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Sample records for agent promotes fibrocyte

  1. CCL2 release by airway smooth muscle is increased in asthma and promotes fibrocyte migration

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    S. R. Singh; Sutcliffe, A.; Kaur, D; Gupta, S.; Desai, D; Saunders, R.; Brightling, C E

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is characterized by variable airflow obstruction, airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodelling. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperplasia is a feature of airway remodelling and contributes to bronchial wall thickening. We sought to investigate the expression levels of chemokines in primary cultures of ASM cells from asthmatics vs healthy controls and to assess whether differentially expressed chemokines (i) promote fibrocyte (FC) migration towards ASM...

  2. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Lorenza, E-mail: lbianchetti@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Laboratory of Cytopathology and Cytogenetics, Italian ABR Operative Unit, Milan (Italy); Marini, Maurizio A., E-mail: mam.marini@yahoo.com [Multispecialty Outpatient Clinic and Diagnostic Center, Milan (Italy); Isgro, Mirko, E-mail: m.isgro@vtxmail.ch [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Laboratory of Cytopathology and Cytogenetics, Italian ABR Operative Unit, Milan (Italy); Bellini, Alberto, E-mail: abellini@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Schmidt, Matthias, E-mail: mschmidt@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland); Mattoli, Sabrina, E-mail: smattoli@avail-research.com [Avail Biomedical Research Institute, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 is considered a new therapeutic target for reducing inflammation in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study shows that IL-33 is a potent chemoattractant for fibrocytes in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 also promotes fibrocyte proliferation without reducing collagen production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study uncovers a novel non-inflammatory, profibrotic function of IL-33. -- Abstract: The release of IL-33 increases in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity and several studies have demonstrated that IL-33 may enhance airway inflammation in asthma. This study tested the hypothesis that IL-33 may also contribute to the development of irreversible structural changes in asthma by favoring the airway recruitment and profibrotic function of circulating fibrocytes during episodes of allergen-induced asthma exacerbation. The circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma (PwAA) showed increased expression of the specific IL-33 receptor component ST2L in comparison with the cells from non-asthmatic individuals (NAI). Recombinant IL-33 induced the migration of circulating fibrocytes from PwAA at clinically relevant concentrations and stimulated their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, without affecting the constitutive release of type I collagen. The recombinant protein did not induce similar responses in circulating fibrocytes from NAI. This study uncovers an important mechanism through which fibrocytes may accumulate in the airways of allergic asthmatics when their disease is not adequately controlled by current treatment and provides novel information on the function of IL-33 in asthma.

  3. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► IL-33 is considered a new therapeutic target for reducing inflammation in asthma. ► This study shows that IL-33 is a potent chemoattractant for fibrocytes in asthma. ► IL-33 also promotes fibrocyte proliferation without reducing collagen production. ► The study uncovers a novel non-inflammatory, profibrotic function of IL-33. -- Abstract: The release of IL-33 increases in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity and several studies have demonstrated that IL-33 may enhance airway inflammation in asthma. This study tested the hypothesis that IL-33 may also contribute to the development of irreversible structural changes in asthma by favoring the airway recruitment and profibrotic function of circulating fibrocytes during episodes of allergen-induced asthma exacerbation. The circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma (PwAA) showed increased expression of the specific IL-33 receptor component ST2L in comparison with the cells from non-asthmatic individuals (NAI). Recombinant IL-33 induced the migration of circulating fibrocytes from PwAA at clinically relevant concentrations and stimulated their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, without affecting the constitutive release of type I collagen. The recombinant protein did not induce similar responses in circulating fibrocytes from NAI. This study uncovers an important mechanism through which fibrocytes may accumulate in the airways of allergic asthmatics when their disease is not adequately controlled by current treatment and provides novel information on the function of IL-33 in asthma.

  4. Fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrosis: a brief synopsis

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    Shyam Maharaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived, circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells that play a role in several fibrotic disorders, including lung fibrosis. They are attracted to injured tissue by various chemokines. It is likely that fibrocytes play a detrimental role in tissue homeostasis and promote fibrosis, although this paradigm needs further confirmation. This would make fibrocytes a possible novel treatment target for fibrotic disorders. Fibrocytes also have some potential as a biomarker for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and other diseases, but the promising preliminary data from single centre studies still require independent validation. Despite several, as yet, unresolved issues, it has become clear that fibrocytes are more than an incidental finding in lung injury and repair, and may hold great promise for the future of IPF management.

  5. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially regulate human fibrocyte differentiation.

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    Anu S Maharjan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following tissue injury, monocytes can enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, but little is known about what regulates this differentiation. Extracellular matrix contains high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMWHA; ∼2×10(6 Da. During injury, HMWHA breaks down to low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA; ∼0.8-8×10(5 Da. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this report, we show that HMWHA potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes into fibrocytes, while LMWHA inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Digestion of HMWHA with hyaluronidase produces small hyaluronic acid fragments, and these fragments inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. Monocytes internalize HMWHA and LMWHA equally well, suggesting that the opposing effects on fibrocyte differentiation are not due to differential internalization of HMWHA or LMWHA. Adding HMWHA to PBMC does not appear to affect the levels of the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44, whereas adding LMWHA decreases CD44 levels. The addition of anti-CD44 antibodies potentiates fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that CD44 mediates at least some of the effect of hyaluronic acid on fibrocyte differentiation. The fibrocyte differentiation-inhibiting factor serum amyloid P (SAP inhibits HMWHA-induced fibrocyte differentiation and potentiates LMWHA-induced inhibition. Conversely, LMWHA inhibits the ability of HMWHA, interleukin-4 (IL-4, or interleukin-13 (IL-13 to promote fibrocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that hyaluronic acid signals at least in part through CD44 to regulate fibrocyte differentiation, with a dominance hierarchy of SAP>LMWHA≥HMWHA>IL-4 or IL-13.

  6. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Jie Lin; Zi-Zhuo Su; Shu-Min Liang; Yu-Yang Chen; Xiao-Rong Shu; Ru-Qiong Nie; Jing-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "circulating fibrocytes" and "cardiac fibrosis".Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected.Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics ofhematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+).They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines.It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis.Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts.Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis.

  7. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

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    Maharjan Anu S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fibrocyte differentiation, even though enhanced extracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α accumulation and/or increased cell surface CD86 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II levels were observed. However, all TLR2 agonists tested inhibited fibrocyte differentiation without any significant effect on cell survival. Adding TLR2 agonists to purified monocytes had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation. However, some TLR2 agonists caused PBMCs to secrete a factor that inhibits the differentiation of purified monocytes into fibrocytes. This factor is not interferon (IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-12, aggregated immunoglobulin G (IgG or serum amyloid P (SAP, factors known to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. TLR2 agonist-treated PBMCs secrete low levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor growth factor β1, but combinations of these factors had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation from purified monocytes. Conclusions Our results indicate that TLR2 agonists indirectly inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and that, for some TLR2 agonists, this inhibition involves other cell types in the PBMC population secreting an unknown factor that inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Together, these data suggest that the presence of some bacterial signals can inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and may thus slow wound closure.

  8. Circulating Fibrocytes Are Increased in Neonates with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

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    Chun Li

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is characterized by the aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma, resulting from accumulation of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. Circulating fibrocytes are implied in pulmonary fibrosis, but whether these cells are associated with the development of BPD or the progressive fibrosis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of fibrocytes in peripheral venous blood and explore whether these cells might be associated with severity of BPD.We investigated circulating fibrocytes in 66 patients with BPD, 23 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS and 11 normal subjects. Circulating fibrocytes were defined and quantified as cells positive for CD45 andcollagen-1 by flow cytometry. Furthermore, serum SDF-1/CXCL12 and TGF-β1 were evaluated using ELISA methods. We also investigated the clinical value of fibrocyte counts by comparison with standard clinical parameters.The patients with BPD had significantly increased numbers of fibrocytes compared to the controls (p < 0.01. Patients with ARDS were not different from healthy control subjects. There was a correlation between the number of fibrocytes and pulmonary hypertension or oxygen saturation (p < 0.05. Fibrocyte numbers were not correlated with other clinical or functional variables or radiologic severity scores. The fibrocyte attractant chemokine CXCL12 increased in plasma (p < 0.05 and was detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 40% of the patients but not in controls.These findings indicate that circulating fibrocytes are increased in patients with BPD and may contribute to pulmonary fibrosis in BPD. Circulating fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, might contribute to the production of TGF-β1 for the expansion of fibroblast/myofibroblast population in BPD.

  9. The role of fibrocytes in sickle cell lung disease.

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    Joshua J Field

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease is a frequent complication in sickle cell disease and is characterized by vascular remodeling and interstitial fibrosis. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of other interstitial lung diseases. The goal of this study was to define the contribution of fibrocytes to the pathogenesis of sickle cell lung disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fibrocytes were quantified and characterized in subjects with sickle cell disease or healthy controls, and in a model of sickle cell disease, the NY1DD mouse. The role of the chemokine ligand CXCL12 in trafficking of fibrocytes and phenotype of lung disease was examined in the animal model. We found elevated concentration of activated fibrocytes in the peripheral blood of subjects with sickle cell disease, which increased further during vaso-occlusive crises. There was a similar elevations in the numbers and activation phenotype of fibrocytes in the bone marrow, blood, and lungs of the NY1DD mouse, both at baseline and under conditions of hypoxia/re-oxygenation. In both subjects with sickle cell disease and the mouse model, fibrocytes expressed a hierarchy of chemokine receptors, with CXCR4 expressed on most fibrocytes, and CCR2 and CCR7 expressed on a smaller subset of cells. Depletion of the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, in the mouse model resulted in a marked reduction of fibrocyte trafficking into the lungs, reduced lung collagen content and improved lung compliance and histology. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the notion that activated fibrocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell lung disease.

  10. Thyrotropin regulates IL-6 expression in CD34+ fibrocytes: clear delineation of its cAMP-independent actions.

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    Nupur Raychaudhuri

    Full Text Available IL-6 plays diverse roles in normal and disease-associated immunity such as that associated with Graves' disease (GD. In that syndrome, the orbit undergoes remodeling during a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. Recently, CD34(+ fibrocytes were found to infiltrate the orbit in TAO where they transition into CD34(+ orbital fibroblasts. Surprisingly, fibrocytes display high levels of functional thyrotropin receptor (TSHR, the central antigen in GD. We report here that TSH and the pathogenic anti-TSHR antibodies that drive hyperthyroidism in GD induce IL-6 expression in fibrocytes and orbital fibroblasts. Unlike TSHR signaling in thyroid epithelium, that occurring in fibrocytes is completely independent of adenylate cyclase activation and cAMP generation. Instead TSH activates PDK1 and both AKT/PKB and PKC pathways. Expression and use of PKCβII switches to that of PKCµ as fibrocytes transition to TAO orbital fibroblasts. This shift is imposed by CD34(- orbital fibroblasts but reverts when CD34(+ fibroblasts are isolated. The up-regulation of IL-6 by TSH results from coordinately enhanced IL-6 gene promoter activity and increased IL-6 mRNA stability. TSH-dependent IL-6 expression requires activity at both CREB (-213 to -208 nt and NF-κB (-78 to -62 nt binding sites. These results provide novel insights into the molecular action of TSH and signaling downstream for TSHR in non-thyroid cells. Fibrocytes neither express adenylate cyclase nor generate cAMP and thus these findings are free from any influence of cAMP-related signaling. They identify potential therapeutic targets for TAO.

  11. Fibrocytes and the tissue niche in lung repair

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    Bjermer Leif

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and a diverse set of fibroblast phenotypes. Fibrocytes can be recruited from the circulation to the tissue where they further can differentiate and proliferate into various mesenchymal cell types depending on the tissue niche. This local tissue niche is important because it modulates the fibrocytes and coordinates their role in tissue behaviour and repair. However, plasticity of a niche may be co-opted in chronic airway diseases such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and obliterative bronchiolitis. This review will therefore focus on a possible role of fibrocytes in pathological tissue repair processes in those diseases.

  12. Fibrocytes and the tissue niche in lung repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Nihlberg, Kristian; Eriksson, Leif; Bjermer, Leif; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Human fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and a diverse set of fibroblast phenotypes. Fibrocytes can be recruited from the circulation to the tissue where they further can differentiate and proliferate into various mesenchymal cell types depending on the tissue niche. This local tissue niche is important because it modulates the fibrocytes and coordinates their role in tissue behaviour and repair. However, plasticity of a niche may be co-opted in chronic airway diseases such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and obliterative bronchiolitis. This review will therefore focus on a possible role of fibrocytes in pathological tissue repair processes in those diseases. PMID:21658209

  13. Flow Cytometric Identification of Fibrocytes in the Human Circulation.

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    Hu, Xinyuan; DeBiasi, Erin M; Herzog, Erica L

    2015-01-01

    Because the incidence of organ fibrosis increases with age, various fibrosing disorders are projected to account for significant increases in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs in the years to come. Treatments for these diseases are scarce and better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of fibrosis and its relationship to aging are sorely needed. One area of interest in this field is the role that fibrocytes might play in the development of tissue remodeling and fibrosis. Fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitor cells presumed to be of monocyte origin that possess the tissue remodeling properties of tissue resident fibroblasts such as extracellular matrix production and α-SMA-related contractile properties, as well as the immunologic functions typically attributed to macrophages including production of cytokines and chemokines, antigen presentation, regulation of leukocyte trafficking, and modulation of angiogenesis. Fibrocytes could participate in the development of age-related fibrosing disorders through any or all of these functions. This chapter presents methods that have been developed for the study of circulating human fibrocytes. Protocols for the quantification of fibrocytes in the human circulation will be presented along with discussion of the technical challenges that are frequently encountered in this field. It is hoped that this information will facilitate further investigation of the relationship between fibrocytes, aging, and fibrosis, and perhaps uncover new areas of study in these difficult-to-treat and deadly diseases. PMID:26420706

  14. Detection of Alveolar Fibrocytes in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Borie, Raphael; Quesnel, Christophe; Phin, Sophie; Debray, Marie-Pierre; Marchal-Somme, Joelle; Tiev, Kiet; Bonay, Marcel; Fabre, Aurélie; Soler, Paul; Dehoux, Monique; Crestani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibrocytes are circulating precursors for fibroblasts. Blood fibrocytes are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to determine whether alveolar fibrocytes are detected in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), to identify their prognostic value, and their potential association with culture of fibroblasts from BAL. Methods We quantified fibrocytes in BAL from 26 patients with IPF, 9 patients with Systemic Sclerosis(SSc)-interstitial lung d...

  15. Fibroblasts secrete Slit2 to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and fibrosis.

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    Pilling, Darrell; Zheng, Zhichao; Vakil, Varsha; Gomer, Richard H

    2014-12-23

    Monocytes leave the blood and enter tissues. In healing wounds and fibrotic lesions, some of the monocytes differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. In healthy tissues, even though monocytes enter the tissue, for unknown reasons, very few monocytes differentiate into fibrocytes. In this report, we show that fibroblasts from healthy human tissues secrete the neuronal guidance protein Slit2 and that Slit2 inhibits human fibrocyte differentiation. In mice, injections of Slit2 inhibit bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. In lung tissue from pulmonary fibrosis patients with relatively normal lung function, Slit2 has a widespread distribution whereas, in patients with advanced disease, there is less Slit2 in the fibrotic lesions. These data may explain why fibrocytes are rarely observed in healthy tissues, may suggest that the relative levels of Slit2 present in healthy tissue and at sites of fibrosis may have a significant effect on the decision of monocytes to differentiate into fibrocytes, and may indicate that modulating Slit2 signaling may be useful as a therapeutic for fibrosis.

  16. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

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    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  17. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

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    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; dos Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; de Carvalho, Jorge José; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  18. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very ofte

  19. Special agents can promote cooperation in the population.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Cooperation is ubiquitous in our real life but everyone would like to maximize her own profits. How does cooperation occur in the group of self-interested agents without centralized control? Furthermore, in a hostile scenario, for example, cooperation is unlikely to emerge. Is there any mechanism to promote cooperation if populations are given and play rules are not allowed to change? In this paper, numerical experiments show that complete population interaction is unfriendly to cooperation in the finite but end-unknown Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (RPD. Then a mechanism called soft control is proposed to promote cooperation. According to the basic idea of soft control, a number of special agents are introduced to intervene in the evolution of cooperation. They comply with play rules in the original group so that they are always treated as normal agents. For our purpose, these special agents have their own strategies and share knowledge. The capability of the mechanism is studied under different settings. We find that soft control can promote cooperation and is robust to noise. Meanwhile simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the mechanism in other scenarios. Besides, the analytical proof also illustrates the effectiveness of soft control and validates simulation results. As a way of intervention in collective behaviors, soft control provides a possible direction for the study of reciprocal behaviors.

  20. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  1. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  2. Fibrocytes Are Not an Essential Source of Type I Collagen During Lung Fibrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Kleaveland, Kathryn R.; Velikoff, Miranda; Yang, Jibing; Agarwal, Manisha; Rippe, Richard A.; Bethany B Moore; Kim, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis involves accumulation of activated collagen producing mesenchymal cells. Fibrocytes are hematopoietic-derived cells with mesenchymal features that potentially have a unique and critical function during fibrosis. Fibrocytes have been proposed as an important direct contributor of type I collagen deposition during fibrosis based largely on fate-mapping studies. To determine the functional contribution of hematopoietic cell-derived type I collagen to fibrogenesis we utilize ...

