocytes are hematopoietic-derived cells with mesenchymal features that potentially have a unique and critical function during fibrosis. Fibrocytes have been proposed as an important direct contributor of type I collagen deposition during fibrosis based largely on fate-mapping studies. To determine the functional contribution of hematopoietic cell-derived type I collagen to fibrogenesis we utilize ...

  12. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to si

  13. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    CERN Document Server

    Requejo, R J

    2013-01-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

  14. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    OpenAIRE

    Anelise Beneduzi; Adriana Ambrosini; Luciana M.P. Passaglia

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growt...

  15. Fibrocytes in the Fibrotic Lung: Altered Phenotype Detected by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eReese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are bone marrow hematopoietic-derived cells that also express a mesenchymal cell marker (commonly collagen I and participate in fibrotic diseases of multiple organs. Given their origin, they or their precursors must be circulating cells before recruitment into target tissues. While most previous studies focused on circulating fibrocytes, here we focus on the fibrocyte phenotype in fibrotic tissue. The study’s relevance to human disease is heightened by use of a model in which bleomycin is delivered systemically, recapitulating several features of human scleroderma including multi-organ fibrosis not observed when bleomycin is delivered directly into the lungs. Using flow cytometry, we find in the fibrotic lung a large population of CD45high fibrocytes (called Region I rarely found in vehicle-treated control mice. A second population of CD45+ fibrocytes (called Region II is observed in both control and fibrotic lung. The level of CD45 in circulating fibrocytes is far lower than in either Region I or II lung fibrocytes. The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are expressed at higher levels in Region I than in Region II and are present at very low levels in all other lung cells including CD45+/collagen I- leucocytes. The collagen chaperone HSP47 is present at similar high levels in both Regions I and II, but at a higher level in fibrotic lung than in control lung. There is also a major population of HSP47high/CD45- cells in fibrotic lung not present in control lung. CD44 is present at higher levels in Region I than in Region II and at much lower levels in all other cells including CD45+/collagen I- leucocytes. When lung fibrosis is inhibited by restoring caveolin-1 activity using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSD, a strong correlation is observed between fibrocyte number and fibrosis score. In summary, the distinctive phenotype of fibrotic lung fibrocytes suggests that fibrocyte differentiation occurs primarily within the

  16. Gene expression profiling of human fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (f-MDSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs have been shown to control self-reactive and anti-graft effector T-cells in autoimmunity and transplantation, but their therapeutic use is limited by their scarce availability in the peripheral blood of tumor-free donors. We isolated and characterized a novel population of myeloid suppressor cells, named fibrocytic MDSC (f-MDSC, which are differentiated from umbilical cord blood (UCB precursors (Zoso et al., 2014. This MDSC subset promotes regulatory T-cell expansion and induces normoglycemia in a xenogeneic model of type 1 diabetes. Here we describe in details the experimental design and the bioinformatics analyses of the gene expression dataset used to investigate the molecular mechanisms at the base of MDSC tolerogenic and suppressive properties. We also provide an R code to easily access the data and perform the quality controls and basic analyses relevant to this dataset. Raw and pre-processed data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE52376.

  17. Galectin-3 Binding Protein Secreted by Breast Cancer Cells Inhibits Monocyte-Derived Fibrocyte Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Roife, David; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-08-15

    To metastasize, tumor cells often need to migrate through a layer of collagen-containing scar tissue which encapsulates the tumor. A key component of scar tissue and fibrosing diseases is the monocyte-derived fibrocyte, a collagen-secreting profibrotic cell. To test the hypothesis that invasive tumor cells may block the formation of the fibrous sheath, we determined whether tumor cells secrete factors that inhibit monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation. We found that the human metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 secretes activity that inhibits human monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation, whereas less aggressive breast cancer cell lines secrete less of this activity. Purification indicated that Galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) is the active factor. Recombinant LGALS3BP inhibits monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation, and immunodepletion of LGALS3BP from MDA-MB 231 conditioned media removes the monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation-inhibiting activity. LGALS3BP inhibits the differentiation of monocyte-derived fibrocytes from wild-type mouse spleen cells, but not from SIGN-R1(-/-) mouse spleen cells, suggesting that CD209/SIGN-R1 is required for the LGALS3BP effect. Galectin-3 and galectin-1, binding partners of LGALS3BP, potentiate monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation. In breast cancer biopsies, increased levels of tumor cell-associated LGALS3BP were observed in regions of the tumor that were invading the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest LGALS3BP and galectin-3 as new targets to treat metastatic cancer and fibrosing diseases. PMID:26136428

  18. Tissue fibrocytes in patients with mild asthma: A possible link to thickness of reticular basement membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of tissue fibrocyte levels to basement membrane thickness and the presence of fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma and controls. Methods Patients with mild asthma (n = 9 were recruited and divided into two categories based on whether or not fibroblast-like cells could be established from BALF. Non-asthmatic healthy subjects (n = 5 were used as controls. Colocalization of the fibrocyte markers CD34, CD45RO, procollagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were identified in bronchial biopsies from patients and controls by confocal microscopy. Kruskall-Wallis method was used to calculate statistical significance and Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to assess the degree of association. Results In patients with BALF fibroblasts, a 14-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/CD45RO/α-SMA and a 16-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/procollagen I was observed when compared to controls (p Conclusion These findings indicate a correlation between recruited fibrocytes in tissue and thickness of basement membrane. Fibroblast progenitor cells may therefore be important in airway remodeling in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma.

  19. Fibrocytes participate in the development of heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Abelardo; Ma, Zengshuan; Varkey, Mathew; Liu, Hongbin; Iwashina, Takashi; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a complication of musculoskeletal injury characterized by the formation of mature bone in soft tissues. The etiology of HO is unknown. We investigated the role of bone marrow derived progenitor cells in HO pathophysiology. We isolated the cells from HO specimens by cell explantation. Using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that 35 to 65% of the HO cells exhibit a bone marrow derived fibrocyte profile consisting in spindle-shaped morphology associated with type 1 pro-collagen and LSP1 expression. When cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium, active machinery for bone mineralization (high gene expression of Anx2, TNAP, and Pit-1), and calcium/phosphate deposits were found. Interestingly, interferon-alpha 2b significantly reduced the proliferation rate and COL1 gene expression in HO cells. We have characterized a novel subset of bone marrow derived progenitor cells in the HO specimens. The findings from this research study will provide new insights into the development of HO in burn patients. PMID:25051520

  20. Role of platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor axis in the trafficking of circulating fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yoshinori; Kishi, Masami; Yokota, Yuki; Azuma, Momoyo; Kinoshita, Katsuhiro; Takezaki, Akio; Sato, Seidai; Kawano, Hiroshi; Kishi, Jun; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Circulating fibrocytes have been reported to migrate into the injured lungs, and contribute to fibrogenesis via CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. In contrast, we report that imatinib mesylate prevented bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), even when it was administered only in the early phase. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) might directly contribute to the migration of fibrocytes to the injured lungs. PDGFR expression in fibrocytes was examined by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. The migration of fibrocytes was evaluated by using a chemotaxis assay for human fibrocytes isolated from peripheral blood. The numbers of fibrocytes triple-stained for CD45, collagen-1, and CXCR4 were also examined in lung digests of BLM-treated mice. PDGFR mRNA levels in fibrocytes isolated from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were investigated by real-time PCR. Fibrocytes expressed both PDGFR-α and -β, and migrated in response to PDGFs. PDGFR inhibitors (imatinib, PDGFR-blocking antibodies) suppressed fibrocyte migration in vitro, and reduced the number of fibrocytes in the lungs of BLM-treated mice. PDGF-BB was a stronger chemoattractant than the other PDGFs in vitro, and anti-PDGFR-β-blocking antibody decreased the numbers of fibrocytes in the lungs compared with anti-PDGFR-α antibody in vivo. Marked expression of PDGFR-β was observed in fibrocytes from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with healthy subjects. These results suggest that PDGF directly functions as a strong chemoattractant for fibrocytes. In particular, the PDGF-BB-PDGFR-β biological axis might play a critical role in fibrocyte migration into the fibrotic lungs. PMID:24885373

  1. Evaluating Government's Policies on Promoting Smart Metering in Retail Electricity Markets via Agent Based Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of a market game in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the UK government’s 2008-2010 policy on promoting smart metering. We also consider possible supplementary strategies. With the model, we test the effectiveness of four possible strategy options and suggest their policy implications. The context of the paper is a practical application of agent-based simulation to the retail electricity market in Britain. The contribution of the research ar...

  2. A brief exposure to tryptase or thrombin potentiates fibrocyte differentiation in the presence of serum or serum amyloid p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Galvis-Carvajal, Elkin; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    A key question in both wound healing and fibrosis is the trigger for the initial formation of scar tissue. To help form scar tissue, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, but fibrocyte differentiation is strongly inhibited by the plasma protein serum amyloid P (SAP), and healthy tissues contain very few fibrocytes. In wounds and fibrotic lesions, mast cells degranulate to release tryptase, and thrombin mediates blood clotting in early wounds. Tryptase and thrombin are upregulated in wound healing and fibrotic lesions, and inhibition of these proteases attenuates fibrosis. We report that tryptase and thrombin potentiate human fibrocyte differentiation at biologically relevant concentrations and exposure times, even in the presence of concentrations of serum and SAP that normally completely inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. Fibrocyte potentiation by thrombin and tryptase is mediated by protease-activated receptors 1 and 2, respectively. Together, these results suggest that tryptase and thrombin may be an initial trigger to override SAP inhibition of fibrocyte differentiation to initiate scar tissue formation. PMID:25429068

  3. Bone marrow fibrosis with fibrocytic and immunoregulatory responses induced by β-catenin activation in osteoprogenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Hanjun; Liu, Pei; Xu, Shuqin; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2016-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been reported to contribute to the development of bone fibrous dysplasia. However, it remains unclear whether fibrocytes and immune cells are involved in this β-catenin-mediated bone marrow fibrosis. In this study, we showed that constitutive activation of β-catenin by Col1a1-Cre (3.6-kb) exhibited bone marrow fibrosis, featured with expanded populations of fibrocytes, myofibroblasts and osteoprogenitors. Lineage tracing and IHC examinations showed that Col3.6-Cre display Cre recombinase activity not only in osteoprogenitors, but also in monocyte-derived fibrocytes in the endosteal niches of bones. Additionally, β-catenin stimulated the secretion of cytokines and pro-fibrotic signals in bone marrow, including GM-CSF, TGFβ1 and VEGF. Consequently, the frequency of differentiated immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells and naïve T cells was markedly increased in the mutant bone marrow. These phenotypes were quite different from those following β-catenin activation in mature osteoblasts driven by Col1a1-Cre (2.3-kb). Our findings suggested that a conserved pro-fibrotic signal cascade might underlie β-catenin-mediated bone marrow fibrosis, involving TGFβ1-enhanced fibrocyte activation and immunoregulatory responses. This study might shed new light on the understanding and development of a therapeutic strategy for bone fibrous dysplasia. PMID:26688275

  4. Fibrocyte-like cells mediate acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Goto, Hisatsugu; Saijo, Atsuro; Trung, Van The; Aono, Yoshinori; Ogino, Hirokazu; Kuramoto, Takuya; Tabata, Sho; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hidefusa; Gotoh, Masashi; Kakiuchi, Soji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yano, Seiji; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Sakiyama, Shoji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab exerts anti-angiogenic effects in cancer patients by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, its use is still limited due to the development of resistance to the treatment. Such resistance can be regulated by various factors, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like cells, defined as alpha-1 type I collagen-positive and CXCR4-positive cells, contribute to the acquired resistance to bevacizumab. In mouse models of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, fibrocyte-like cells mediate the resistance to bevacizumab as the main producer of fibroblast growth factor 2. In clinical specimens of lung cancer, the number of fibrocyte-like cells is significantly increased in bevacizumab-treated tumours, and correlates with the number of treatment cycles, as well as CD31-positive vessels. Our results identify fibrocyte-like cells as a promising cell biomarker and a potential therapeutic target to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26635184

  5. Safety, efficacy and pitfalls of fibrocyte application in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Hashemi, Mohammad; Shoarayenejati, Alireza; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2015-02-01

    Fibrocytes are unique bone marrow-derived cells with great potential in wound healing. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the applied circulating fibrocytes in the treatment of non healing diabetic foot ulcers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by centrifugation through Ficoll-Paque method. After 3 days, the non adherent cells were removed by a single, gentle aspiration. Adherent cells were cultured in the same medium for 10 days. The cells were characterised using mouse anti-human-CD45-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and mouse anti-human-collagen I, and also characterised by immunofluorescence microscopy using the above mentioned antibodies. Sterility measures were applied for clinical evaluation. Based on the literature review, cell transplantation generally requires at least 3 × 10(6) cells regarding efficacy measures. As fibrocytes are non proliferating cells, 350 ml patient's blood is required to prepare patient-specific serum before cell isolation and culture, and 85 ml patient's blood is needed for cell isolation and differentiation on cell transplantation applications. In our survey, no diabetic patient was inclined to be donor of such blood volume, mainly because of their pre-assumption that they are anaemic. It is concluded that fibrocytes do not seem to be candidate cells for cell therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers because of the rarity of this cell population in circulation. PMID:23551454

  6. Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Nila A; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Andrews, Jeff; Ficzere, Cathy; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacologic agents to promote mucus clearance may reduce the sequelae of obstructive secretions. We systematically reviewed comparative studies of pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in hospitalized or postoperative subjects without cystic fibrosis and over 12 months of age. We searched MEDLINE and other databases from January 1970 to July 2014 to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers also independently extracted data regarding subject and intervention characteristics and outcomes and assigned overall quality ratings. The 9 studies meeting review criteria included 5 randomized controlled trials, 3 crossover randomized controlled trials, and one retrospective cohort study. Studies were small and together included a total of 379 subjects (mean of 42 subjects per study). N-acetylcysteine, heparin plus N-acetylcysteine, albuterol, ipratropium bromide, and saline were assessed. Studies reported no benefit of studied agents on expectoration, pulmonary function, and atelectasis and little effect on changes in sputum volume, weight, or viscosity. Adverse effects of agents were not consistently reported. Nausea was reported in 2 studies of N-acetylcysteine (one paper reported 2 experiments and did not clearly identify in which experiment adverse effects occurred), 3 studies reported that there were no adverse events, and 3 studies did not address adverse effects at all. Further research with clearly characterized populations and interventions is needed to understand the potential benefits and adverse effects of mucoactive agents. PMID:25944943

  7. The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and reparative fibroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Alberto; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2007-09-01

    Human fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitors that exhibit mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes and fibroblasts. They likely represent the obligate intermediate stage of differentiation into mature mesenchymal cells of a bone marrow-derived precursor of the monocyte lineage under permissive conditions. On in vitro stimulation with pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors, human fibrocytes produce large quantities of extracellular matrix components and further differentiate into cells identical to the contractile myofibroblasts that emerge at the tissue sites during repair processes and in some fibrotic lesions. Studies in various animal models of wound healing or fibrotic diseases have confirmed the ability of fibrocytes to differentiate into mature mesenchymal cells in vivo and have suggested a causal link between fibrocyte accumulation and ongoing tissue fibrogenesis or vascular remodeling in response to tissue damage or hypoxia. Fibrocytes synthesizing new collagen or acquiring myofibroblast markers have been detected in human hypertrophic scars, in the skin of patients affected by nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, in human atherosclerotic lesions, and in pulmonary diseases characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and repair, like asthma. The presence of fibrocyte-like cells has been reported in human chronic pancreatitis and chronic cystitis. Similar cells also populate the stroma surrounding human benign tumors. The available data indicate that human fibrocytes serve as a source of mature mesenchymal cells during reparative processes and in fibrotic disorders or stromal reactions predominantly associated with a persistent inflammatory infiltrate or with the selective recruitment of monocytes induced by ischemic changes and tumor development. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in fibrocyte differentiation in these pathological conditions may lead to the development of novel therapies for

  8. Cooperation between human fibrocytes and endothelial colony-forming cells increases angiogenesis via the CXCR4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, David M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Guerin, Coralie L; Bieche, Ivan; Badoual, Cécile; Boscolo, Elisa; Kambouchner, Marianne; Cazes, Aurélie; Mercier, Olaf; Humbert, Marc; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Israël-Biet, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Fibrotic diseases of the lung are associated with a vascular remodelling process. Fibrocytes (Fy) are a distinct population of blood-borne cells that co-express haematopoietic cell antigens and fibroblast markers, and have been shown to contribute to organ fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fibrocytes cooperate with endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) to induce angiogenesis. We isolated fibrocytes from blood of patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and characterised them by flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTQ-PCR), and confocal microscopy. We then investigated the angiogenic interaction between fibrocytes and cord-blood-derived ECFC, both in vitro and in an in vivo Matrigel implant model. Compared to fibroblast culture medium, fibrocyte culture medium increased ECFC proliferation and differentiation via the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. IPF-Fy co-implanted with human ECFC in Matrigel plugs in immunodeficient mice formed functional microvascular beds, whereas fibroblasts did not. Evaluation of implants after two weeks revealed an extensive network of erythrocyte-containing blood vessels. CXCR4 blockade significantly inhibited this blood vessel formation. The clinical relevance of these data was confirmed by strong CXCR4 expression in vessels close to fibrotic areas in biopsy specimens from patients with IPF, by comparison with control lungs. In conclusion, circulating fibrocytes might contribute to the intense remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25103869

  9. Inhibition of murine fibrocyte differentiation by cross-linked IgG is dependent on FcγRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Darrell; Crawford, Jeffrey R; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gomer, Richard H

    2014-08-01

    Monocyte-derived, fibroblast-like cells, called fibrocytes, participate in wound-healing and the formation of fibrotic lesions. Aggregated or cross-linked IgG are key effectors in infections, autoimmune diseases, anaphylaxis, and immunotherapy. Cells, including monocytes and fibrocytes, bind IgG using FcγRs, and aggregated or cross-linked IgG inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Mice have four different FcγRs, and which of these, if any, mediate the cross-linked IgG effect on fibrocyte differentiation is unknown. We find that in mice, deletion of FcγRI or the common signaling protein FcRγ significantly reduces the ability of cross-linked IgG or IgG2a to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. Cells from FcγRIIb/III/IV KO mice are still sensitive to cross-linked IgG, whereas cells from FcγRI/IIb/III/IV KO mice are insensitive to cross-linked IgG. These observations suggest that IgG-mediated inhibition of fibrocyte differentiation is mediated by FcγRs, with FcγRI mediating most of the signaling. PMID:24752483

  10. Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 mediates direct and indirect fibrotic responses in human and murine cultured fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekert Jason E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibrocytes are a population of circulating bone-marrow-derived cells that express surface markers for leukocytes and mesenchymal cells, and are capable of differentiating into myofibroblasts. They have been observed at sites of active fibrosis and increased circulating numbers correlate with mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Inhibition of chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 during experimental models of lung fibrosis reduces lung collagen deposition, as well as reducing lung fibrocyte accumulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether human and mouse fibrocytes express functional CCR2. Results Following optimized and identical human and murine fibrocyte isolation, both cell sources were shown to be positive for CCR2 by flow cytometry and this expression colocalized with collagen I and CD45. Human blood fibrocytes stimulated with the CCR2 ligand chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, demonstrated increased proliferation (P P P Conclusions This study directly compares the functional responses of human and murine fibrocytes to CCR2 ligands, and following comparable isolation techniques. We have shown comparable biological effects, strengthening the translatability of the murine models to human disease with respect to targeting the CCR2 axis to ameliorate disease in IPF patients.

  11. Alternative strategies to manipulate fibrocyte involvement in the fibrotic tissue response: pharmacokinetic inhibition and the feasibility of directed-adipogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David W; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Weng, Hong; Tang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Fibrocytes have previously been identified as important mediators in several inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. However, there is no effective treatment thus far to reduce fibrotic tissue responses without affecting wound healing reactions. Here we investigate two strategies to alleviate fibrocyte interactions at the biomaterial interface, reducing collagen production and scar tissue formation. First, in an indirect approach, TGF-β inhibitor-SB431542 and IL-1β/TNF-α inhibitor SB203580 were locally released from scaffold implants to block their respective signaling pathways. We show that the inhibition of IL-1β/TNF-α has no influence on overall fibrotic tissue reactions to the implants. However, the reduction of localized TGF-β significantly decreases the fibrocyte accumulation and myofibroblast activation while reducing the fibrotic tissue formation. Since fibrocytes can be differentiated into non-fibrotic cell types, such as adipocytes, we further sought a more direct approach to reduce fibrocyte responses by directing fibrocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Interestingly, by initiating fibrocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation through sustained differentiation cocktail release, we find that adipogenic differentiation forces incoming fibrocytes away from the traditional myofibroblast lineage, leading to a substantial reduction in the collagen formation and fibrotic response. Our results support a novel and effective strategy to improve implant safety by reducing implant-associated fibrotic tissue reactions via directing non-fibrotic differentiation of fibrocytes. PMID:24657674

  12. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Beneduzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

  13. Canonical Wnt signaling regulates the proliferative expansion and differentiation of fibrocytes in the murine inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Wojahn, Irina; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Petry, Marianne; Kispert, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Otic fibrocytes tether the cochlear duct to the surrounding otic capsule but are also critically involved in maintenance of ion homeostasis in the cochlea, thus, perception of sound. The molecular pathways that regulate the development of this heterogenous group of cells from mesenchymal precursors are poorly understood. Here, we identified epithelial Wnt7a and Wnt7b as possible ligands of Fzd-mediated β-catenin (Ctnnb1)-dependent (canonical) Wnt signaling in the adjacent undifferentiated periotic mesenchyme (POM). Mice with a conditional deletion of Ctnnb1 in the POM exhibited a complete failure of fibrocyte differentiation, a severe reduction of mesenchymal cells surrounding the cochlear duct, loss of pericochlear spaces, a thickening and partial loss of the bony capsule and a secondary disturbance of cochlear duct coiling shortly before birth. Analysis at earlier stages revealed that radial patterning of the POM in two domains with highly condensed cartilaginous precursors and more loosely arranged inner mesenchymal cells occurred normally but that proliferation in the inner domain was reduced and cytodifferentiation failed. Cells with mis/overexpression of a stabilized form of Ctnnb1 in the entire POM mesenchyme sorted to the inner mesenchymal compartment and exhibited increased proliferation. Our analysis suggests that Wnt signals from the cochlear duct epithelium are crucial to induce differentiation and expansion of fibrocyte precursor cells. Our findings emphasize the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in inner ear development. PMID:24727668

  14. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in Association With Pancreatic Recruitment of M2-Like Macrophages, Mesenchymal Cells, and Fibrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseini, Mahmoud; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Patrick, Christopher; Crookshank, Jennifer A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Noel, J Ariana; Strom, Alexander; Scott, Fraser W

    2015-11-01

    Immunoregulatory and regenerative processes are activated in the pancreas during the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) but are insufficient to prevent the disease. We hypothesized that the induction of cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by cobalt protophoryrin (CoPP) would prevent T1D by promoting anti-inflammatory and pro-repair processes. Diabetes-prone BioBreeding rats received ip CoPP or saline twice per week for 3 weeks, starting at 30 days and were monitored for T1D. Immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and microarrays were used to evaluate postinjection pancreatic changes at 51 days, when islet inflammation is first visible. T1D was prevented in CoPP-treated rats (29% vs 73%). Pancreatic Hmox1 was up-regulated along with islet-associated CD68(+)HO-1(+) cells, which were also observed in a striking peri-lobular interstitial infiltrate. Most interstitial cells expressed the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the hematopoietic marker CD34. Spindle-shaped, CD34(+)vimentin(+) cells coexpressed collagen V, characteristic of fibrocytes. M2 macrophage factors Krüppel-like factor 4, CD163, and CD206 were expressed by interstitial cells, consistent with pancreatic upregulation of several M2-associated genes. CoPP upregulated islet-regenerating REG genes and increased neogenic REG3β(+) and insulin(+) clusters. Thus, short-term induction of HO-1 promoted a protective M2-like milieu in the pancreas and recruited mesenchymal cells, M2 macrophages, and fibrocytes that imparted immunoregulatory and pro-repair effects, preventing T1D. PMID:26252059

  15. Novel Keratinolytic Activity of Cyberlindnera fabianii Nrc3 Aza as A Plant Growth Promoting Agent (PGPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza M. Abdel-fattah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments had been conducted in Nubaria sandy soil, Behaira Governate, Egypt to show the effect of keratinase enzyme produced by the novel microbial isolate (Cyberlindnera fabianii NRC3 Aza on plants.The trials had been conducted in the two successive summer seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013 to show the effect of keratinase enzyme from degraded feather–waste on the morphology and chemical composition of peas pods (Pisumsativum L.–family Fabaceae (Leguminasae. In 2011/2012 season, only the chemical analysis of the dried powdered beads was studied. In 2012/2013 season, the morphological studies of the yield were considered beside the chemical ones. The results depicted significant effects of the sprayed enzyme (keratinase on peas as plant growth promoting agent (PGPA, compared with the blank (sprayed with water. Electrophoreses and amino acid analysis were carried out for the characterization of the partial pure keratinase enzyme.

  16. Rapid Screening of Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) Endophytic Bacteria for Rice Plant Seedlings Growth-Promoting Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Etesami, H.; Mirsyedhosseini, H.; Alikhani, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple screening method to detect berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) endophytic bacteria for rice plant growth-promoting agents on the basis of a root colonization bioassay and a plant growth promoting trait is characterized. Firstly, 200 isolates (80 endophytes and 120 rhizospheric isolates) isolated from berseem clover were inoculated as 10 mixtures of 20 strains each on two rice varieties under gnotobiotic conditions. Then, the reisolated endophytic strains from two rice varieties w...

  17. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention i

  18. Tracking the elusive fibrocyte: identification and characterization of collagen-producing hematopoietic lineage cells during murine wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Hirotaka; Rennert, Robert C; Rodrigues, Melanie; Sorkin, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P; Januszyk, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Fibrocytes are a unique population of circulating cells reported to exhibit characteristics of both hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, and play an important role in wound healing. However, putative fibrocytes have been found to lose expression of hematopoietic surface markers such as CD45 during differentiation, making it difficult to track these cells in vivo with conventional methodologies. In this study, to distinguish hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells without surface markers, we took advantage of the gene vav 1, which is expressed solely on hematopoietic cells but not on other cell types, and established a novel transgenic mouse, in which hematopoietic cells are irreversibly labeled with green fluorescent protein and nonhematopoietic cells with red fluorescent protein. Use of single-cell transcriptional analysis in this mouse model revealed two discrete types of collagen I (Col I) expressing cells of hematopoietic lineage recruited into excisional skin wounds. We confirmed this finding on a protein level, with one subset of these Col I synthesizing cells being CD45+ and CD11b+, consistent with the traditional definition of a fibrocyte, while another was CD45- and Cd11b-, representing a previously unidentified population. Both cell types were found to initially peak, then reduce posthealing, consistent with a disappearance from the wound site and not a loss of identifying surface marker expression. Taken together, we have unambiguously identified two cells of hematopoietic origin that are recruited to the wound site and deposit collagen, definitively confirming the existence and natural time course of fibrocytes in cutaneous healing. PMID:24446236

  19. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  20. Biocontrol agents promote growth of potato pathogens, depending on environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Jonathan A; Connor, Mairéad C; Stevenson, Andrew; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Cooke, Louise R; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in vitro and on the potato tuber, the bacterium was capable of near-complete inhibition of pathogens. This Bacillus was sufficiently xerotolerant (water activity limit for growth = 0.928) to out-perform Phytophthora infestans (~0.960) and challenge Fusarium coeruleum (~0.847) and Fusarium sambucinum (~0.860) towards the lower limits of their growth windows. Under some conditions, however, strain JC12GB43 stimulated proliferation of the pathogens: for instance, Fusarium coeruleum growth-rate was increased under chaotropic conditions in vitro (132 mM urea) by >100% and on tubers (2-M glycerol) by up to 570%. Culture-based assays involving macromolecule-stabilizing (kosmotropic) compatible solutes provided proof-of-principle that the Bacillus may provide kosmotropic metabolites to the plant pathogen under conditions that destabilize macromolecular systems of the fungal cell. Whilst unprecedented, this finding is consistent with earlier reports that fungi can utilize metabolites derived from bacterial cells. Unless the antimicrobial activities of candidate biocontrol strains are assayed over a full range of field-relevant parameters, biocontrol agents may promote plant pathogen infections and thereby reduce crop yields. These findings indicate that biocontrol activity, therefore, ought to be regarded as a mode-of-behaviour (dependent on prevailing conditions) rather than an inherent property of a bacterial strain. PMID:26880001

  1. Ventral prostate fibrosis in the Akita mouse is associated with macrophage and fibrocyte infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghee; Yang, Guang; Mulligan, William; Gipp, Jerry; Bushman, Wade

    2014-01-01

    A higher incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among diabetic men is unexplained. Recently, prostate inflammation and fibrosis have been implicated as major contributing factors to bladder outlet obstruction and LUTS. We characterized the inflammatory cell infiltrate and collagen content of the anterior, dorsal, and ventral lobes of 18-week-old DBA2J.Ins2-Akita mice (Akita) and age-matched control mice. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining to score tissue injury and inflammation, picrosirius red staining to quantitate collagen content, and immunostaining to identify monocytes/macrophages and infiltrating fibrocytes. We observed significantly greater numbers of monocytes/macrophages and fibrocytes specifically in the ventral prostate of the Akita mice and found that this was associated with significant greater collagen content specifically in the ventral prostate of the Akita mice. These observations support the inference that diabetes elicits monocyte/macrophage infiltration and collagen accumulation in the prostate and suggest that further study of Akita mice may inform translational studies of diabetes in the genesis prostatic inflammation, prostatic fibrosis, and LUTS. PMID:25019092

  2. Human fibrocyte-derived exosomes accelerate wound healing in genetically diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Adolf; Walker, Audrey; Nissen, Erwin

    2015-11-13

    Diabetic ulcers represent a substantial societal and healthcare burden worldwide and scarcely respond to current treatment strategies. This study was addressed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of exosomes secreted by human circulating fibrocytes, a population of mesenchymal progenitors involved in normal wound healing via paracrine signaling. The exosomes released from cells sequentially stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, did not show potential immunogenicity. These exosomes exhibited in-vitro proangiogenic properties, activated diabetic dermal fibroblasts, induced the migration and proliferation of diabetic keratinocytes, and accelerated wound closure in diabetic mice in vivo. Important components of the exosomal cargo were heat shock protein-90α, total and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, proangiogenic (miR-126, miR-130a, miR-132) and anti-inflammatory (miR124a, miR-125b) microRNAs, and a microRNA regulating collagen deposition (miR-21). This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of the use of fibrocytes-derived exosomes for the treatment of diabetic ulcers. PMID:26454169

  3. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  4. Initial Steps towards Biocontrol in Hops: Successful Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion by Four Bacterial Biocontrol Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Berg; Stefan Seefelder; Katja A. Maurer; Christin Zachow

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae and V. dahliae, is a devastating disease in hops that can cause considerable economic crop losses. The perennial use of hops combined with the long persistence of the pathogen in soil make it difficult to suppress the disease with conventional measures. Biological control agents (BCA) are the basis of an environmentally friendly plant protection strategy that uses plant promotion and antagonistic effects of microorganisms. We evaluated the...

  5. Screening of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant as Plant Growth Promoter and Biocontrol Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris T. Wahyudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pseudomonas spesies are one of the rihizobacterial group that have an important role in plant growth promoter and plant health. To prepare them as inoculants, they must have a range of characters as growth promoter such as Indole Acetic Acid (IAA producers which can promote the growth of plants and solubilize phosphates. In addition, they must also have the various characters that act as biocontrol agents such as siderofor, chitinase and anti-fungal compound producers. Approach: Pseudomonas sp isolated from soybeans rhizospere and identified based on physiological reactions and 16S rRNA gene sequences. Various tests for the determination of the growth promoter were based on IAA production, phosphate solubilization and growth promoter of length of root and stems and number of lateral roots of soybean sprouts. Test of siderophore, chitinase, as well as anti anti-fungal compounds productions to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii, were used as a biocontrol agent determination. Hypersensitivity test was used to screen for Pseudomonas sp classified as non-pathogenic rhizobacteria. Results: Fourteen isolates identified as a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas sp that produced IAA and Promoted enhancement of root length, shoot length, or number of lateral root. Among those 14 isolates, 8 isolates showed phosphate solubilizing activity, 12 isolates capable of producing siderophore and six isolates were observed to have chitinolytic activity. Only three isolates were able to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in high level. While one and two isolates inhibited Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani in high level, respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of excellent growth promoter and biocontrol activities, we recommended 5 isolates of Pseudomonas sp which were Crb-3, Crb-16, Crb-17, Crb-44 and Crb-94 as potential isolates of Pseudomonas sp that could be applied as

  6. Promoting collective motion of self-propelled agents by distance-based influence

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Huang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a dynamic model for a system consisting of self-propelled agents in which the influence of an agent on another agent is weighted by geographical distance. A parameter $\\alpha$ is introduced to adjust the influence: the smaller value of $\\alpha$ means that the closer neighbors have stronger influence on the moving direction. We find that there exists an optimal value of $\\alpha$, leading to the highest degree of direction consensus. The value of optimal $\\alpha$ increases as the system size increases, while it decreases as the absolute velocity, the sensing radius and the noise amplitude increase.

  7. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants of…

  8. Another Piece in the Fibrotic Puzzle: TSLP as a Novel Ligand for Fibrocyte Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Romy Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has emerged as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of nonallergic diseases, especially in diseases that include fibrosis. It has been shown to be upregulated in both cutaneous and lung fibrotic conditions. Shin et al. report that TSLP may also play a role in the pathogenesis of keloids. The main mechanism of TSLP profibrotic effects is not as yet fully understood, although the data suggest that it involves collagen production through transforming growth factor-β, at least in the case of dermal fibroblasts. The authors also report that TSLP is able to activate fibrocytes, probably by inducing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also termed CXCL12), one of its main ligands. These findings support the concept that TSLP plays a role in the development of fibrosis, and they should lead to mechanistic studies on TSLP profibrotic signaling. PMID:26802232

  9. TSH-Mediated TNFα Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Tünde; Wei, Yi-Hsuan; Douglas, Raymond S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fibrocytes (FC) are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO). FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR) induces the production of numerous cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Teprotumumab (TMB) is a human monoclonal IGF-1R blocking antibody currently in clinical trial for GO and inhibits TSHR-mediated actions in FCs. Aim To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying TSH-induced TNFα production by FCs, and the role of IGF-1R blockade by TMB. Design FCs from healthy and GD patients were treated with combinations of TSH, M22, MG132 and AKTi (inhibitors of NF-κB and Akt, respectively), and TMB. TNFα protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression was quantified by real time PCR. Results Treatment with TSH/M22 induced TNFα protein and mRNA production by FCs, both of which were reduced when FCs were pretreated with MG132 and AKTi (p<0.0001). TMB decreased TSH-induced TNFα protein production in circulating FCs from mean fluorescent index (MFI) value of 2.92 to 1.91, and mRNA expression in cultured FCs from 141- to 52-fold expression (p<0.0001). TMB also decreased M22-induced TNFα protein production from MFI of 1.67 to 1.12, and mRNA expression from 6- to 3-fold expression (p<0.0001). Conclusion TSH/M22 stimulates FC production of TNFα mRNA and protein. This process involves the transcription factor NF-κB and its regulator Akt. Blocking IGF-1R attenuates TSH/M22-induced TNFα production. This further delineates the interaction of TSHR and IGF1-R signaling pathways. By modulating the proinflammatory properties of FCs such as TNFα production

  10. TSH-Mediated TNFα Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R Antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes (FC are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO. FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R. These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR induces the production of numerous cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα. Teprotumumab (TMB is a human monoclonal IGF-1R blocking antibody currently in clinical trial for GO and inhibits TSHR-mediated actions in FCs.To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying TSH-induced TNFα production by FCs, and the role of IGF-1R blockade by TMB.FCs from healthy and GD patients were treated with combinations of TSH, M22, MG132 and AKTi (inhibitors of NF-κB and Akt, respectively, and TMB. TNFα protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression was quantified by real time PCR.Treatment with TSH/M22 induced TNFα protein and mRNA production by FCs, both of which were reduced when FCs were pretreated with MG132 and AKTi (p<0.0001. TMB decreased TSH-induced TNFα protein production in circulating FCs from mean fluorescent index (MFI value of 2.92 to 1.91, and mRNA expression in cultured FCs from 141- to 52-fold expression (p<0.0001. TMB also decreased M22-induced TNFα protein production from MFI of 1.67 to 1.12, and mRNA expression from 6- to 3-fold expression (p<0.0001.TSH/M22 stimulates FC production of TNFα mRNA and protein. This process involves the transcription factor NF-κB and its regulator Akt. Blocking IGF-1R attenuates TSH/M22-induced TNFα production. This further delineates the interaction of TSHR and IGF1-R signaling pathways. By modulating the proinflammatory properties of FCs such as TNFα production, TMB may be a promising

  11. Clinically Relevant Growth Conditions Alter Acinetobacter baumannii Antibiotic Susceptibility and Promote Identification of Novel Antibacterial Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Colquhoun

    Full Text Available Biological processes that govern bacterial proliferation and survival in the host-environment(s are likely to be vastly different from those that are required for viability in nutrient-rich laboratory media. Consequently, growth-based antimicrobial screens performed in conditions modeling aspects of bacterial disease states have the potential to identify new classes of antimicrobials that would be missed by screens performed in conventional laboratory media. Accordingly, we performed screens of the Selleck library of 853 FDA approved drugs for agents that exhibit antimicrobial activity toward the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii during growth in human serum, lung surfactant, and/or the organism in the biofilm state and compared those results to that of conventional laboratory medium. Results revealed that a total of 90 compounds representing 73 antibiotics and 17 agents that were developed for alternative therapeutic indications displayed antimicrobial properties toward the test strain in at least one screening condition. Of the active library antibiotics only four agents, rifampin, rifaximin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, exhibited antimicrobial activity toward the organism during all screening conditions, whereas the remainder were inactive in ≥ 1 condition; 56 antibiotics were inactive during serum growth, 25 and 38 were inactive toward lung surfactant grown and biofilm-associated cells, respectively, suggesting that subsets of antibiotics may outperform others in differing infection settings. Moreover, 9 antibiotics that are predominantly used for the treatment Gram-positive pathogens and 10 non-antibiotics lacked detectable antimicrobial activity toward A. baumannii grown in conventional medium but were active during ≥ 1 alternative growth condition(s. Such agents may represent promising anti-Acinetobacter agents that would have likely been overlooked by antimicrobial whole cell screening assays performed in

  12. TSH-Mediated TNFα Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R Antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Hong CHEN; Shan, Shannon J. C.; Mester, Tünde; Wei, Yi-Hsuan; Douglas, Raymond S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fibrocytes (FC) are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO). FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR) induces the production of...

  13. Tanshinone IIA Attenuates Renal Fibrosis after Acute Kidney Injury in a Mouse Model through Inhibition of Fibrocytes Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunming; Shao, Qiuyuan; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with an increased risk of developing advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Yet, effective interventions to prevent this conversion are unavailable for clinical practice. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of Tanshinone IIA on renal fibrosis in a mouse model of folic acid induced AKI. We found that Tanshinone IIA treatment significantly attenuated the folic acid elicited kidney dysfunction on days 3, 14, and 28. This effect was concomitant with a much lessened accumulation of fibronectin and collagen in tubulointerstitium 28 days after folic acid injury, denoting an ameliorated renal fibrosis. The kidney protective and antifibrotic effect of Tanshinone IIA was likely attributable to an early inhibition of renal recruitment of fibrocytes positive for both CD45 and collagen I. Mechanistically, Tanshinone IIA treatment not only markedly diminished renal expression of chemoattractants for fibrocytes such as TGFβ1 and MCP-1, but also significantly reduced circulating fibrocytes at the acute phase of kidney injury. These data suggested that Tanshinone IIA might be a novel therapy for preventing progression of CKD after AKI. PMID:26885500

  14. Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

    2014-01-01

    The O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O 6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18–119% increase; P < 0.05), six significantly downregulated MGMT promoter activity (29–97% decrease; P < 0.05) and one haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents. PMID:24163400

  15. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  16. An Agent-mediated Approach to Promote Knowledge Sharing Through Enterprise Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sedighi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Broadening adoption of social network tools within the enterprise suggests a new and valuable source for insight into the social structure through organizations. While online social media tools are being evolved by enterprises in recent years, the social media are used much for knowledge sharing. This paper focuses on how enterprise social network builds within and between the departments and utilize an agent-based model of social networks to clarify employees with critical network positions ...

  17. Altered monocyte and fibrocyte phenotype and function in scleroderma interstitial lung disease: reversal by caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourkina Elena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, or SSc. Fibrocytes are a monocyte-derived cell population implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosing disorders. Given the recently recognized importance of caveolin-1 in regulating function and signaling in SSc monocytes, in the present study we examined the role of caveolin-1 in the migration and/or trafficking and phenotype of monocytes and fibrocytes in fibrotic lung disease in human patients and an animal model. These studies fill a gap in our understanding of how monocytes and fibrocytes contribute to SSc-ILD pathology. We found that C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4-positive (CXCR4+/collagen I-positive (ColI+, CD34+/ColI+ and CD45+/ColI+ cells are present in SSc-ILD lungs, but not in control lungs, with CXCR4+ cells being most prevalent. Expression of CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12, are also highly upregulated in SSc-ILD lung tissue. SSc monocytes, which lack caveolin-1 and therefore overexpress CXCR4, exhibit almost sevenfold increased migration toward CXCL12 compared to control monocytes. Restoration of caveolin-1 function by administering the caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD peptide reverses this hypermigration. Similarly, transforming growth factor β-treated normal monocytes lose caveolin-1, overexpress CXCR4 and exhibit 15-fold increased monocyte migration that is CSD peptide-sensitive. SSc monocytes exhibit a different phenotype than normal monocytes, expressing high levels of ColI, CD14 and CD34. Because ColI+/CD14+ cells are prevalent in SSc blood, we looked for such cells in lung tissue and confirmed their presence in SSc-ILD lungs but not in normal lungs. Finally, in the bleomycin model of lung fibrosis, we show that CSD peptide diminishes fibrocyte accumulation in the lungs. Our results suggest that low caveolin-1 in SSc monocytes contributes to ILD via effects on cell migration and

  18. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Sum Siu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing.

  19. Community Theater as social support for youth: agents in the promotion of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Diba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussion on promotion of the health of young people in vulnerable situations; but little work has been done analyzing its actual operation - and this is especially true in relation to programs and projects that are outside the health services. This article aims to analyze the relationship of an experience in Community Theater with the promotion of health. It is a qualitative, ethnographic study made at the Pombas Urbanas Institute, in the Cidade Tiradentes district of the municipality of São Paulo, and is coordinated by a theater group with a history that is relevant to the objective of the study. Participatory observation was carried out for one year, with semi-structured interviews with young people, and with actors of the Pombas Urbanas group, and analysis of documents. The theoretical framework that was used is made up of concepts from the fields of collective health, Community Theater, and liberation pedagogy. The results are presented in two interlinked sub-categories which have arisen from the empiric material and from the references adopted: (i 'True friends', and (ii 'Dialog'. The analysis clearly shows the importance of this type of theatrical joint experience for the promotion of health by transforming the quality of relationships between people. Concepts of health, culture and education were used in analysis of the results.

  20. Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.

  1. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4 H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  2. The antineoplastic agent α-bisabolol promotes cell death by inducing pores in mitochondria and lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Antonella; Vinante, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    The sesquiterpene α-bisabolol (α-BSB) has been shown to be an effective cytotoxic agent for a variety of human cancer cells in culture and animal models. However, much of its intracellular action remains elusive. We evaluated the cytotoxic action of α-BSB against CML-T1, Jurkat and HeLa cell lines, as preclinical models for myeloid, lymphoid and epithelial neoplasias. The approach included single cell analysis (flow cytometry, immunocytology) combined with cytotoxicity and proliferation assays to characterize organelle damage, autophagy, cytostatic effect, and apoptosis. The study focuses on the relevant steps in the cytotoxic cascade triggered by α-BSB: (1) the lipid rafts through which α-BSB enters the cells, (2) the opening of pores in the mitochondria and lysosomes, (3) the activation of both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways, (4) the induction of autophagy and (5) apoptosis. The effectiveness of α-BSB as an agent against tumor cells is grounded on its capability to act on different layers of cell regulation to elicit different concurrent death signals, thereby neutralizing a variety of aberrant survival mechanisms leading to treatment resistance in neoplastic cell. PMID:27278818

  3. Promoting Conceptual Change for Complex Systems Understanding: Outcomes of an Agent-Based Participatory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates, Christopher A.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Feldon, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Components of complex systems apply across multiple subject areas, and teaching these components may help students build unifying conceptual links. Students, however, often have difficulty learning these components, and limited research exists to understand what types of interventions may best help improve understanding. We investigated 32 high school students' understandings of complex systems components and whether an agent-based simulation could improve their understandings. Pretest and posttest essays were coded for changes in six components to determine whether students showed more expert thinking about the complex system of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results showed significant improvement for the components Emergence (r = .26, p = .03), Order (r = .37, p = .002), and Tradeoffs (r = .44, p = .001). Implications include that the experiential nature of the simulation has the potential to support conceptual change for some complex systems components, presenting a promising option for complex systems instruction.

  4. Promoting Conceptual Change for Complex Systems Understanding: Outcomes of an Agent-Based Participatory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates, Christopher A.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Feldon, David F.

    2016-08-01

    Components of complex systems apply across multiple subject areas, and teaching these components may help students build unifying conceptual links. Students, however, often have difficulty learning these components, and limited research exists to understand what types of interventions may best help improve understanding. We investigated 32 high school students' understandings of complex systems components and whether an agent-based simulation could improve their understandings. Pretest and posttest essays were coded for changes in six components to determine whether students showed more expert thinking about the complex system of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results showed significant improvement for the components Emergence ( r = .26, p = .03), Order ( r = .37, p = .002), and Tradeoffs ( r = .44, p = .001). Implications include that the experiential nature of the simulation has the potential to support conceptual change for some complex systems components, presenting a promising option for complex systems instruction.