  3. 循环纤维细胞与慢性创面愈合%Circulating fibrocytes and chronic wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍济洪; 杨靖; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Circulating fibrocytes originated from the peripheral blood are a fibroblast-like cel subpopulation of leukocytes. Circulating fibrocytes play an essential role in wound repair by secreting extracel ular matrix proteins and cytokines, initiating antigen-specific immunity, accelerating wound contraction as wel as promoting angiogenesis. However, the potential role for improving chronic wound healing and its mechanism is stil unclear. OBJECTIVE:To summarize the biological features of circulating fibrocytes and its potential role and mechanism in accelerating chronic wound healing. METHODS:A computer-based search of CNKI database from 2000 to 2014, PubMed database from 1994 to 2014 and Foreign Medical Journal Ful-Text Service database from 2000 to 2014 was performed using“circulating fibrocytes, non-healing wounds, diabetic foot ulcer, wound healing, cel therapy”in Chinese and English as the keywords to retrieve articles related to circulating fibrocytes, refractory mechanism of chronic wound healing and cel therapy for chronic wounds. Total y 54 articles meeting the inclusive criteria were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Cel therapy with circulating fibrocytes is a safe and effective treatment for improving wound healing and has been used to repair various chronic wounds in the recent decades. Circulating fibrocytes are a distinct subpopulation of fibroblast-like leukocytes in the peripheral blood. It is able to migrate into wound sites at the early stage of wound repair and plays an active role in the wound healing process by secreting extracel ular matrix proteins, cytokines, presenting antigens, contracting wound and promoting neovascularization. Recently, it has been proved in animal experiments that circulating fibrocytes can accelerate chronic wound healing, especial y diabetic chronic wound.%背景:循环纤维细胞是近些年来在外周血液发现的具有成纤维细胞特性的一种白细胞亚群,由于具有

  4. Fibrocytes in the Fibrotic Lung: Altered Phenotype Detected by Flow Cytometry

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    Charles eReese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are bone marrow hematopoietic-derived cells that also express a mesenchymal cell marker (commonly collagen I and participate in fibrotic diseases of multiple organs. Given their origin, they or their precursors must be circulating cells before recruitment into target tissues. While most previous studies focused on circulating fibrocytes, here we focus on the fibrocyte phenotype in fibrotic tissue. The study’s relevance to human disease is heightened by use of a model in which bleomycin is delivered systemically, recapitulating several features of human scleroderma including multi-organ fibrosis not observed when bleomycin is delivered directly into the lungs. Using flow cytometry, we find in the fibrotic lung a large population of CD45high fibrocytes (called Region I rarely found in vehicle-treated control mice. A second population of CD45+ fibrocytes (called Region II is observed in both control and fibrotic lung. The level of CD45 in circulating fibrocytes is far lower than in either Region I or II lung fibrocytes. The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are expressed at higher levels in Region I than in Region II and are present at very low levels in all other lung cells including CD45+/collagen I- leucocytes. The collagen chaperone HSP47 is present at similar high levels in both Regions I and II, but at a higher level in fibrotic lung than in control lung. There is also a major population of HSP47high/CD45- cells in fibrotic lung not present in control lung. CD44 is present at higher levels in Region I than in Region II and at much lower levels in all other cells including CD45+/collagen I- leucocytes. When lung fibrosis is inhibited by restoring caveolin-1 activity using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSD, a strong correlation is observed between fibrocyte number and fibrosis score. In summary, the distinctive phenotype of fibrotic lung fibrocytes suggests that fibrocyte differentiation occurs primarily within the

  5. Rapamycin Blocks Fibrocyte Migration and Attenuates Bronchiolitis Obliterans in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jacob R.; Zhao, Yunge; Harris, David A.; LaPar, Damien J.; Stone, Matthew L.; Fernandez, Lucas G.; Kron, Irving L.; Lau, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibrocytes are integral in the development of fibroproliferative disease. The CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis has been shown to play a central role in fibrocyte migration and the development of bronchiolitis obliterans post lung transplantation. Inhibition of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway with rapamycin has been shown to decrease expression of both CXCR4 and its receptor agonist, CXCL12. Thus, we hypothesize that rapamycin treatment would decrease fibrocyte trafficking into tracheal allografts and prevent bronchiolitis obliterans. Methods A total alloantigenic mismatch, murine heterotopic tracheal transplant model of bronchiolitis obliterans was used. Animals were either treated with rapamycin or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 14 days post tracheal transplant. Fibrocyte levels were assessed via flow cytometry, and allograft neutrophil, CD3+ T-cell, macrophage, and smooth muscle actin levels were assessed via immunohistochemistry. Tracheal luminal obliteration was assessed on hematoxylin and eosin stains. Results Compared to DMSO controls, rapamycin-treated mice showed a significant decrease in fibrocyte levels in tracheal allografts. Fibrocytes levels in recipient’s blood showed a similar pattern, although not statistically significant. Furthermore, animals treated with rapamycin showed a significant decrease in tracheal allograft luminal obliteration compared to controls. Based on immunohistochemistry analyses, populations of α-SMA positive cells, neutrophils, CD3+ T-cells, and macrophages were all decreased in rapamycin-treated allograft versus DMSO controls. Conclusions Rapamycin effectively reduces recruitment of fibrocytes into tracheal allografts and mitigates development of tracheal luminal fibrosis. Further studies are needed to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the protective effect of rapamycin against bronchiolitis obliterans. PMID:23561805

  6. Gene expression profiling of human fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (f-MDSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs have been shown to control self-reactive and anti-graft effector T-cells in autoimmunity and transplantation, but their therapeutic use is limited by their scarce availability in the peripheral blood of tumor-free donors. We isolated and characterized a novel population of myeloid suppressor cells, named fibrocytic MDSC (f-MDSC, which are differentiated from umbilical cord blood (UCB precursors (Zoso et al., 2014. This MDSC subset promotes regulatory T-cell expansion and induces normoglycemia in a xenogeneic model of type 1 diabetes. Here we describe in details the experimental design and the bioinformatics analyses of the gene expression dataset used to investigate the molecular mechanisms at the base of MDSC tolerogenic and suppressive properties. We also provide an R code to easily access the data and perform the quality controls and basic analyses relevant to this dataset. Raw and pre-processed data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE52376.

  7. Tissue fibrocytes in patients with mild asthma: A possible link to thickness of reticular basement membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of tissue fibrocyte levels to basement membrane thickness and the presence of fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma and controls. Methods Patients with mild asthma (n = 9 were recruited and divided into two categories based on whether or not fibroblast-like cells could be established from BALF. Non-asthmatic healthy subjects (n = 5 were used as controls. Colocalization of the fibrocyte markers CD34, CD45RO, procollagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were identified in bronchial biopsies from patients and controls by confocal microscopy. Kruskall-Wallis method was used to calculate statistical significance and Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to assess the degree of association. Results In patients with BALF fibroblasts, a 14-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/CD45RO/α-SMA and a 16-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/procollagen I was observed when compared to controls (p Conclusion These findings indicate a correlation between recruited fibrocytes in tissue and thickness of basement membrane. Fibroblast progenitor cells may therefore be important in airway remodeling in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma.

  8. Health-promoting changes with children as agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled Shape Up: a school...

  9. Topical agents for hair growth promotion: what is out there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsaldeen, Omar S; Al Mubki, Thamer; Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-06-01

    Hair loss is a widespread complaint that carries a significant psychosocial burden for affected individuals. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the predominant cause of hair loss seen in the dermatology clinic. Although a range of therapies are available, minoxidil remains the only approved topical treatment for AGA. Promising new topical agents are under current investigation. PMID:24310642

  10. The characterization of fibrocyte-like cells: a novel fibroblastic cell of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, M R; Winkler-Lowen, B; Chakrabarti, S; Dunk, C; Davidge, S T; Guilbert, L J

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is a highly vascularized organ thus angiogenesis is a key process in placental development. The contribution that different cells in the villous stroma play in placental angiogenesis is largely unknown. In this study we identified a novel stromal cell type in sections of term placenta which is morphologically fibroblastic and expressing the fibroblast marker TE-7 but also positive for the monocytic markers CD115 and CD14 and designated these cells as fibrocyte-like cells. Populations of fibrocyte-like cells from the placenta were isolated by two methods: culture of adherence-selected placental cells and, for higher purity, by CD45 fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Fibrocyte-like cell conditioned medium increased endothelial tubule-like structure formation 2-fold versus control medium. Both pro-angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the anti-angiogenic factor soluble-Flt were found in the conditioned medium. Neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and b-FGF reduced endothelial cell tubule-like structures to control levels. These data suggests that fibrocyte-like cells, a previously unidentified cell of the villous stroma, may play an important role in the regulation of placental angiogenesis.

  11. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    CERN Document Server

    Requejo, R J

    2013-01-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

  12. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, R. J.; Camacho, J.

    2013-02-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

  13. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to si

  14. The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and reparative fibroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Alberto; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2007-09-01

    Human fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitors that exhibit mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes and fibroblasts. They likely represent the obligate intermediate stage of differentiation into mature mesenchymal cells of a bone marrow-derived precursor of the monocyte lineage under permissive conditions. On in vitro stimulation with pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors, human fibrocytes produce large quantities of extracellular matrix components and further differentiate into cells identical to the contractile myofibroblasts that emerge at the tissue sites during repair processes and in some fibrotic lesions. Studies in various animal models of wound healing or fibrotic diseases have confirmed the ability of fibrocytes to differentiate into mature mesenchymal cells in vivo and have suggested a causal link between fibrocyte accumulation and ongoing tissue fibrogenesis or vascular remodeling in response to tissue damage or hypoxia. Fibrocytes synthesizing new collagen or acquiring myofibroblast markers have been detected in human hypertrophic scars, in the skin of patients affected by nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, in human atherosclerotic lesions, and in pulmonary diseases characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and repair, like asthma. The presence of fibrocyte-like cells has been reported in human chronic pancreatitis and chronic cystitis. Similar cells also populate the stroma surrounding human benign tumors. The available data indicate that human fibrocytes serve as a source of mature mesenchymal cells during reparative processes and in fibrotic disorders or stromal reactions predominantly associated with a persistent inflammatory infiltrate or with the selective recruitment of monocytes induced by ischemic changes and tumor development. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in fibrocyte differentiation in these pathological conditions may lead to the development of novel therapies for

  15. Evaluating Government's Policies on Promoting Smart Metering in Retail Electricity Markets via Agent Based Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of a market game in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the UK government’s 2008-2010 policy on promoting smart metering. We also consider possible supplementary strategies. With the model, we test the effectiveness of four possible strategy options and suggest their policy implications. The context of the paper is a practical application of agent-based simulation to the retail electricity market in Britain. The contribution of the research ar...

  16. 外周血纤维细胞在肺纤维化中的作用%Role of peripherial blood fibrocytes in pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖怀平; 彭红

    2013-01-01

    肺纤维化是由多种病因引起的弥漫性肺部炎性疾病的共同结局.肺纤维化疾病包括特发性肺纤维化,结节病、尘肺、过敏性肺炎、药物和放射线导致的肺纤维化以及与胶原血管病有关的肺纤维化等.肺纤维化以大量成纤维细胞聚集、细胞外基质沉积并伴有炎症和损伤所致组织结构破坏为特征.其病理特点包括肺组织间质细胞增殖、细胞外基质增生沉积及肺实质重构,其发病率和病死率各不相同.目前大部分的研究认为肺成纤维细胞是促进细胞外基质沉积的主要细胞,然而最近的研究证实纤维细胞亦能够促进肺纤维化的演进.纤维细胞是骨髓来源的间叶祖细胞,是成纤维细胞、肌成纤维细胞及脂肪细胞的前体细胞,它能够表达与白细胞、单核巨噬细胞和成纤维细胞相关的细胞标记.本文将简单讨论纤维细胞在肺纤维化发病机制中的作用.%Pulmonary fibrosis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by replacement of the lung parenchyma with scar tissue.Pulmonary fibrotic diseases include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,scleroderma,pneumoconiosis,hypersensitivity pneumonitis,drug and radiation induced lung fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disease.Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the gathering of a large number of fibroblasts,extracellular matrix deposition associated with inflammation and damage,and its pathological features include interstitial lung tissue cell proliferation,the hyperplasia and deposition of extracellular matrix,and pulmonary parenchyma remodeling.Although there are several cellular types that are involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis,the resident lung fibroblast has been viewed traditionally as the primary cell involved in promoting the deposition of extracellular matrix that culminates in pulmonary fibrosis.However,recent findings demonstrate that the fibrocyte can

  17. Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Nila A; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Andrews, Jeff; Ficzere, Cathy; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacologic agents to promote mucus clearance may reduce the sequelae of obstructive secretions. We systematically reviewed comparative studies of pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in hospitalized or postoperative subjects without cystic fibrosis and over 12 months of age. We searched MEDLINE and other databases from January 1970 to July 2014 to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers also independently extracted data regarding subject and intervention characteristics and outcomes and assigned overall quality ratings. The 9 studies meeting review criteria included 5 randomized controlled trials, 3 crossover randomized controlled trials, and one retrospective cohort study. Studies were small and together included a total of 379 subjects (mean of 42 subjects per study). N-acetylcysteine, heparin plus N-acetylcysteine, albuterol, ipratropium bromide, and saline were assessed. Studies reported no benefit of studied agents on expectoration, pulmonary function, and atelectasis and little effect on changes in sputum volume, weight, or viscosity. Adverse effects of agents were not consistently reported. Nausea was reported in 2 studies of N-acetylcysteine (one paper reported 2 experiments and did not clearly identify in which experiment adverse effects occurred), 3 studies reported that there were no adverse events, and 3 studies did not address adverse effects at all. Further research with clearly characterized populations and interventions is needed to understand the potential benefits and adverse effects of mucoactive agents. PMID:25944943

  18. Human fibrocyte-derived exosomes accelerate wound healing in genetically diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Adolf; Walker, Audrey; Nissen, Erwin

    2015-11-13

    Diabetic ulcers represent a substantial societal and healthcare burden worldwide and scarcely respond to current treatment strategies. This study was addressed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of exosomes secreted by human circulating fibrocytes, a population of mesenchymal progenitors involved in normal wound healing via paracrine signaling. The exosomes released from cells sequentially stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, did not show potential immunogenicity. These exosomes exhibited in-vitro proangiogenic properties, activated diabetic dermal fibroblasts, induced the migration and proliferation of diabetic keratinocytes, and accelerated wound closure in diabetic mice in vivo. Important components of the exosomal cargo were heat shock protein-90α, total and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, proangiogenic (miR-126, miR-130a, miR-132) and anti-inflammatory (miR124a, miR-125b) microRNAs, and a microRNA regulating collagen deposition (miR-21). This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of the use of fibrocytes-derived exosomes for the treatment of diabetic ulcers.

  19. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  20. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Beneduzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

  1. Novel Keratinolytic Activity of Cyberlindnera fabianii Nrc3 Aza as A Plant Growth Promoting Agent (PGPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza M. Abdel-fattah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments had been conducted in Nubaria sandy soil, Behaira Governate, Egypt to show the effect of keratinase enzyme produced by the novel microbial isolate (Cyberlindnera fabianii NRC3 Aza on plants.The trials had been conducted in the two successive summer seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013 to show the effect of keratinase enzyme from degraded feather–waste on the morphology and chemical composition of peas pods (Pisumsativum L.–family Fabaceae (Leguminasae. In 2011/2012 season, only the chemical analysis of the dried powdered beads was studied. In 2012/2013 season, the morphological studies of the yield were considered beside the chemical ones. The results depicted significant effects of the sprayed enzyme (keratinase on peas as plant growth promoting agent (PGPA, compared with the blank (sprayed with water. Electrophoreses and amino acid analysis were carried out for the characterization of the partial pure keratinase enzyme.

  2. TSH-Mediated TNFα Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R Antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes (FC are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO. FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R. These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR induces the production of numerous cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα. Teprotumumab (TMB is a human monoclonal IGF-1R blocking antibody currently in clinical trial for GO and inhibits TSHR-mediated actions in FCs.To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying TSH-induced TNFα production by FCs, and the role of IGF-1R blockade by TMB.FCs from healthy and GD patients were treated with combinations of TSH, M22, MG132 and AKTi (inhibitors of NF-κB and Akt, respectively, and TMB. TNFα protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression was quantified by real time PCR.Treatment with TSH/M22 induced TNFα protein and mRNA production by FCs, both of which were reduced when FCs were pretreated with MG132 and AKTi (p<0.0001. TMB decreased TSH-induced TNFα protein production in circulating FCs from mean fluorescent index (MFI value of 2.92 to 1.91, and mRNA expression in cultured FCs from 141- to 52-fold expression (p<0.0001. TMB also decreased M22-induced TNFα protein production from MFI of 1.67 to 1.12, and mRNA expression from 6- to 3-fold expression (p<0.0001.TSH/M22 stimulates FC production of TNFα mRNA and protein. This process involves the transcription factor NF-κB and its regulator Akt. Blocking IGF-1R attenuates TSH/M22-induced TNFα production. This further delineates the interaction of TSHR and IGF1-R signaling pathways. By modulating the proinflammatory properties of FCs such as TNFα production, TMB may be a promising

  3. Rapid Screening of Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) Endophytic Bacteria for Rice Plant Seedlings Growth-Promoting Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Etesami, H.; Mirsyedhosseini, H.; Alikhani, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple screening method to detect berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) endophytic bacteria for rice plant growth-promoting agents on the basis of a root colonization bioassay and a plant growth promoting trait is characterized. Firstly, 200 isolates (80 endophytes and 120 rhizospheric isolates) isolated from berseem clover were inoculated as 10 mixtures of 20 strains each on two rice varieties under gnotobiotic conditions. Then, the reisolated endophytic strains from two rice varieties w...

  4. The unique ion permeability profile of cochlear fibrocytes and its contribution to establishing their positive resting membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takamasa; Nin, Fumiaki; Murakami, Shingo; Ogata, Genki; Uetsuka, Satoru; Choi, Samuel; Nakagawa, Takashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Komune, Shizuo; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Hibino, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells exhibit negative resting membrane potential (RMP) owing to the high K(+) permeability of the plasma membrane and the asymmetric [K(+)] between the extracellular and intracellular compartments. However, cochlear fibrocytes, which comprise the basolateral surface of a multilayer epithelial-like tissue, exhibit a RMP of +5 to +12 mV in vivo. This positive RMP is critical for the formation of an endocochlear potential (EP) of +80 mV in a K(+)-rich extracellular fluid, endolymph. The epithelial-like tissue bathes fibrocytes in a regular extracellular fluid, perilymph, and apically faces the endolymph. The EP, which is essential for hearing, represents the potential difference across the tissue. Using in vivo electrophysiological approaches, we describe a potential mechanism underlying the unusual RMP of guinea pig fibrocytes. The RMP was +9.0 ± 3.7 mV when fibrocytes were exposed to an artificial control perilymph (n = 28 cochleae). Perilymphatic perfusion of a solution containing low [Na(+)] (1 mM) markedly hyperpolarized the RMP to -31.1 ± 11.2 mV (n = 10; p control, Tukey-Kramer test after one-way ANOVA). Accordingly, the EP decreased. Little change in RMP was observed when the cells were treated with a high [K(+)] of 30 mM (+10.4 ± 2.3 mV; n = 7; p = 0.942 versus the control). During the infusion of a low [Cl(-)] solution (2.4 mM), the RMP moderately hyperpolarized to -0.9 ± 3.4 mV (n = 5; p control), although the membranes, if governed by Cl(-) permeability, should be depolarized. These observations imply that the fibrocyte membranes are more permeable to Na(+) than K(+) and Cl(-), and this unique profile and [Na(+)] gradient across the membranes contribute to the positive RMP.

  5. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention i

  6. Biocontrol agents promote growth of potato pathogens, depending on environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Jonathan A; Connor, Mairéad C; Stevenson, Andrew; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Cooke, Louise R; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in vitro and on the potato tuber, the bacterium was capable of near-complete inhibition of pathogens. This Bacillus was sufficiently xerotolerant (water activity limit for growth = 0.928) to out-perform Phytophthora infestans (~0.960) and challenge Fusarium coeruleum (~0.847) and Fusarium sambucinum (~0.860) towards the lower limits of their growth windows. Under some conditions, however, strain JC12GB43 stimulated proliferation of the pathogens: for instance, Fusarium coeruleum growth-rate was increased under chaotropic conditions in vitro (132 mM urea) by >100% and on tubers (2-M glycerol) by up to 570%. Culture-based assays involving macromolecule-stabilizing (kosmotropic) compatible solutes provided proof-of-principle that the Bacillus may provide kosmotropic metabolites to the plant pathogen under conditions that destabilize macromolecular systems of the fungal cell. Whilst unprecedented, this finding is consistent with earlier reports that fungi can utilize metabolites derived from bacterial cells. Unless the antimicrobial activities of candidate biocontrol strains are assayed over a full range of field-relevant parameters, biocontrol agents may promote plant pathogen infections and thereby reduce crop yields. These findings indicate that biocontrol activity, therefore, ought to be regarded as a mode-of-behaviour (dependent on prevailing conditions) rather than an inherent property of a bacterial strain. PMID:26880001

  7. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  8. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  9. Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner’s dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent’s partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.

  10. p53 Promoter-based Reporter Gene in vitro Assays for Quick Assessment of Agents with Genotoxic Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaixing LI; Ke SHI; Ruiwen CHEN; Yan HE; Dan WU; Shuhan SUN

    2007-01-01

    The p53 promoter-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase reporter gene assays have been established for detecting DNA damage induced by genotoxic agents.To evaluate the system,NIH3T3 cells transfected with either pHP53-GFP or pMP53-GFP construct were treated with mitomycin or 5-fluorouracil.Expression of the GFP reporter gene was significantly and specifically induced in the cells exposed to mitomycin or 5-fluorouracil.Then we treated NIH3T3 cells harboring pHP53-Luc or pMP53-Luc vector with mitomycin,5-fluorouracil or cisplatin at various concentrations.Similarly,exposure of the cells to these agents with genotoxic potentials resulted in a dose-dependent induction in luciferase reporter gene expression.Thus,these in vitro reporter gene assays could provide an ideal system for quick assessment or screening of agents with genotoxic potential.

  11. Screening of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant as Plant Growth Promoter and Biocontrol Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris T. Wahyudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pseudomonas spesies are one of the rihizobacterial group that have an important role in plant growth promoter and plant health. To prepare them as inoculants, they must have a range of characters as growth promoter such as Indole Acetic Acid (IAA producers which can promote the growth of plants and solubilize phosphates. In addition, they must also have the various characters that act as biocontrol agents such as siderofor, chitinase and anti-fungal compound producers. Approach: Pseudomonas sp isolated from soybeans rhizospere and identified based on physiological reactions and 16S rRNA gene sequences. Various tests for the determination of the growth promoter were based on IAA production, phosphate solubilization and growth promoter of length of root and stems and number of lateral roots of soybean sprouts. Test of siderophore, chitinase, as well as anti anti-fungal compounds productions to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii, were used as a biocontrol agent determination. Hypersensitivity test was used to screen for Pseudomonas sp classified as non-pathogenic rhizobacteria. Results: Fourteen isolates identified as a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas sp that produced IAA and Promoted enhancement of root length, shoot length, or number of lateral root. Among those 14 isolates, 8 isolates showed phosphate solubilizing activity, 12 isolates capable of producing siderophore and six isolates were observed to have chitinolytic activity. Only three isolates were able to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in high level. While one and two isolates inhibited Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani in high level, respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of excellent growth promoter and biocontrol activities, we recommended 5 isolates of Pseudomonas sp which were Crb-3, Crb-16, Crb-17, Crb-44 and Crb-94 as potential isolates of Pseudomonas sp that could be applied as

  12. Promoting collective motion of self-propelled agents by distance-based influence

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Huang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a dynamic model for a system consisting of self-propelled agents in which the influence of an agent on another agent is weighted by geographical distance. A parameter $\\alpha$ is introduced to adjust the influence: the smaller value of $\\alpha$ means that the closer neighbors have stronger influence on the moving direction. We find that there exists an optimal value of $\\alpha$, leading to the highest degree of direction consensus. The value of optimal $\\alpha$ increases as the system size increases, while it decreases as the absolute velocity, the sensing radius and the noise amplitude increase.

  13. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants of…

  14. Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

    2014-01-01

    The O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O 6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18–119% increase; P < 0.05), six significantly downregulated MGMT promoter activity (29–97% decrease; P < 0.05) and one haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents. PMID:24163400

  15. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  16. A high-throughput model for screening anti-tumor agents capable of promoting polymerization of tubulin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HU; Hui DONG; Yue-zhong LI; Xi-tao HU; Guan-jun HAN; Yin-bo QU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a high-throughput model for screening anti-tumor agents capable of promoting the polymerization of tubulin in vitro. METHODS: Tubulin was prepared in different purity for two screening steps. The first step was a high-throughput screening (HTS) for a set of 1500 samples using the GTP-containing tubulin and the end-reading method. The second step was performed on 119 hits from the first screening by a kinetic assay with GTP-lacking tubulin. RESULTS: The HTS for 1500 samples was accomplished in less than 3 h. From the screening, 108 samples were identified with >20 % promotion activity at 10 mg/L. Five of 108 were further confirmed by the kinetic assay using the purified tubulin subsequently. Three of the hit compounds were Epothilone A or its analogs, the other two compounds had new structures with a common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. In an MTT test, the five selected samples from the screening showed a minimal IC50 at 0.28±0.06 nmol/L to Hela cells. CONCLUTION: The two-step screening method is a high-throughtput,cost-effective, and efficient approach to identify microtubule-stabilizing agents.

  17. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Sum Siu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing.

  18. Community Theater as social support for youth: agents in the promotion of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Diba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussion on promotion of the health of young people in vulnerable situations; but little work has been done analyzing its actual operation - and this is especially true in relation to programs and projects that are outside the health services. This article aims to analyze the relationship of an experience in Community Theater with the promotion of health. It is a qualitative, ethnographic study made at the Pombas Urbanas Institute, in the Cidade Tiradentes district of the municipality of São Paulo, and is coordinated by a theater group with a history that is relevant to the objective of the study. Participatory observation was carried out for one year, with semi-structured interviews with young people, and with actors of the Pombas Urbanas group, and analysis of documents. The theoretical framework that was used is made up of concepts from the fields of collective health, Community Theater, and liberation pedagogy. The results are presented in two interlinked sub-categories which have arisen from the empiric material and from the references adopted: (i 'True friends', and (ii 'Dialog'. The analysis clearly shows the importance of this type of theatrical joint experience for the promotion of health by transforming the quality of relationships between people. Concepts of health, culture and education were used in analysis of the results.

  19. The antineoplastic agent α-bisabolol promotes cell death by inducing pores in mitochondria and lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Antonella; Vinante, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    The sesquiterpene α-bisabolol (α-BSB) has been shown to be an effective cytotoxic agent for a variety of human cancer cells in culture and animal models. However, much of its intracellular action remains elusive. We evaluated the cytotoxic action of α-BSB against CML-T1, Jurkat and HeLa cell lines, as preclinical models for myeloid, lymphoid and epithelial neoplasias. The approach included single cell analysis (flow cytometry, immunocytology) combined with cytotoxicity and proliferation assays to characterize organelle damage, autophagy, cytostatic effect, and apoptosis. The study focuses on the relevant steps in the cytotoxic cascade triggered by α-BSB: (1) the lipid rafts through which α-BSB enters the cells, (2) the opening of pores in the mitochondria and lysosomes, (3) the activation of both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways, (4) the induction of autophagy and (5) apoptosis. The effectiveness of α-BSB as an agent against tumor cells is grounded on its capability to act on different layers of cell regulation to elicit different concurrent death signals, thereby neutralizing a variety of aberrant survival mechanisms leading to treatment resistance in neoplastic cell. PMID:27278818

  20. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  1. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4 H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  2. Bioactive and wood-associated stilbenes as multifunctional antimicrobial and health promoting agents - BIOSTIMUL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. von (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Biosciences (Finland)), email: atte.vonWright@uku.fi

    2009-10-15

    Plant polyphenolics have a wide range of bioactivities. Coniferous trees are a rich source of stilbenes, such as pinosylvin in the genus Pinus. Pinosylvin is structurally very similar to resveratrol, a stilbene found in grapes and red berries, and which is reported to have beneficial health effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, tumourigenesis, and according to recent findings, also type 2 diabetes. In our previous studies the bioactivities of pinosylvin (antimicrobial effects and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells) were very similar to those of resveratrol. In this project we elucidate the potential of pinosylvin and its derivatives in food applications as multifunctional antimicrobial agents with positive health effects (including prevention of type 2 diabetes) highlighting results. (orig.)

  3. Bioactive and wood-associated stilbenes as multifunctional antimicrobial and health promoting agents (BIOSTIMUL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. von (Kuopio Univ., Department of Biosciences (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Plant polyphenolics have a wide range of bioactivities. Coniferous trees are a rich source of stilbenes, such as pinosylvin in the genus Pinus. Pinosylvin is structurally very similar to resveratrol, a stilbene found in grapes and red berries, and which is reported to have beneficial health effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, tumourigenesis, and according to recent findings, also type II diabetes. In our previous studies the bioactivities of pinosylvin (antimicrobial effects and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells) were very similar to those of resveratrol. In this project we elucidate the potential of pinosylvin and as derivatives in food applications as multifunctional antimicrobial agents with positive health effects (including prevention of type II diabetes) highlighting results. (orig.)

  4. Bioactive and wood-associated stilbenes as multifunctional antimicrobial and health promoting agents - BIOSTIMUL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. von (Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biosciences.), Email: atte.vonWright@uef.fi

    2010-10-15

    Plant polyphenolics have a wide range of bioactivities. Coniferous trees are a rich source of stilbenes, such as pinosylvin in the genus Pinus. Pinosylvin is structurally very similar to resveratrol, a stilbene found in grapes and red berries, and which is reported to have beneficial health effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, tumourigenesis, and according to recent findings, also type II diabetes. In our previous studies the bioactivities of pinosylvin (antimicrobial effects and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells) were very similar to those of resveratrol. In this project we elucidate the potential of pinosylvin and its derivatives in food applications as multifunctional antimicrobial agents with positive health effects (including prevention of type II diabetes) highlighting results. (orig.)

  5. Promoting Conceptual Change for Complex Systems Understanding: Outcomes of an Agent-Based Participatory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates, Christopher A.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Feldon, David F.

    2016-08-01

    Components of complex systems apply across multiple subject areas, and teaching these components may help students build unifying conceptual links. Students, however, often have difficulty learning these components, and limited research exists to understand what types of interventions may best help improve understanding. We investigated 32 high school students' understandings of complex systems components and whether an agent-based simulation could improve their understandings. Pretest and posttest essays were coded for changes in six components to determine whether students showed more expert thinking about the complex system of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results showed significant improvement for the components Emergence ( r = .26, p = .03), Order ( r = .37, p = .002), and Tradeoffs ( r = .44, p = .001). Implications include that the experiential nature of the simulation has the potential to support conceptual change for some complex systems components, presenting a promising option for complex systems instruction.

  6. Promoting Conceptual Change for Complex Systems Understanding: Outcomes of an Agent-Based Participatory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates, Christopher A.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Feldon, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Components of complex systems apply across multiple subject areas, and teaching these components may help students build unifying conceptual links. Students, however, often have difficulty learning these components, and limited research exists to understand what types of interventions may best help improve understanding. We investigated 32 high school students' understandings of complex systems components and whether an agent-based simulation could improve their understandings. Pretest and posttest essays were coded for changes in six components to determine whether students showed more expert thinking about the complex system of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results showed significant improvement for the components Emergence (r = .26, p = .03), Order (r = .37, p = .002), and Tradeoffs (r = .44, p = .001). Implications include that the experiential nature of the simulation has the potential to support conceptual change for some complex systems components, presenting a promising option for complex systems instruction.

  7. Acute dosing and p53-deficiency promote cellular sensitivity to DNA methylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessment of human exposure to chemicals is crucial for understanding whether such agents can cause cancer. The current emphasis on avoidance of animal testing has placed greater importance on in vitro tests for the identification of genotoxicants. Selection of an appropriate in vitro dosing regime is imperative in determining the genotoxic effects of test chemicals. Here, the issue of dosing approaches was addressed by comparing acute and chronic dosing, uniquely using low-dose experiments. Acute 24 h exposures were compared with equivalent dosing every 24 h over 5-day, fractionated treatment periods. The in vitro micronucleus assay was used to measure clastogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR was used to measure mRNA level induction of DNA repair enzymes. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) for MMS were obtained at 0.7 µg/ml for the acute study and 1.0 µg/ml for the chronic study. For acute MNU dosing, a LOGEL was observed at 0.46 µg/ml, yet genotoxicity was completely removed following the chronic study. Interestingly, acute MNU dosing demonstrated a statistically significant decrease at 0.009 µg/ml. Levels of selected DNA repair enzymes did not change significantly following doses tested. However, p53 deficiency (using the TK6-isogenic cell line, NH32) increased sensitivity to MMS during chronic dosing, causing this LOGEL to equate to the acute treatment LOGEL. In the context of the present data for 2 alkylating agents, chronic dosing could be a valuable in vitro supplement to acute dosing and could contribute to reduction of unnecessary in vivo follow-up tests. PMID:25595616

  8. Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.

  9. Fibrocyte and Airway Remodeling in Asthma%纤维细胞与支气管哮喘呼吸道重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕

    2012-01-01

    Human fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of markers relatedto leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and a diverse set of fibroblast phenotypes. Fibrocytes can be recruited from the circulation to the tissue where they can further differentiate and proliferate into various mesenchymal cell types depending on the tissue niche. The local tissue niche is important because it modulates the fibrocytes and coordinates their role in tissue repair. However,plasticity of a niche may be co-opted in chronic airway diseases such as asthma. Fibrocytes may through regulating the generation and activation of various airway remodeling factors, such as inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines, eventually lead to airway remodeling.%来源于骨髓间叶祖细胞的人类纤维细胞可以表达许多表面分子,这些表面分子与白细胞、造血干细胞以及成纤维细胞表型有关.纤维细胞能从血液循环到达外周组织,并且根据外周组织生态位,组织纤维细胞可以分化、增殖成各种间叶细胞.这些外周组织生态位是非常重要的,它可以使纤维细胞发挥组织修复作用,这些生态位可能与慢性呼吸道疾病(如哮喘)有关,纤维细胞可以通过调节多种致呼吸道重构因子,如炎性介质、细胞因子和趋化因子等的生成和活化,最终导致呼吸道重构.

  10. The Virtual Anatomy Lab: an eDemonstrator pedagogical agent can simulate student-faculty interaction and promote student engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Weber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As medical curricula evolve, many universities have adopted a clinical case-centered medical curriculum with a strong focus on small group learning and reduction of traditional lectures such that anatomy has become a self-taught subject supported by e-learning modules. One caveat of this approach is decreased student-faculty interaction and reduced student engagement. Thus use of e-learning must be balanced with the need for continued student-faculty interaction to promote healthy student engagement. To both support self-directed learning of anatomy and to simulate student-faculty interaction, we created the Virtual Anatomy Lab (VAL that features a human pedagogical agent, called the eDemonstrator, who guides student navigation through the available learning resources. The VAL was evaluated using a mixed methods approach (usage statistics and focus groups by two medical student populations at the University of Ottawa: first year medical students in a revised curriculum where anatomy lectures were abolished and laboratory sessions were self-taught, and second year medical students in the former curriculum in which anatomy lectures were given in advance of each laboratory session. We conclude that online modules such as the VAL, well designed with a human pedagogical agent, can be used within the curriculum without negatively impacting student engagement. Ethical Approval for this study was obtained from the Ottawa Hospital Research Ethics Board (protocol number #2009055-01H.

  11. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuya Yamashita; Yuusuke Fujimoto; Mayumi Tamaki; Andi Setiawan; Tomohisa Tanaka; Kaori Okuyama-Dobashi; Hirotake Kasai; Koichi Watashi; Takaji Wakita; Masaaki Toyama; Masanori Baba; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Shinya Maekawa; Nobuyuki Enomoto; Junichi Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extr...

  12. The tale that wags the dog? : The Norwegian Government's promotion of StatoilHydro as an agent of energy and climate policies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on involving business in development work. This thesis uses the case of StatoilHydro in Brazil. I show that StatoilHydro has substantial financial and political support from the Norwegian Government and is promoted as an agent of Norway’s energy and climate initiatives in Brazil despite their different interests. Based on a framework for studying TNCs’ power, I analyze whether the governmental decision to promote StatoilHydro in such a way is due to the company’s ...

  13. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-11-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  14. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity is associated with response to alkylating agent therapy and with MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobola, Michael S.; Alnoor, Mohammad; Chen, John Y.-S.; Kolstoe, Douglas D.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Blank, A.; Chamberlain, Marc C.; Silber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background CpG methylation in the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with better outcome following alkylating agent chemotherapy in glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic glioma (AG). To what extent improved response reflects low or absent MGMT activity in glioma tissue has not been unequivocally assessed. This information is central to developing anti-resistance therapies. Methods We examined the relationship of MGMT activity in 91 GBMs and 84 AGs with progression-free survival (PFS) following alkylator therapy and with promoter methylation status determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Results Cox regression analysis revealed that GBMs with high activity had a significantly greater risk for progression in dichotomous (P ≤ 0.001) and continuous (P ≤ 0.003) models, an association observed for different alkylator regimens, including concurrent chemo-radiation with temozolomide. Analysis of MGMT promoter methylation status in 47 of the GBMs revealed that methylated tumors had significantly lower activity (P ≤ 0.005) and longer PFS (P ≤ 0.036) compared to unmethylated tumors, despite overlapping activities. PFS was also significantly greater in methylated vs. unmethylated GBMs with comparable activity (P ≤ 0.005), and among unmethylated tumors with less than median activity (P ≤ 0.026), suggesting that mechanisms in addition to MGMT promote alkylator resistance. Similar associations of MGMT activity with PFS and promoter methylation status were observed for AGs. Conclusions Our results provide strong support for the hypotheses that MGMT activity promotes alkylator resistance and reflects promoter methylation status in malignant gliomas. General significance MGMT activity is an attractive target for anti-resistance therapy regardless of methylation status. PMID:25558448

  15. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Yamashita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV. We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95% and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%. Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 1 and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 2, which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs.

  16. A Brief Evaluation of a Project to Engage American Indian Young People as Agents of Change in Health Promotion Through Radio Programming, Arizona, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Athena; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.; Hutchens, Theresa; George, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Young people can be valuable motivational resources for health promotion. A project implemented from 2009 through 2013 in a small American Indian community in northwest Arizona recruited American Indian young people aged 10 to 21 as agents of change for health promotion through radio programming. Thirty-seven participants were recruited and trained in broadcasting and creative writing techniques; they produced and aired 3 radio dramas. In post-project evaluation, participants were confident they could influence community behaviors but thought that training techniques were too similar to those used in school activities and thus reduced their drive to engage. Effective engagement of young people requires creativity to enhance recruitment, retention, and impact. PMID:26866949

  17. A Brief Evaluation of a Project to Engage American Indian Young People as Agents of Change in Health Promotion Through Radio Programming, Arizona, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico-Jarillo, Tara M; Crozier, Athena; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Hutchens, Theresa; George, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Young people can be valuable motivational resources for health promotion. A project implemented from 2009 through 2013 in a small American Indian community in northwest Arizona recruited American Indian young people aged 10 to 21 as agents of change for health promotion through radio programming. Thirty-seven participants were recruited and trained in broadcasting and creative writing techniques; they produced and aired 3 radio dramas. In post-project evaluation, participants were confident they could influence community behaviors but thought that training techniques were too similar to those used in school activities and thus reduced their drive to engage. Effective engagement of young people requires creativity to enhance recruitment, retention, and impact. PMID:26866949

  18. Apoptosis of the fibrocytes type 1 in the spiral ligament and blood labyrinth barrier disturbance cause hearing impairment in murine cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmutzhard Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental murine malaria has been shown to result in significant hearing impairment. Microscopic evaluation of the temporal bones of these animals has revealed regular morphology of the cochlea duct. Furthermore, the known vascular pathologic changes being associated with malaria could not be found. Immunohistochemistry for ICAM1 showed a strong marking in the stria vascularis, indicating a disturbance of the endocochlear potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of apoptosis and the disturbance of the blood labyrinth barrier in the murine malaria associated hearing impairment. Methods The temporal bones of seven mice with cerebral malaria-four with hearing impairment, three without hearing impairment-were evaluated with immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3 to detect apoptosis and connexin 26, a gap junction protein being a cornerstone in the endocochlear potassium recirculation. Furthermore five animals with cerebral malaria were treated with Evans blue prior to sacrification to detect disturbances of the blood labyrinth barrier. Results Cleaved caspase 3 could clearly be detected by immunohistochemistry in the fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, more intensively in animals with hearing impairment, less intensively in those without. Apoptosis signal was equally distributed in the spiral ligament as was the connexin 26 gap junction protein. The Evans blue testing revealed a strong signal in the malaria animals and no signal in the healthy control animals. Conclusion Malfunction of the fibrocytes type 1 in the spiral ligament and disruption of the blood labyrinth barrier, resulting in a breakdown of the endocochlear potential, are major causes for hearing impairment in murine cerebral malaria.