  5. Acute dosing and p53-deficiency promote cellular sensitivity to DNA methylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessment of human exposure to chemicals is crucial for understanding whether such agents can cause cancer. The current emphasis on avoidance of animal testing has placed greater importance on in vitro tests for the identification of genotoxicants. Selection of an appropriate in vitro dosing regime is imperative in determining the genotoxic effects of test chemicals. Here, the issue of dosing approaches was addressed by comparing acute and chronic dosing, uniquely using low-dose experiments. Acute 24 h exposures were compared with equivalent dosing every 24 h over 5-day, fractionated treatment periods. The in vitro micronucleus assay was used to measure clastogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR was used to measure mRNA level induction of DNA repair enzymes. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) for MMS were obtained at 0.7 µg/ml for the acute study and 1.0 µg/ml for the chronic study. For acute MNU dosing, a LOGEL was observed at 0.46 µg/ml, yet genotoxicity was completely removed following the chronic study. Interestingly, acute MNU dosing demonstrated a statistically significant decrease at 0.009 µg/ml. Levels of selected DNA repair enzymes did not change significantly following doses tested. However, p53 deficiency (using the TK6-isogenic cell line, NH32) increased sensitivity to MMS during chronic dosing, causing this LOGEL to equate to the acute treatment LOGEL. In the context of the present data for 2 alkylating agents, chronic dosing could be a valuable in vitro supplement to acute dosing and could contribute to reduction of unnecessary in vivo follow-up tests. PMID:25595616

  6. Tumor promotion by an anticonvulsant agent, phenytoin, in mouse liver: correlation with CYP2B induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, B A; Henneman, J R; Nims, R W; Rice, J M

    1993-11-01

    To investigate the liver tumor promoting effects of phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin; DPH), 5 week old male D2B6F1 mice were given a single i.p. dose of 90 mg N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)/kg body wt in tricaprylin. Control groups received tricaprylin alone. After 2 weeks, the mice were given a diet containing 500, 250 or 125 p.p.m. DPH. Ten mice from each treatment group were killed at 30 weeks of age, at which time 10/10 mice given 500 p.p.m. DPH after NDEA initiation had developed multiple hepatocellular foci and adenomas. Such lesions were found only in 2/10 mice given NDEA alone. By 60 weeks, when the experiment was concluded, the incidences (and multiplicities, in units of tumors per tumor-bearing mouse) of hepatocellular adenomas were 60% (1.8 +/- 0.8), 100% (11.6 +/- 5.5), 77% (4.4 +/- 3.3) or 71% (2.6 +/- 1.3) in mice exposed to NDEA alone, or NDEA followed by 500, 250 or 125 p.p.m. DPH respectively. Hepatocellular carcinomas (87% incidence) and hepatoblastomas (33% incidence) were found only in mice given 500 p.p.m. DPH following NDEA initiation. Dose-dependent and profound increases in hepatic CYP2B-mediated benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity were detected in livers of B6C3F1 mice exposed for 14 days to dietary DPH (125, 250, 500 or 1000 p.p.m.). Similar increases in this activity were observed in D2B6F1 mice exposed to 500 and 250 p.p.m. for 30 or 60 weeks. Thus, increased hepatic CYP2B activity in mice exposed to DPH correlates with the tumor promoting effect of this compound. PMID:8242847

  7. The Virtual Anatomy Lab: an eDemonstrator pedagogical agent can simulate student-faculty interaction and promote student engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Weber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As medical curricula evolve, many universities have adopted a clinical case-centered medical curriculum with a strong focus on small group learning and reduction of traditional lectures such that anatomy has become a self-taught subject supported by e-learning modules. One caveat of this approach is decreased student-faculty interaction and reduced student engagement. Thus use of e-learning must be balanced with the need for continued student-faculty interaction to promote healthy student engagement. To both support self-directed learning of anatomy and to simulate student-faculty interaction, we created the Virtual Anatomy Lab (VAL that features a human pedagogical agent, called the eDemonstrator, who guides student navigation through the available learning resources. The VAL was evaluated using a mixed methods approach (usage statistics and focus groups by two medical student populations at the University of Ottawa: first year medical students in a revised curriculum where anatomy lectures were abolished and laboratory sessions were self-taught, and second year medical students in the former curriculum in which anatomy lectures were given in advance of each laboratory session. We conclude that online modules such as the VAL, well designed with a human pedagogical agent, can be used within the curriculum without negatively impacting student engagement. Ethical Approval for this study was obtained from the Ottawa Hospital Research Ethics Board (protocol number #2009055-01H.

  8. Myofibroblasts in proliferative diabetic retinopathy can originate from infiltrating fibrocytes and through endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; De Hertogh, Gert; van den Eynde, Kathleen; Alam, Kaiser; Van Raemdonck, Katrien; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van Damme, Jo; Geboes, Karel; Struyf, Sofie

    2015-03-01

    Myofibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) are the key cellular mediator of fibrosis. Fibrovascular epiretinal membranes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are characterized by the accumulation of a large number of myofibroblasts. We explored the hypothesis that proliferating endothelial cells via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and/or bone marrow-derived circulating fibrocytes contribute to the myofibroblast population present in PDR epiretinal membranes. Epiretinal membranes from 14 patients with PDR were studied by immunohistochemistry. All membranes contained neovessels expressing the endothelial cell marker CD31. CD31(+) endothelial cells co-expressed the fibroblast/myofibroblast markers fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and α-SMA, indicative for the occurrence of endoMT. In the stroma, cells expressing FSP-1, α-SMA, the leukocyte common antigen CD45, and the myelomonocytic marker CD11b were detected. Double labeling showed co-localization of CD45 with FSP-1 and α-SMA and co-localization of CD11b with α-SMA and matrix metalloproteinase-9, demonstrating the presence of infiltrating fibrocytes. In addition, we investigated the phenotypic changes that take place in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells following exposure to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Retinal microvascular endothelial cells changed morphology upon cytokine exposure, lost the expression of endothelial cell markers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial-cadherin) and started to express mesenchymal markers (calponin, snail, transgelin and FSP-1). These results suggest that endothelial cells as well as circulating fibrocytes may differentiate into myofibroblasts in the diabetic eye and contribute to pathologic fibrosis in PDR. PMID:25637870

  9. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuya Yamashita; Yuusuke Fujimoto; Mayumi Tamaki; Andi Setiawan; Tomohisa Tanaka; Kaori Okuyama-Dobashi; Hirotake Kasai; Koichi Watashi; Takaji Wakita; Masaaki Toyama; Masanori Baba; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Shinya Maekawa; Nobuyuki Enomoto; Junichi Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extr...

  10. Erythropoietin ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis via the inhibition of fibrocyte accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xu Chang; Hu, Zhou Pang; Lian, Guo Yong

    2015-05-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic hormone that protects against renal interstitial fibrosis in animal models; however, the mechanism underlying the anti‑fibrotic activity of EPO has remained elusive. The present study aimed to elucidate this mechanism. Twenty‑four male C57BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups, each comprising six mice: (i) control group (Sh); (ii) unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) plus vehicle group (U+V); (ⅲ) UUO plus 300 U/kg body weight recombinant human (rh)EPO (U+E1) and (ⅳ) UUO plus 1,000 U/kg body weight rhEPO (U+E2). Seven days post‑surgery, the mice were sacrificed for examination. UUO induced significant deposition of extracellular matrix, detected by picro‑sirius red staining, which was decreased following rhEPO treatment. UUO also induced deposition of collagen I and fibronectin, rhEPO treatment was able to attenuate this effect at protein and mRNA levels. Compared with the control groups, UUO resulted in the accumulation of α‑smooth muscle actin‑positive cells in the interstitium, an effect which was ameliorated by rhEPO. Furthermore, rhEPO abrogated the UUO‑induced increase in the number of bone marrow‑derived myofibroblasts. Mechanistically, it was discovered that rhEPO decreased CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) expression at protein level. However, treatment with rhEPO did not alter the protein expression of CC chemokine ligand 21 or CXCL12. These results suggested that rhEPO decreased fibrocyte accumulation via the suppression of renal CXCL16, which resulted in the attenuation of renal fibrosis. PMID:25572934

  11. The tale that wags the dog? : The Norwegian Government's promotion of StatoilHydro as an agent of energy and climate policies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on involving business in development work. This thesis uses the case of StatoilHydro in Brazil. I show that StatoilHydro has substantial financial and political support from the Norwegian Government and is promoted as an agent of Norway’s energy and climate initiatives in Brazil despite their different interests. Based on a framework for studying TNCs’ power, I analyze whether the governmental decision to promote StatoilHydro in such a way is due to the company’s ...

  12. Membrane-mobility agent-promoted fusion of erythrocytes: fusibility is correlated with attack by calcium-activated cytoplasmic proteases on membrane proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Kosower, N S; Glaser, T; Kosower, E M

    1983-01-01

    Rat, but not human, erythrocytes undergo fusion promoted by the membrane-mobility agent 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-ethyl cis-8-(2-octylcyclopropyl)octanoate (A2C). The difference in behavior is correlated with rat erythrocyte membrane protein degradation caused by Ca2+-activated proteases. The human erythrocyte is deficient in such protease activity. Membrane protein degradation is a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for membrane fusion. Membrane protein degradation probably releases membra...

  13. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-11-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  14. Fibrocyte and Airway Remodeling in Asthma%纤维细胞与支气管哮喘呼吸道重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕

    2012-01-01

    Human fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of markers relatedto leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and a diverse set of fibroblast phenotypes. Fibrocytes can be recruited from the circulation to the tissue where they can further differentiate and proliferate into various mesenchymal cell types depending on the tissue niche. The local tissue niche is important because it modulates the fibrocytes and coordinates their role in tissue repair. However,plasticity of a niche may be co-opted in chronic airway diseases such as asthma. Fibrocytes may through regulating the generation and activation of various airway remodeling factors, such as inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines, eventually lead to airway remodeling.%来源于骨髓间叶祖细胞的人类纤维细胞可以表达许多表面分子,这些表面分子与白细胞、造血干细胞以及成纤维细胞表型有关.纤维细胞能从血液循环到达外周组织,并且根据外周组织生态位,组织纤维细胞可以分化、增殖成各种间叶细胞.这些外周组织生态位是非常重要的,它可以使纤维细胞发挥组织修复作用,这些生态位可能与慢性呼吸道疾病(如哮喘)有关,纤维细胞可以通过调节多种致呼吸道重构因子,如炎性介质、细胞因子和趋化因子等的生成和活化,最终导致呼吸道重构.

  15. Promoting Community-based Extension Agents as an Alternative Approach to Formal Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Z. Bonye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The CBEA concept is an alternative to community-based extension intervention aimed at addressing the inadequacy of formal extension services provision to rural poor farmers of the Northern Regions of Ghana. The study sought to find out the extent to which the Community-Based Extension Agent has improved access to extension services to rural farmers. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods such as, Focus Group Discussions, Key Informants, In-depth interviews, Household and Institutional Questionnaires to collect and analyses data. The findings are that: there are vibrant Community Based Extension Agents established providing extension services in crop, livestock and environmental issues in the study District; farmers groups are linked to external agents and other stakeholders for access to credit facilities; the CBEAs were found to be the main link between the community and external agents; the most dominant extension services delivery carried out by the CBEAs in the entire study district were in crop production, livestock production and bushfire management; there are well established criteria for selecting Community Based Extension Agents, and community Based Extension Agents were least motivated. The study recommends among others that: motivation packages such as bicycles would facilitate the movement CBEAs to reach out to majority of the farmers. There is also the need to link CBEAs to relevant institutions/organizations for support and establishment of mechanisms to generate funds to support activities. Finally, stakeholders and organization need to intensify community sensitization and awareness creation on activities of CBEAs.

  16. Promoting Community-Based Extension Agents as an Alternative Approach to Formal Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Z. Bonye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The CBEA concept is an alternative to community-based extension intervention aimed at addressing the inadequacy of formal extension services provision to rural poor farmers of the Northern Regions of Ghana. The study sought to find out the extent to which the Community-Based Extension Agent has improved access to extension services to rural farmers. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods such as, Focus Group Discussions, Key Informants, In-depth interviews, Household and Institutional Questionnaires to collect and analyses data. The findings are that: there are vibrant Community Based Extension Agents established providing extension services in crop, livestock and environmental issues in the study District; farmers groups are linked to external agents and other stakeholders for access to credit facilities; the CBEAs were found to be the main link between the community and external agents; the most dominant extension services delivery carried out by the CBEAs in the entire study district were in crop production, livestock production and bushfire management; there are well established criteria for selecting Community Based Extension Agents, and community Based Extension Agents were least motivated. The study recommends among others that: motivation packages such as bicycles would facilitate the movement CBEAs to reach out to majority of the farmers. There is also the need to link CBEAs to relevant institutions/organizations for support and establishment of mechanisms to generate funds to support activities. Finally, stakeholders and organization need to intensify community sensitization and awareness creation on activities of CBEAs.

  17. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity is associated with response to alkylating agent therapy and with MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobola, Michael S.; Alnoor, Mohammad; Chen, John Y.-S.; Kolstoe, Douglas D.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Blank, A.; Chamberlain, Marc C.; Silber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background CpG methylation in the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with better outcome following alkylating agent chemotherapy in glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic glioma (AG). To what extent improved response reflects low or absent MGMT activity in glioma tissue has not been unequivocally assessed. This information is central to developing anti-resistance therapies. Methods We examined the relationship of MGMT activity in 91 GBMs and 84 AGs with progression-free survival (PFS) following alkylator therapy and with promoter methylation status determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Results Cox regression analysis revealed that GBMs with high activity had a significantly greater risk for progression in dichotomous (P ≤ 0.001) and continuous (P ≤ 0.003) models, an association observed for different alkylator regimens, including concurrent chemo-radiation with temozolomide. Analysis of MGMT promoter methylation status in 47 of the GBMs revealed that methylated tumors had significantly lower activity (P ≤ 0.005) and longer PFS (P ≤ 0.036) compared to unmethylated tumors, despite overlapping activities. PFS was also significantly greater in methylated vs. unmethylated GBMs with comparable activity (P ≤ 0.005), and among unmethylated tumors with less than median activity (P ≤ 0.026), suggesting that mechanisms in addition to MGMT promote alkylator resistance. Similar associations of MGMT activity with PFS and promoter methylation status were observed for AGs. Conclusions Our results provide strong support for the hypotheses that MGMT activity promotes alkylator resistance and reflects promoter methylation status in malignant gliomas. General significance MGMT activity is an attractive target for anti-resistance therapy regardless of methylation status. PMID:25558448

  18. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Yamashita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV. We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95% and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%. Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 1 and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 2, which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs.

  19. A Brief Evaluation of a Project to Engage American Indian Young People as Agents of Change in Health Promotion Through Radio Programming, Arizona, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico-Jarillo, Tara M; Crozier, Athena; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Hutchens, Theresa; George, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Young people can be valuable motivational resources for health promotion. A project implemented from 2009 through 2013 in a small American Indian community in northwest Arizona recruited American Indian young people aged 10 to 21 as agents of change for health promotion through radio programming. Thirty-seven participants were recruited and trained in broadcasting and creative writing techniques; they produced and aired 3 radio dramas. In post-project evaluation, participants were confident they could influence community behaviors but thought that training techniques were too similar to those used in school activities and thus reduced their drive to engage. Effective engagement of young people requires creativity to enhance recruitment, retention, and impact. PMID:26866949

  20. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  1. The Influence of the Chelating Agent Nitrilotriacetic Acid on Promotion of Hydrodesulfurization Activity by Co in CoMo Catalysts Prepared on Al2O3, C, and ZrO2 Supports

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluža, L. (Luděk); Zdražil, M. (Miroslav); Gulková, D. (Daniela); Vít, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2013-01-01

    The chelating agent NTA systematically increased the promotion effect of Co in the sulfided catalysts in comparison to samples prepared without NTA from ammonium heptamolybdate and cobalt nitrate. The promotion effect was increased by the factor 1.13-1.58.

  2. The Virtual Anatomy Lab: an eDemonstrator pedagogical agent can simulate student-faculty interaction and promote student engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Weber; Maxwell Hincke; Beata Patasi; Alireza Jalali; Nadine Wiper-Bergeron

    2012-01-01

    As medical curricula evolve, many universities have adopted a clinical case-centered medical curriculum with a strong focus on small group learning and reduction of traditional lectures such that anatomy has become a self-taught subject supported by e-learning modules. One caveat of this approach is decreased student-faculty interaction and reduced student engagement. Thus use of e-learning must be balanced with the need for continued student-faculty interaction to promote healthy student eng...

  3. Interlaboratory studies with the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to detect tumor-promoting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrman, J.S.; Burg, J.R.; Elmore, E.; Gulati, D.K.; Barfknecht, T.R.; Niemeier, R.W.; Dames, B.L.; Toraason, M.; Langenbach, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the usefulness of the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to predict the tumor-promoting activity of selected chemical. Twenty-three chemicals of different chemical structures (phorbol esters, barbiturates, phenols, artificial sweeteners, alkanes, and peroxides) were chosen for testing based on in vivo promotion activities, as reported in the literature. Assay protocols and materials were standardized, and the chemicals were coded to facilitate unbiased evaluation. A chemical was tested only once in each laboratory, with one of the three laboratories testing only 15 out of 23 chemicals. Dunnett's test was used for statistical analysis. Chemicals were scored as positive (at least two concentration levels statistically different than control), equivocal (only one concentration statistically different), or negative. For 15 chemicals tested in all three laboratories, there was complete agreement among the laboratories for nine chemicals. For the 23 chemicals tested in only two laboratories, there was agreement on 16 chemicals. With the exception of the peroxides and alkanes, the metabolic cooperation data were in general agreement with in vivo data. However, an overall evaluation of the V79 cell system for predicting in vivo promotion activity was difficult because of the organ specificity of certain chemicals and/or the limited number of adequately tested nonpromoting chemicals.

  4. The use anesthetic agents to promote welfare in anemonefish aquaculture: Case study to handling and long-distance transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three anaesthetic agents (80 to 110 mg/L of MS-222, 10 to 30 mg/L of clove oil and 100 to 350 mg/L of 2-phenoxyethanol in anaesthesia and the success of use different clove oil concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mg/L on water quality and survival of an ornamental anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, during long-distance transport in closed system for 48 hours. The lowest effective concentrations based on the efficacy criteria of complete anaesthetic induction within 180s, recovery within 300s and survival when exposed 30 min to anaesthetic was 15 mg/l for clove oil, 200 µl/L for 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 mg/L for MS-222. Above the concentrations of 30 mg/L, 300 µl/L and 100 mg/L of clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol and MS-222 respectively, fish did not recovery when exposed to anaesthetic during 30min. During long-distance transport, clove oil slowed the increase on the ammonia concentration and the decrease on oxygen level, but did not affect the pH and only at concentration of 10 mg/L increase de mortality at 36 and 48 hours after packed. All concentrations showed a significance increase on water quality, reducing total ammonia from 9.31 ± 0.58 mg/L (control group to 5.43 ± 0.56 mg/L (1mg/L, 4.97 ± 0.59 mg/L (3mg/L and 3.88 ± 0.14 mg/L (10mg/L. This study showed that all anaesthetic agents under study can be used in anaesthesia of percula clownfish with optimal doses varied according to the anaesthetic, 15 to 25 mg/L of clove oil, 200 to 250 of 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 to 90 mg/L of MS-222, but clove oil was the anaesthetic agent more effectiveness and with major margin of safety for percula clownfish, and this anaesthesic (clove oil can be used in ornamental fish transportation, reducing the deterioration in water quality and ensuring a better transport environment and reduced stress for the fish. However must be careful related the dose in use, because an excess anesthesic may reduce dissolved oxygen and cause high

  5. Dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from celastraceae species as anti-tumour-promoting agents: Structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Marvin J; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mendoza, Cristina R; Chavez-Sifontes, Marvin; Martinez, Morena L; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Ryo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2016-03-23

    Inhibition of tumour promotion in multistage chemical carcinogenesis is considered a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In an ongoing investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from Celastraceae species, five new dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes (1-5), named Chiapens A-E, and seventeen known ones, were isolated from Maytenus chiapensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques, and their absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism studies, chemical correlations and biogenic means. The isolated compounds, along with twenty known sesquiterpenes, previously isolated from Zinowiewia costaricensis, have been tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorpol-13-acetate (TPA). Thirty three compounds from this series showed stronger effects than that of β-carotene, the reference inhibitor. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis revealed that the type of substituent, in particular at the C-1 position of the sesquiterpene scaffold, was able to modulate the anti-tumour promoting activity. Compounds 3, 6, and 33 showed significant effects in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis model. PMID:26854381

  6. A novel interaction between megakaryocytes and activated fibrocytes increases TGF-β bioavailability in the Gata1(low) mouse model of myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingariello, Maria; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Martelli, Fabrizio; Marra, Manuela; Sancillo, Laura; Ceglia, Ilaria; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous circumstantial evidences, the pathogenic role of TGF-β in primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most severe of the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, is still unclear because of the modest (2-fold) increases in its plasma levels observed in PMF patients and in the Gata1(low) mouse model. Whether myelofibrosis is associated with increased bioavailability of TGF-β bound to fibrotic fibres is unknown. Transmission electron-microscopy (TEM) observations identified that spleen from PMF patients and Gata1(low) mice contained megakaryocytes with abnormally high levels of TGF-β and collagen fibres embedded in their cytoplasm. Additional immuno-TEM observations of spleen from Gata1(low) mice revealed the presence of numerous activated fibrocytes establishing with their protrusions a novel cellular interaction, defined as peripolesis, with megakaryocytes. These protrusions infiltrated the megakaryocyte cytoplasm releasing collagen that was eventually detected in its mature polymerized form. Megakaryocytes, engulfed with mature collagen fibres, acquired the morphology of para-apoptotic cells and, in the most advanced cases, were recognized as polylobated heterochromatic nuclei surrounded by collagen fibres strictly associated with TGF-β. These areas contained concentrations of TGF-β-gold particles ~1000-fold greater than normal and numerous myofibroblasts, an indication that TGF-β was bioactive. Loss-of-function studies indicated that peripolesis between megakaryocytes and fibrocytes required both TGF-β, possibly for inducing fibrocyte activation, and P-selectin, possibly for mediating interaction between the two cell types. Loss-of-function of TGF-β and P-selectin also prevented fibrosis. These observations identify that myelofibrosis is associated with pathological increases of TGF-β bioavailability and suggest a novel megakaryocyte-mediated mechanism that may increase TGF-β bioavailability in chronic inflammation. PMID:27069753

  7. A novel interaction between megakaryocytes and activated fibrocytes increases TGF-β bioavailability in the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingariello, Maria; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Martelli, Fabrizio; Marra, Manuela; Sancillo, Laura; Ceglia, Ilaria; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous circumstantial evidences, the pathogenic role of TGF-β in primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most severe of the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, is still unclear because of the modest (2-fold) increases in its plasma levels observed in PMF patients and in the Gata1low mouse model. Whether myelofibrosis is associated with increased bioavailability of TGF-β bound to fibrotic fibres is unknown. Transmission electron-microscopy (TEM) observations identified that spleen from PMF patients and Gata1low mice contained megakaryocytes with abnormally high levels of TGF-β and collagen fibres embedded in their cytoplasm. Additional immuno-TEM observations of spleen from Gata1low mice revealed the presence of numerous activated fibrocytes establishing with their protrusions a novel cellular interaction, defined as peripolesis, with megakaryocytes. These protrusions infiltrated the megakaryocyte cytoplasm releasing collagen that was eventually detected in its mature polymerized form. Megakaryocytes, engulfed with mature collagen fibres, acquired the morphology of para-apoptotic cells and, in the most advanced cases, were recognized as polylobated heterochromatic nuclei surrounded by collagen fibres strictly associated with TGF-β. These areas contained concentrations of TGF-β-gold particles ~1000-fold greater than normal and numerous myofibroblasts, an indication that TGF-β was bioactive. Loss-of-function studies indicated that peripolesis between megakaryocytes and fibrocytes required both TGF-β, possibly for inducing fibrocyte activation, and P-selectin, possibly for mediating interaction between the two cell types. Loss-of-function of TGF-β and P-selectin also prevented fibrosis. These observations identify that myelofibrosis is associated with pathological increases of TGF-β bioavailability and suggest a novel megakaryocyte-mediated mechanism that may increase TGF-β bioavailability in chronic inflammation. PMID:27069753

  8. Identification of Volatiles Produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a Fungal Biocontrol Agent That Promotes Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diby Paul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles α-pinene, (−-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions.