  19. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  20. Interlaboratory studies with the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to detect tumor-promoting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrman, J.S.; Burg, J.R.; Elmore, E.; Gulati, D.K.; Barfknecht, T.R.; Niemeier, R.W.; Dames, B.L.; Toraason, M.; Langenbach, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the usefulness of the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to predict the tumor-promoting activity of selected chemical. Twenty-three chemicals of different chemical structures (phorbol esters, barbiturates, phenols, artificial sweeteners, alkanes, and peroxides) were chosen for testing based on in vivo promotion activities, as reported in the literature. Assay protocols and materials were standardized, and the chemicals were coded to facilitate unbiased evaluation. A chemical was tested only once in each laboratory, with one of the three laboratories testing only 15 out of 23 chemicals. Dunnett's test was used for statistical analysis. Chemicals were scored as positive (at least two concentration levels statistically different than control), equivocal (only one concentration statistically different), or negative. For 15 chemicals tested in all three laboratories, there was complete agreement among the laboratories for nine chemicals. For the 23 chemicals tested in only two laboratories, there was agreement on 16 chemicals. With the exception of the peroxides and alkanes, the metabolic cooperation data were in general agreement with in vivo data. However, an overall evaluation of the V79 cell system for predicting in vivo promotion activity was difficult because of the organ specificity of certain chemicals and/or the limited number of adequately tested nonpromoting chemicals.

  1. The use anesthetic agents to promote welfare in anemonefish aquaculture: Case study to handling and long-distance transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three anaesthetic agents (80 to 110 mg/L of MS-222, 10 to 30 mg/L of clove oil and 100 to 350 mg/L of 2-phenoxyethanol in anaesthesia and the success of use different clove oil concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mg/L on water quality and survival of an ornamental anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, during long-distance transport in closed system for 48 hours. The lowest effective concentrations based on the efficacy criteria of complete anaesthetic induction within 180s, recovery within 300s and survival when exposed 30 min to anaesthetic was 15 mg/l for clove oil, 200 µl/L for 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 mg/L for MS-222. Above the concentrations of 30 mg/L, 300 µl/L and 100 mg/L of clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol and MS-222 respectively, fish did not recovery when exposed to anaesthetic during 30min. During long-distance transport, clove oil slowed the increase on the ammonia concentration and the decrease on oxygen level, but did not affect the pH and only at concentration of 10 mg/L increase de mortality at 36 and 48 hours after packed. All concentrations showed a significance increase on water quality, reducing total ammonia from 9.31 ± 0.58 mg/L (control group to 5.43 ± 0.56 mg/L (1mg/L, 4.97 ± 0.59 mg/L (3mg/L and 3.88 ± 0.14 mg/L (10mg/L. This study showed that all anaesthetic agents under study can be used in anaesthesia of percula clownfish with optimal doses varied according to the anaesthetic, 15 to 25 mg/L of clove oil, 200 to 250 of 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 to 90 mg/L of MS-222, but clove oil was the anaesthetic agent more effectiveness and with major margin of safety for percula clownfish, and this anaesthesic (clove oil can be used in ornamental fish transportation, reducing the deterioration in water quality and ensuring a better transport environment and reduced stress for the fish. However must be careful related the dose in use, because an excess anesthesic may reduce dissolved oxygen and cause high

  2. Identification of Volatiles Produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a Fungal Biocontrol Agent That Promotes Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diby Paul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles α-pinene, (−-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions.

  3. Identification of volatiles produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a fungal biocontrol agent that promotes plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

    2013-10-16

    Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles α-pinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions.

  4. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  5. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed.

  6. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2010-03-15

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  7. Interaction and effectiveness of antimicrobials along with healing-promoting agents in a novel biocellulose wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-10-01

    An ideal wound dressing should keep the wound moist, allow oxygen permeation, adsorb wound exudate, accelerate re-epithelialization for wound closure, reduce pain and healing time, and prevent infection. Our novel biocellulose-based wound dressing was composed of three components: 1) biocellulose (BC), intended to create a moist and oxygen-permeated environment with exudate adsorption; 2) silk sericin (SS) known for its enhancement of collagen type I production, which is critical for re-epithelialization; and 3) the antiseptic polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). To deliver an effective BC wound dressing, the interactions between the components (PHMB vs. SS) needed to be thoroughly analyzed. In this study, we investigated important parameters such as the loading sequence, loading concentration, and loading amount of the active compounds to ensure that the BC wound dressing could provide both antimicrobial activity and promote collagen production during healing. The loading sequence of SS and PHMB into BC was critical to maintain PHMB antimicrobial activity; silk sericin needed to be loaded before PHMB to avoid any negative impacts. The minimum PHMB concentration was 0.3% w/v for effective elimination of all tested bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The amounts of SS and PHMB in BC were optimized to ensure that the dressings released the optimal amounts of both SS to enhance fibroblast collagen production and PHMB for effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:26117743

  8. Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents: Differences in stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents (Gd-CA) are either linear or macrocyclic chelates available as ionic or non-ionic preparations. The molecular structure whether cyclic or linear and ionicity determines the stability of Gd-CA. Linear chelates are flexible open chains which do not offer a strong binding to Gd3+. In contrast, the macrocyclic chelates offer a strong binding to Gd3+ by the virtue of being preorganized rigid rings of almost optimal size to cage the gadolinium atom. Non-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones as the binding between Gd3+ with the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger in comparison to that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CM is the ionic-macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. In vivo data confirmed the low stability of non-ionic linear chelates but no significant difference was observed amongst the macrocyclic agents whether ionic (Gd-DOTA) or non-ionic such as Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-BT-DO3A. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the serious complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that deposit in tissue and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. No cases of NSF have been observed so far after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA

  9. Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents: Differences in stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sameh.morcos@sth.nhs.uk

    2008-05-15

    Extracellular gadolinium contrast agents (Gd-CA) are either linear or macrocyclic chelates available as ionic or non-ionic preparations. The molecular structure whether cyclic or linear and ionicity determines the stability of Gd-CA. Linear chelates are flexible open chains which do not offer a strong binding to Gd{sup 3+}. In contrast, the macrocyclic chelates offer a strong binding to Gd{sup 3+} by the virtue of being preorganized rigid rings of almost optimal size to cage the gadolinium atom. Non-ionic preparations are also less stable in comparison to the ionic ones as the binding between Gd{sup 3+} with the negatively charged carboxyl groups is stronger in comparison to that with amides or alcohol in the non-ionic preparations. According to stability constants and kinetic measurements, the most stable Gd-CM is the ionic-macrocyclic chelate Gd-DOTA and the least stable agents are the non-ionic linear chelates gadodiamide and gadoversetamide. In vivo data confirmed the low stability of non-ionic linear chelates but no significant difference was observed amongst the macrocyclic agents whether ionic (Gd-DOTA) or non-ionic such as Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-BT-DO3A. The stability of Gd-CA seems to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the serious complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Gd-CA of low stability are likely to undergo transmetallation and release free Gd ions that deposit in tissue and attract circulating fibrocytes to initiate the process of fibrosis. No cases of NSF have been observed so far after the exclusive use of the stable macrocyclic Gd-CA.

  10. Effect of Farm Manure Decomposed by RW Biological Promoting Corrosion Agent on Flue-cured Tobacco Yield and Quality%RW生物促腐剂腐熟农家肥对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志清; 普伟松; 张福全; 陈鹏

    2011-01-01

    为寻找适应烤烟生产的生物有机肥施肥方法,采用大区对比试验研究了RW生物促腐剂腐熟农家肥对烤烟生长及经济性状等方面的影响.结果表明,施用促腐剂腐熟农家肥的烟田产量、产值、均价和上等烟比例分别为2 085.45 kg/hm2、30 159.42元/hm2、14.46元/kg和43.49%.说明,促腐剂腐熟农家肥施入大田后有利于烟株生长发育,烟叶长势良好,能有效降低烟草花叶病的发生,可提高烟叶产质量.%Effect of farm manure decomposed by RW biological promoting corrosion agent on fluecured tobacco growth and economic characters were studied by regional contrast test to find out the suitable organic manure fertilizing method for flue-cured tobacco production. The results showed that the yield,production value, mean price and first-class tobacco rate of fields fertilized with farm manure decomposed by RW biological promoting corrosion agent were 2 085.45 kg/hm2, 30 159.42 Yuan/hm2 ,14.46 Yuan/kg and 43.49% ,respectively,which indicate that RW biological promoting corrosion agent is beneficial for tobacco plant growth and development, flue-cured tobacco yield and quality are enhanced as the tobacco plant has a good growth vigor and low incidence of tobacco mosaic.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Lindsey K; Underwood, Grace E; McCully, Lucy M; Bitzer, Adam S; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E; Silby, Mark W

    2015-03-26

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively.

  12. Agentes Comunitários de Saúde: agenciadores de encontros entre territórios Community Health Workers: promoters of interaction between territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Lima da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta reflexões produzidas a partir de uma série de encontros com Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, ao longo de dez anos. Identifica-se a consolidação de dois territórios existenciais, que ora se aproximam, ora se afastam: o do saber técnico em saúde e o do saber popular em saúde. A partir da análise de algumas falas de ACS e de reflexões que dialogam com o referencial teórico da área, o texto discute alguns dos dilemas e impasses do acesso e da adesão na ótica desses Agentes, bem como as estratégias cotidianamente inventadas a partir dos encontros que se dão entre esses dois territórios. Identifica-se o lugar do Agente Comunitário de Saúde como agenciador de fronteiras, atuando em alguns momentos como um inventor ou potencializador de zonas de contato entre territórios e, em outros, como um representante de um dos territórios no outro.This article presents reflections originating from a series of meetings with community health workers over a period of ten years. It identifies the consolidation of two existential territories, which are sometimes closer and at other times more distant from each other, namely the territory of technical knowledge about health and the territory of popular knowledge about health. Starting with the analysis of some quotes from health workers and reflections which tally with the theoretical reference in the area, this paper discusses some of the dilemmas and deadlocks of access and affiliation from the perspective of some of these health workers, as well as the strategies devised on a day-to-day basis from the crossovers that take place between these two territories. It identifies the function of community health workers as frontier agents, at times acting as inventors or motivators of contact zones between the territories, and at other times acting as a representative by one territory inside the other.

  13. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H., E-mail: grahamc@queensu.ca

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  14. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment–apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M.; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A.; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B.; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I.; Forte, Trudy M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  15. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  16. Working "upstream": why we shouldn't use heterosexual women as health promotion change agents in HIV-prevention interventions aimed at heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carly; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The use of cognitive-behavioral interventions that aim to improve men's health-seeking behaviors via women-a trend that grows increasingly troublesome as gender inequality persists-cannot address the deep-seated social, economic, and political inequalities contributing to the spread of HIV/AIDS, such as sexism and poverty. Such methods often rely on generalizations about men and women and regard female empowerment as a key goal, despite employing shaky definitions of the concept. Here we use the principles of health promotion, particularly determinants of health, to reflect upon and critique current interventions and present alternative programming models that engage both men and women in changing men's health-seeking behaviors and working "upstream" rather than "downstream" of the epidemic. PMID:25611811

  17. The calcium mobilizing tumor promoting agent, thapsigargin elevates the platelet cytoplasmic free calcium concentration to a higher steady state level. A possible mechanism of action for the tumor promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Foder, B; Scharff, O

    1987-01-01

    stimulation with thrombin and Tg, respectively. The thrombin induced rise of [Ca2+]i was reversible, which indicates that active calcium sequestration and/or extrusion is operating. Tg affected [Ca2+]i in a divergent manner, thus, [Ca2+]i was stabilized on a elevated level without initial formation...... of a pronounced peak. The decline in [Ca2+]i observed after thrombin stimulation was not impaired by the calmodulin binding drug trifluoperazine but it was strongly reduced by vanadate, which suggests the active calcium transport systems to be insensitive to calmodulin. We put forward the hypothesis...... that the tumor promoting activity of Tg is attributable to its ability to stabilize [Ca2+]i on a new elevated steady state level....

  18. Cyclic AMP-elevating Agents Promote Cumulus Cell Survival and Hyaluronan Matrix Stability, Thereby Prolonging the Time of Mouse Oocyte Fertilizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Monica; Camaioni, Antonella; Klinger, Francesca G; Bonfiglio, Rita; Salustri, Antonietta

    2016-02-19

    Cumulus cells sustain the development and fertilization of the mammalian oocyte. These cells are retained around the oocyte by a hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix synthesized before ovulation, a process called cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) expansion. Hyaluronan release and dispersion of the cumulus cells progressively occur after ovulation, paralleling the decline of oocyte fertilization. We show here that, in mice, postovulatory changes of matrix are temporally correlated to cumulus cell death. Cumulus cell apoptosis and matrix disassembly also occurred in ovulated COCs cultured in vitro. COCs expanded in vitro with FSH or EGF underwent the same changes, whereas those expanded with 8-bromo-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) maintained integrity for a longer time. It is noteworthy that 8-Br-cAMP treatment was also effective on ovulated COCs cultured in vitro, prolonging the vitality of the cumulus cells and the stability of the matrix from a few hours to >2 days. Stimulation of endogenous adenylate cyclase with forskolin or inhibition of phosphodiesterase with rolipram produced similar effects. The treatment with selective cAMP analogues suggests that the effects of cAMP elevation are exerted through an EPAC-independent, PKA type II-dependent signaling pathway, probably acting at the post-transcriptional level. Finally, overnight culture of ovulated COCs with 8-Br-cAMP significantly counteracted the decrease of fertilization rate, doubling the number of fertilized oocytes compared with control conditions. In conclusion, these studies suggest that cAMP-elevating agents prevent cumulus cell senescence and allow them to continue to exert beneficial effects on oocyte and sperm, thereby extending in vitro the time frame of oocyte fertilizability. PMID:26694612

  19. Seleção de bactérias endofíticas de tomateiro como potenciais agentes de biocontrole e de promoção de crescimento Screening of endophytic bacteria isolated from tomato plants as potencial biocontrol agents and growth promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Baston Barretti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta isolados bacterianos endofíticos de plantas sadias de tomateiro foram avaliados quanto à sua potencialidade como agentes de biocontrole de doenças do tomateiro. Foi realizada, em casa de vegetação, uma seleção massal utilizando-se Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato e Alternaria solani, como patógenos desafiantes. Com base na média do número de lesões por planta, quatro isolados foram selecionados como potenciais agentes de biocontrole dessas enfermidades fúngica e bacteriana do tomateiro. Esses isolados foram identificados, por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S do DNA ribossômico, como Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 e Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. Os mesmos isolados selecionados para o biocontrole também foram avaliados quanto à sua capacidade de promover o crescimento em plantas e somente S. marcescens (UFV-E13 proporcionou aumento na altura das plantas.Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria obtained from healthy tomato plants were tested for their potential as biocontrol agents of tomato diseases. A massal screening was performed at greenhouse using Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Alternaria solani as challenging pathogens. Based on the average number of lesions per plant, four isolates were selected as potential agents of biocontrol of these tomato diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. These isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 and Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. The four endophytes selected for biocontrol were also evaluated for their ability of promoting plant growth and only S. marcescens (UFV-E13 presented increase in the height of the plants.

  20. Characterization of a novel plant growth-promoting bacteria strain Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4 both as a diazotroph and a potential biocontrol agent against various plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jigang; Sun, Lei; Dong, Xiuzhu; Cai, Zhengqiu; Sun, Xiaolu; Yang, Hailian; Wang, Yunshan; Song, Wei

    2005-01-01

    A novel, plant growth-promoting bacterium Delftia tsuruhatensis, strain HR4, was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Yueguang) in North China. In vitro antagonistic assay showed this strain could suppress the growth of various plant pathogens effectively, especially the three main rice pathogens (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae Cavara). Treated with strain HR4 culture, rice blast, rice bacterial blight and rice sheath blight for cv. Yuefu and cv. Nonghu 6 were evidently controlled in the greenhouse. Strain HR4 also showed a high nitrogen-fixing activity in N-free Döbereiner culture medium. The acetylene reduction activity and 15N2-fixing activity (N2FA) were 13.06 C2H4 nmolml(-1) h(-1) and 2.052 15Na.e.%, respectively. The nif gene was located in the chromosome of this strain. Based on phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies, strain HR4 could be classified as a member of D. tsuruhatensis. However, comparisons of characteristics with other known species of the genus Delftia suggested that strain HR4 was a novel dizotrophic PGPB strain. PMID:15709367

  1. MGMT Promoter Methylation Correlates with an Overall Survival Benefit in Chinese High-Grade Glioblastoma Patients Treated with Radiotherapy and Alkylating Agent-Based Chemotherapy: A Single-Institution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong; Liu, Tao; Lin, Qingfen; Lu, Xiangdong; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Feng; Mao, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene has been considered a prognostic marker and has become more important in the treatment of glioblastoma. However, reports on the correlation between MGMT and clinical outcomes in Chinese glioblastoma patients are very scarce. In this study, quantitative methylation data were obtained by the pyrosequencing of tumor tissues from 128 GBM patients. The median overall survival (OS) was 13.1 months, with a 1-year survival of 45.3%. The pyrosequencing data were reproducible based on archived samples yielding data for all glioblastomas. MGMT promoter methylation was detected in 75/128 cases (58.6%), whereas 53/128 (41.4%) cases were unmethylated. Further survival analysis also revealed that methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with prolonged OS but not with progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.029 and p = 0.112, respectively); the hazard radios were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42–0.96) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.48–1.09), respectively. These data indicated that MGMT methylation has prognostic significance in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioblastoma undergoing alkylating agent-based chemotherapy after surgical resection. PMID:25211033

  2. MGMT promoter methylation correlates with an overall survival benefit in Chinese high-grade glioblastoma patients treated with radiotherapy and alkylating agent-based chemotherapy: a single-institution study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Promoter methylation of the O(6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT gene has been considered a prognostic marker and has become more important in the treatment of glioblastoma. However, reports on the correlation between MGMT and clinical outcomes in Chinese glioblastoma patients are very scarce. In this study, quantitative methylation data were obtained by the pyrosequencing of tumor tissues from 128 GBM patients. The median overall survival (OS was 13.1 months, with a 1-year survival of 45.3%. The pyrosequencing data were reproducible based on archived samples yielding data for all glioblastomas. MGMT promoter methylation was detected in 75/128 cases (58.6%, whereas 53/128 (41.4% cases were unmethylated. Further survival analysis also revealed that methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with prolonged OS but not with progression-free survival (PFS (p = 0.029 and p = 0.112, respectively; the hazard radios were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42-0.96 and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.48-1.09, respectively. These data indicated that MGMT methylation has prognostic significance in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioblastoma undergoing alkylating agent-based chemotherapy after surgical resection.

  3. DISSCUSSION ON AMOUNT OF PROMOTE AND CURING AGENT IN THE GLASS FIBRE FELT REINFORCED UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN COMPOSITE MATERIAL%玻璃纤维毡增强不饱和聚酯树脂复合材料中促进剂及固化剂加入量的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉; 张建中; 张林

    2011-01-01

    This paper use MEKP as curing agent, use cobalt iso-octoate as promote agent, study various different ratio of composition on mechanical properties influence. A short cut glass fibre felt reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composite material take the unsaturated polyester as a substrate, take the glass fiber as reinforced material, adding the promoting agent, firming agent and other additives, through the normal temperature solidification obtains its plate.%以不饱和聚醋为基体,玻璃纤维毡为增强材料,用过氧化甲乙酮为固化剂、异辛酸钴为促进剂,常温固化得到复合材料.研究固化剂、促进剂不同加入量和配比对材料力学性能的影响.

  4. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  5. Experimental study on promotion of coal combustion fine particles acoustic agglomeration removal by using wetting agents%润湿剂促进燃煤细颗粒声波团聚脱除的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜金培; 陈立奇; 杨林军

    2014-01-01

    在声波团聚室中研究了润湿剂液滴与细颗粒碰撞团聚脱除特性,提出了一种利用润湿剂促进细颗粒在声波场中捕集的新方法。结果表明,不同润湿剂溶液对细颗粒在声波场中的团聚脱除效果存在较大差异,采用 JFC 和 FS-310润湿剂溶液时,细颗粒分级脱除效率与采用水时的分级脱除效率相近。而 SDS 和 Silanol w22溶液,则可有效提高细颗粒在各粒径段的分级脱除效率。细颗粒在声波场中的脱除效率与润湿剂润湿性能具有很好的相关性,随润湿剂对细颗粒相对接触角增大而降低,在声压级为150 dB 时,相对接触角由83°降低到0°,细颗粒脱除效率提高了18%,在无声场作用下,脱除效率仅提高了5%。细颗粒脱除效率随声压级的增大而提高,在低声压级条件下,添加润湿剂可有效提高细颗粒脱除效率,声压级在130 dB时,添加 SDS 溶液液滴后细颗粒脱除效率比声场单独作用时的脱除效率提高了25%。表明添加润湿剂可有效提高细颗粒在声波场中的团聚脱除效率,实现在低声压级条件下,获得高的细颗粒脱除效率。%The characteristics of agglomeration removal between wetting agent droplets and fine particles wereinvestigated in an acoustic agglomeration chamber. A novel technique using wetting agents to promote the fine particle capture by acoustic agglomeration was presented. The experimental results show that the type of wetting agent has a significant effect on the acoustic agglomeration of fine particles. The particle stage removal efficiencies using JFC and FS-310 are similar to that using plain water droplets, but the removal efficiencies bySDS and Silanol w 22 are much higher than that using water droplets. Fine particle removal efficiency in the acoustic field correlates well with the wettability of wetting agents, which decreases with increasing the relativecontact angle of wetting agents

  6. 中药闻香促进记忆的临床研究%Clinical Study of Self-made Aromatic Olfactory Agents from Traditional Chinese Medicine in Promoting Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 高根德

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To observe the clinical effect of self - made aromatic olfactory agents from traditional Chinese medicine to promote the short - term memory. Methods; 80 cases of healthy college students were divided randomly into treatment group and control group respectively. The treatment group n = 48 and control one n = 32 . The treatment group of healthy college students treated by aromatic Chinese medicine twice a day - and - sniff fragrant ,2-3 minutes each time, continuing medication 2 weeks . Healthy control group of college students sniffed honey water, approach with treatment group. Another choice of memory impaired patients with chief complaint of 59 patients, of which 35 cases of young adult, 24 cases of physical examination was essentially normal aging as a patient group, no control group, only the self-memory comparison before and after treatment. Results; The impact of aromatic olfactory agents of traditional Chinese medicine on the health of university students group; memory scores after treatment group (except for picture recall) was significantly higher than that before treatment, before and after treatment there was significant difference ( P 0.05);治疗组与对照组比较有显着性差异(P<0.05),治疗组记忆得分明显高于对照组.中青年组用药后在数字广度、数字广度倒数、方位、空间位置记忆广度、联想学习测试项目上经非参数检验有显着差异(P<0.05),记忆得分明显高于治疗前.老年组用药后部分测试项目记忆得分略高于治疗前,部分病人无进步,考虑与原发病有关.结论:芳香中药嗅入剂能改善健康年轻人记忆力,能改善以记忆力减退为主诉的青中年部分记忆,如数字广度、数字广度倒数、方位、空间位置记忆广度及联想学习.但对老年人的记忆促进效果不明显.

  7. Efetividade de programa de agentes comunitários na promoção da saúde bucal Efectividad del programa de agentes comunitarios en la promoción de la salud bucal Effectiveness of a community health worker program on oral health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2009-06-01

    y residentes en domicilios de tres a seis cuartos en el municipio de Río Grande da Serra (Sudeste de Brasil. Se escogieron datos sobre conocimientos de salud-enfermedad bucal, prácticas y capacidades auto-referidas con relación al auto-examen, higiene bucal, número de residentes y de cepillos dentales individuales y colectivos en cada domicilio y acceso y uso de servicios odontológicos. Por medio de la prueba t de Student pareado, se compararon los promedios de los valores obtenidos antes y después del programa para cada uno de los grupos estudiados. Las respuestas fueron analizadas adoptándose un nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para cuestiones relacionadas con el conocimiento de salud bucal entre los agentes y entre las mujeres antes y después de la capacitación (pOBJECTIVE: To assess changes of knowledge and attitudes and health service access and utilization after the implementation of a community health worker program for oral health promotion. METHODS: A capacity building project including learning, support, and supervision activities was developed between July 2003 and August 2004. A study to assess changes was conducted including 36 community health workers and a representative sample of homemaker literate women and mothers aged 25 to 39 years living in 3- to 6-room dwelling in the city of Rio Grande da Serra, Southeastern Brazil. Data on oral health knowledge, self-reported practices, and personal skills regarding self-examination, oral hygiene, number of people living in the same household, number of individual and collective toothbrushes, and dental service access and utilization were collected using structured interviews. Mean scores measured pre- and post-intervention program were compared for each group studied using Student's t-test. A 5% significance level was set for the analysis. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between pre- and post-intervention program were

  8. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  9. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  10. The Role of fibrocytes and prostaglandin E2 in the pathogenesis Graves′ophthalmopathy%纤维细胞和前列腺素 E2在 Graves 眼病发病机制中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓婕; 姜发纲; 王兴华; 雷澄

    2014-01-01

    个, GD组患者血液纤维细胞增殖(1767.56±756.74)个,GO 组患者血液纤维细胞增殖(5340.67±867.43)个,差异有统计学意义(F=50.67,P<0.05)。 GD组患者纤维细胞增生频率与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(t=3.77,P>0.05)。 GO组患者的纤维细胞增生频率与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=55.34,P<0.05)。 GO组患者的纤维细胞增生频率与GD组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=39.71, P<0.05)。加入 IL-1组 PGE2浓度为(24.78±7.62) ng/ml,而未加入 IL-1组 PGE2浓度为(0.05±0.05)ng/ml,差异有统计学意义(t=53.25,P<0.05),可见IL-1可显著增加纤维细胞PGE2的释放。结论 GO患者眶内组织肿胀和循环障碍可以刺激炎性因子的释放,从而增加纤维细胞的浸润并增加PGE2的释放;而PGE2可以通过增加血管的通透性而进一步加重GO。%Objective To investigate the putative role for fibrocytes and prostaglandin E2 in the pathogenesis of Graves′ophthalmopathy.Methods Ten healthy control subjects ( 10 eyes ) , 8 patients (8 eyes) with Graves disease ( GD) but without ophthalmopathy and 11 patients (11 eyes) with Graves′ophthalmopathy ( GO ) were recruited in the Department of Ophthalmology, Huarun-Wugang General Hospital.Concentrations of tear PGE2 ,plasma IL-1 and capacities of circulating fibrocytes to proliferate and release PGE2 under IL-2 stimulation in vitro were comparatively assessed.Results The concentration of tear PGE2 was (35.36±8.12) pg/ml in control subjects,which was not different from (28.78±4.53) pg/ml in GD patients (P>0.05) but significantly lower than(142.63±12.45)pg/ml in GO patients (P<0.05).The concentration of plasma IL-1b was significantly elevated in both GD ( 90.72 ±13.63 ) pg/ml and DO (108.78±15.67)pg/ml patients as compared with the control subjects (32.56±7.27) pg/ml,(P<0.05).In

  11. Effect of fibrocytes on the progressive renal fibrosis induced by adriamycin%纤维细胞在大鼠多柔比星慢性肾损害模型肾纤维化过程中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王显; 张伯科; 沈雯雯; 周琪

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fibrocytes and chemokine recepter 7(CCR7)on the process of renal fibrosis induced by adriamycin in rats.Methods Male Sprague-Dawhy(SD)8 weeks old rats(n=52)were divided into two groups randomly,normal control group(CG,n= 20)and model group(MG,n=32).MG rats were injected with 4 mg/kg of adriamycin via tail vein on the first day of the 1st and 2nd week,respectively,while CG rats received 0.9% sodium chloride solution injection of equal volume at the same time.The urine and serum samples were measured at the end of 4,7,10 and 13 weeks after the first administration of adriamycin to observe biochemical changes,while the renal tissue of rats was obtained to evaluate renal histological and uhrastructural changes by glomerulosclerosis index and tubulointerstitial index,and to analyze the expression of CD45,collagen Ⅰ and CCR7 by immunohistochemistry.Results Compared with CG,levels of 24 h urine protein excretion rate(mg,568±102 vs 21±6,P<0.01),serum cholesterol(CHO,mmol/L,6.79±1.47 vs 1.29±0.27,P<0.01)and triglyceride(TG,mmol/L,2.57±1.19 vs 0.76±0.11,P<0.01)increased significantly,whereas serum albumin(Alb,g/L,21.41±2.11 vs 34.64±0.96,P <0.01)decreased significantly in the 7th week in MG.The proliferation of mesangial cells,the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and atrophyin or extension of renal tubules in MG were more remarkable than those in CG.There were some cells which expressed CD45 and collagen Ⅰ simultaneously in the serial sections of renal tissue and renal cortical interstitium in MG.Interstitial infiltration of CD45+or CCR7+cells appeared in the 4th week,reached a maximum in the 7th week(P<0.01)and gradually decreased afterward.Conclusions Fibrocytes may be involved in the earlier stage of kidney fibrosis.The immigration of this population from peripheral blood to renal lesion site is possible to be associated with CCR7protein.%目的 以多柔比星慢性肾损害大鼠为对象,探讨纤维

  12. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  13. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  14. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  15. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  16. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  17. School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) in the City of Acre: Promoting Arab and Jewish Parents' Role as Facilitators of Children's Literacy Development and as Agents of Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelniker, Tamar; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    A two-year (1998-2000) School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) programme was implemented in Acre, a mixed Jewish-Arab city in Israel, to promote parents' role as facilitators of their children literacy development and to empower parents to advance coexistence and inter-group relations. The SFPC program was part of a five-year (1995-2000)…

  18. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  19. Overexpression of ω-3 Fatty Acid Dehydrogenase Gene Protects MouseEmbryonic Fibrocytes from ω-6 PUFAs-induced Apoptosis%过表达ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶基因fat-1保护小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞避免凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 葛银林; 薛美兰; 张金玉; 李泉; 单虎

    2011-01-01

    ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs ) are important for the normal function of mammals. However, it is difficult to gain ω-3 PUFAs in human body and there is no ω-3 PUFAs dehydrogenase in vivo to catalyze ω-6PUFAs into ω-3PUFAs. But the expressed product of fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegan is ω-3 PUFAs dehydrogenase. Hence, to express fat-l gene in mouse embryonic fibrocyte is the aim of this study. First, the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFPC1-fat-l , containing fat-l gene cDNA was constructed and transfected into mouse embryonic fibrocyte. Then the expression level was detected by RT-PCR and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope, the change of cellular ω-6PUFAs /ω-3PUFAs ratio was examined by gas chromatography, the inhibiting rate of cells proliferation was observed by MTT method, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that the cells proliferation rate was higher and cells apoptosis magnitude was lower than those in the control cells. In conclusion, fat-l gene could significantly decrease the ratio of cellular ω-3PUFAs / w-3PUFAs and inhibit apoptosis of the 3T3 cell. It shows strong cell-protective effects on mouse embryonic fibrocyte.%由于膳食原因,人体摄入ω-6PUFAs/ω-3 PUFAs比例过高,脂类代谢严重失衡.鉴于ω-3PUFAs获取困难而且人体无催化ω-6PUFAs向ω-3PUFAs转化的ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶,本研究体外扩增来源于秀丽线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)的ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶基因(fat-I)cDNA,构建了真核表达载体pEGFPCl-fat-1,将该基因转染入小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞;激发荧光与RT-PCR方法检测转染pEGFPC1-fat-1细胞表达该基因,气相色谱分析显示该转染细胞中ω-6PUFAs/ω-3PUFAs的比例降低;细胞抑制率实验显示转染细胞的MTT吸光值升高(P<0.05);双染法流式细胞仪分析转染细胞凋亡降低,结果表明fat-1基因即使在高浓度ω-6PUFAs的细胞毒作用下,

  20. Efetividade de programa de agentes comunitários na promoção da saúde bucal Efectividad del programa de agentes comunitarios en la promoción de la salud bucal Effectiveness of a community health worker program on oral health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Frazão; Débora Marques

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO:Avaliar mudanças em conhecimentos, atitudes e acesso/utilização de serviços odontológicos decorrentes de um programa de promoção da saúde bucal com agentes comunitários de saúde. MÉTODOS:Um projeto de capacitação combinando ensino-aprendizagem, apoio e supervisão, foi desenvolvido entre os meses de julho de 2003 a agosto de 2004. As mudanças foram avaliadas por meio de entrevistas estruturadas em que participaram 36 agentes comunitários de saúde e uma amostra de 91 mulheres e mães, r...

  1. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    and their features, helping researchers who are investigating functional categories of promoters and their modes of regulation. Additional features of promoters that are being characterized include types of histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, RNA polymerase pausing and novel small RNAs. In this Review, we...

  2. Direct pulp capping effect with experimentally developed adhesive resin systems containing reparative dentin-promoting agents on rat pulp: mixed amounts of additives and their effect on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yoshihisa; Shinkai, Koichi; Suzuki, Masaya; Kato, Chikage; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the wound-healing process of exposed rat pulp when treated with experimental adhesive resin systems. The experimental direct pulp capping adhesive resin systems were composed of primer-I, primer-II and an experimental bonding agent. Primer-I was Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) primer containing 1.0 or 5.0 wt% CaCl(2), and primer-II was CSE primer containing 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 wt% compound of equal mole of pA and pB with synthetic peptides derived from dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1). Primer-I containing 1.0 and 5.0 wt% CaCl(2) was assigned to the experimental groups 1-3 and 4-6, respectively. Primer-II containing 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 wt% compound of pA and pB was assigned to the experimental groups 1 and 4, 2 and 5, and 3 and 6, respectively. In all experimental groups, CSE bond containing 10 wt% hydroxyapatite powder was used as the experimental bonding agent. The positive control teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide preparation (Dycal), and the negative control teeth were capped with CSE. The specimens were alternately stained with Mayer's H&E and the enhanced polymer one-step staining methods. Experimental groups 1, 4, 5 and 6 showed a higher level of reparative dentin formation compared to the negative control 14 days postoperatively. At 28 days postoperatively, all experimental groups showed the formation of extensive reparative dentin, and experimental groups 4, 5 and 6 demonstrated similar dentin bridge formation as that of the positive control. How quickly reparative dentin formation occurs may depend on the concentration of CaCl(2) and the compound of pA and pB in the experimental primer.

  3. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  4. Effect of Common Heavy Metals and Agricultural Agents on Plant Growth Promotion Ability of Bacillus pumilus WP8%常见重金属和农药对Bacillus pumilus WP8促生能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈敏; 康贻军; 王欢莉; 赵庆新

    2012-01-01

    采用平板发芽生长方法,研究Cu、Pb、Zn、农用硫酸链霉素和乙草胺在各自建议浓度(Recommended concentration,RC)和2×RC下,Bacillus pumilus WP8对辣椒发芽生长的影响.结果表明,Cu和乙草胺在试验浓度下,辣椒均不发芽,WP8的存在未能缓解胁迫作用;Pb、Zn和农用硫酸链霉素在RC下,对WP8的促生能力,特别是根的伸长影响很小;2×RC下,Pb处理对WP8促生能力的影响依然较小,但Zn和农用硫酸链霉素处理对WP8促生能力的影响较大,但根的指标仍能达CK水平;WP8的生长状况和促生表现之间没有明显的相关性.%A germination and growth experiment using filter paper was carried out to study the effect of Cu, Pb, Zn, agricultural streptomycin (STM) and acetochlor (ACT) at respective recommended concentration (RC) and 2×RC on the germination of pepper seeds and the growth promotion ability of Bacillus pumilus WPS. The results showed that no germinated seeds were detected under the stress of Cu and ACT, and there was no alleviative effect when inoculated with WP8. Slight effects of Pb, Zn and STM stress at RC, as well as Pb stress at 2×RC on seedlings growth especially on root elongation were detected, and the effects of Zn and STM stress at 2×RC on seedlings growth were distinct. However, the root length index still come up to the level of control check (CK). There was no clear definitive relationship between the growth of WP8 and the growth promotion effects. These results provided some basis for the further development of WP8.

  5. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  6. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  7. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  8. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  9. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  10. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...