  9. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed.

  10. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  11. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2010-03-15

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  12. Isolation and characterization of the hamster gadd153 gene. Activation of promoter activity by agents that damage DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luethy, J.D.; Fargnoli, J.; Park, J.S.; Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Holbrook, N.J. (National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-25

    A group of five cDNA clones, representing the gadd genes, were recently isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as genes induced upon growth arrest and after DNA damage. We have isolated and characterized one of these genes, gadd153. The gene spans five kilobases and contains four exons. The 5'-flanking region of the gene, within 420 base pairs of the transcription initiation site, contains a number of cis elements associated with transcriptional regulation in other genes. These include a Hogness box, ATAAAA, an inverted GCCAAT box; seven SP1 transcription factor binding sites, and an AP-1 site. This region is rich in G + C content (greater than 70%) and contains an unusually long stretch of alternating CpG residues. The 800-base pair region immediately upstream of the transcription start site can drive expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, but only in its endogenous orientation, in three different cell lines: HeLa, CHO, and Jurkat. The gadd153 promoter is strongly activated by methyl methanesulfonate, hydrogen peroxide, and UV irradiation, but not by growth arrest signals. This suggests that separate and very different regulatory pathways are involved in the induction of the gadd153 gene by growth cessation and DNA damage.

  13. Interaction and effectiveness of antimicrobials along with healing-promoting agents in a novel biocellulose wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-10-01

    An ideal wound dressing should keep the wound moist, allow oxygen permeation, adsorb wound exudate, accelerate re-epithelialization for wound closure, reduce pain and healing time, and prevent infection. Our novel biocellulose-based wound dressing was composed of three components: 1) biocellulose (BC), intended to create a moist and oxygen-permeated environment with exudate adsorption; 2) silk sericin (SS) known for its enhancement of collagen type I production, which is critical for re-epithelialization; and 3) the antiseptic polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). To deliver an effective BC wound dressing, the interactions between the components (PHMB vs. SS) needed to be thoroughly analyzed. In this study, we investigated important parameters such as the loading sequence, loading concentration, and loading amount of the active compounds to ensure that the BC wound dressing could provide both antimicrobial activity and promote collagen production during healing. The loading sequence of SS and PHMB into BC was critical to maintain PHMB antimicrobial activity; silk sericin needed to be loaded before PHMB to avoid any negative impacts. The minimum PHMB concentration was 0.3% w/v for effective elimination of all tested bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The amounts of SS and PHMB in BC were optimized to ensure that the dressings released the optimal amounts of both SS to enhance fibroblast collagen production and PHMB for effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:26117743

  14. Transforming growth factor β3 attenuates the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by decreasing fibrocyte recruitment and regulating IFN-γ/IL-4 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Xiong, Shanshan; Guo, Renfeng; Yang, Zhihua; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Wang, Haibao; Pan, Xiujie; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2014-11-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a frequently occurred complication from radiotherapy of thoracic tumors. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily plays a key regulatory role in pulmonary fibrosis. As TGF-β3 showed the potential anti-fibrotic properties especially in scar-less wound healing as opposed to the fibrotic function of TGF-β1, we sought to explore the role of TGF-β3 in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A single thoracic irradiation of 20 Gy was applied in mice to establish the model of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mice were treated by intraperitoneal injections of recombinant TGF-β3 weekly after irradiation. We found that TGF-β3 decelerated the progress of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hindered the recruitment of fibrocytes to lung. In addition, Th1 response was suppressed as shown by diminished IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after irradiation, and enhancement of Th2 response was marked by increased IL-4 in BALF. TGF-β3 administration significantly attenuated these effects and increased the percentage of Tregs in lung during the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF-β3 might be involved in the regulatory mechanism for attenuation of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24996042

  15. Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents: Differences in stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents (Gd-CA) are either linear or macrocyclic chelates available as ionic or non-ionic preparations. The molecular structure whether cyclic or linear and ionicity determines the stability of Gd-CA. Linear chelates are flexible open chains which do not offer a strong binding to Gd3+. In contrast, the macrocyclic chelates offer a strong binding to Gd3+ by the virtue of being preorganized rigid rings of almost optimal size to cage the gadolinium atom. Non-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones as the binding between Gd3+ with the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger in comparison to that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CM is the ionic-macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. In vivo data confirmed the low stability of non-ionic linear chelates but no significant difference was observed amongst the macrocyclic agents whether ionic (Gd-DOTA) or non-ionic such as Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-BT-DO3A. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the serious complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that deposit in tissue and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. No cases of NSF have been observed so far after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA

  16. Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents: Differences in stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sameh.morcos@sth.nhs.uk

    2008-05-15

    Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents (Gd-CA) are either linear or macrocyclic chelates available as ionic or non-ionic preparations. The molecular structure whether cyclic or linear and ionicity determines the stability of Gd-CA. Linear chelates are flexible open chains which do not offer a strong binding to Gd{sup 3+}. In contrast, the macrocyclic chelates offer a strong binding to Gd{sup 3+} by the virtue of being preorganized rigid rings of almost optimal size to cage the gadolinium atom. Non-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones as the binding between Gd{sup 3+} with the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger in comparison to that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CM is the ionic-macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. In vivo data confirmed the low stability of non-ionic linear chelates but no significant difference was observed amongst the macrocyclic agents whether ionic (Gd-DOTA) or non-ionic such as Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-BT-DO3A. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the serious complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that deposit in tissue and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. No cases of NSF have been observed so far after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA.

  17. Effect of Farm Manure Decomposed by RW Biological Promoting Corrosion Agent on Flue-cured Tobacco Yield and Quality%RW生物促腐剂腐熟农家肥对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志清; 普伟松; 张福全; 陈鹏

    2011-01-01

    为寻找适应烤烟生产的生物有机肥施肥方法,采用大区对比试验研究了RW生物促腐剂腐熟农家肥对烤烟生长及经济性状等方面的影响.结果表明,施用促腐剂腐熟农家肥的烟田产量、产值、均价和上等烟比例分别为2 085.45 kg/hm2、30 159.42元/hm2、14.46元/kg和43.49%.说明,促腐剂腐熟农家肥施入大田后有利于烟株生长发育,烟叶长势良好,能有效降低烟草花叶病的发生,可提高烟叶产质量.%Effect of farm manure decomposed by RW biological promoting corrosion agent on fluecured tobacco growth and economic characters were studied by regional contrast test to find out the suitable organic manure fertilizing method for flue-cured tobacco production. The results showed that the yield,production value, mean price and first-class tobacco rate of fields fertilized with farm manure decomposed by RW biological promoting corrosion agent were 2 085.45 kg/hm2, 30 159.42 Yuan/hm2 ,14.46 Yuan/kg and 43.49% ,respectively,which indicate that RW biological promoting corrosion agent is beneficial for tobacco plant growth and development, flue-cured tobacco yield and quality are enhanced as the tobacco plant has a good growth vigor and low incidence of tobacco mosaic.

  18. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Regulatory Tregs inhibit fibrocyte recruitment and fibrosis via suppression of FGF-9 production in the TGF-β1 exposed murine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xueyan; Moore, Meagan W; Peng, Hong; Sun, Huanxing; Gan, Ye; Homer, Robert J; Herzog, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a difficult to treat, often fatal disease whose pathogenesis involves dysregulated TGF-β1 signaling. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Regulatory T cells ("Tregs") exert important effects on host tolerance and arise from naïve CD4+ lymphocytes in response to TGF-β1. However, the precise contribution of Tregs to experimentally induced murine lung fibrosis remains unclear. We sought to better understand the role of Tregs in this context. Using a model of fibrosis caused by lung specific, doxycycline inducible overexpression of the bioactive form of the human TGF-β1 gene we find that Tregs accumulate in the lung parenchyma within 5 days of transgene activation and that this enhancement persists to at least 14 days. Anti-CD25 Antibody mediated depletion of Tregs causes increased accumulation of soluble collagen and of intrapulmonary CD45+Col Iα1 fibrocytes. These effects are accompanied by enhanced local concentrations of the classical inflammatory mediators CD40L, TNF-α, and IL-1α, along with the neuroimmune molecule fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF-9, also known as "glial activating factor"). FGF-9 expression localizes to parenchymal cells and alveolar macrophages in this model and antibody mediated neutralization of FGF-9 results in attenuated detection of intrapulmonary collagen and fibrocytes without affecting Treg quantities. These data indicate that CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs attenuate TGF-β1 induced lung fibrosis and fibrocyte accumulation in part via suppression of FGF-9. PMID:24904415

  19. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Regulatory Tregs inhibit fibrocyte recruitment and fibrosis via suppression of FGF-9 production in the TGF-b1 exposed murine lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EricaHerzog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a difficult to treat, often fatal disease whose pathogenesis involves dysregulated TGF-b1 signaling. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Regulatory T cells (“Tregs” exert important effects on host tolerance and arise from naïve CD4+ lymphocytes in response to TGF-b1. However the precise contribution of Tregs to experimentally induced murine lung fibrosis remains unclear. We sought to better understand the role of Tregs in this context. Using a model of fibrosis caused by lung specific inducible overexpression of the bioactive form of the human TGF-b1 gene we find that Tregs accumulate in the lung parenchyma within five days of transgene activation and that this enhancement persists to at least fourteen days. Anti-CD25 Antibody mediated depletion of Tregs causes increased detection of soluble collagen and of intrapulmonary CD45+CD34+Col Ia1 fibrocytes. These findings are accompanied by enhanced local concentrations of the classical inflammatory mediators CD40L, TNF-a, and IL-1a, along with the neuroimmune molecule fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF-9, also known as “glial activating factor”. FGF-9 expression localizes to structural cells and alveolar macrophages in this model and antibody mediated neutralization of FGF-9 results in attenuated detection of intrapulmonary collagen and fibrocytes without affecting Treg quantities. These data indicate that CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs attenuate TGF-b1 induced lung fibrosis and fibrocyte accumulation in part via suppression of FGF-9.

  20. Erythropoietic Agents and the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T.

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development, which either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of erythropoietin or promote erythropoietin production that stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents stimulating erythropoiesis (such as continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C...

  1. Thiol protecting agents and antioxidants inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition promoted by etoposide: implications in the prevention of etoposide-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Custódio, José B. A.; Cardoso, Carla M. P.; Almeida, Leonor M.

    2002-01-01

    Etoposide (VP-16) is known to promote cell apoptosis either in cancer or in normal cells as a side effect. This fact is preceded by the induction of several mitochondrial events, including increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by cytochrome c release and consequent activation of caspase-9 and -3, reduction of ATP levels, depolarization of membrane potential ([Delta][Psi]) and rupture of the outer membrane. These events are apoptotic factors essentially associated with the induction of the mito...

  2. Agentes Comunitários de Saúde: agenciadores de encontros entre territórios Community Health Workers: promoters of interaction between territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Lima da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta reflexões produzidas a partir de uma série de encontros com Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, ao longo de dez anos. Identifica-se a consolidação de dois territórios existenciais, que ora se aproximam, ora se afastam: o do saber técnico em saúde e o do saber popular em saúde. A partir da análise de algumas falas de ACS e de reflexões que dialogam com o referencial teórico da área, o texto discute alguns dos dilemas e impasses do acesso e da adesão na ótica desses Agentes, bem como as estratégias cotidianamente inventadas a partir dos encontros que se dão entre esses dois territórios. Identifica-se o lugar do Agente Comunitário de Saúde como agenciador de fronteiras, atuando em alguns momentos como um inventor ou potencializador de zonas de contato entre territórios e, em outros, como um representante de um dos territórios no outro.This article presents reflections originating from a series of meetings with community health workers over a period of ten years. It identifies the consolidation of two existential territories, which are sometimes closer and at other times more distant from each other, namely the territory of technical knowledge about health and the territory of popular knowledge about health. Starting with the analysis of some quotes from health workers and reflections which tally with the theoretical reference in the area, this paper discusses some of the dilemmas and deadlocks of access and affiliation from the perspective of some of these health workers, as well as the strategies devised on a day-to-day basis from the crossovers that take place between these two territories. It identifies the function of community health workers as frontier agents, at times acting as inventors or motivators of contact zones between the territories, and at other times acting as a representative by one territory inside the other.

  3. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H., E-mail: grahamc@queensu.ca

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  4. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment–apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M.; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A.; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B.; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I.; Forte, Trudy M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  5. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  6. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1; and knockdown of p27kip1 with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  7. Working "upstream": why we shouldn't use heterosexual women as health promotion change agents in HIV-prevention interventions aimed at heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carly; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The use of cognitive-behavioral interventions that aim to improve men's health-seeking behaviors via women-a trend that grows increasingly troublesome as gender inequality persists-cannot address the deep-seated social, economic, and political inequalities contributing to the spread of HIV/AIDS, such as sexism and poverty. Such methods often rely on generalizations about men and women and regard female empowerment as a key goal, despite employing shaky definitions of the concept. Here we use the principles of health promotion, particularly determinants of health, to reflect upon and critique current interventions and present alternative programming models that engage both men and women in changing men's health-seeking behaviors and working "upstream" rather than "downstream" of the epidemic. PMID:25611811

  8. Seleção de bactérias endofíticas de tomateiro como potenciais agentes de biocontrole e de promoção de crescimento Screening of endophytic bacteria isolated from tomato plants as potencial biocontrol agents and growth promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Baston Barretti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta isolados bacterianos endofíticos de plantas sadias de tomateiro foram avaliados quanto à sua potencialidade como agentes de biocontrole de doenças do tomateiro. Foi realizada, em casa de vegetação, uma seleção massal utilizando-se Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato e Alternaria solani, como patógenos desafiantes. Com base na média do número de lesões por planta, quatro isolados foram selecionados como potenciais agentes de biocontrole dessas enfermidades fúngica e bacteriana do tomateiro. Esses isolados foram identificados, por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S do DNA ribossômico, como Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 e Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. Os mesmos isolados selecionados para o biocontrole também foram avaliados quanto à sua capacidade de promover o crescimento em plantas e somente S. marcescens (UFV-E13 proporcionou aumento na altura das plantas.Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria obtained from healthy tomato plants were tested for their potential as biocontrol agents of tomato diseases. A massal screening was performed at greenhouse using Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Alternaria solani as challenging pathogens. Based on the average number of lesions per plant, four isolates were selected as potential agents of biocontrol of these tomato diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. These isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 and Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. The four endophytes selected for biocontrol were also evaluated for their ability of promoting plant growth and only S. marcescens (UFV-E13 presented increase in the height of the plants.

  9. Cell surface response of chemically transformed, malignant mouse embryonal fibroblasts and human colon cancer cells to the maturation-promoting agent, N,N-dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lactoperoxidase/125I radioiodination procedure was used to probe the cell surface of normal, nontransformed AKR-2B mouse embryo fibroblasts and malignant, permanently methylcholanthrene-transformed AKR-2B (AKR-MCA) cells to establish the relationship between cell surface changes and transformation/differentiation in this call system. AKR-MCA cells displayed surface alterations secondary to N,N-dimethylformamide (DFM)-promoted differentiation. Growth of AKR-MCA cells in DMF virtually eliminated the 85,000 and 63,000 molecular weight surface proteins susceptible to radioiodination and increased surface material of ∼200,000 molecular weight. Thus, surface profiles of DFM-treated AKR-MCA cells were essentially identical to those of nontransformed AKR-2B cells. Experimentation was extended to a cultured human colon cancer cell line (HCT MOSER). HCT MOSER cells exposed to DMF manifested marked, reversible morphological and surface changes which occurred as a function of time of growth in DMF and DMF concentration. Interestingly, material reactive with anti-fibronectin was found on the surfaces and in the culture medium of DFM-treated HCT MOSER cells

  10. Cyclic AMP-elevating Agents Promote Cumulus Cell Survival and Hyaluronan Matrix Stability, Thereby Prolonging the Time of Mouse Oocyte Fertilizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Monica; Camaioni, Antonella; Klinger, Francesca G; Bonfiglio, Rita; Salustri, Antonietta

    2016-02-19

    Cumulus cells sustain the development and fertilization of the mammalian oocyte. These cells are retained around the oocyte by a hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix synthesized before ovulation, a process called cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) expansion. Hyaluronan release and dispersion of the cumulus cells progressively occur after ovulation, paralleling the decline of oocyte fertilization. We show here that, in mice, postovulatory changes of matrix are temporally correlated to cumulus cell death. Cumulus cell apoptosis and matrix disassembly also occurred in ovulated COCs cultured in vitro. COCs expanded in vitro with FSH or EGF underwent the same changes, whereas those expanded with 8-bromo-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) maintained integrity for a longer time. It is noteworthy that 8-Br-cAMP treatment was also effective on ovulated COCs cultured in vitro, prolonging the vitality of the cumulus cells and the stability of the matrix from a few hours to >2 days. Stimulation of endogenous adenylate cyclase with forskolin or inhibition of phosphodiesterase with rolipram produced similar effects. The treatment with selective cAMP analogues suggests that the effects of cAMP elevation are exerted through an EPAC-independent, PKA type II-dependent signaling pathway, probably acting at the post-transcriptional level. Finally, overnight culture of ovulated COCs with 8-Br-cAMP significantly counteracted the decrease of fertilization rate, doubling the number of fertilized oocytes compared with control conditions. In conclusion, these studies suggest that cAMP-elevating agents prevent cumulus cell senescence and allow them to continue to exert beneficial effects on oocyte and sperm, thereby extending in vitro the time frame of oocyte fertilizability. PMID:26694612

  11. MGMT Promoter Methylation Correlates with an Overall Survival Benefit in Chinese High-Grade Glioblastoma Patients Treated with Radiotherapy and Alkylating Agent-Based Chemotherapy: A Single-Institution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong; Liu, Tao; Lin, Qingfen; Lu, Xiangdong; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Feng; Mao, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene has been considered a prognostic marker and has become more important in the treatment of glioblastoma. However, reports on the correlation between MGMT and clinical outcomes in Chinese glioblastoma patients are very scarce. In this study, quantitative methylation data were obtained by the pyrosequencing of tumor tissues from 128 GBM patients. The median overall survival (OS) was 13.1 months, with a 1-year survival of 45.3%. The pyrosequencing data were reproducible based on archived samples yielding data for all glioblastomas. MGMT promoter methylation was detected in 75/128 cases (58.6%), whereas 53/128 (41.4%) cases were unmethylated. Further survival analysis also revealed that methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with prolonged OS but not with progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.029 and p = 0.112, respectively); the hazard radios were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42–0.96) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.48–1.09), respectively. These data indicated that MGMT methylation has prognostic significance in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioblastoma undergoing alkylating agent-based chemotherapy after surgical resection. PMID:25211033

  12. MGMT promoter methylation correlates with an overall survival benefit in Chinese high-grade glioblastoma patients treated with radiotherapy and alkylating agent-based chemotherapy: a single-institution study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Promoter methylation of the O(6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT gene has been considered a prognostic marker and has become more important in the treatment of glioblastoma. However, reports on the correlation between MGMT and clinical outcomes in Chinese glioblastoma patients are very scarce. In this study, quantitative methylation data were obtained by the pyrosequencing of tumor tissues from 128 GBM patients. The median overall survival (OS was 13.1 months, with a 1-year survival of 45.3%. The pyrosequencing data were reproducible based on archived samples yielding data for all glioblastomas. MGMT promoter methylation was detected in 75/128 cases (58.6%, whereas 53/128 (41.4% cases were unmethylated. Further survival analysis also revealed that methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with prolonged OS but not with progression-free survival (PFS (p = 0.029 and p = 0.112, respectively; the hazard radios were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42-0.96 and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.48-1.09, respectively. These data indicated that MGMT methylation has prognostic significance in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioblastoma undergoing alkylating agent-based chemotherapy after surgical resection.

  13. Spiral ligament fibrocyte-derived MCP-1/CCL2 contributes to inner ear inflammation secondary to nontypeable H. influenzae-induced otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim David J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM, one of the most common pediatric infectious diseases, causes inner ear inflammation resulting in vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss. Previously, we showed that spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs recognize OM pathogens and up-regulate chemokines. Here, we aim to determine a key molecule derived from SLFs, contributing to OM-induced inner ear inflammation. Methods Live NTHI was injected into the murine middle ear through the tympanic membrane, and histological analysis was performed after harvesting the temporal bones. Migration assays were conducted using the conditioned medium of NTHI-exposed SLFs with and without inhibition of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2. qRT-PCR analysis was performed to demonstrate a compensatory up-regulation of alternative genes induced by the targeting of MCP-1/CCL2 or CCR2. Results Transtympanic inoculation of live NTHI developed serous and purulent labyrinthitis after clearance of OM. THP-1 cells actively migrated and invaded the extracellular matrix in response to the conditioned medium of NTHI-exposed SLFs. This migratory activity was markedly inhibited by the viral CC chemokine inhibitor and the deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2, indicating that MCP-1/CCL2 is a main attractant of THP-1 cells among the SLF-derived molecules. We further demonstrated that CCR2 deficiency inhibits migration of monocyte-like cells in response to NTHI-induced SLF-derived molecules. Immunolabeling showed an increase in MCP-1/CCL2 expression in the cochlear lateral wall of the NTHI-inoculated group. Contrary to the in vitro data, deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2 or CCR2 did not inhibit OM-induced inner ear inflammation in vivo. We demonstrated that targeting MCP-1/CCL2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-2/CCL8 in SLFs and up-regulates the basal expression of CCR2 in the splenocytes. We also found that targeting CCR2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-1/CCL2 in SLFs. Conclusions Taken together, we suggest that

  14. Diversity and characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes from Zea mays and their potential as plant growth-promoting agents in metal-degraded soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S I A; Castro, P M L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of Zea mays plants growing in an agricultural soil contaminated with Zn and Cd. Endophytic bacterial counts were determined in roots and shoots, and isolates were grouped by random amplified polymorphic DNA and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Endophytes were further characterized for the production of plant growth-promoting (PGP) substances, such as NH3, siderophores, indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide and extracellular enzymes, and for the capacity to solubilize phosphate. The endophytes producing higher amounts of IAA were screened for their tolerance to Zn and Cd and used as bioinoculants for maize seedlings grown in the Zn/Cd-contaminated soil. The counts of endophytes varied between plant tissues, being higher in roots (6.48 log10 g(-1) fresh weight) when compared to shoots (5.77 log10 g(-1) fresh weight). Phylogenetic analysis showed that endophytes belong to three major groups: α-Proteobacteria (31 %), γ-Proteobacteria (26 %) and Actinobacteria (26 %). Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Variovorax and Curtobacterium were among the most represented genera. Endophytes were well-adapted to high Zn/Cd concentrations (up to 300 mg Cd l(-1) and 1,000 mg Zn l(-1)) and showed ability to produce several PGP traits. Strains Ochrobactrum haematophilum ZR 3-5, Acidovorax oryzae ZS 1-7, Frigoribacterium faeni ZS 3-5 and Pantoea allii ZS 3-6 increased root elongation and biomass of maize seedlings grown in soil contaminated with Cd and Zn. The endophytes isolated in this study have potential to be used in bioremediation/phytoremediation strategies. PMID:25053283

  15. Agent engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  16. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  17. 中药闻香促进记忆的临床研究%Clinical Study of Self-made Aromatic Olfactory Agents from Traditional Chinese Medicine in Promoting Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 高根德

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To observe the clinical effect of self - made aromatic olfactory agents from traditional Chinese medicine to promote the short - term memory. Methods; 80 cases of healthy college students were divided randomly into treatment group and control group respectively. The treatment group n = 48 and control one n = 32 . The treatment group of healthy college students treated by aromatic Chinese medicine twice a day - and - sniff fragrant ,2-3 minutes each time, continuing medication 2 weeks . Healthy control group of college students sniffed honey water, approach with treatment group. Another choice of memory impaired patients with chief complaint of 59 patients, of which 35 cases of young adult, 24 cases of physical examination was essentially normal aging as a patient group, no control group, only the self-memory comparison before and after treatment. Results; The impact of aromatic olfactory agents of traditional Chinese medicine on the health of university students group; memory scores after treatment group (except for picture recall) was significantly higher than that before treatment, before and after treatment there was significant difference ( P 0.05);治疗组与对照组比较有显着性差异(P<0.05),治疗组记忆得分明显高于对照组.中青年组用药后在数字广度、数字广度倒数、方位、空间位置记忆广度、联想学习测试项目上经非参数检验有显着差异(P<0.05),记忆得分明显高于治疗前.老年组用药后部分测试项目记忆得分略高于治疗前,部分病人无进步,考虑与原发病有关.结论:芳香中药嗅入剂能改善健康年轻人记忆力,能改善以记忆力减退为主诉的青中年部分记忆,如数字广度、数字广度倒数、方位、空间位置记忆广度及联想学习.但对老年人的记忆促进效果不明显.

  18. Efetividade de programa de agentes comunitários na promoção da saúde bucal Efectividad del programa de agentes comunitarios en la promoción de la salud bucal Effectiveness of a community health worker program on oral health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2009-06-01

    y residentes en domicilios de tres a seis cuartos en el municipio de Río Grande da Serra (Sudeste de Brasil. Se escogieron datos sobre conocimientos de salud-enfermedad bucal, prácticas y capacidades auto-referidas con relación al auto-examen, higiene bucal, número de residentes y de cepillos dentales individuales y colectivos en cada domicilio y acceso y uso de servicios odontológicos. Por medio de la prueba t de Student pareado, se compararon los promedios de los valores obtenidos antes y después del programa para cada uno de los grupos estudiados. Las respuestas fueron analizadas adoptándose un nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para cuestiones relacionadas con el conocimiento de salud bucal entre los agentes y entre las mujeres antes y después de la capacitación (pOBJECTIVE: To assess changes of knowledge and attitudes and health service access and utilization after the implementation of a community health worker program for oral health promotion. METHODS: A capacity building project including learning, support, and supervision activities was developed between July 2003 and August 2004. A study to assess changes was conducted including 36 community health workers and a representative sample of homemaker literate women and mothers aged 25 to 39 years living in 3- to 6-room dwelling in the city of Rio Grande da Serra, Southeastern Brazil. Data on oral health knowledge, self-reported practices, and personal skills regarding self-examination, oral hygiene, number of people living in the same household, number of individual and collective toothbrushes, and dental service access and utilization were collected using structured interviews. Mean scores measured pre- and post-intervention program were compared for each group studied using Student's t-test. A 5% significance level was set for the analysis. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between pre- and post-intervention program were

  19. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  20. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  1. Antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  2. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  3. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  4. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  5. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  6. Erythropoietic agents and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T

    2008-10-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development that either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of Epo or promote Epo production, which stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents under active investigation include continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) or proline hydroxylase inhibitors that increase hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), thereby stimulating Epo production and iron availability and supply. Erythropoietic agents have been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and to decrease post-stroke infarct size in mouse models. They have also been reported to shorten survival when used to treat anemia in many cancer patients and to increase thromboembolism. In contrast, rapid decrease of Epo levels as observed in astronauts and high-altitude dwellers upon rapid descent to sea level leads to the decrease of erythroid mass, a phenomenon known as "neocytolysis." The relative decrease in the serum Epo level is known to occur in some subjects with otherwise unexplained anemia of aging. Anemia by itself is a predictor of poor physical function in the elderly and is a significant economic burden on society. One out of every five persons in the United States will be elderly by 2050. Erythropoietic agents, by preventing and treating otherwise unexplained anemias of the elderly and anemia associated with other disease conditions of the elderly, have the potential to improve the functional capacity and to decrease the morbidity and mortality in the elderly, thereby alleviating the overall burden of medical care in society. PMID:18809098

  7. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  8. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  9. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  10. Efetividade de programa de agentes comunitários na promoção da saúde bucal Efectividad del programa de agentes comunitarios en la promoción de la salud bucal Effectiveness of a community health worker program on oral health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Frazão; Débora Marques

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO:Avaliar mudanças em conhecimentos, atitudes e acesso/utilização de serviços odontológicos decorrentes de um programa de promoção da saúde bucal com agentes comunitários de saúde. MÉTODOS:Um projeto de capacitação combinando ensino-aprendizagem, apoio e supervisão, foi desenvolvido entre os meses de julho de 2003 a agosto de 2004. As mudanças foram avaliadas por meio de entrevistas estruturadas em que participaram 36 agentes comunitários de saúde e uma amostra de 91 mulheres e mães, r...

  11. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  12. Beyond Needs Assessments: Marketing as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Views marketing techniques as agents of change providing valuable assistance to community college decision makers. Discusses the importance of a balance among the four P's of marketing (i.e., promotion, price, place, and product); and seven procedural steps in developing a sound marketing strategy. (DMM)

  13. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  14. Agents in domestic environments

    OpenAIRE

    van Moergestel, Leo; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; meyer, john-jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to tie the agents directly to the actuators, sensors and devices involved. This way a level of abstraction is created and all intelligence of the system as a whole is related to the agents involved. A pr...

  15. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko;

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  16. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  17. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  18. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  19. Bactérias endofíticas como agentes promotores do crescimento de plantas de tomateiro e de inibição in vitro de Ralstonia solanacearum Endophytic bacteria as agents of plant growth promotion in tomato and inhibition in vitro of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Baston Barretti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 150 isolados de bactérias endofíticas obtidos de folhas, caules e raízes de tomateiros sadios, 53 destacaram-se quanto à habilidade em promover o crescimento de plantas de tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Submetidos a uma nova seleção, os isolados UFV-E17, UFV-E22, UFV-E25, UFV-E26, UFV-E27, Bacillus cereus (UFV-E29, UFV-E49, UFLA 06-LS, UFLA 08-LS e UFLA 11-LS apresentaram maior promoção do crescimento. Avaliações semanais de altura e número de folhas e folíolos das plantas aconteceram durante 45 dias. Após a sexta avaliação, mensurou-se a área foliar e o peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plantas. O isolado UFV-E49 apresentou melhor resultado para altura, área foliar, número de folhas e peso da matéria fresca e seca, tanto da parte aérea quanto da raiz. Dos isolados selecionados, somente dois apresentaram efeito inibitório direto in vitro a Ralstonia solanacearum.Out of one hundred and fifty isolates of endophytic bacteria from leaves, stems and roots of healthy tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., fifty three showed ability to promote tomato plant growth, among these, ten isolates UFV-E17, UFV-E22, UFV-E25, UFV-E26, UFV-E27, Bacillus cereus (UFV-E29, UFV-E49, UFLA 06-LS, UFLA 08-LS and UFLA 11-LS, provided the largest plant growth promotion. Weekly assessment of plant height and number of leaves and leaflets were carried out during 45 days. After the sixth evaluation, the leaf area and the fresh and dry weight of the aerial part of plants and of the roots were measured. Isolate UFV-E49 provided the largest values of height, leaf area, number of leaves and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part of plants as well as the root. From the selected isolates, only two presented antimicrobial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

  20. Promoting industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the first nuclear power programme is decided upon, automatically the country has to initiate in parallel a programme to modify or add to its current industrial structure and resources. The extent of this new industrialisation depends upon many factors which both, the Government and the Industries have to consider. The Government has a vital role which includes the setting up of the background against which the industrial promotion should take place and in many cases may have also to play an active role all along this programme. Equally, the existing industries have an important role so as to achieve the most efficient participation in the nuclear programme. Invariably the industrial promotional programme will incur a certain degree of transfer of technology, the extent depending on the policies adopted. For this technology transfer to take place efficiently, both the donor and the receiver have to recognise each other's legitimate ambitions and fears. The transfer of technology is a process having a high human content and both donor and receiver have to take this into account. This can be further complicated when there is a difference in culture between them. Technology transfer is carried out within a contractual and organisational framework which will identify the donor (licensor) and the receiver (licensee). This framework may take various forms from a simple cooperative agreement, through a joint-venture organisation right to a standard contract between two separate entities. Each arrangement has its advantages and drawbacks and requires investment of different degrees. One of the keys to a successful industrial promotion is having it carried out in a timely fashion which will be parallel with the nuclear power programme. Experience in some countries has shown the problems when the industrialisation is out of phase with the programme whilst in other cases this industrialisation was at a level and scale unjustified. (author)

  1. Promoter And Duties And Responsibilities Of Promoters In English Company Law

    OpenAIRE

    Neval Okan

    2003-01-01

    Any person who does an act with reference to the formation of a company or in aid of its organization whether he has the intention to be a partners or not is a promoter. No statuory definition of promoter is given in English company law; definition is given in case law. Promoters stand in a fiduciary relation to the proposed company. Apromoter is not an agent for the company which he is forming because a company cannot have an agent before it comes into existence. The fiduciary duty is owed t...

  2. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  3. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  4. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo Martínez, Rubén J.; Camacho Castro, Juan

    2013-01-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this e...

  5. Vitamin C Found to Promote Cancer-Causing Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will; Dunham; 徐振荣

    2001-01-01

    我们非常郑重地向读者推荐此文。一直被认为具有抗氧化、保护遗传物质DNA的维生素C具有两面性。美国研究员最新研究表明,维生素C还能帮助生成破坏DNA的物质。根据6月15日出版的美国《科学》周刊报道维生素C是有益健康的营养元素,它具有抗氧化性,能驱除细胞内的有害的自由基。但是美国宾夕法尼亚大学的一研究小组通过试管实验发现,维生素C能够作为催化剂帮助生成一种损伤DNA的genotoxins(基因毒素),这种毒素与DNA作用后引发DNA在人类肿瘤细胞中的突变。这意味着维生素C在保护DNA的同时,也具备伤害它的能力。作为普通读者,本文给我们最有益的启示应该是: …ponted to evidenece of a benefit from an overall healthy diet rather thantaking supplements on any particular nutrient。 此言应了国人的一句俗话:药补(taking supplements on any particularnutrient)不如食补(benefit from an overall healthy diet)。读者以为然否?】

  6. Phosphate diester cleavage promoted by the novel artificial biomimetic agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bím, Daniel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hodačová, J.

    Praha: Czech Chemical Society, 2014. s. 51. [Liblice 2014. Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /49./. 07.11.2014-09.11.2014, Lázně Bělohrad] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphate diesters * bond cleavage Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. Overexpression of ω-3 Fatty Acid Dehydrogenase Gene Protects MouseEmbryonic Fibrocytes from ω-6 PUFAs-induced Apoptosis%过表达ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶基因fat-1保护小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞避免凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 葛银林; 薛美兰; 张金玉; 李泉; 单虎

    2011-01-01

    ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs ) are important for the normal function of mammals. However, it is difficult to gain ω-3 PUFAs in human body and there is no ω-3 PUFAs dehydrogenase in vivo to catalyze ω-6PUFAs into ω-3PUFAs. But the expressed product of fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegan is ω-3 PUFAs dehydrogenase. Hence, to express fat-l gene in mouse embryonic fibrocyte is the aim of this study. First, the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFPC1-fat-l , containing fat-l gene cDNA was constructed and transfected into mouse embryonic fibrocyte. Then the expression level was detected by RT-PCR and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope, the change of cellular ω-6PUFAs /ω-3PUFAs ratio was examined by gas chromatography, the inhibiting rate of cells proliferation was observed by MTT method, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that the cells proliferation rate was higher and cells apoptosis magnitude was lower than those in the control cells. In conclusion, fat-l gene could significantly decrease the ratio of cellular ω-3PUFAs / w-3PUFAs and inhibit apoptosis of the 3T3 cell. It shows strong cell-protective effects on mouse embryonic fibrocyte.%由于膳食原因,人体摄入ω-6PUFAs/ω-3 PUFAs比例过高,脂类代谢严重失衡.鉴于ω-3PUFAs获取困难而且人体无催化ω-6PUFAs向ω-3PUFAs转化的ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶,本研究体外扩增来源于秀丽线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)的ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶基因(fat-I)cDNA,构建了真核表达载体pEGFPCl-fat-1,将该基因转染入小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞;激发荧光与RT-PCR方法检测转染pEGFPC1-fat-1细胞表达该基因,气相色谱分析显示该转染细胞中ω-6PUFAs/ω-3PUFAs的比例降低;细胞抑制率实验显示转染细胞的MTT吸光值升高(P<0.05);双染法流式细胞仪分析转染细胞凋亡降低,结果表明fat-1基因即使在高浓度ω-6PUFAs的细胞毒作用下,

  8. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  9. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  10. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  11. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  12. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  13. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  14. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  15. Modafinil as a catecholaminergic agent: empirical evidence and unanswered questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Wisor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil, in its two clinical formulations (Provigil® and Nuvigil®, is a widely prescribed wake-promoting therapeutic agent. It binds competitively to the cell membrane dopamine transporter and is dependent on catecholaminergic (dopaminergic and adrenergic signaling for its wake-promoting effects. The clinical spectrum of effects for modafinil is distinct from the effects seen with other catecholaminergic agents. Relative to other commonly used agents that act through catecholaminergic mechanisms, modafinil has a relatively low abuse potential, produces wakefulness with an attenuated compensatory sleep recovery thereafter, and does not ameliorate cataplexy in narcolepsy. These clinically relevant phenomenological differences between modafinil and agents such as amphetamines and cocaine do not eliminate catecholaminergic effects as a possible mediator of its wake-promoting action; they merely reflect its unique pharmacological profile. Modafinil is an exceptionally weak, but apparently very selective, dopamine transporter inhibitor. The pharmacodynamic response to modafinil, as measured by dopamine levels in brain microdialysate, is protracted relative to other agents that act via catecholaminergic mechanisms. The conformational constraints on the interaction of modafinil with the dopamine transporter—and probably, as a consequence, its effects on trace amine receptor signaling in the catecholaminergic cell—are unique among catecholaminergic agents. These unique pharmacological properties of modafinil should be considered both in seeking to thoroughly understand its putatively elusive mechanism of action and in the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  16. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  17. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  18. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  19. Agent amplified communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  20. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rezky Purna Satit; Huam Hon Tat; Amran Rasli; Thoo Ai Chin; Inda Sukati

    2012-01-01

    Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ens...

  1. Challenges of agent banking experiences in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gichana Atandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available More than ever before there is a global concern to entrench financial deepening access to previously ignored areas due to some areas considered economically unviable where majority of the MSEs operate their businesses. There is an increasing need to promote technological and institutional innovation as a means to expand financial system access and usage, including addressing infrastructure weaknesses and empowering business enterprises by developing financial literacy and financial capability programs to bring all people on board and all to participate in economic development of a country, perhaps agent banking will offer a solution to slow pace of individuals enterprise development especially from the rural areas. The uptake of agent banking in Kenya has not been well appreciated by the target beneficiaries who include among others the micro and small enterprises in the rural areas in Kenya who were expected to benefit from this technologically innovative service. In as much as it has been witnessed that there is an increase in penetration of agent banking services clients have not fully made use of the available agents at their localities to cut down on transaction costs occasioned by travelling to traditional branches and also time wasted on queuing for services . It can also be noted that, the banks have not fully taken advantage of agent banking to explore all market segments at a low operating costs. The researcher also identified some of the factors hindering the well functioning of agent banking despite mounting financial literacy training to Equity bank clients. Lack of mobile network services and float, lack of capital, issues of insecurity and fear of robbery. The paper is based on a study conducted to reveal the challenges which are hindering the rural people of Kenya from benefiting from agent banking.

  2. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  3. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  4. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  5. The PLS agent : agent behavior validation by partial least squares

    OpenAIRE

    Lorscheid, Iris; Meyer, Matthias; Pakur, Sandra; Ringle, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based modeling is widely applied in the social sciences. However, the validation of agent behavior is challenging and identified as one of the shortcomings in the field. Methods are required to establish empirical links and support the implementation of valid agent models. This paper contributes to this, by introducing the PLS agent concept. This approach shows a way to transfer results about causalities and decision criteria from empirical surveys into an agent-based decision model, th...

  6. Overview of tumor promotion in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaga, T J

    1983-04-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could induce a large number of skin tumors. These investigations as well as a number of others, such as Boutwell, Van Duuren and Hecker, were responsible in defining many important aspects of the initiation and promotion of two-stage carcinogenesis. The initiation stage in mouse skin requires only a single application of either a direct-acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen and is essentially an irreversible step which as data suggests probably involves a somatic cell mutation. The promotion stage in mouse skin can be accomplished by a wide variety of weak or noncarcinogenic agents and is initially reversible later becoming irreversible. Current information suggests that skin tumor promoters are not mutagenic but bring about a number of important epigenetic changes, such as epidermal hyperplasia, and an increase in polyamines, prostaglandins and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions. Recently, tumor promotion in mouse skin was shown to consist of at least two stages, in which each stage can be accomplished by either a known promoter or a weak or nonpromoting agent. Some of the important characteristics of the first stage of promotion are: (1) only one application of a first-stage promoter, such as phorbol ester tumor promoters, calcium ionophore A23187, hydrogen peroxide and wounding is needed; (2) the action is partially irreversible; (3) an increase in dark basal keratinocytes and prostaglandins is important; and (4) such an increase can be inhibited by

  7. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  8. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  9. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...

  10. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  11. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  12. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dispersion of denatured aggregates of serum albumin to which tin is attached is prepared and lyophilized. A mixture of polycarboxylic acid and a disaccharide or monosaccharide is included in the dispersion in sufficient amount to reduce degradation during lyophilization and aging. The dispersion is suitable for radioactive labelling and use as a diagnostic agent

  13. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...

  14. Biomimetic Emotional Learning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    This extended abstract proposes a type of AI agent comprised of: an autonomous real-time control system, low-level emotional learning (including a simple knowledge base that links homeostatic/innate drives to sensory perception states), and a novel sliding-priority drive motivation mechanism. Learning occurs in both phylogenetic and ontogenetic training.

  15. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  16. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  17. Research and application progress of MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-yun SUN; Shi-zhu YU

    2014-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is an important DNA repair enzyme. The promoter methylation status of MGMT gene has recently become a biomarker of gliomas. Methylation of the MGMT promoter not only is an important biomarker to evaluate the sensitivity to the chemotherapy with alkylating agents, but also contributes to predicting prognosis and distinguishing between recurrence and pseudoprogression in glioma patients. Especially in the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation stat...

  18. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  19. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  20. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  1. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  2. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  3. Actions and Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the notion of agency in AI is presented..It has been argued that in order to behave rationally in prevalent software applications artificial entities would have to be autonomous and adaptive. Besides, rather than working with single, isolated systems the new trend in AI would need to focus on inherently social entities in the form of multi-agent systems. The chapter begins by introducing the notion of action in traditional AI systems, deliberative and reactive. Next, the i...

  4. Towards Soft Computing Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Petrová, Zuzana

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 859-868. ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA ČR GA201/99/P057 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : hybrid systems * intelligent agents Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  6. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  7. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant

  8. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  9. The School Counselor in Israel: An Agent of Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Rachel Lea; Sinai, Mirit

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, leaders in the school counseling profession worldwide have been calling on their colleagues to re-examine their role as "agents of social justice" in schools, with a view to promoting equal educational opportunities for all students. This research examines counselors' perceptions of the role, role behaviors, personal "justice…

  10. Modelo teórico, agentes, estrategias, duración, escenarios para la implementación, grado escolar e indicadores de resultados utilizados en los programas de promoción de la actividad física en el contexto escolar. Theoretical model, agents, strategies, duration, spaces of implementation, school grades and performance indicators, used in programs to promote physical activity in school context.

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Alejandro Fernández Ortega, MsC, PhD*; Martha González, Fisiot**; Martha Farfán, Fisiot**

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: El propósito del presente estudio es analizar el modelo teórico, agentes, estrategias, duración, escenarios de implementación, grado escolar e indicadores de resultados, utilizados en los programas de promoción de la actividad física en el contexto escolar desarrollados en el ámbito internacional en los últimos veinticinco años. Método: Se realizó una revisión de los diferentes estudios que desarrollaron programas de actividad física encaminada a la salud en el contexto es...

  11. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  12. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  13. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  14. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  15. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  16. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  17. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  18. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  19. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  20. Configuring Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beuster, G.; Neruda, Roman

    Halifax : Saint Mary's University, 2004 - (Zhuge, H.; Cheung, W.; Liu, J.), s. 57-62 ISBN 0-9734039-8-5. [International Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence /2./. Beijing (CN), 20.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Grant ostatní: CZ-DE project(XX) CZE-03/023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Bang 3 * multi-agent systems * computational intelligence models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Licopeno como agente antioxidante Lycopene as an antioxidant agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najua Juma Ismail Esh Shami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho constitui uma revisão de dados científicos sobre o consumo de licopeno e sua ação como fator antioxidante. O licopeno é considerado o carotenóide que possui a maior capacidade seqüestrante do oxigênio singlete. Radicais livres agem continuamente no organismo, podendo desencadear danos celulares e serem os responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento de câncer e certas doenças crônicas. Estudos mostram que o licopeno protege moléculas de lipídios, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, proteínas e DNA contra o ataque dos radicais, tendo um papel essencial na proteção de doenças. Como prevenção, preconiza-se o consumo de dietas ricas em alimentos fontes de licopeno: tomates e seus produtos (purê, pasta, catchup, mamão, pitanga e goiaba; que aportem cerca de 35mg de licopeno ao dia.This paper is a review of scientific data about lycopene as an antioxidant agent. Lycopene is considered the carotenoid that has the highest capacity of capturing the singlet oxygen. Free radicals are continuously acting on the organism, being capable of promoting cellular damage and development of cancer among other chronic diseases. Studies show that lycopene protects lipid molecules, low-density lipoproteins, proteins and DNA against the attack of free radicals. They have an essential function in the protection against diseases. As a precaution, one should eat foods that are a source of lycopene: tomatoes and tomato-products (purée, pasta, ketchup, papaya, pitanga and guava; to provide approximately 35mg of lycopene a day.