  11. Bactérias endofíticas como agentes promotores do crescimento de plantas de tomateiro e de inibição in vitro de Ralstonia solanacearum Endophytic bacteria as agents of plant growth promotion in tomato and inhibition in vitro of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Baston Barretti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 150 isolados de bactérias endofíticas obtidos de folhas, caules e raízes de tomateiros sadios, 53 destacaram-se quanto à habilidade em promover o crescimento de plantas de tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Submetidos a uma nova seleção, os isolados UFV-E17, UFV-E22, UFV-E25, UFV-E26, UFV-E27, Bacillus cereus (UFV-E29, UFV-E49, UFLA 06-LS, UFLA 08-LS e UFLA 11-LS apresentaram maior promoção do crescimento. Avaliações semanais de altura e número de folhas e folíolos das plantas aconteceram durante 45 dias. Após a sexta avaliação, mensurou-se a área foliar e o peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plantas. O isolado UFV-E49 apresentou melhor resultado para altura, área foliar, número de folhas e peso da matéria fresca e seca, tanto da parte aérea quanto da raiz. Dos isolados selecionados, somente dois apresentaram efeito inibitório direto in vitro a Ralstonia solanacearum.Out of one hundred and fifty isolates of endophytic bacteria from leaves, stems and roots of healthy tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., fifty three showed ability to promote tomato plant growth, among these, ten isolates UFV-E17, UFV-E22, UFV-E25, UFV-E26, UFV-E27, Bacillus cereus (UFV-E29, UFV-E49, UFLA 06-LS, UFLA 08-LS and UFLA 11-LS, provided the largest plant growth promotion. Weekly assessment of plant height and number of leaves and leaflets were carried out during 45 days. After the sixth evaluation, the leaf area and the fresh and dry weight of the aerial part of plants and of the roots were measured. Isolate UFV-E49 provided the largest values of height, leaf area, number of leaves and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part of plants as well as the root. From the selected isolates, only two presented antimicrobial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

  12. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  13. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  14. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  16. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  17. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  18. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  19. Health Promotion by Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoku Nishino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Various antioxidnats from daily foods are expected to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. For example, natural carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin seems to be a promising antioxidant, and based upon epidemiological data it was shown to be a possible cancer preventing agent. For this reason, we chose to study beta-cryptoxanthin more extensively.Methods and Results: From the result of clinical trial using beta-cryptoxanthin-enriched Mandarin orange juice, it was proven to potentiate the preventive activity of multi-carotenoid mixture against liver cancer in the patients with chronic viral hepatitis-induced liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, beta-cryptoxanthin also has preventive activity against alcohol-induced gamma-GTP elevation, and obesity.Conclusion: An antioxidant beta -cryptoxanthin seems to be valuable for health promotion.

  20. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo Martínez, Rubén J.; Camacho Castro, Juan

    2013-01-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this e...

  1. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  2. Vitamin C Found to Promote Cancer-Causing Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will; Dunham; 徐振荣

    2001-01-01

    我们非常郑重地向读者推荐此文。一直被认为具有抗氧化、保护遗传物质DNA的维生素C具有两面性。美国研究员最新研究表明,维生素C还能帮助生成破坏DNA的物质。根据6月15日出版的美国《科学》周刊报道维生素C是有益健康的营养元素,它具有抗氧化性,能驱除细胞内的有害的自由基。但是美国宾夕法尼亚大学的一研究小组通过试管实验发现,维生素C能够作为催化剂帮助生成一种损伤DNA的genotoxins(基因毒素),这种毒素与DNA作用后引发DNA在人类肿瘤细胞中的突变。这意味着维生素C在保护DNA的同时,也具备伤害它的能力。作为普通读者,本文给我们最有益的启示应该是: …ponted to evidenece of a benefit from an overall healthy diet rather thantaking supplements on any particular nutrient。 此言应了国人的一句俗话:药补(taking supplements on any particularnutrient)不如食补(benefit from an overall healthy diet)。读者以为然否?】

  3. Promoter And Duties And Responsibilities Of Promoters In English Company Law

    OpenAIRE

    Neval Okan

    2003-01-01

    Any person who does an act with reference to the formation of a company or in aid of its organization whether he has the intention to be a partners or not is a promoter. No statuory definition of promoter is given in English company law; definition is given in case law. Promoters stand in a fiduciary relation to the proposed company. Apromoter is not an agent for the company which he is forming because a company cannot have an agent before it comes into existence. The fiduciary duty is owed t...

  4. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  5. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  6. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  7. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  8. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  9. Modafinil as a catecholaminergic agent: empirical evidence and unanswered questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Wisor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil, in its two clinical formulations (Provigil® and Nuvigil®, is a widely prescribed wake-promoting therapeutic agent. It binds competitively to the cell membrane dopamine transporter and is dependent on catecholaminergic (dopaminergic and adrenergic signaling for its wake-promoting effects. The clinical spectrum of effects for modafinil is distinct from the effects seen with other catecholaminergic agents. Relative to other commonly used agents that act through catecholaminergic mechanisms, modafinil has a relatively low abuse potential, produces wakefulness with an attenuated compensatory sleep recovery thereafter, and does not ameliorate cataplexy in narcolepsy. These clinically relevant phenomenological differences between modafinil and agents such as amphetamines and cocaine do not eliminate catecholaminergic effects as a possible mediator of its wake-promoting action; they merely reflect its unique pharmacological profile. Modafinil is an exceptionally weak, but apparently very selective, dopamine transporter inhibitor. The pharmacodynamic response to modafinil, as measured by dopamine levels in brain microdialysate, is protracted relative to other agents that act via catecholaminergic mechanisms. The conformational constraints on the interaction of modafinil with the dopamine transporter—and probably, as a consequence, its effects on trace amine receptor signaling in the catecholaminergic cell—are unique among catecholaminergic agents. These unique pharmacological properties of modafinil should be considered both in seeking to thoroughly understand its putatively elusive mechanism of action and in the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  10. Morfometria de fibroblastos e fibrócitos durante o processo cicatricial na pele de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco tratados com calêndula Morphometry of fibroblasts and fibrocytes during wound healing in the skin of rabbits of the New Zeland White breed treated with marigold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Oliveira Pagnano

    2008-09-01

    results showed that marigold allowed the highest growth rate in cells directly involved in the cicatricial process, the fibroblasts and fibrocytes and can therefore be considered the most satisfactory on the wound healing in comparison to the other treatments.

  11. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  12. Challenges of agent banking experiences in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gichana Atandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available More than ever before there is a global concern to entrench financial deepening access to previously ignored areas due to some areas considered economically unviable where majority of the MSEs operate their businesses. There is an increasing need to promote technological and institutional innovation as a means to expand financial system access and usage, including addressing infrastructure weaknesses and empowering business enterprises by developing financial literacy and financial capability programs to bring all people on board and all to participate in economic development of a country, perhaps agent banking will offer a solution to slow pace of individuals enterprise development especially from the rural areas. The uptake of agent banking in Kenya has not been well appreciated by the target beneficiaries who include among others the micro and small enterprises in the rural areas in Kenya who were expected to benefit from this technologically innovative service. In as much as it has been witnessed that there is an increase in penetration of agent banking services clients have not fully made use of the available agents at their localities to cut down on transaction costs occasioned by travelling to traditional branches and also time wasted on queuing for services . It can also be noted that, the banks have not fully taken advantage of agent banking to explore all market segments at a low operating costs. The researcher also identified some of the factors hindering the well functioning of agent banking despite mounting financial literacy training to Equity bank clients. Lack of mobile network services and float, lack of capital, issues of insecurity and fear of robbery. The paper is based on a study conducted to reveal the challenges which are hindering the rural people of Kenya from benefiting from agent banking.

  13. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  14. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  15. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  16. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rezky Purna Satit; Huam Hon Tat; Amran Rasli; Thoo Ai Chin; Inda Sukati

    2012-01-01

    Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ens...

  17. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  18. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  19. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  20. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  1. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  2. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  3. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  4. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  5. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  6. Evolution of cooperation among mobile agents with heterogenous view radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wei-Ye; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we study cooperative behavior among mobile agents; the agents have heterogenous view radii and they play the prisoner’s dilemma game with those being within their vision fields. It is found that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when the heterogeneity of view radii is considered, and the degree distribution of the system is investigated to explain this interesting phenomenon. Moreover, we report that the cooperative behavior is best favored by low density, moderate view radius, and small moving speed. Our findings may be helpful in understanding cooperative behavior in natural and social systems consisting of mobile agents.

  7. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  8. The Joker effect: cooperation driven by destructive agents

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Alex; Cuesta, José A; Requejo, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of cooperation is a central issue in evolutionary game theory. The hardest setup for the attainment of cooperation in a population of individuals is the Public Goods game in which cooperative agents generate a common good at their own expenses, while defectors "free-ride" this good. Eventually this causes the exhaustion of the good, a situation which is bad for everybody. Previous results have shown that introducing reputation, allowing for volunteer participation, punishing defectors, rewarding cooperators or structuring agents, can enhance cooperation. Here we present a model which shows how the introduction of rare, malicious agents -that we term jokers- performing just destructive actions on the other agents induce bursts of cooperation. The appearance of jokers promotes a rock-paper-scissors dynamics, where jokers outbeat defectors and cooperators outperform jokers, which are subsequently invaded by defectors. Thus, paradoxically, the existence of destructive agents acting ind...

  9. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  10. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  11. Overview of tumor promotion in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaga, T J

    1983-04-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could induce a large number of skin tumors. These investigations as well as a number of others, such as Boutwell, Van Duuren and Hecker, were responsible in defining many important aspects of the initiation and promotion of two-stage carcinogenesis. The initiation stage in mouse skin requires only a single application of either a direct-acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen and is essentially an irreversible step which as data suggests probably involves a somatic cell mutation. The promotion stage in mouse skin can be accomplished by a wide variety of weak or noncarcinogenic agents and is initially reversible later becoming irreversible. Current information suggests that skin tumor promoters are not mutagenic but bring about a number of important epigenetic changes, such as epidermal hyperplasia, and an increase in polyamines, prostaglandins and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions. Recently, tumor promotion in mouse skin was shown to consist of at least two stages, in which each stage can be accomplished by either a known promoter or a weak or nonpromoting agent. Some of the important characteristics of the first stage of promotion are: (1) only one application of a first-stage promoter, such as phorbol ester tumor promoters, calcium ionophore A23187, hydrogen peroxide and wounding is needed; (2) the action is partially irreversible; (3) an increase in dark basal keratinocytes and prostaglandins is important; and (4) such an increase can be inhibited by

  12. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  13. Research and application progress of MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-yun SUN; Shi-zhu YU

    2014-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is an important DNA repair enzyme. The promoter methylation status of MGMT gene has recently become a biomarker of gliomas. Methylation of the MGMT promoter not only is an important biomarker to evaluate the sensitivity to the chemotherapy with alkylating agents, but also contributes to predicting prognosis and distinguishing between recurrence and pseudoprogression in glioma patients. Especially in the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation stat...

  14. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  15. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  16. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  17. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  18. Mediating Performance Through Virtual Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Giannachi, Gabriella; Gillies, Marco; Kaye, Nick; Swapp, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the process of creation of virtual agents used in a virtual reality performance. The performance aimed to investigate how drama and performance could inform the creation of virtual agents and also how virtual reality could raise questions for drama and performance. The virtual agents were based on the performance of 2 actors. This paper describes the process of preparing the actors, capturing their performances and transferring them to the virtual agents. A second set of a...

  19. Turnover Intentions of Ohio Cooperative Extension County Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tilburg, Emmalou

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 229 Ohio Cooperative Extension county agents attempted to determine the role of various factors in formation of intentions to leave the job. Low levels of job satisfaction were related to pay and promotion, while high job satisfaction was related to coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. (CH)

  20. The School Counselor in Israel: An Agent of Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Rachel Lea; Sinai, Mirit

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, leaders in the school counseling profession worldwide have been calling on their colleagues to re-examine their role as "agents of social justice" in schools, with a view to promoting equal educational opportunities for all students. This research examines counselors' perceptions of the role, role behaviors, personal "justice…

  1. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  2. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  3. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  4. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  5. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  6. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  7. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  8. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  9. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  10. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  11. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  12. Your company's secret change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry

    2005-05-01

    Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change agents start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most extreme dilemmas. PMID:15929405

  13. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  14. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence......, our critical examination offers understandings about how mathematics teachers are part of the larger cultural politics of schooling and education....

  15. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  16. Newer Hemostatic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment of inherited coagulation disorders is based on the infusion of the deficient clotting factor, when available. Significant advances have been made over the past two decades in the production and availability of factor replacement products. In spite of such progression, several issue are still unsolved, the most important being the need for frequent factor concentrate infusions and the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. To overcome these important limitations, several newer hemostatic agents with an extended half-life are at an advanced stage of clinical development. After a brief overview of hemostasis, this narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the most promising novel products for hemostasis. The current status of gene therapy for hemophilia, the only therapeutic option to definitively cure this inherited bleeding disorder, is also concisely discussed. PMID:25893779

  17. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  18. Hepatocytes as Immunological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological agents in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314

  19. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  20. Design and Control of Large Collections of Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Adrian

    2001-01-01

    The intelligent control of multiple autonomous agents is an important yet difficult task. Previous methods used to address this problem have proved to be either too brittle, too hard to use, or not scalable to large systems. The 'Collective Intelligence' project at NASA/Ames provides an elegant, machine-learning approach to address these problems. This approach mathematically defines some essential properties that a reward system should have to promote coordinated behavior among reinforcement learners. This work has focused on creating additional key properties and algorithms within the mathematics of the Collective Intelligence framework. One of the additions will allow agents to learn more quickly, in a more coordinated manner. The other will let agents learn with less knowledge of their environment. These additions will allow the framework to be applied more easily, to a much larger domain of multi-agent problems.

  1. Enhancing Middle School Students' Scientific Learning and Motivation through Agent-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-H.; Chou, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Facing students' decreasing motivation to pursue scientific study, schools and educators need to coordinate new technologies with pedagogical agents to effectively sustain or promote students' scientific learning and motivation to learn. Although the provision of pedagogical agents in student learning has been studied previously, it is not clear…

  2. Conditional gene expression and promoter replacement in Zymoseptoria tritici using fungal nitrate reductase promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Sidhu, Yaadwinder; Haynes, Ken; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2015-06-01

    Studying essential genes in haploid fungi requires specific tools. Conditional promoter replacement (CPR) is an efficient method for testing gene essentiality. However, this tool requires promoters that can be strongly down-regulated. To this end, we tested the nitrate reductase promoters of Magnaporthe oryzae (pMoNIA1) and Zymoseptoria tritici (pZtNIA1) for their conditional expression in Z. tritici. Expression of EGFP driven by pMoNIA1 or pZtNIA1 was induced on nitrate and down-regulated on glutamate (10-fold less than nitrate). Levels of differential expression were similar for both promoters, demonstrating that the Z. tritici nitrogen regulatory network functions with a heterologous promoter similarly to a native promoter. To establish CPR, the promoter of Z. tritici BGS1, encoding a β-1,3-glucan synthase, was replaced by pZtNIA1 using targeted sequence replacement. Growth of pZtNIA1::BGS1 CPR transformants was strongly reduced in conditions repressing pZtNIA1, while their growth was similar to wild type in conditions inducing pZtNIA1. This differential phenotype demonstrates that BGS1 is important for growth in Z. tritici. In addition, in inducing conditions, pZtNIA1::BGS1 CPR transformants were hyper-sensitive to Calcofluor white, a cell wall disorganizing agent. Nitrate reductase promoters are therefore suitable for conditional promoter replacement in Z. tritici. This tool is a major step toward identifying novel fungicide targets.

  3. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  4. How Promotions Work

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Blattberg; Richard Briesch; Fox, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    By synthesizing findings across the sales promotion literature, this article helps the reader understand how promotions work. We identify and explain empirical generalizations related to sales promotion; that is, effects that have been found consistently in multiple studies involving different researchers. We also identify issues which have generated conflicting findings in the research, as well as important sales promotion topics that have not yet been studied. This overview of the research ...

  5. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    -promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...... on the related processes and outcomes. Although diverse in focus and research methodology, the five contributions all emphasise that the question about the outcomes of the health-promoting schools cannot, and should not be limited to narrowly defined health outcomes achieved through single health...

  6. Dynamic electronic institutions in agent oriented cloud robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrath, Vineet; Morel, Olivier; Malik, Aamir; Saad, Naufal; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The dot-com bubble bursted in the year 2000 followed by a swift movement towards resource virtualization and cloud computing business model. Cloud computing emerged not as new form of computing or network technology but a mere remoulding of existing technologies to suit a new business model. Cloud robotics is understood as adaptation of cloud computing ideas for robotic applications. Current efforts in cloud robotics stress upon developing robots that utilize computing and service infrastructure of the cloud, without debating on the underlying business model. HTM5 is an OMG's MDA based Meta-model for agent oriented development of cloud robotic systems. The trade-view of HTM5 promotes peer-to-peer trade amongst software agents. HTM5 agents represent various cloud entities and implement their business logic on cloud interactions. Trade in a peer-to-peer cloud robotic system is based on relationships and contracts amongst several agent subsets. Electronic Institutions are associations of heterogeneous intelligent agents which interact with each other following predefined norms. In Dynamic Electronic Institutions, the process of formation, reformation and dissolution of institutions is automated leading to run time adaptations in groups of agents. DEIs in agent oriented cloud robotic ecosystems bring order and group intellect. This article presents DEI implementations through HTM5 methodology. PMID:25763310

  7. Stability of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, G

    2007-01-01

    Stability is perhaps the most desired feature in the systems that we design. It is important for us to be able to predict the response of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to various environmental conditions prior to its actual deployment. The Chli-DeWilde agent stability measure views a MAS as a discrete time Markov chain with a potentially unknown transition probabilities. A MAS is considered to be stable when its state, a stochastic process, has converged to an equilibrium distribution. We investigate an extension of their agent stability definition to include MASs with evolutionary dynamics, focusing on evolving agent populations. Additionally, using our extended agent stability measure, we construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability. An example system, the Digital Ecosystem, is considered in detail to investigate the stability of an evolving agent population through simulations. The results are consistent with the original Chli-DeWilde measure.

  8. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  9. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  10. Developing a Promotional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  11. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  12. Mobile Agents for Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    SATOH, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an agent-based framework for building and operating context-aware multimedia content on digital signage in public/private spaces. It enables active and multimedia content to be composed from mobile agents, which can travel from computer to computer and provide multimedia content for advertising or user-assistant services to users. The framework automatically deploys their agents at computers near to their current positions to provide advertising o...

  13. An agent for ecological deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    2010-01-01

    An agent architecture supports the two forms of deliberation used by human agents. Cartesian, constructivist rationalism leads to game theory, decision theory and logical models. Ecological rationalism leads to deliberative actions that are derived from agents’ prior interactions and are not designed; i.e., they are strictly emergent. This paper aims to address the scant attention paid by the agent community to the predominant form of deliberation used by mankind.

  14. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  15. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  16. Agent factory: towards social robots

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, G. M. P.; Duffy, Brian R.; Collier, Rem; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a development environment, which facilitates rapid prototyping of soci...