  2. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  3. Sport Promotion Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing ...

  4. How Promotions Work

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Blattberg; Richard Briesch; Fox, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    By synthesizing findings across the sales promotion literature, this article helps the reader understand how promotions work. We identify and explain empirical generalizations related to sales promotion; that is, effects that have been found consistently in multiple studies involving different researchers. We also identify issues which have generated conflicting findings in the research, as well as important sales promotion topics that have not yet been studied. This overview of the research ...

  5. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    -promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence......Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...

  6. Developing a Promotional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  7. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  8. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  9. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible. - Highlights: • This paper studies the contrast agents for MRI. • Fe―Co alloys and Mn-ferrites exhibit suitable contrast enhancement. • Nonhydrolytic thermal-decomposition synthetic method is suitable to produce MNPs. • This method allows controlling the size, magnetic dopants, magneto-crystalline anisotropy. • The increase in the superparamagnetic size leads to the contrast-enhancement

  10. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  11. Enhancing Middle School Students' Scientific Learning and Motivation through Agent-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-H.; Chou, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Facing students' decreasing motivation to pursue scientific study, schools and educators need to coordinate new technologies with pedagogical agents to effectively sustain or promote students' scientific learning and motivation to learn. Although the provision of pedagogical agents in student learning has been studied previously, it is not clear…

  12. Learning models of intelligent agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Computer Science Dept., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  13. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  14. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  15. Your company's secret change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  16. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  17. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  18. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  19. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  20. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  1. Agent Assignment for Process Management: Pattern Based Agent Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Stefan; Talib, Ramzan

    In almost all workflow management system the role concept is determined once at the introduction of workflow application and is not reevaluated to observe how successfully certain processes are performed by the authorized agents. This paper describes an approach which evaluates how agents are working successfully and feed this information back for future agent assignment to achieve maximum business benefit for the enterprise. The approach is called Pattern based Agent Performance Evaluation (PAPE) and is based on machine learning technique combined with post processing technique. We report on the result of our experiments and discuss issues and improvement of our approach.

  2. A Drosophila Model for Screening Antiobesity Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thanh Men

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although triacylglycerol, the major component for lipid storage, is essential for normal physiology, its excessive accumulation causes obesity in adipose tissue and is associated with organ dysfunction in nonadipose tissue. Here, we focused on the Drosophila model to develop therapeutics for preventing obesity. The brummer (bmm gene in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be homologous with human adipocyte triglyceride lipase, which is related to the regulation of lipid storage. We established a Drosophila model for monitoring bmm expression by introducing the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene as a downstream reporter of the bmm promoter. The third-instar larvae of Drosophila showed the GFP signal in all tissues observed and specifically in the salivary gland nucleus. To confirm the relationship between bmm expression and obesity, the effect of oral administration of glucose diets on bmm promoter activity was analyzed. The Drosophila flies given high-glucose diets showed higher lipid contents, indicating the obesity phenotype; this was suggested by a weaker intensity of the GFP signal as well as reduced bmm mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Drosophila model established in this study is useful for screening antiobesity agents. We also report the effects of oral administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and some vegetables on the bmm promoter activity.

  3. A Drosophila Model for Screening Antiobesity Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Tran Thanh; Thanh, Duong Ngoc Van; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Hattori, Gen; Arii, Masayuki; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Kamei, Kaeko

    2016-01-01

    Although triacylglycerol, the major component for lipid storage, is essential for normal physiology, its excessive accumulation causes obesity in adipose tissue and is associated with organ dysfunction in nonadipose tissue. Here, we focused on the Drosophila model to develop therapeutics for preventing obesity. The brummer (bmm) gene in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be homologous with human adipocyte triglyceride lipase, which is related to the regulation of lipid storage. We established a Drosophila model for monitoring bmm expression by introducing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene as a downstream reporter of the bmm promoter. The third-instar larvae of Drosophila showed the GFP signal in all tissues observed and specifically in the salivary gland nucleus. To confirm the relationship between bmm expression and obesity, the effect of oral administration of glucose diets on bmm promoter activity was analyzed. The Drosophila flies given high-glucose diets showed higher lipid contents, indicating the obesity phenotype; this was suggested by a weaker intensity of the GFP signal as well as reduced bmm mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Drosophila model established in this study is useful for screening antiobesity agents. We also report the effects of oral administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and some vegetables on the bmm promoter activity. PMID:27247940

  4. Novel agents for the treatment of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, M E

    1998-12-01

    Recent approval in the United States of two new products, Propecia (Merck Co, Rahway, NJ) and Rogaine Extra Strength 5% (Pharmacia & UpJohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI), indicated in men to promote scalp hair growth, have added a new dimension to treatment options offered by physicians in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The search for new and effective agents to treat many different hair loss problems has been intensified by the increase in hair biology research taking place worldwide, from university academic institutions to the pharmaceutical companies. All have a desire to profit from marketing such drugs that have been termed, "cosmeceuticals". Millions of men and women of every race suffer from various forms of alopecia, the most common being AGA where the target tissue active androgen, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) aggravates genetically programmed scalp hair follicles that results in short, fine, miniaturized hairs. Currently available to treat alopecia are drugs indicated for other disease processes because no other agents are accessible; some have severe side-effects and many are minimally effective. These prescription drugs were not originally indicated for alopecia and have not been adequately tested in controlled clinical trials to assess for efficacy, safety, and toxicity. These agents continue to be used clinically to treat patients with various forms of alopecia. As a result, a variety of new agents are emerging in the patient application process to gain protection and approval specifically for various forms of alopecia. This report reviews the most recently approved products, some of the more promising compounds in clinical trial development, as well as those in the over-the-counter (OTC) "natural" treatments category. PMID:9859915

  5. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  6. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  7. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  8. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  9. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  10. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  11. Agent Systems in Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarou, Vasilios S.; Gardikiotis, Spyridon K.; Malevris, Nicos

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the application of multi-agent systems to tackle the software engineering task was outlined. The concentration was on the employment of agent technology in order to deal with distributed software systems and mainly distributed database applications and web applications. The rationale behind utilizing agent technology has to do with the multi-tier architecture and the associated inherent complication of distributed applications and the required interoperability of software res...

  12. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  13. Extending Agent Languages for Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Meneguzzi, Felipe Rech

    2008-01-01

    BDI agent languages provide a useful abstraction for complex systems comprised of interactive autonomous entities, but they have been used mostly in the context of single agents with a static plan library of behaviours invoked reactively. These languages provide a theoretically sound basis for agent design but are very limited in providing direct support for autonomy and societal cooperation needed for large scale systems. Some techniques for autonomy and cooperation have been explored in the...

  14. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  15. Morfometria de fibroblastos e fibrócitos durante o processo cicatricial na pele de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco tratados com calêndula Morphometry of fibroblasts and fibrocytes during wound healing in the skin of rabbits of the New Zeland White breed treated with marigold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Oliveira Pagnano

    2008-09-01

    results showed that marigold allowed the highest growth rate in cells directly involved in the cicatricial process, the fibroblasts and fibrocytes and can therefore be considered the most satisfactory on the wound healing in comparison to the other treatments.

  16. Impact of sales promotion on purchase decision of consumers: An application in tourism sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Bakırtaş

    2013-01-01

    Sales promotion is generally used to increase sales in the short term by businesses and especially used widely to influence consumers by businesses and agents of the consumer good markets. To identify and select the appropriate sales promotion techniques for businesses is an important decision. In the context businesses should well know target customers and decide to appropriate sales promotion techniques. This research evaluates impact on purchase decision of consumers of sales promotional t...

  17. Technetium diagnostic agent and carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable sup(99m)Tc-labelled radioactive diagnostic agent is produced by contacting sup(99m)Tc-containing pertechnetate with a non-radioactive carrier comprising a chelating agent, a water-soluble reducing agent and a stabilizer. The stabilizer is chosen from ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters. A mole ratio of more than 100 moles ascorbic or erythorbic acid to 1 mole of reducing agent provides a stable composition at high levels of radioactivity

  18. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    and non-player characters that can actively participate in such relationships. The focus of this review is relational agents, agents that can build long term socioemotional relationships with users. In virtual worlds, such agents are just starting to emerge; they are more common in other environments...... but remain few and far between. This review critically assesses the progress of relational agent development and research since their inception in 2005, proposes new areas of research and considers the potential for their exploitation in virtual worlds....

  19. Successful event promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Vitikainen, Anna; Pakarinen, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    The field of event promotions is a growing industry. As it is still a new area of business, the information available is broad and not very detailed. Promotions are usually seen as a bigger field in advertising and specific information about event promotions is more difficult to find. Today marketing is shifting from basic, traditional advertising to digital marketing and telling the brands’ story by creating an unforgettable and positive experience. Companies are trying to come up with new w...

  20. Is Lamb Promotion Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    This objective of this study is to determine whether the advertising and promotion dollars collected and spent by the American Lamb Board on lamb promotion since the inception of the Lamb Checkoff Program have effectively increased lamb consumption in the United States. The main conclusion is that program has resulted in roughly 7.6 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $41.59 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and ...

  1. Strategic Promotion and Compensation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Within a hierarchical firm structure, this paper details how the composition of a worker's skills and the nonobservability of a worker's ability affect wage and promotion paths. Promotion-based compensation schemes derive naturally from the worker's asymmetrically observed ability. Promotion takes place over time and is inefficient since employers strategically exploit their knowledge of an able worker's ability. Conversely, employers may be unable to efficiently demote and retain bad manager...

  2. Food waste and promotions

    OpenAIRE

    LE BORGNE, Guillaume; Sirieix, Lucie; Costa, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    This research builds a conceptual framework to analyze the links between promotions and food waste, based on the results of a qualitative study on 20 French consumers. More precisely, we study how promotions may increase food waste, but also how this wastage may change consumer’s perception of promotions. ....French Abstract : Cet article propose un cadre conceptuel pour l’analyse des liens entre les promotions et le gaspillage alimentaire, basé sur les résultats d’une enquête qualitative men...

  3. Analysis of promotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the classification of promotions and determining the effectiveness of specific measures to stimulate sales (which isnt possible practically in most advertising companies.

  4. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  5. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  6. Does glioblastoma cyst fluid promote sciatic nerve regeneration?

    OpenAIRE

    Rafet Özay; Abit Aktas; Mevlüt Özgür Taskapilioglu; Bora Gürer; Bülent Erdogan; Yusuf Sükrü Çaglar

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma cyst fluid contains growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins which are known as neurotrophic and neurite-promoting agents. Therefore, we hypothesized that glioblastoma cyst fluid can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. To validate this hypothesis, we transected rat sciatic nerve, performed epineural anastomosis, and wrapped the injured sciatic nerve with glioblastoma cyst fluid- or saline-soaked gelatin sponges. Neurological function and histomorphologi...

  7. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  8. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO4 and SnCl2. These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  9. 2012 Survey of clothing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Clothing agents take part in China International Clothing and Accessories Fairs ( CHIC ) year by year. In order to attracting investment, they compared with each other at improving their originality and service levels. At the exhibition brands manufacturers and agents had a face-to-face communication,

  10. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  11. Agent Roles in Human Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M.; Sycara, K.; Payne, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe results of a series of experiments investigating the effects of agent aiding on human teams. The role an agent played, its task, and the ease with which it communicated with its human teammates all influenced team behavior. Team supporting tasks such as relaying and reminding seemed particularly effective.

  12. Intelligent Agents in Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

  13. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  14. Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance against infection by re-stabilizing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. Several reports describe that the anticancer activity of medicinal plants is due to the presence of antioxidants in them. In fact, the medicinal plants are easily available, cheaper and possess no toxicity as compared to the modern (allopathic drugs. Hence, this review article contains 66 medicinal plants, which are the natural sources of anticancer agents.

  15. Economic Agents, Ethics and International Economic Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The last sixty years have seen international economic organisations maintain a position at the forefront of promoting economic growth and socioeconomic development. These organisations have not achieved as much against certain benchmarks, and several observers have accused them of being unqualified to meet the needs of the poor, and even found them guilty of something worse, such as famine and disease. Although these organisations have organisational behaviour and skills, many of their funded projects lack forcefulness to such an extent that they should only be answerable through achieving certain economic facts by way of ethics and morals. We design ethics and morals as two interconnected concepts, and the rationale that binds all economic agents to their respective obligations must be interpreted by effective courses of action dictated by economic realities.

  16. A multi-agent system for pervasive healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shixiong; Liu, Kecheng; Li, Weizi

    2013-01-01

    Wireless technology based pervasive healthcare has been proposed in many applications such as disease management and accident prevention for cost saving and promoting citizen’s wellbeing. However, the emphasis so far is on the artefacts with limited attentions to guiding the development of an effective and efficient solution for pervasive healthcare. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a framework of multi-agent systems design for pervasive healthcare by adopting the concept of pervasive in...

  17. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Partridge, W.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dees, H.C. [Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petersen, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type 1 and type 2 photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined.

  18. The optimal allocation of prizes in tournaments of heterogeneous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Dutcher, Glenn; Lindner, Florian; Ryvkin, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Tournaments are widely used in organizations, explicitly or implicitly, to reward the best-performing employees, e.g., through promotion or bonuses, and to punish the worst-performing employees, e.g., through firing or unfavorable job assignments. We use a principal-agent model to compare the efficiency of two tournament incentive schemes, reward tournament and punishment tournament, which, respectively, reward the best performer and punish the worst performer. We show that while the two sche...

  19. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  20. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  1. Targeting tumor glycolysis by a mitotropic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Altered metabolism in cancer cells is exemplified by enhanced glucose utilization, a biochemical signature that is clinically exploited for cancer diagnosis using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography imaging. Accordingly, disrupting the glucose metabolism of cancer cells has been contemplated as a potential therapeutic strategy against cancer. Experimental evidences indicate that targeting glucose metabolism by inhibition of glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation promotes anticancer effects. Yet, successful clinical translation of antimetabolites or energy blockers to treat cancer remains a challenge, primarily due to lack of efficacy and/or systemic toxicity. Recently, using nanotechnology, Marrache and Dhar have documented the feasibility of delivering a glycolytic inhibitor through triphenylphosphonium (TPP), a mitotropic agent that selectively targets mitochondria based on membrane potential. Furthermore, by utilizing gold nanoparticles the investigators also demonstrated the potential for simultaneous induction of photothermal therapy, thus facilitating an additional line of attack on cancer cells. The report establishes that specific inhibition of tumor glycolysis is achievable through TPP-dependent selective targeting of cancer cells. This nanotechnological approach involving TPP-guided selective delivery of an antiglycolytic agent complemented with photothermal therapy provides a new window of opportunity for effective and specific targeting of tumor glycolysis. PMID:26420565

  2. Internet promotion of Puumala

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the industry of tourism widely uses the Internet as a promotion channel. There are many types of internet promotion. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the ways of promotion Puumala, the small municipality of Eastern Finland, on the Internet for Russian customers. Carrying out this research, the methods I employed are an interview and an online survey. Thus, due to this information and the facts taken from the interview with manager of Tour Center I have been able to dete...

  3. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  4. MDE and Mobile Agents : another reflexion on the agent migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gherbi, Tahar; Borne, Isabelle; Meslati, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    International audience Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is a software development approach family based on the use of models in the software construction. It allows the exploitation of models to simulate, estimate, understand, communicate and produce code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of h...

  5. Knowledge mining using intelligent agents

    CERN Document Server

    Dehuri, Satchidananda

    2010-01-01

    ""Knowledge Mining Using Intelligent Agents"" explores the concept of knowledge discovery processes and enhances decision-making capability through the use of intelligent agents like ants, termites and honey bees. In order to provide readers with an integrated set of concepts and techniques for understanding knowledge discovery and its practical utility, this book blends two distinct disciplines - data mining and knowledge discovery process, and intelligent agents-based computing (swarm intelligence and computational intelligence). For the more advanced reader, researchers, and decision/policy

  6. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingCheng; XuGuan; BaoLiu

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to designing and building complex systems. Yet, to date, little effort had been devoted to discussing the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstream software engineering paradiam.Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agentoriented will be argued.We describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing a auction system.

  7. Wake-promoting pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Dobrea, Cristina; Cremaschi, Laura; Arici, Chiara; Altamura, A Carlo

    2014-12-01

    Medications promoting wakefulness are currently used in psychopharmacology in different contexts and with different objectives. In particular, they may be used for the treatment of syndromes that primarily show significant impairment in alertness/wakefulness (e.g., excessive sleepiness and other sleep disorders) as well as for the symptomatic treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders that, in turn, are not exclusively characterized by sleep-wake disturbances (like mood disorders, for instance). In addition, several psychotropic compounds, including some antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and anxiolytics have well-established sedating side effects that may go beyond the therapeutic target and require the symptomatic use of wake-promoting agents. Even though such a clinical scenario reflects millions of individuals affected (alterations of wakefulness have a prevalence rate of 20-43% in the general population), relatively few pharmacotherapies are available, mainly including compounds with psychostimulating effects, such as methylphenidate, modafinil, and armodafinil and some amphetaminic agents. In light of their side effects and potential for abuse, such compounds have received FDA approval only for a limited number of psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, their clinical application has recently become more widespread, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, treatment-resistant depression, bipolar disorder, shift work sleep disorder, schizophrenia, and addictions. Wake-promoting agents have different mechanisms of action, peculiar clinical strengths and specific limitations, with novel drugs in the field under extensive investigation. The present review is aimed to provide an updated overview of the aforementioned compounds as well as investigational drugs in the field, in terms of mechanism of action, indications and use in clinical practice. PMID:25312027

  8. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    citizen’s health, health habits and health concerns merge within the educational framework. Through empirical findings, based on 20 qualitative interviews and participatory observation studies from four schools, I show that there are widespread ideas, among teachers as well as students, that professional......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are...... conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student’s and...

  9. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are...... conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student’s and...... citizen’s health, health habits and health concerns merge within the educational framework. Through empirical findings, based on 20 qualitative interviews and participatory observation studies from four schools, I show that there are widespread ideas, among teachers as well as students, that professional...

  10. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  11. Promoting Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret A. Winker, MD; Lorraine E. Ferris, PhD, LLM

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  12. A small peptide with potential ability to promote wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    Full Text Available Wound-healing represents a major health burden, such as diabetes-induced skin ulcers and burning. Many works are being tried to find ideal clinical wound-healing biomaterials. Especially, small molecules with low cost and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (i.e. transforming growth factor beta, TGF-β are excellent candidates. In this study, a small peptide (tiger17, c[WCKPKPKPRCH-NH2] containing only 11 amino acid residues was designed and proved to be a potent wound healer. It showed strong wound healing-promoting activity in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Tiger17 exerted significant effects on three stages of wound healing progresses including (1 the induction of macrophages recruitment to wound site at inflammatory reaction stage; (2 the promotion of the migration and proliferation both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, leading to reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation; and (3 tissue remodeling phase, by promoting the release of transforming TGF-β1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in murine macrophages and activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways. Considering its easy production, store and transfer and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (TGF-β, tiger17 might be an exciting biomaterial or template for the development of novel wound-healing agents.

  13. Optimistic Agents are Asymptotically Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Sunehag, Peter; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We use optimism to introduce generic asymptotically optimal reinforcement learning agents. They achieve, with an arbitrary finite or compact class of environments, asymptotically optimal behavior. Furthermore, in the finite deterministic case we provide finite error bounds.

  14. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  15. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select one PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  16. Development and field testing of agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In snow-covering region of Japan, the promotion of snowmelting with application of agricultural snowmelting agents ('Yusetsuzai' in Japanese) has been widely carried out by farmers at the snowmelting season. When black colored materials with albedo-lowering effect are spread on snow surface, absorption of solar radiation by snow is increased, the snowmelting is promoted and snow thawing date becomes earlier. As a result, the growing season of crop plants is extended. Existing agricultural snowmelting agents have been mostly made from industrial waste materials or industrial processed products due to requirement for the low cost of the raw materials. These agents may contain harmful heavy metal elements and may lead to environmental pollution. To solve these problems, we developed the new agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials generated from the fields of agriculture and fishery. The developed snowmelting agents were made from shells of Patinopecten yessoensis, fowl droppings and processed wastes of fish and shellfish, etc. Especially, the shells of Patinopecten yessoensis has problems due to generation of a huge quantity in Hokkaido. Therefore, the recycling-use of these waste materials was strongly requested and expected. The developed snowmelting agents were possible to spread efficiently and safely on the snow-surface without wide scattering by controlling the particle size within the range larger than 100 microm and smaller than 1180 microm. Results obtained from the field experiment showed that the albedo was decreased from 0.70 for natural snow to 0.20 and the promotion of snowmelting for 11 days was recognized when 100 kg/10a of developed agent was spread. The promoting ability of the developed agent was equivalent to those of the existing commercial snowmelting agents. (author)

  17. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezky Purna Satit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ensure that they allocate their resources effectively and efficiently. A total of 215 respondents were selected from customers of three travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. The data collected was analyzed using three statistical methods, that is, mean analysis, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The results revealed that only product and price were associated with customer decision-making over travel agents. Based on the findings, strategic recommendations are proposed for the travel industry in Indonesia.

  18. Agent 2003 Conference on Challenges in Social Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret Clemmons, ed.

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. Agent 2003 is the second conference in which three Special Interest Groups from the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS) have been involved in planning the program--Computational Social Theory; Simulation Applications; and Methods, Toolkits and Techniques. The theme of Agent 2003, Challenges in Social Simulation, is especially relevant, as there seems to be no shortage of such challenges. Agent simulation has been applied with increasing frequency to social domains for several decades, and its promise is clear and increasingly visible. Like any nascent scientific methodology, however, it faces a number of problems or issues that must be addressed in order to progress. These challenges include: (1) Validating models relative to the social settings they are designed to represent; (2) Developing agents and interactions simple enough to understand but sufficiently complex to do justice to the social processes of interest; (3) Bridging the gap between empirically spare artificial societies and naturally occurring social phenomena; (4) Building multi-level models that span processes across domains; (5) Promoting a dialog among theoretical, qualitative, and empirical social scientists and area experts, on the one hand, and mathematical and computational modelers and engineers, on the other; (6) Using that dialog to facilitate substantive progress in the social sciences; and (7) Fulfilling the aspirations of users in business, government, and other application areas, while recognizing and addressing the preceding challenges. Although this list hardly exhausts the challenges the field faces, it does identify topics addressed throughout the presentations of Agent 2003. Agent 2003 is part of a much larger process in which new methods and techniques are applied to

  19. Agents in E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mencke; Dumke, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  20. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  1. Biocontrol agents in signalling resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, L C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which biological control agents suppress disease comprise competition for nutrients, notably iron, production of antibiotics, and secretion of lytic enzymes, as well as inducing resistance in the plant. The former three mechanisms act primarily on the pathogen by decreasing its activity, growth, and/or survival and require the biocontrol agent and the pathogen to be in close proximity. Because microorganisms with biocontrol properties and soilborne pathogens are both attract...

  2. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  3. Locating Agents in RFID Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The use of software agents can create an “intelligent” interface between users’ preferences and the back‐end systems. Agents are now able to interact and communicate with each other, forming a virtual community and feeding back the user with suggestions. Innovative systems related to Asset Tracking, Inventory and Shelving architectures are more often involving advanced communication techniques (e.g., RFID); these systems are responsible for user authentication and objects verification. RFID s...

  4. Towards Building Computational Agent Schemes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beuster, Gerd; Krušina, Pavel; Neruda, Roman; Rydvan, Pavel

    Wien : SpringerVerlag, 2003 - (Pearson, D.; Steele, N.; Albrecht, R.), s. 210-215 ISBN 3-211-00743-1. [ICANNGA'2003 /6./. Roanne (FR), 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : multi agent system s * intelligent agent s * hybrid models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Cooperation of Computational Intelligence Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2006 - (Smari, W.; McQuay, W.), s. 256-263 ISBN 0-9785699-0-3. [International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and System s. Las Vegas (US), 14.05.2006-17.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi - agent system s * cooperative agent s * computational intelligence * ontologies Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  6. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhraj eKaur; Sumanpreet eKaur

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  7. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  8. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  9. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  10. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agents' authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPONSIBILITY OF GENERAL AGENTS TO UNDERTAKE EMERGENCY REPAIRS IN FOREIGN PORTS Sec. 2 General Agents' authority. The General Agents are hereby delegated authority to undertake for the account of the...

  12. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  13. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  14. Special issue about advances in Physical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of Spanish groups which are doing research in areas related with physical agents: they use agent-based technologies concepts, especially industrial applications, robotics and domotics (physical agents) and applications related to the information society, (software agents) highlighting the similarities and synergies among physical and software agents. In this special issue we will show several works from those groups, focusing on the recent advances in Physical Agents.

  15. Learning by Observation of Agent Software Images

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Botelho, Luís Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Learning by observation can be of key importance whenever agents sharing similar features want to learn from each other. This paper presents an agent architecture that enables software agents to learn by direct observation of the actions executed by expert agents while they are performing a task. This is possible because the proposed architecture displays information that is essential for observation, making it possible for software agents to observe each other. The agent architecture support...

  16. Effect of nucleating agents on crystallization kinetics of PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of three nucleating agents concluding talc, sodium benzoate (SB and an ionomer (Ion., Na+ on crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and polarized optical microscope (POM, the parameters of crystallization kinetics were obtained through Avrami and Ozawa equations. The fold surface free energy σe of pure PET and PET/nucleating agent blends were calculated by Hoffman-Lauritzen theory. The results indicate that the three kinds of nucleating agents increase the crystallization rate constant through promoting their nucleating effect for PET crystallization, among which SB is the best one with the same content. The crystallization mode of PET might shift from three-dimensional growth to two-dimensional growth by the addition of the nucleating agents. The values of σe of PET/nucleating agent blends are much less than that of pure PET, and PET/SB (99:1 blend has the least value of σe (18.2 mJ/m2. The conclusion based on Hoffman theory is similar to the analysis by Avrami and Ozawa equations.

  17. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  18. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity. Now, a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents, usually administered by infusion, have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents, adverse effects have been documented, including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. In some, only limited symptoms have been recorded, but in others, severe colitis with serious complications, such as bowel perforation has been recorded. In others, adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis, while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection. Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases, or be responsible for disease exacerbation. Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response. This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies, notably, malignant melanoma. Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated. One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe, and occasionally, fatal. Other agents include rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, including infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept.

  19. Promotion of cooperation by payoff-driven migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Yang, Han-Xin; Guo, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Migration plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Previous studies concerning mobile population often assumed that all agents move with the identical velocity. In this paper, we propose a payoff-driven migration in which the velocity of an agent depends on his/her payoff. A parameter α is introduced to adjust the influence of payoff, when α = 0 means that agents all move with the identical velocity while α > 0 means that the lower the payoff is, the faster the moving speed is, and vice versa. For the prisoner's dilemma game, we find that in comparison with the case that agents all move with the same speed, cooperation could be promoted strongly when payoff-dependent velocity is considered. Remarkably, the cooperation level is not a monotonic function of α, and there exists an optimal value of α which can lead to the maximum cooperation level. For the snowdrift game, the cooperation level increases with α.

  20. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  1. 放线菌剂与腐植酸钾对魔芋抗病促生效果研究%Study of Combined Application of Actinomycetes Biocontrol Agents and Potassium Humate on Disease Resistance and Growth-promoting Effect of Amorphophallus Konjac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠良; 刘列平; 何斐

    2014-01-01

    分别以不施菌剂、不施腐植酸钾为对照,采用小区试验,探讨生防放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施条件下二者对魔芋的防病促生作用。试验结果表明:(1)​当腐植酸钾与3号放线菌配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。30克/株、60克/株、90克/株腐植酸钾分别配施3号菌剂时,与不施腐植酸钾对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了9.8%~41.6%、17.1%~76.3%和20.1%~64.2%。其中,60克/株腐植酸钾配施3号菌剂时效果最明显。(2)​当放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。1、2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施,与不施菌剂对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了11.7%~89.7%、33.3%~150.9%和38.5%~175.0%。其中2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施处理效果较好。研究表明,腐植酸钾与放线菌剂配施能促进魔芋生长,提高魔芋产量,降低发病率。%With no actinomycetes and potassium humate treatments as control(CK), the effect of actinomycetes and potassium humate on disease resistance and growth-promoting of Amorphophallus konjac in the plot trials were evalu-ated. Results showed that:(1) Combined application of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had strong disease resistance and growth-promoting effect. Under 30, 60, 90 gram per plant of potassium humate combined with actinomy-cetes No.3 treatment, biocontrol effect increased by 9.8%~41.6%, yield increased by 17.1%~76.3%and growth factor increased by 20.1%~64.2% compared with the group without potassium humate. Among which, the combined ap-plication of 60 gram per plant of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had the most obvious effect. (2) Combined application of actinomycetes and potassium humate had signiifcant anti-disease and growth-promoting effect. Three kind of actinomycetes combined with 60 gram per plant of potassium

  2. Building s New Socialist Countryside, Improving Commission and Agent System of "Village-level Accounting"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Rural finance is an issue concerned with rural people, improving rural financial management is important to close the relations of cadres and masses, maintain rural stability, and promote rural economic development. This article explained the main problems of village financial, the needs of introducing commission and agent system of"village-level accounting" for building a new socialist countryside, and the measures of improving commission and agent system of "village-level accounting".

  3. Zampanolide and Dactylolide: Cytotoxic Tubulin-Assembly Agents and Promising Anticancer Leads

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiao-Hong; Kingston, David G. I.

    2014-01-01

    Zampanolide is a marine natural macrolide and a recent addition to the family of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents. Zampanolide exhibits unique effects on tubulin assembly and is more potent than paclitaxel against several multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines. A high-resolution crystal structure of xB-tubulin in complex with zampanolide explains how taxane-site microtubule-stabilizing agents promote microtubule assemble and stability. This review provides an overview of current devel...

  4. Zampanolide and dactylolide: cytotoxic tubulin-assembly agents and promising anticancer leads

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiao-Hong; Kingston, David G. I.

    2014-01-01

    Covering: through January 2014 Zampanolide is a marine natural macrolide and a recent addition to the family of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents. Zampanolide exhibits unique effects on tubulin assembly and is more potent than paclitaxel against several multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines. A high-resolution crystal structure of αβ-tubulin in complex with zampanolide explains how taxane-site microtubule-stabilizing agents promote microtubule assemble and stability. This review provid...

  5. Plant pathogens as biocontrol agents of Cirsium arvense – an overestimated approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Müller; Wolfgang Nentwig

    2011-01-01

    Cirsium arvense is one of the worst weeds in agriculture. As herbicides are not very effective and not accepted by organic farming and special habitats, possible biocontrol agents have been investigated since many decades. In particular plant pathogens of C. arvense have received considerable interest and have been promoted as “mycoherbicides” or “bioherbicides”. A total of 10 fungi and one bacterium have been proposed and tested as biocontrol agents against C. arvense...

  6. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prisoners of War Employee Health Employee Health Home Employee Occupational Health Safe Patient Handling Health Promotion Violence Prevention Workers' Compensation Publications & Reports About Us About Public Health Post-Deployment Health Population Health About Population ...

  7. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Spurling Geoffrey K; Mansfield Peter R; Montgomery Brett D; Ward Alison M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether...

  8. Sensors for detecting biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E. Sapsford

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological agents including viruses, bacteria, and other naturally occurring pathogenic organisms, along with the toxins they produce, are considered far harder to detect and defend against than chemical agents. Here we provide an overview of the predominant molecular sensing technologies for the detection of these agents. This includes biosensing strategies based upon use of antibodies, genomic analysis, biochemical testing, other recognition interactions, and cellular-based responses. We survey some popular sensing approaches, illustrate them with current examples showing how they have been applied, and discuss their intrinsic benefits and potential liabilities. Lastly, within the context of security applications, some approaches for integrating sensing technologies into field-portable devices are discussed.

  9. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  10. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic...

  11. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  12. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)

  13. Irradiation, Cisplatin, and 5-Azacytidine Upregulate Cytomegalovirus Promoter in Tumors and Muscles: Implementation of Non-invasive Fluorescence Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kamensek, Urska; Sersa, Gregor; Vidic, Suzana; Tevz, Gregor; Kranjc, Simona; Cemazar, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression of transgenes in mammalian cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of methylation and upregulation of the CMV promoter by irradiation and the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin in vivo using non-invasive fluorescence in vivo imaging. Procedures Murine fibrosarcoma LPB and mammary carcinoma TS/A cells were stably transfected with plasmids encoding CMV and p21 promoter-driven green fl...

  14. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  15. An overview of inotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Margreeth B

    2006-09-01

    The use of inotropic agents has been surrounded by many controversies. Recent guidelines for the treatment of patients with chronic and acute heart failure have elucidated some of the issues, but many remain. As a result, a substantial variability in the use of agents between institutions and caregivers remains, which mainly results from the lack of uniform data in the literature. Prospective randomized trials with a long-term follow-up and sufficient power are clearly needed, and a number of trials are currently in progress. PMID:16959760

  16. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M;

    2005-01-01

    them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...

  17. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  18. Promoters of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav; Nešvera, Jan; Guyonvarch, A.; Reyes, O.; Leblon, G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2003), s. 311-323. ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA ČR GA525/01/0916 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * promoters * transcriptional regulation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.543, year: 2003

  19. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  20. Building Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU). A part of this course was a short introduction to the multi-agent framework Jason, which is an interpreter for AgentSpeak, an agent-oriented programming language. As the final project in this course a solution to the Multi-Agent Programming Contest from 2007, the Gold...

  1. PERSEPSI PENGELOLA VILA DI KUTA UTARA TERHADAP PENGGUNAAN ONLINE TRAVEL AGENTS UNTUK PROMOSI DAN PENJUALAN

    OpenAIRE

    Luh Sri Astuti

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing tendency for villa and accommodationbusiness worldwide to use online travel agents (OTA) to promoteand sell their rooms. This research discusses the advantagesand disadvantages of the promotion and sales through OTA forvilla business in North Kuta area and analyses motivation andperception of the villa management in using OTA. The objectof the research is the villa manager, supervisors and staff whohandle the villa promotion and sales of their accommodationbusiness. V...

  2. Using Agent to Coordinate Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C H; Chen, Jason J Y

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, agent and web service are two separate research areas. We figure that, through agent communication, agent is suitable to coordinate web services. However, there exist agent communication problems due to the lack of uniform, cross-platform vocabulary. Fortunately, ontology defines a vocabulary. We thus propose a new agent communication layer and present the web ontology language (OWL)-based operational ontologies that provides a declarative description. It can be accessed by various engines to facilitate agent communication. Further, in our operational ontologies, we define the mental attitudes of agents that can be shared among other agents. Our architecture enhanced the 3APL agent platform, and it is implemented as an agent communication framework. Finally, we extended the framework to be compatible with the web ontology language for service (OWL-S), and then develop a movie recommendation system with four OWL-S semantic web services on the framework. The benefits of this work are: 1) dynamic ...

  3. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  4. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  5. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  6. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  7. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  8. Improving agents using reliable communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinbin

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in introspective modalities and linear time symmetries do not necessarily obviate the need for web browsers [1]. In our research, we disprove the exploration of agents, which embodies the appropriate principles of electrical engineering. Here we demonstrate that even though semaphores and XML [1] are mostly incompatible, randomized algorithms and write-back caches are mostly incompatible.

  9. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  10. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  11. Research and application progress of MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-yun SUN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is an important DNA repair enzyme. The promoter methylation status of MGMT gene has recently become a biomarker of gliomas. Methylation of the MGMT promoter not only is an important biomarker to evaluate the sensitivity to the chemotherapy with alkylating agents, but also contributes to predicting prognosis and distinguishing between recurrence and pseudoprogression in glioma patients. Especially in the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation status has recently been introduced to be a biomarker for glioma classification and personalized treatment strategies. This review gives a short summary of the function of MGMT and clinical application of MGMT promoter methylation in personalized treatment strategies, prognosis evaluation and differentiation of recurrence and pseudoprogression of glioma. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.07.017

  12. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    2008-01-01

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation in software systems with less human interaction. Major challenge to deployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents and preventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems, as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchor toolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure management of mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. It provide...

  13. Providing Reliable Agents for Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Straßer, Markus; Rothermel, Kurt; Maihöfer, Christian

    1998-01-01

    It is widely agreed that mobile agents in conjunction with WWW technology will provide the technical foundation for future electronic commerce. A prerequisite for the use of mobile agents in a commercial environment is, that agents have to be executed reliable, independent of communication and node failure. In this paper, we first present a recently proposed fault-tolerant protocol to ensure the exactly-once execution of an agent by monitoring the agents execut...

  14. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  15. Biologic agents in juvenile spondyloarthropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsicas, María Martha; Russo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile spondyloarthropathies (JSpA) are a group of related rheumatic diseases characterized by involvement of peripheral large joints, axial joints, and entheses (enthesitis) that begin in the early years of life (prior to 16(th) birthday).The nomenclature and concept of spondyloarthropathies has changed during the last few decades. Although there is not any specific classification of JSpA, diseases under the spondyloarthropathy nomenclature umbrella in the younger patients include: the seronegative enthesitis and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthritis. Moreover, the ILAR criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis includes two categories closely related to spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.We review the pathophysiology and the use of biological agents in JSpA. JSpA are idiopathic inflammatory diseases driven by an altered balance in the proinflammatory cytokines. There is ample evidence on the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-17 in the physiopathology of these entities. Several non-biologic and biologic agents have been used with conflicting results in the treatment of these complex diseases. The efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, have been analysed in controlled and uncontrolled trials, usually showing satisfactory outcomes. Other biologic agents, such as abatacept, tocilizumab and rituximab, have been insufficiently studied and their role in the therapy of SpA is uncertain. Interleukin-17-blocking agents are promising alternatives for the treatment of JSpA patients in the near future. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with JSpA have recently been proposed and are discussed in the present review. PMID:26968522

  16. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  17. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  18. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding...... conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented in...... a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  19. Advancement & Promotion Review: 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...

  20. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  1. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  2. PROMOTION, SWITCHING BARRIERS, AND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Shin Tung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationships among promotion effects, switching barriers, and loyalty in the department stores. The relationship between switching barriers and loyalty reveals partially the same results as the switching barriers theory of Jones et al. (2000. The reasons arise from “too often” and “too similar” sales promotion programs of competitive department stores in Taiwan, leading the promotion effects to not contribute to the attractiveness of competitors. The promotion effects have a positive and significant influence on loyalty, which is consistent with the prior literature. Promotion effects are also the most important weight to loyalty in our tested model but it reveals a seeming loyalty, because the loyalty depends on the reward of promotion. The negative relationship between promotion effects and attractiveness of alternative supports the promotion effects, which can lower the attractiveness of competitors, but these similar promotion plans are not attributed to interpersonal relationships.

  3. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene; Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy behav...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  4. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  5. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  6. Overview of mechanisms of cancer chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological data provide evidence that it is possible to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases, some of which share common pathogenetic mechanisms, such as DNA damage, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. An obvious approach is avoidance of exposure to recognized risk factors. As complementary strategies, it is possible to render the organism more resistant to mutagens/carcinogens and/or to inhibit progression of the disease by administering chemopreventive agents. In a primary prevention setting, addressed to apparently healthy individuals, it is possible to inhibit mutation and cancer initiation by triggering protective mechanisms either in the extracellular environment or inside cells, e.g., by modifying transmembrane transport, modulating metabolism, blocking reactive species, inhibiting cell replication, maintaining DNA structure, modulating DNA metabolism and repair, and controlling gene expression. Tumor promotion can be counteracted by inhibiting genotoxic effects, favoring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting proteases and cell proliferation, inducing cell differentiation, modulating apoptosis and signal transduction pathways, and protecting intercellular communications. In a secondary prevention setting, when a premalignant lesion has been detected, it is possible to inhibit tumor progression via the same mechanisms, and in addition by affecting the hormonal status and the immune system in various ways, and by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Although tertiary prevention, addressed to cancer patients after therapy, is outside the classical definition of chemoprevention, it exploits similar mechanisms. It is also possible to affect cell-adhesion molecules, to activate antimetastasis genes, and to inhibit proteases involved in basement membrane degradation

  7. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  8. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa. PMID:15517994

  9. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  10. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used to...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...... resource conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are...

  12. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the...... beginning of the project were not previously considered. We define a special inseparable cost function and develop a solution complex capable of using this cost function. In relation to calibration and estimation of statistical models used for dynamic route guidance we worked with generating random number...

  13. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  14. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  15. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment but...... self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...

  16. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. PMID:26566569

  17. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  18. Building Hybrid Soft Computing Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Anheim : ACTA Press, 2003 - (Castillo, O.), s. 7-11 ISBN 0-88986-347-4. [IASTED International Conference on Neural Networks and Computational Intelligence. Cancun (MX), 19.05.2003-21.05.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/03/P163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * multi - agent system s * hybrid methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. MSA AGENT FOR MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Rani; A. K. Gautam

    2011-01-01

    The MSA Agent is the software developed to design rectangular and U slotted micro strip antenna.It is applied for the various applications such as satellite communications, UHF applications. Within the multimedia frequency range the developed software is tested and analyzed for various results. The software is developed using genetic algorithm. This provides extra flexibility and new capability to design rectangular and U slotted micro strip antenna for multimedia application also. The result...

  20. Provably Bounded-Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, S J; Subramanian, D.

    1995-01-01

    Since its inception, artificial intelligence has relied upon a theoretical foundation centered around perfect rationality as the desired property of intelligent systems. We argue, as others have done, that this foundation is inadequate because it imposes fundamentally unsatisfiable requirements. As a result, there has arisen a wide gap between theory and practice in AI, hindering progress in the field. We propose instead a property called bounded optimality. Roughly speaking, an agent is boun...

  1. Autonomous Behavior of Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculín, Roman; Neruda, Roman

    Wien : Springer-Verlag, 2005 - (Ribiero, B.; Albrecht, R.; Dobnikar, A.; Pearson, D.; Steele, N.), s. 514-517 ISBN 3-211-24934-6. [ICANNGA'2005 /7./. Coimbra (PT), 21.03.2005-23.03.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computational agents * autonomous behavior * reasoning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Agent Simulation of Chain Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Ikeda; Yoshi Fujiwara; Wataru Souma; Hideaki Aoyama; Hiroshi Iyetomi

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted an agent-based simulation of chain bankruptcy. The propagation of credit risk on a network, i.e., chain bankruptcy, is the key to nderstanding largesized bankruptcies. In our model, decrease of revenue by the loss of accounts payable is modeled by an interaction term, and bankruptcy is defined as a capital deficit. Model parameters were estimated using financial data for 1,077 listed Japanese firms. Simulations of chain bankruptcy on the real transaction network consisting o...

  3. Crimen organizado y agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Reus, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de la justicia penal actual es la lucha contra la criminalidad organizada, bien por su propia naturaleza de “crimen organizado”, bien porque presenta elementos trasnacionales que impiden su investigación a fondo. Todo ello exige la creación de recursos que permitan la investigación de dichos delitos, recursos como el de infiltración de los agentes policiales, objeto del trabajo.

  4. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  5. Dimensions and Issues of Mobile Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Agent is a type of software system which acts “intelligently” on one’s behalf with the feature of autonomy, learning ability and most importantly mobility. Now mobile agents are gaining interest in the research community. In this article mobile agents will be addressed as tools for mobile computing. Mobile agents have been used in applications ranging from network management to information management. We present mobile agent concept, characteristics, classification, need, applications and technical constraints in the mobile technology. We also provide a brief case study about how mobile agent is used for information retrieval.

  6. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  7. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  8. A++: An Agent Oriented Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyi Xue

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A new Agent-Oriented Programming (AOP language called A++ is introduced in this research for developing agent-based distributed systems. In this work, agent-oriented programming is defined as a programming method with characteristics of distribution, autonomy, concurrency, and mobility. Both agents and objects can be modeled in A++. In addition to data and methods that can be defined in objects including classes and instances, each agent is also associated with an independent computing process in agent-oriented programming.

  9. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  10. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  11. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  12. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  13. Detection of MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hao; Tubbs, Raymond; Yang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials on patients with glioblastoma revealed that O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status significantly predicts patient’s response to alkylating agents. In this study, we sought to develop and validate a quantitative MGMT methylation assay using pyrosequencing on glioblastoma. We quantified promoter methylation of MGMT using pyrosequencing on paraffin-embedded fine needle aspiration biopsy tissues from 43 glioblastoma. Using a 10% cutoff, MGMT methyl...

  14. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...... not subscribe to clear language policies. Consequently, the predominant language is here, as elsewhere, the Anglo-American. This article outlines the deep division between the postulate of linguistic diversity and reality, and is a call for soul-searching....

  15. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face-...... life was found. Further, the results indicate awareness among Danes that green spaces may be of importance in managing stress and that green spaces may play an important role as health-promoting environments....

  16. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  17. Promotion and Relegation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Szymanski; Stephen Ross

    2001-01-01

    One of the most distinctive differences between team sports in Europe and North America is the institution of promotion and relegation. This paper looks into the history of why this institution developed in Europe but not North America, and considers what effects it may have on the competitive balance of the leagues. While dominance of the leagues by a small number of wealthy teams is a more severe problem in Europe, its effects are mitigated by the opportunity for new teams to enter from bel...