  17. Novel agents for the treatment of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, M E

    1998-12-01

    Recent approval in the United States of two new products, Propecia (Merck Co, Rahway, NJ) and Rogaine Extra Strength 5% (Pharmacia & UpJohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI), indicated in men to promote scalp hair growth, have added a new dimension to treatment options offered by physicians in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The search for new and effective agents to treat many different hair loss problems has been intensified by the increase in hair biology research taking place worldwide, from university academic institutions to the pharmaceutical companies. All have a desire to profit from marketing such drugs that have been termed, "cosmeceuticals". Millions of men and women of every race suffer from various forms of alopecia, the most common being AGA where the target tissue active androgen, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) aggravates genetically programmed scalp hair follicles that results in short, fine, miniaturized hairs. Currently available to treat alopecia are drugs indicated for other disease processes because no other agents are accessible; some have severe side-effects and many are minimally effective. These prescription drugs were not originally indicated for alopecia and have not been adequately tested in controlled clinical trials to assess for efficacy, safety, and toxicity. These agents continue to be used clinically to treat patients with various forms of alopecia. As a result, a variety of new agents are emerging in the patient application process to gain protection and approval specifically for various forms of alopecia. This report reviews the most recently approved products, some of the more promising compounds in clinical trial development, as well as those in the over-the-counter (OTC) "natural" treatments category. PMID:9859915

  18. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  19. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Poutré, J.A.; Sadeh, N.M.; Janson, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005, held in Edi

  20. A Drosophila Model for Screening Antiobesity Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Tran Thanh; Thanh, Duong Ngoc Van; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Hattori, Gen; Arii, Masayuki; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Kamei, Kaeko

    2016-01-01

    Although triacylglycerol, the major component for lipid storage, is essential for normal physiology, its excessive accumulation causes obesity in adipose tissue and is associated with organ dysfunction in nonadipose tissue. Here, we focused on the Drosophila model to develop therapeutics for preventing obesity. The brummer (bmm) gene in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be homologous with human adipocyte triglyceride lipase, which is related to the regulation of lipid storage. We established a Drosophila model for monitoring bmm expression by introducing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene as a downstream reporter of the bmm promoter. The third-instar larvae of Drosophila showed the GFP signal in all tissues observed and specifically in the salivary gland nucleus. To confirm the relationship between bmm expression and obesity, the effect of oral administration of glucose diets on bmm promoter activity was analyzed. The Drosophila flies given high-glucose diets showed higher lipid contents, indicating the obesity phenotype; this was suggested by a weaker intensity of the GFP signal as well as reduced bmm mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Drosophila model established in this study is useful for screening antiobesity agents. We also report the effects of oral administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and some vegetables on the bmm promoter activity. PMID:27247940

  1. A Drosophila Model for Screening Antiobesity Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thanh Men

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although triacylglycerol, the major component for lipid storage, is essential for normal physiology, its excessive accumulation causes obesity in adipose tissue and is associated with organ dysfunction in nonadipose tissue. Here, we focused on the Drosophila model to develop therapeutics for preventing obesity. The brummer (bmm gene in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be homologous with human adipocyte triglyceride lipase, which is related to the regulation of lipid storage. We established a Drosophila model for monitoring bmm expression by introducing the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene as a downstream reporter of the bmm promoter. The third-instar larvae of Drosophila showed the GFP signal in all tissues observed and specifically in the salivary gland nucleus. To confirm the relationship between bmm expression and obesity, the effect of oral administration of glucose diets on bmm promoter activity was analyzed. The Drosophila flies given high-glucose diets showed higher lipid contents, indicating the obesity phenotype; this was suggested by a weaker intensity of the GFP signal as well as reduced bmm mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Drosophila model established in this study is useful for screening antiobesity agents. We also report the effects of oral administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and some vegetables on the bmm promoter activity.

  2. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  3. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  4. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  5. Efficient Promotion Strategies in a Hierarchical Organization

    CERN Document Server

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Garofalo, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    The Peter principle has been recently investigated by means of an agent-based simulation and its validity has been numerically corroborated. It has been confirmed that, within certain conditions, it can really influence in a negative way the efficiency of a pyramidal organization adopting meritocratic promotions. It was also found that, in order to bypass these effects, alternative promotion strategies should be adopted, as for example a random selection choice. In this paper, within the same line of research, we study promotion strategies in a more realistic hierarchical and modular organization and we show the robustness of our previous results, extending their validity to a more general context. We discuss also why the adoption of these strategies could be useful for real organizations.

  6. Agent Roles in Human Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M.; Sycara, K.; Payne, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe results of a series of experiments investigating the effects of agent aiding on human teams. The role an agent played, its task, and the ease with which it communicated with its human teammates all influenced team behavior. Team supporting tasks such as relaying and reminding seemed particularly effective.

  7. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  8. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  9. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  10. 2012 Survey of clothing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Clothing agents take part in China International Clothing and Accessories Fairs ( CHIC ) year by year. In order to attracting investment, they compared with each other at improving their originality and service levels. At the exhibition brands manufacturers and agents had a face-to-face communication,

  11. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  12. Radiation-Therapeutic Agent Clinical Trials: Leveraging Advantages of a National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Naoko; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Bernhard, Eric J; Zwiebel, James; Norman Coleman, C; Kunos, Charles A

    2016-10-01

    A number of oncology phase II radiochemotherapy trials with promising results have been conducted late in the overall experimental therapeutic agent development process. Accelerated development and approval of experimental therapeutic agents have stimulated further interest in much earlier radiation-agent studies to increase the likelihood of success in phase III trials. To sustain this interest, more forward-thinking preclinical radiobiology experimental designs are needed to improve discovery of promising radiochemotherapy plus agent combinations for clinical trial testing. These experimental designs should better inform next-step radiation-agent clinical trial dose, schedule, exposure, and therapeutic effect. Recognizing the need for a better strategy to develop preclinical data supporting radiation-agent phase I or II trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) and the NCI-Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch of the Radiation Research Program have partnered to promote earlier radiobiology studies of CTEP portfolio agents. In this Seminars in Radiation Oncology article, four key components of this effort are discussed. First, we outline steps for accessing CTEP agents for preclinical testing. Second, we propose radiobiology studies that facilitate transition from preclinical testing to early phase trial activation. Third, we navigate steps that walk through CTEP agent strategic development paths available for radiation-agent testing. Fourth, we highlight a new NCI-sponsored cooperative agreement grant supporting in vitro and in vivo radiation-CTEP agent testing that informs early phase trial designs. Throughout the article, we include contemporary examples of successful radiation-agent development initiatives.

  13. Is Lamb Promotion Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    This objective of this study is to determine whether the advertising and promotion dollars collected and spent by the American Lamb Board on lamb promotion since the inception of the Lamb Checkoff Program have effectively increased lamb consumption in the United States. The main conclusion is that program has resulted in roughly 7.6 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $41.59 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and ...

  14. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  15. Analysis of promotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the classification of promotions and determining the effectiveness of specific measures to stimulate sales (which isnt possible practically in most advertising companies.

  16. Economic Agents, Ethics and International Economic Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The last sixty years have seen international economic organisations maintain a position at the forefront of promoting economic growth and socioeconomic development. These organisations have not achieved as much against certain benchmarks, and several observers have accused them of being unqualified to meet the needs of the poor, and even found them guilty of something worse, such as famine and disease. Although these organisations have organisational behaviour and skills, many of their funded projects lack forcefulness to such an extent that they should only be answerable through achieving certain economic facts by way of ethics and morals. We design ethics and morals as two interconnected concepts, and the rationale that binds all economic agents to their respective obligations must be interpreted by effective courses of action dictated by economic realities.

  17. Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance against infection by re-stabilizing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. Several reports describe that the anticancer activity of medicinal plants is due to the presence of antioxidants in them. In fact, the medicinal plants are easily available, cheaper and possess no toxicity as compared to the modern (allopathic drugs. Hence, this review article contains 66 medicinal plants, which are the natural sources of anticancer agents.

  18. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  19. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  20. Intelligent Farmer Agent for Multi-Agent Ecological Simulations Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Cruz; António Pereira; Pedro Valente; Pedro Duarte; Luis Paulo Reis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area. A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum s...

  1. MDE and Mobile Agents : another reflexion on the agent migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gherbi, Tahar; Borne, Isabelle; Meslati, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    International audience Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is a software development approach family based on the use of models in the software construction. It allows the exploitation of models to simulate, estimate, understand, communicate and produce code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile and distributed environments. A mobile agent is essentially a computer program that acts autonomously on behalf of a user and travels through a network of h...

  2. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  3. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  4. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingCheng; XuGuan; BaoLiu

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to designing and building complex systems. Yet, to date, little effort had been devoted to discussing the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstream software engineering paradiam.Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agentoriented will be argued.We describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing a auction system.

  5. The optimal allocation of prizes in tournaments of heterogeneous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Dutcher, Glenn; Lindner, Florian; Ryvkin, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Tournaments are widely used in organizations, explicitly or implicitly, to reward the best-performing employees, e.g., through promotion or bonuses, and to punish the worst-performing employees, e.g., through firing or unfavorable job assignments. We use a principal-agent model to compare the efficiency of two tournament incentive schemes, reward tournament and punishment tournament, which, respectively, reward the best performer and punish the worst performer. We show that while the two sche...

  6. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Partridge, W.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dees, H.C. [Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petersen, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type 1 and type 2 photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined.

  7. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  8. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  9. Optimistic Agents are Asymptotically Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Sunehag, Peter; Hutter, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We use optimism to introduce generic asymptotically optimal reinforcement learning agents. They achieve, with an arbitrary finite or compact class of environments, asymptotically optimal behavior. Furthermore, in the finite deterministic case we provide finite error bounds.

  10. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  11. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  12. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...... self-technology that requires the subject to take on the ideology and practices prescribed by health promotion in order to conduct themselves and others to better health. But where there is power and attempted government, there is also resistance. The paper will investigate and discuss the resistance...... are conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student...

  13. [Progress in study of oral biofilm dispersal-inducing agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhu; Jingmei, Yang; Dingyu, Duan; Yi, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Communities of bacteria wrapped in self-generated extracellular polymeric matrix and attached to a solid surface are known as biofilm. Biofilm formation and development can be divided into three stages: adhesion of cells to a surface, reproduction of the cells, and dispersion of cells. The procedure, which surface-attached biofilm disperses bacterial cells into the environment to colonize new sites, is defined as biofilm dispersal. Biofilm dispersal is an essential stage of biofilm life cycle. It plays an important role in the transmission of bacteria. For many pathogenic bacteria, biofilm dispersal can transform bacteria in biofilm into planktonic state and promote the spread of infection. The formation of biofilm may increase the resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agent and host defence response compared with planktonic cells. In the oral cavity, oral microorganism can attach to the surface of oral tissue and prosthesis to form biofilm. Dental caries and periodontal disease are oral chronic infections diseases of the oral tissue. The occurrence of them has a close relationship with biofilm. The mechanism of dispersal is a hot topic in recent years. Some agents which promote dispersal might be a therapeutic potential against biofilm infections. The clinical implication of dispersal agents and potential application are promising. This article reviews the dispersal-inducing agents of oral biofilms.

  14. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  15. Locating Agents in RFID Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The use of software agents can create an “intelligent” interface between users’ preferences and the back‐end systems. Agents are now able to interact and communicate with each other, forming a virtual community and feeding back the user with suggestions. Innovative systems related to Asset Tracking, Inventory and Shelving architectures are more often involving advanced communication techniques (e.g., RFID); these systems are responsible for user authentication and objects verification. RFID s...

  16. Agents in E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mencke; Dumke, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  17. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  18. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  19. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  20. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhraj eKaur; Sumanpreet eKaur

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  1. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeu...

  2. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  3. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  4. Agent 2003 Conference on Challenges in Social Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret Clemmons, ed.

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. Agent 2003 is the second conference in which three Special Interest Groups from the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS) have been involved in planning the program--Computational Social Theory; Simulation Applications; and Methods, Toolkits and Techniques. The theme of Agent 2003, Challenges in Social Simulation, is especially relevant, as there seems to be no shortage of such challenges. Agent simulation has been applied with increasing frequency to social domains for several decades, and its promise is clear and increasingly visible. Like any nascent scientific methodology, however, it faces a number of problems or issues that must be addressed in order to progress. These challenges include: (1) Validating models relative to the social settings they are designed to represent; (2) Developing agents and interactions simple enough to understand but sufficiently complex to do justice to the social processes of interest; (3) Bridging the gap between empirically spare artificial societies and naturally occurring social phenomena; (4) Building multi-level models that span processes across domains; (5) Promoting a dialog among theoretical, qualitative, and empirical social scientists and area experts, on the one hand, and mathematical and computational modelers and engineers, on the other; (6) Using that dialog to facilitate substantive progress in the social sciences; and (7) Fulfilling the aspirations of users in business, government, and other application areas, while recognizing and addressing the preceding challenges. Although this list hardly exhausts the challenges the field faces, it does identify topics addressed throughout the presentations of Agent 2003. Agent 2003 is part of a much larger process in which new methods and techniques are applied to

  5. The Relationship Between Marketing Mix And Customer Decision-Making Over Travel Agents: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezky Purna Satit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the role of travel agents in increasingly gaining importance in today’s travel and tourism industry. A travel industry without travel agents is quite unthinkable as it would result in utter chaos and disorder in the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the 4Ps, namely price, promotion, place and product, and customer decision-making over travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. Travel agents are seriously considered for these 4Ps activities to ensure that they allocate their resources effectively and efficiently. A total of 215 respondents were selected from customers of three travel agents in Palembang, Indonesia. The data collected was analyzed using three statistical methods, that is, mean analysis, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The results revealed that only product and price were associated with customer decision-making over travel agents. Based on the findings, strategic recommendations are proposed for the travel industry in Indonesia.

  6. Development and field testing of agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In snow-covering region of Japan, the promotion of snowmelting with application of agricultural snowmelting agents ('Yusetsuzai' in Japanese) has been widely carried out by farmers at the snowmelting season. When black colored materials with albedo-lowering effect are spread on snow surface, absorption of solar radiation by snow is increased, the snowmelting is promoted and snow thawing date becomes earlier. As a result, the growing season of crop plants is extended. Existing agricultural snowmelting agents have been mostly made from industrial waste materials or industrial processed products due to requirement for the low cost of the raw materials. These agents may contain harmful heavy metal elements and may lead to environmental pollution. To solve these problems, we developed the new agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials generated from the fields of agriculture and fishery. The developed snowmelting agents were made from shells of Patinopecten yessoensis, fowl droppings and processed wastes of fish and shellfish, etc. Especially, the shells of Patinopecten yessoensis has problems due to generation of a huge quantity in Hokkaido. Therefore, the recycling-use of these waste materials was strongly requested and expected. The developed snowmelting agents were possible to spread efficiently and safely on the snow-surface without wide scattering by controlling the particle size within the range larger than 100 microm and smaller than 1180 microm. Results obtained from the field experiment showed that the albedo was decreased from 0.70 for natural snow to 0.20 and the promotion of snowmelting for 11 days was recognized when 100 kg/10a of developed agent was spread. The promoting ability of the developed agent was equivalent to those of the existing commercial snowmelting agents. (author)

  7. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  8. Special issue about advances in Physical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of Spanish groups which are doing research in areas related with physical agents: they use agent-based technologies concepts, especially industrial applications, robotics and domotics (physical agents) and applications related to the information society, (software agents) highlighting the similarities and synergies among physical and software agents. In this special issue we will show several works from those groups, focusing on the recent advances in Physical Agents.

  9. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  10. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  11. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  12. Effect of nucleating agents on crystallization kinetics of PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of three nucleating agents concluding talc, sodium benzoate (SB and an ionomer (Ion., Na+ on crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and polarized optical microscope (POM, the parameters of crystallization kinetics were obtained through Avrami and Ozawa equations. The fold surface free energy σe of pure PET and PET/nucleating agent blends were calculated by Hoffman-Lauritzen theory. The results indicate that the three kinds of nucleating agents increase the crystallization rate constant through promoting their nucleating effect for PET crystallization, among which SB is the best one with the same content. The crystallization mode of PET might shift from three-dimensional growth to two-dimensional growth by the addition of the nucleating agents. The values of σe of PET/nucleating agent blends are much less than that of pure PET, and PET/SB (99:1 blend has the least value of σe (18.2 mJ/m2. The conclusion based on Hoffman theory is similar to the analysis by Avrami and Ozawa equations.

  13. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are...... conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student’s and...... citizen’s health, health habits and health concerns merge within the educational framework. Through empirical findings, based on 20 qualitative interviews and participatory observation studies from four schools, I show that there are widespread ideas, among teachers as well as students, that professional...

  14. Promoting Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret A. Winker, MD; Lorraine E. Ferris, PhD, LLM

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  15. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  16. A small peptide with potential ability to promote wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    Full Text Available Wound-healing represents a major health burden, such as diabetes-induced skin ulcers and burning. Many works are being tried to find ideal clinical wound-healing biomaterials. Especially, small molecules with low cost and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (i.e. transforming growth factor beta, TGF-β are excellent candidates. In this study, a small peptide (tiger17, c[WCKPKPKPRCH-NH2] containing only 11 amino acid residues was designed and proved to be a potent wound healer. It showed strong wound healing-promoting activity in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Tiger17 exerted significant effects on three stages of wound healing progresses including (1 the induction of macrophages recruitment to wound site at inflammatory reaction stage; (2 the promotion of the migration and proliferation both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, leading to reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation; and (3 tissue remodeling phase, by promoting the release of transforming TGF-β1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in murine macrophages and activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways. Considering its easy production, store and transfer and function to promote production of endogenous wound healing agents (TGF-β, tiger17 might be an exciting biomaterial or template for the development of novel wound-healing agents.

  17. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  18. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  19. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  20. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  1. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  2. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  3. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  4. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prisoners of War Employee Health Employee Health Home Employee Occupational Health Safe Patient Handling Health Promotion Violence Prevention Workers' Compensation Publications & Reports About Us About Public Health Post-Deployment Health Population Health About Population ...

  5. 放线菌剂与腐植酸钾对魔芋抗病促生效果研究%Study of Combined Application of Actinomycetes Biocontrol Agents and Potassium Humate on Disease Resistance and Growth-promoting Effect of Amorphophallus Konjac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠良; 刘列平; 何斐

    2014-01-01

    分别以不施菌剂、不施腐植酸钾为对照,采用小区试验,探讨生防放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施条件下二者对魔芋的防病促生作用。试验结果表明:(1)​当腐植酸钾与3号放线菌配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。30克/株、60克/株、90克/株腐植酸钾分别配施3号菌剂时,与不施腐植酸钾对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了9.8%~41.6%、17.1%~76.3%和20.1%~64.2%。其中,60克/株腐植酸钾配施3号菌剂时效果最明显。(2)​当放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。1、2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施,与不施菌剂对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了11.7%~89.7%、33.3%~150.9%和38.5%~175.0%。其中2、3号放线菌剂与60克/株腐植酸钾配施处理效果较好。研究表明,腐植酸钾与放线菌剂配施能促进魔芋生长,提高魔芋产量,降低发病率。%With no actinomycetes and potassium humate treatments as control(CK), the effect of actinomycetes and potassium humate on disease resistance and growth-promoting of Amorphophallus konjac in the plot trials were evalu-ated. Results showed that:(1) Combined application of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had strong disease resistance and growth-promoting effect. Under 30, 60, 90 gram per plant of potassium humate combined with actinomy-cetes No.3 treatment, biocontrol effect increased by 9.8%~41.6%, yield increased by 17.1%~76.3%and growth factor increased by 20.1%~64.2% compared with the group without potassium humate. Among which, the combined ap-plication of 60 gram per plant of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had the most obvious effect. (2) Combined application of actinomycetes and potassium humate had signiifcant anti-disease and growth-promoting effect. Three kind of actinomycetes combined with 60 gram per plant of potassium

  6. Progress of Study on the Special-toxicology of Quinoxaline-1,4- dioxide-type Antibacterial and Growth-promoting Agents%喹口恶啉-1,4-二氧化物类抗菌促生长剂特殊毒理学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹随忠; 张力; 梁剑平; 刘宗平

    2001-01-01

    喹口恶啉-1,4-二氧化物取代衍生物卡巴氧、喹乙醇、西吖氧作为抗菌促生长饲料添加剂广泛应用于猪。为了评价它们的安全性,本文从致突变、致癌性和生殖毒性三方面对它们的特殊毒理学研究作了综述。%Quinoxaline-1,4-Dioxide-type derivatives such as carbadox,olaquindox and cyadox are added to pigs feed as antibacterial and growth-promoting feed additives.In order to evaluate theirs safety,the special-toxicology of the three compounds,including mutagenicity,carcinogenicity and genetic-toxicity were vreviewed the present article.