  18. Borrelioses, agentes e vetores Borrelioses, agents and vectors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber O. Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As borrelioses são enfermidades infecciosas determinadas por espiroquetas do gênero Borrelia, agentes transmissíveis, principalmente, por carrapatos aos animais e/ou ao homem. Nesta revisão são apresentadas e discutidas as enfermidades determinadas por borrélias, bem como as características gerais das espiroquetas, os aspectos relacionados a transmissão por artrópodes, as enfermidades nos animais domésticos e silvestres, quanto aos aspectos biológicos e patológicos, a doença de Lyme como principal zoonose do grupo, a associação de borrélia com outros agentes hematozoários e os métodos diagnósticos e a epidemiologia comparativa entre dados obtidos no Brasil com os de outros países. Estas borrelioses possuem características patológicas, clínicas e epidemiológicas variadas de acordo à região fisiográfica, devido à existência de distintas espécies, genoespécies e cepas; estes aspectos variam ainda em função dos artrópodes vetores, da interação vetor-patógeno e dos ecossistemas distintos.Borrelioses are infectous diseases caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. They are born mainly through ticks at animals and/or human beings. In this review are shown and discussed five groups of diseases determined by borrelia, general characteristics of the spirochaetes, aspects related to transmission by arthropods, biological and pathological aspects of the diseases in domestic and wild animals, Lyme disease as an important zoonosis, the association of borrelia with other hematozoa agents, the diagnostic methods and the comparative epidemiology with data obtained from Brazil and other countries. The borrelioses have pathological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics which vary according to physiographic regions due to the existence of different species, genospecies and strains of borrelia, of arthropod vectors, vector-agent relationship and of different ecocystems.

  19. THE PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    ALYABEDEVA I.

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to consider the issues of the innovative products promotion. Peculiarities of innovative market and its future progress, key factors connected with the promotion of innovative products success are analyzed. Here are also suggested the successful marketing strategies variants of the innovative products promotion.

  20. Learning other agents` preferences in multiagent negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.H.; Kieronska, D.; Venkatesh, S. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In multiagent systems, an agent does not usually have complete information about the preferences and decision making processes of other agents. This might prevent the agents from making coordinated choices, purely due to their ignorance of what others want. This paper describes the integration of a learning module into a communication-intensive negotiating agent architecture. The learning module gives the agents the ability to learn about other agents` preferences via past interactions. Over time, the agents can incrementally update their models of other agents` preferences and use them to make better coordinated decisions. Combining both communication and learning, as two complement knowledge acquisition methods, helps to reduce the amount of communication needed on average, and is justified in situations where communication is computationally costly or simply not desirable (e.g. to preserve the individual privacy).

  1. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  2. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  3. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  4. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, A; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  5. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  6. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  7. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server...

  8. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  9. Explaining Simulations Through Self Explaining Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Maaike Harbers; John-Jules Meyer; Karel Van den Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is more variable and harder to predict than reactive behavior, and therefore it might be harder to explain. However, the approach presented in this paper tries to make advantage of the agents' pro-active...

  10. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuayuQiu; ChuanfuLiu; XiaokeMa; YingjuanFu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-15 30%, were better than that of the imported product.

  11. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayu Qiu; Chuanfu Liu; Xiaoke Ma; Yingjuan Fu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally, some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-1530%, were better than that of the imported product.

  12. Virtual Knowledge Communities for Semantic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    International audience Virtual Knowledge Communities are a well suited paradigm for decentralized knowldege exchanges and they have been applied in several domains. In this paper we investigate the implementation of virtual knowledge communities with se- mantic agents. Using the SAM (Semantic Agent Modeling) approach, we show that agents can exchange community re- lated concepts (in OWL) and behavior (in SWRL). Agents can then learn and adapt new community-related behavior, which is useful...

  13. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the......-aware, thus removing the middleware and letting the agents directly reason about the organization. In this paper, we discuss the results so far, and describe the future goals and research direction for the project....

  14. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  15. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  16. Topology and Social Behaviour of Agents

    OpenAIRE

    O. Hudak

    2003-01-01

    In a social group its members are caled here agents. Any two agents from the group may interact. The interaction consists of the exchange of information and it costs some energy. There exist subgroups of interacting agents which are nonreducibile. The structure, configuration of interactions between agents in the group, forms a macroscopic structure. The statistical equilibrium due to microreversibility is characterised by the maximum of entropy and by the minimum of energy, costs of informat...

  17. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  18. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  19. Agent for roentgenocontrast examination of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-soluble agent, additionaly containing starch, agar, water, is suggested to increase accuracy of injured cavity diagnostics. The method for roentgenocontrast agent preparation on the base of starch-agar gel is described. Advantages of the agent suggested in comparison with those of roentgenologic cavity investigation used are shown

  20. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may r

  1. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  2. The Ontogenesis of Agent: Linguistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the findings of a longitudinal study of three infants between their 11th and 22nd months to document development of linguistic expression of the agent concept indicated that first vocalizations were inconsistently associated with nonverbal agentive behaviors and later mature utterances coded agent-action-recipient events. (MC)

  3. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  4. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  5. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  6. Stigmergy in multi-agent reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Raghav; Dutech, Alain; Charpillet, François

    2004-01-01

    http://www.computer.org In this paper, we describe how certain aspects of the biological phenomena of stigmergy can be imported into multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), with the purpose of better enabling coordination of agent actions and speeding up learning. In particular, we detail how these stigmergic aspects can be used to define an inter-agent communication framework.

  7. Explaining simulations through self explaining agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  8. Explaining Simulations through Self Explaining Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Dignum, F.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  9. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  10. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  11. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  12. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  13. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    -organisms were constructed using synthetic degenerated oligonucleotides. From this work, a promoter library was obtained for Lactococcus lactis, containing numerous individual promoters and covering a wide range of promoter activities. Importantly, the range of promoter activities was covered in small steps...... of activity change. Promoter libraries generated by this approach allow for optimization of gene expression and for experimental control analysis in a wide range of biological systems by choosing from the promoter library promoters giving, e.g., 25%, 50%, 200%, and 400% of the normal expression level...... level is then, in principle, ready for use in the industrial fermentation process; another advantage is that the system can be used to optimize the expression of different enzymes within the same cell. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  14. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  15. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms to d...... describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  16. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurling Geoffrey K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements, but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few

  17. Methylation of Gene CHFR Promoter in Acute Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Hui; LIU Wengli; ZHOU Jianfeng; XU Huizhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore whether gene CHFR was inactivated by methylation in leukemia cells, the expression of CHFR was examined before and after treatment with demethylation agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 leukemia cell lines by means of RT-PCR. The methylation of promoter in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 cells as well as 41 acute leukemia patients was analyzed by MS-PCR. The results showed that methylation of CHFR promoter was inactivated and could be reversed by treatment with a demethylating agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937. CHFR promoter methylation was detected in 39 % of acute leukemia patients. There was no difference in incidence of CHFR promoter methylation between acute myelocytic leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, CHFR is frequently inactivated in acute leukemia and is a good candidate for the leukemia supper gene. By affecting mitotic checkpoint function, CHFR inactivation likely plays a key role in tumorigenesis in acute leukemia. Moreover, the methylation of gene CHFR appears to be a good index with which to predict the sensitivity of acute leukemia to microtubule inhibitors.

  18. Promotion of Proapoptotic Signals by Lysosomal Photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, David; Reiners, John J

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that low-level lysosomal photodamage enhanced the efficacy of subsequent mitochondrial photodamage, resulting in a substantial promotion of apoptotic cell death. We now extend our analysis of the sequential PDT protocol to include two additional lysosomal-targeting photosensitizers. These agents, because of enhanced permeability, are more potent than the agent (N-aspartyl chlorin E6, NPe6) used in the initial study. Addition of the cell-permeable cysteine protease inhibitor E-64d and calcium chelator BAPTA-AM almost completely suppressed sequential PDT-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of procaspases-3 and -7. These inhibitors did not, however, suppress the proapoptotic effect of a BH3 mimetic or mitochondrial photodamage. Knockdowns of ATG7 or ATG5, proteins normally associated with autophagy, suppressed photodamage induced by the sequential PDT protocol. These effects appear to be independent of the autophagic process as pharmacological inhibition of autophagy offered no such protection. Effects of ATG7 and ATG5 knockdowns may reflect the role that ATG7 plays in regulating lysosome permeability, and the likelihood that a proteolytic fragment of ATG5 amplifies mitochondrial proapoptotic processes. Our results suggest that low-dose photodamage that sequentially targets lysosomes and mitochondria may offer significant advantages over the use of single photosensitizers. PMID:25873082

  19. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  20. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  1. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  2. Camouflaging Agents for Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Claudia; Porto, Dennis A; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired condition resulting in patches of depigmented skin that is cosmetically disfiguring and can subsequently be psychologically disturbing. For patients seeking to mask their vitiligo, camouflage options have historically been limited and been designated as a cosmetic, rather than a medical, concern. As research has indicated that proper concealment of vitiligo lesions can vastly improve quality of life, we believe it is essential that dermatologists become aware of all the options available to their patients and that discussions of camouflage options be broached from the first visit. Methods for concealment include cosmetic tattoos, dihydroxyacetone, general cosmetics, and various topical camouflage agents, including the newest product, Microskin™. We conducted a literature review of all of the available options for vitiligo concealment and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, temporary methods of concealment are recommended; but the particular agent used can come from discussion with the patient based on the location of the lesions, degree of concealment desired, cost, and availability. PMID:27050692

  3. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  4. Electric power market agent design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyungseon

    The electric power industry in many countries has been restructured in the hope of a more economically efficient system. In the restructured system, traditional operating and planning tools based on true marginal cost do not perform well since information required is strictly confidential. For developing a new tool, it is necessary to understand offer behavior. The main objective of this study is to create a new tool for power system planning. For the purpose, this dissertation develops models for a market and market participants. A new model is developed in this work for explaining a supply-side offer curve, and several variables are introduced to characterize the curve. Demand is estimated using a neural network, and a numerical optimization process is used to determine the values of the variables that maximize the profit of the agent. The amount of data required for the optimization is chosen with the aid of nonlinear dynamics. To suggest an optimal demand-side bidding function, two optimization problems are constructed and solved for maximizing consumer satisfaction based on the properties of two different types of demands: price-based demand and must-be-served demand. Several different simulations are performed to test how an agent reacts in various situations. The offer behavior depends on locational benefit as well as the offer strategies of competitors.

  5. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of [5-3H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes

  6. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of (5-{sup 3}H)uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes.

  7. Cooperative planning in multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torreño Lerma, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Automated planning is a centralized process in which a single planning entity, or agent, synthesizes a course of action, or plan, that satisfies a desired set of goals from an initial situation. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a distributed system where a group of autonomous agents pursue their own goals in a reactive, proactive and social way. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) is a novel research field that emerges as the integration of automated planning in MAS. Agents are endowed with plan...

  8. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  9. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  10. Selected Problems on Mobile Agent Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Yinka A. Adekunle; Sola S. Maitanmi

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can transfer its execution from agent to agent masquerading itself as the original source of message. The use of mobile code has a long history dating back to the use of remote job entry systems in the 1960's. Today's agent incarnations can be characterized in a number of ways ranging from simple distributed objects to highly secured software with algorithm that can only be interpreted...

  11. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  12. Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batras, Dimitri; Duff, Cameron; Smith, Ben J

    2016-03-01

    Sophisticated understandings of organizational dynamics and processes of organizational change are crucial for the development and success of health promotion initiatives. Theory has a valuable contribution to make in understanding organizational change, for identifying influential factors that should be the focus of change efforts and for selecting the strategies that can be applied to promote change. This article reviews select organizational change models to identify the most pertinent insights for health promotion practitioners. Theoretically derived considerations for practitioners who seek to foster organizational change include the extent to which the initiative is modifiable to fit with the internal context; the amount of time that is allocated to truly institutionalize change; the ability of the agents of change to build short-term success deliberately into their implementation plan; whether or not the shared group experience of action for change is positive or negative and the degree to which agencies that are the intended recipients of change are resourced to focus on internal factors. In reviewing theories of organizational change, the article also addresses strategies for facilitating the adoption of key theoretical insights into the design and implementation of health promotion initiatives in diverse organizational settings. If nothing else, aligning health promotion with organizational change theory promises insights into what it is that health promoters do and the time that it can take to do it effectively. PMID:25398838

  13. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  14. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  15. Intelligent agent support for automated radiology exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yi; Popescu, Mihail

    2000-10-01

    A difficult problem in automatic medical image understanding is that for every image type such as x-ray and every body organ such as heart, there exist specific solutions that do not allow for generalization. Just collecting all the specific solutions will not achieve the vision of a computerized physician. To address this problem, we propose an intelligent agent approach that is based on agent-oriented programming is that it combines the benefits of object-oriented programming and expert system. For radiology image understanding, we present a multi- agent system that is composed of two major types of intelligent agents: radiologist agents and patient agents. A patient agent asks for multiple opinions from radiologists agents in interpreting a given set of images and then integrates the opinions. A radiologist agent decomposes the image recognition task into smaller problems that are solved collectively by multiple intelligent sub-agents. Finally, we present a preliminary implementation and running examples of the multi-agent system.

  16. A SURVEY OF THE PROPERTIES OF AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelije Rabuzin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade agent systems were considered to be as one of the major fields of study in Artificial Intelligence (AI field. Many different definitions of agents were presented and several different approaches describing agency can be distinguished. While some authors have tried to define “what” an agent really is, others have tried to identify agents by means of properties which they should possess. Most authors agree on these properties (at least basic set of properties which are intrinsic to agents. Since agent's definitions are not consistent, we are going to give an overview and list the properties intrinsic to an agent. Many different adjectives were attached to the term agent as well and many different kinds of agents and different architectures emerged too. The aim of this paper it go give an overview of what was going on in the field while taking into consideration main streams and projects. We will also present some guidelines important when modelling agent systems and say something about security issues. Also, some existing problems which restrict the wider usage of agents will be mentioned too.

  17. Agent-Based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the agent-based modeling and mapping i n manufacturing system, some system models are described in this paper, which are included: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Structure (CAS), Proximity Relation Structure (PRS), and Bus-based Network Structure (BNS ). In DBHS, one sort of agents, called static agents, individually acts as Domai n Agents, Resources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents. And the oth ers, named mobile agents, are the brokers of task and ...

  18. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server for queries in SQL and converts the query results into XML documents and a stationary agent acting as a client for query forwarding and conversion of received documents into text files readable by a client application. We have tested the performance of the agents in a distributed simulation scenario and established that the agents can be used to connect heterogeneous simulation models and other applications, improving their connectivity and usability.

  19. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  20. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  1. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  2. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  3. Glycosylated Nanoparticles as Efficient Antimicrobial Delivery Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Ahmed M; Abdulkarim, Ali; Sharples, Gary J; Cameron, Neil R

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic polymer nanoparticles that can be tailored through multivalent ligand display on the surface, while at the same time allowing encapsulation of desired bioactive molecules, are especially useful in providing a versatile and robust platform in the design of specific delivery vehicles for various purposes. Glycosylated nanoparticles (glyco-NPs) of a poly(n-butyl acrylate) (pBA) core and poly(N-2-(β-d-glucosyloxy)ethyl acrylamide) (p(NβGlcEAM)) or poly(N-2-(β-D-galactosyloxy)ethyl acrylamide) (p(NβGalEAM)) corona were prepared via nanoprecipitation in aqueous solutions of preformed amphiphilic glycopolymers. Well-defined block copolymers of (poly(pentafluorophenyl acrylate) (pPFPA) and pBA were first prepared by RAFT polymerization followed by postpolymerization functionalization with aminoethyl glycosides to yield p(NβGlcEAM-b-BA) and p(NβGalEAM-b-BA), which were then used to form glyco-NPs (glucosylated and galactosylated NPs, Glc-NPs and Gal-NPs, respectively). The glyco-NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. Encapsulation and release of ampicillin, leading to nanoparticles that we have termed "glyconanobiotics", were studied. The ampicillin-loaded glyco-NPs were found to induce aggregation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and resulted in antibacterial activity approaching that of ampicillin itself. This glyconanobiotics strategy represents a potential new approach for the delivery of antibiotics close to the surface of bacteria by promoting bacterial aggregation. Defined release in the proximity of the bacterial envelope may thus enhance antibacterial efficiency and potentially reduce the quantities of agent required for potency. PMID:27434596

  4. Regulation of transcription by synthetic DNA-bending agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, David; Firestine, Steven M

    2006-11-01

    Gene expression is regulated by a complex interplay between binding and the three-dimensional arrangement of transcription factors with RNA polymerase and DNA. Previous studies have supported a direct role for DNA bending and conformation in gene expression, which suggests that agents that induce bends in DNA might be able to control gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of triple-helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) bending agents on the transcription of luciferase in an in vitro transcriptional/translational system. We find that transcription is regulated only by a TFO that induces a bend in the DNA. Related TFOs that do not induce bends in DNA have no effect on transcription. Reporter expression can be increased by as much as 80 % or decreased by as much as 50 % depending on the phasing of the upstream bend relative to the promoter. We interpret the results as follows: when the bend is positioned such that the upstream DNA is curved toward the RNA polymerase on the same DNA face, transcription is enhanced. When the upstream DNA is curved away, transcription is attenuated. These results support the hypothesis that DNA-bending agents might have the capability to regulate gene expression, thereby opening up a previously undervalued avenue in research on the artificial control of gene expression. PMID:17004274

  5. Transforming Health Professionals into Population Health Change Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Butterworth, Iain; Moore, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recognition that professional education has not kept pace with the challenges facing the health and human service system, there has been a move to transformative education and learning professional development designed to expand the number of enlightened and empowered change agents with the competence to implement changes at an individual, organisation and systems level. Design and Methods Since 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria, Australia, in collaboration with The University of Melbourne’s School of Population and Global Health, has delivered seven population health short courses aimed to catalyse participants’ transformation into population health change agents. This paper presents key learnings from a combination of evaluation data from six population health short courses using a transformative learning framework from a 2010 independent international commission for health professionals that was designed to support the goals of transformative and interdependent health professionals. Participatory realist evaluation approaches and qualitative methods were used. Results Evaluation findings reveal that there were mixed outcomes in facilitating participants’ implementation of population health approaches, and their transformation into population health agents upon their return to their workplaces. Core enablers, barriers and requirements, at individual, organisational and system levels influence the capability of participants to implement population health approaches. The iterative and systemic evolution of the population health short courses, from a one off event to a program of inter-dependent modules, demonstrates sustained commitment by the short course developers and organisers to the promotion of transformative population health learning outcomes. Conclusions To leverage this commitment, recognising that professional development is not an event but part of an ongoing transformative process, suggestions to

  6. Homogeneous MGMT immunoreactivity correlates with an unmethylated MGMT promoter status in brain metastases of various solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ingold; Peter Schraml; Heppner, Frank L.; Holger Moch

    2009-01-01

    The O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status is a predictive parameter for the response of malignant gliomas to alkylating agents such as temozolomide. First clinical reports on treating brain metastases with temozolomide describe varying effects. This may be due to the fact that MGMT promoter methylation of brain metastases has not yet been explored in depth. Therefore, we assessed MGMT promoter methylation of various brain metastases including those derived fr...

  7. Interaction Protocols in Multi-Agent Systems based on Agent Petri Nets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Barkaoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of interaction between agents in Multi Agents System (MAS based on Agent Petri Nets (APN. Our models are created based on communicating agents. Indeed, an agent initiating a conversation with other can specify the interaction protocol wishes to follow. The combination of APN and FIPA Protocols schemes leads to a set of deployment formal rules for points where model interaction can be successfully implemented. We introduce some models FIPA standard protocols.

  8. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  9. Health promotion for trachoma control

    OpenAIRE

    John Buchan; Anthony Solomon; Hannah Kuper; Marcia Zondervan

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Although progress has been made in refining the surgical and antibiotic components of the SAFE strategy, without effective health promotion it will be difficult to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2020. Health promotion is a cornerstone of each of the four components of the SAFE strategy. It includes: explaining the disease process and the need for trichiasis surgery to an often reluctant population (S) encouraging acceptance of mass antibiotic distribution (A) promoting ...

  10. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    vehicle can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic......When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail of...... the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each...

  11. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  12. [Anticonvulsant agents in neuralgic pain.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurna, I; Zenz, M

    1992-06-01

    The anticonvulsants, carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, and valproic acid are capable of depressing attacks of shooting pain in neuralgia. Shooting pain is perceived in trigeminal, intercostal, and other neuralgias, as a consequence of infectious diseases such as herpes zoster, and in the course of polyneuropathies of various causes. It is due to injury of nociceptive afferents, which generate bursts of activity in response to appropriate environmental changes. The anticonvulsant agents have no analgesic property per se, so that background pain remains unchanged. The depression of shooting pain results from the anticonvulsant action of the compounds. Both carbamazepine and phenytoin block synaptic transmission of neuronal hyperactivity by a direct depressant action that includes reduction of sodium conductance and by activation of inhibitory control. Clonazepam and valproic acid act by enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission. Carbamazepine is by far the most widely used compound; phenytoin, clonazepam, and valproic acid are not so popular because of their side effects. PMID:18415623

  13. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  14. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  15. Improvement of the Fungal Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride To Enhance both Antagonism and Induction of Plant Systemic Disease Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne; Ciliento, Rosalia; Woo, Sheridian L.; Lorito, Matteo; Kubicek, Christian P; Mach, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Biocontrol agents generally do not perform well enough under field conditions to compete with chemical fungicides. We determined whether transgenic strain SJ3-4 of Trichoderma atroviride, which expresses the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase-encoding gene, goxA, under a homologous chitinase (nag1) promoter had increased capabilities as a fungal biocontrol agent. The transgenic strain differed only slightly from the wild-type in sporulation or the growth rate. goxA expression occurred immediat...

  16. The Growing Complexity of Cancer Cell Response to DNA-Damaging Agents: Caspase 3 Mediates Cell Death or Survival?

    OpenAIRE

    Razmik Mirzayans; Bonnie Andrais; Piyush Kumar; David Murray

    2016-01-01

    It is widely stated that wild-type p53 either mediates the activation of cell cycle checkpoints to facilitate DNA repair and promote cell survival, or orchestrates apoptotic cell death following exposure to cancer therapeutic agents. This reigning paradigm has been challenged by numerous discoveries with different human cell types, including solid tumor-derived cell lines. Thus, activation of the p53 signaling pathway by ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents hinders apoptosis and t...

  17. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2011-01-25

    Human ethnocentrism--the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups--creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chemical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence. PMID:21220339

  18. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  19. Astragaloside IV promotes haematopoiesis and enhances cytokines release by mesenchymal stromal cells mediated immune regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Ruixia; 邓瑞霞

    2012-01-01

    Although tremendous efforts have been made to search for other novel growth factors in promoting marrow recovery after irradiation or chemotherapy, there have not been any efficient and safe agents discovered so far. Danggui Buxue Tang (當歸補血湯) as a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, is commonly used for replenishing blood loss in menstruating women, or enhancing erythropoiesis and immune responses in various settings. Our previous study confirmed that Danggui Buxue Tang promotes haematopoi...

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xuemei; Hu, Hongbo; Peng, Huasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2013-01-01

    Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aerugi...