  7. Study of Combined Application of Actinomycetes Biocontrol Agents and Potassium Humate on Disease Resistance and Growth-promoting Effect of Amorphophallus Konjac%放线菌剂与腐植酸钾对魔芋抗病促生效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠良; 刘列平; 何斐

    2014-01-01

    With no actinomycetes and potassium humate treatments as control(CK), the effect of actinomycetes and potassium humate on disease resistance and growth-promoting of Amorphophallus konjac in the plot trials were evalu-ated. Results showed that:(1) Combined application of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had strong disease resistance and growth-promoting effect. Under 30, 60, 90 gram per plant of potassium humate combined with actinomy-cetes No.3 treatment, biocontrol effect increased by 9.8%~41.6%, yield increased by 17.1%~76.3%and growth factor increased by 20.1%~64.2% compared with the group without potassium humate. Among which, the combined ap-plication of 60 gram per plant of potassium humate and actinomycetes No.3 had the most obvious effect. (2) Combined application of actinomycetes and potassium humate had signiifcant anti-disease and growth-promoting effect. Three kind of actinomycetes combined with 60 gram per plant of potassium humate treatment, biocontrol effect increased by 11.7%~89.7%, yield increased by 33.3%~150.9% and growth factor increased by 38.5%~175.0% compared with the group without actinomycetes. In particular, No. 2 and No. 3 actinomycetes had obvious effect. These results sug-gested that the combined application of actinomycetes and potassium humate not only promoted A. konjac growth and yield, but also reduced the incidence of disease.%分别以不施菌剂、不施腐植酸钾为对照,采用小区试验,探讨生防放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施条件下二者对魔芋的防病促生作用。试验结果表明:(1)​当腐植酸钾与3号放线菌配施时,具有较强的防病促生作用。30克/株、60克/株、90克/株腐植酸钾分别配施3号菌剂时,与不施腐植酸钾对照相比,魔芋病害相对防效、增产率及增长系数分别提高了9.8%~41.6%、17.1%~76.3%和20.1%~64.2%。其中,60克/株腐植酸钾配施3号菌剂时效果最明显。(2)​当放线菌剂与腐植酸钾配施

  8. Promotion of cooperation by payoff-driven migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Yang, Han-Xin; Guo, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Migration plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Previous studies concerning mobile population often assumed that all agents move with the identical velocity. In this paper, we propose a payoff-driven migration in which the velocity of an agent depends on his/her payoff. A parameter α is introduced to adjust the influence of payoff, when α = 0 means that agents all move with the identical velocity while α > 0 means that the lower the payoff is, the faster the moving speed is, and vice versa. For the prisoner's dilemma game, we find that in comparison with the case that agents all move with the same speed, cooperation could be promoted strongly when payoff-dependent velocity is considered. Remarkably, the cooperation level is not a monotonic function of α, and there exists an optimal value of α which can lead to the maximum cooperation level. For the snowdrift game, the cooperation level increases with α.

  9. Zampanolide and Dactylolide: Cytotoxic Tubulin-Assembly Agents and Promising Anticancer Leads

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiao-Hong; Kingston, David G. I.

    2014-01-01

    Zampanolide is a marine natural macrolide and a recent addition to the family of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents. Zampanolide exhibits unique effects on tubulin assembly and is more potent than paclitaxel against several multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines. A high-resolution crystal structure of xB-tubulin in complex with zampanolide explains how taxane-site microtubule-stabilizing agents promote microtubule assemble and stability. This review provides an overview of current devel...

  10. Zampanolide and dactylolide: cytotoxic tubulin-assembly agents and promising anticancer leads

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiao-Hong; Kingston, David G. I.

    2014-01-01

    Covering: through January 2014 Zampanolide is a marine natural macrolide and a recent addition to the family of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents. Zampanolide exhibits unique effects on tubulin assembly and is more potent than paclitaxel against several multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines. A high-resolution crystal structure of αβ-tubulin in complex with zampanolide explains how taxane-site microtubule-stabilizing agents promote microtubule assemble and stability. This review provid...

  11. Building s New Socialist Countryside, Improving Commission and Agent System of "Village-level Accounting"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Rural finance is an issue concerned with rural people, improving rural financial management is important to close the relations of cadres and masses, maintain rural stability, and promote rural economic development. This article explained the main problems of village financial, the needs of introducing commission and agent system of"village-level accounting" for building a new socialist countryside, and the measures of improving commission and agent system of "village-level accounting".

  12. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  13. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  14. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  15. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  16. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  17. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  18. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  19. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  20. Direct Vasodilators and Sympatholytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Meghan N; Chao, James Y; Ng, Tien M H

    2016-01-01

    Direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents were some of the first antihypertensive medications discovered and utilized in the past century. However, side effect profiles and the advent of newer antihypertensive drug classes have reduced the use of these agents in recent decades. Outcome data and large randomized trials supporting the efficacy of these medications are limited; however, in general the blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents has repeatedly been shown to be comparable to other more contemporary drug classes. Nevertheless, a landmark hypertension trial found a negative outcome with a doxazosin-based regimen compared to a chlorthalidone-based regimen, leading to the removal of α-1 adrenergic receptor blockers as first-line monotherapy from the hypertension guidelines. In contemporary practice, direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents, particularly hydralazine and clonidine, are often utilized in refractory hypertension. Hydralazine and minoxidil may also be useful alternatives for patients with renal dysfunction, and both hydralazine and methyldopa are considered first line for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Hydralazine has also found widespread use for the treatment of systolic heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). The data to support use of this combination in African Americans with heart failure are particularly robust. Hydralazine with ISDN may also serve as an alternative for patients with an intolerance to angiotensin antagonists. Given these niche indications, vasodilators and sympatholytics are still useful in clinical practice; therefore, it is prudent to understand the existing data regarding efficacy and the safe use of these medications. PMID:26033778

  1. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  2. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  3. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  4. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  6. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  7. Using Agent to Coordinate Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C H; Chen, Jason J Y

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, agent and web service are two separate research areas. We figure that, through agent communication, agent is suitable to coordinate web services. However, there exist agent communication problems due to the lack of uniform, cross-platform vocabulary. Fortunately, ontology defines a vocabulary. We thus propose a new agent communication layer and present the web ontology language (OWL)-based operational ontologies that provides a declarative description. It can be accessed by various engines to facilitate agent communication. Further, in our operational ontologies, we define the mental attitudes of agents that can be shared among other agents. Our architecture enhanced the 3APL agent platform, and it is implemented as an agent communication framework. Finally, we extended the framework to be compatible with the web ontology language for service (OWL-S), and then develop a movie recommendation system with four OWL-S semantic web services on the framework. The benefits of this work are: 1) dynamic ...

  8. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  9. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    2008-01-01

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation in software systems with less human interaction. Major challenge to deployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents and preventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems, as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchor toolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure management of mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. It provide...

  10. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  11. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  12. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Spurling Geoffrey K; Mansfield Peter R; Montgomery Brett D; Ward Alison M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether...

  13. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M;

    2005-01-01

    them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...

  14. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  15. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and disadvantages of…

  16. PERSEPSI PENGELOLA VILA DI KUTA UTARA TERHADAP PENGGUNAAN ONLINE TRAVEL AGENTS UNTUK PROMOSI DAN PENJUALAN

    OpenAIRE

    Luh Sri Astuti

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing tendency for villa and accommodationbusiness worldwide to use online travel agents (OTA) to promoteand sell their rooms. This research discusses the advantagesand disadvantages of the promotion and sales through OTA forvilla business in North Kuta area and analyses motivation andperception of the villa management in using OTA. The objectof the research is the villa manager, supervisors and staff whohandle the villa promotion and sales of their accommodationbusiness. V...

  17. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  18. Irradiation, Cisplatin, and 5-Azacytidine Upregulate Cytomegalovirus Promoter in Tumors and Muscles: Implementation of Non-invasive Fluorescence Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kamensek, Urska; Sersa, Gregor; Vidic, Suzana; Tevz, Gregor; Kranjc, Simona; Cemazar, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression of transgenes in mammalian cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of methylation and upregulation of the CMV promoter by irradiation and the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin in vivo using non-invasive fluorescence in vivo imaging. Procedures Murine fibrosarcoma LPB and mammary carcinoma TS/A cells were stably transfected with plasmids encoding CMV and p21 promoter-driven green fl...

  19. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  1. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  2. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  3. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. Crimen organizado y agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Reus, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de la justicia penal actual es la lucha contra la criminalidad organizada, bien por su propia naturaleza de “crimen organizado”, bien porque presenta elementos trasnacionales que impiden su investigación a fondo. Todo ello exige la creación de recursos que permitan la investigación de dichos delitos, recursos como el de infiltración de los agentes policiales, objeto del trabajo.

  5. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, R.; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The sp...

  6. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  7. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  8. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  9. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  10. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  11. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  12. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  13. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  14. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  15. Dimensions and Issues of Mobile Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Agent is a type of software system which acts “intelligently” on one’s behalf with the feature of autonomy, learning ability and most importantly mobility. Now mobile agents are gaining interest in the research community. In this article mobile agents will be addressed as tools for mobile computing. Mobile agents have been used in applications ranging from network management to information management. We present mobile agent concept, characteristics, classification, need, applications and technical constraints in the mobile technology. We also provide a brief case study about how mobile agent is used for information retrieval.

  16. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  17. Biologic agents for anterior cruciate ligament healing: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Loibl, Markus; Andriolo, Luca; Filardo, Giuseppe; Zellner, Johannes; Koch, Matthias; Angele, Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIM To systematically review the currently available literature concerning the application of biologic agents such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells to promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of biologic agents (i.e., PRP or stem cells) to favor ACL healing during reconstruction or repair. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: Clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in English language, on the use of PRP or stem cells during ACL reconstruction/repair. Exclusion criteria were articles written in other languages, reviews, or studies analyzing other applications of PRP/stem cells in knee surgery not related to promoting ACL healing. RESULTS The database search identified 394 records that were screened. A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis: In one paper stem cells were applied for ACL healing, in one paper there was a concomitant application of PRP and stem cells, whereas in the remaining 21 papers PRP was used. Based on the ACL injury pattern, two papers investigated biologic agents in ACL partial tears whereas 21 papers in ACL reconstruction. Looking at the quality of the available literature, 17 out of 21 studies dealing with ACL reconstruction were randomized controlled trials. Both studies on ACL repair were case series. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the role of stem cells in promoting ACL healing both in case of partial and complete tears. The role of PRP is still controversial and the only advantage emerging from the literature is related to a better graft maturation over time, without documenting beneficial effects in terms of clinical outcome, bone-graft integration and prevention of bony tunnel enlargement. PMID:27672573

  18. Radiation-Therapeutic Agent Clinical Trials: Leveraging Advantages of a National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Naoko; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Bernhard, Eric J; Zwiebel, James; Norman Coleman, C; Kunos, Charles A

    2016-10-01

    A number of oncology phase II radiochemotherapy trials with promising results have been conducted late in the overall experimental therapeutic agent development process. Accelerated development and approval of experimental therapeutic agents have stimulated further interest in much earlier radiation-agent studies to increase the likelihood of success in phase III trials. To sustain this interest, more forward-thinking preclinical radiobiology experimental designs are needed to improve discovery of promising radiochemotherapy plus agent combinations for clinical trial testing. These experimental designs should better inform next-step radiation-agent clinical trial dose, schedule, exposure, and therapeutic effect. Recognizing the need for a better strategy to develop preclinical data supporting radiation-agent phase I or II trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) and the NCI-Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch of the Radiation Research Program have partnered to promote earlier radiobiology studies of CTEP portfolio agents. In this Seminars in Radiation Oncology article, four key components of this effort are discussed. First, we outline steps for accessing CTEP agents for preclinical testing. Second, we propose radiobiology studies that facilitate transition from preclinical testing to early phase trial activation. Third, we navigate steps that walk through CTEP agent strategic development paths available for radiation-agent testing. Fourth, we highlight a new NCI-sponsored cooperative agreement grant supporting in vitro and in vivo radiation-CTEP agent testing that informs early phase trial designs. Throughout the article, we include contemporary examples of successful radiation-agent development initiatives. PMID:27619249

  19. Research and application progress of MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-yun SUN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is an important DNA repair enzyme. The promoter methylation status of MGMT gene has recently become a biomarker of gliomas. Methylation of the MGMT promoter not only is an important biomarker to evaluate the sensitivity to the chemotherapy with alkylating agents, but also contributes to predicting prognosis and distinguishing between recurrence and pseudoprogression in glioma patients. Especially in the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation status has recently been introduced to be a biomarker for glioma classification and personalized treatment strategies. This review gives a short summary of the function of MGMT and clinical application of MGMT promoter methylation in personalized treatment strategies, prognosis evaluation and differentiation of recurrence and pseudoprogression of glioma. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.07.017

  20. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  1. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  2. Advancement & Promotion Review: 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...

  3. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  4. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  5. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences. PMID:12336781

  6. A framework for organization-aware agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by the presence of a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals. Organizations, such as those used in real-life to structure human activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, can regulate the agents...... explicit coordination mechanisms within the agents. The organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model, but uses an organizational metamodel. We show how AORTA helps agents work together in a system with an organization......’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...

  7. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  8. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  9. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  10. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  11. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  12. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  13. PROMOTION, SWITCHING BARRIERS, AND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Shin Tung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationships among promotion effects, switching barriers, and loyalty in the department stores. The relationship between switching barriers and loyalty reveals partially the same results as the switching barriers theory of Jones et al. (2000. The reasons arise from “too often” and “too similar” sales promotion programs of competitive department stores in Taiwan, leading the promotion effects to not contribute to the attractiveness of competitors. The promotion effects have a positive and significant influence on loyalty, which is consistent with the prior literature. Promotion effects are also the most important weight to loyalty in our tested model but it reveals a seeming loyalty, because the loyalty depends on the reward of promotion. The negative relationship between promotion effects and attractiveness of alternative supports the promotion effects, which can lower the attractiveness of competitors, but these similar promotion plans are not attributed to interpersonal relationships.

  14. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  15. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server...

  16. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  17. Explaining Simulations Through Self Explaining Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Maaike Harbers; John-Jules Meyer; Karel Van den Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is more variable and harder to predict than reactive behavior, and therefore it might be harder to explain. However, the approach presented in this paper tries to make advantage of the agents' pro-active...

  18. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuayuQiu; ChuanfuLiu; XiaokeMa; YingjuanFu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-15 30%, were better than that of the imported product.

  19. ENZYMATIC DEINKING AGENTS FOR MIXED OFFICE WASTEPAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayu Qiu; Chuanfu Liu; Xiaoke Ma; Yingjuan Fu

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on deinking agents for enzymatic deinking of MOW (mixed office wastepaper). The deinking performances of many series of surfactants were discussed at the experimental conditions, and finally, some surfactants, which had good deinking effect, were selected. Then two-composed deinking agents were discussed. The deinkability of the deinking agents, e.g. deinking agents containing T-123 50% and P-10 50%, T-123 70% and O-1530%, were better than that of the imported product.

  20. Virtual Knowledge Communities for Semantic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    International audience Virtual Knowledge Communities are a well suited paradigm for decentralized knowldege exchanges and they have been applied in several domains. In this paper we investigate the implementation of virtual knowledge communities with se- mantic agents. Using the SAM (Semantic Agent Modeling) approach, we show that agents can exchange community re- lated concepts (in OWL) and behavior (in SWRL). Agents can then learn and adapt new community-related behavior, which is useful...

  1. Topology and Social Behaviour of Agents

    OpenAIRE

    O. Hudak

    2003-01-01

    In a social group its members are caled here agents. Any two agents from the group may interact. The interaction consists of the exchange of information and it costs some energy. There exist subgroups of interacting agents which are nonreducibile. The structure, configuration of interactions between agents in the group, forms a macroscopic structure. The statistical equilibrium due to microreversibility is characterised by the maximum of entropy and by the minimum of energy, costs of informat...

  2. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  3. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  4. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  5. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  6. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  7. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  8. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  9. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may r

  10. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  11. Explaining simulations through self explaining agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  12. Explaining Simulations through Self Explaining Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Dignum, F.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several strategies are used to explain emergent interaction patterns in agent-based simulations. A distinction can be made between simulations in which the agents just behave in a reactive way, and simulations involving agents with also pro-active (goal-directed) behavior. Pro-active behavior is mor

  13. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  14. The Ontogenesis of Agent: Linguistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the findings of a longitudinal study of three infants between their 11th and 22nd months to document development of linguistic expression of the agent concept indicated that first vocalizations were inconsistently associated with nonverbal agentive behaviors and later mature utterances coded agent-action-recipient events. (MC)

  15. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  16. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  17. 7 CFR 1430.210 - MILC agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MILC agents. (a) MILC benefits may be disbursed by a dairy marketing cooperative that serves special... operation may authorize an agent of a dairy cooperative or milk handler affiliated with such cooperative to... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false MILC agents. 1430.210 Section 1430.210...

  18. Agents and Lattice-valued Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Germanno Resconi

    2006-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.

  19. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt;

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We ...

  20. Construction and Evaluation of Animated Teachable Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, Bobby; Williams, Betsy; Kramer, Mattie Ruth; Viswanath, Karun; Balachandran, Ramya; Belynne, Kadira; Biswas, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the design decisions, technical approach, and evaluation of the animation and interface components for an agent-based system that allows learners to learn by teaching. Students learn by teaching an animated agent using a visual representation. The agent can answer questions about what she has been taught and take quizzes.…

  1. Stigmergy in multi-agent reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Raghav; Dutech, Alain; Charpillet, François

    2004-01-01

    http://www.computer.org In this paper, we describe how certain aspects of the biological phenomena of stigmergy can be imported into multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), with the purpose of better enabling coordination of agent actions and speeding up learning. In particular, we detail how these stigmergic aspects can be used to define an inter-agent communication framework.

  2. Agent for roentgenocontrast examination of cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-soluble agent, additionaly containing starch, agar, water, is suggested to increase accuracy of injured cavity diagnostics. The method for roentgenocontrast agent preparation on the base of starch-agar gel is described. Advantages of the agent suggested in comparison with those of roentgenologic cavity investigation used are shown

  3. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  4. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  5. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  6. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  7. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  8. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 12 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), and Science Citation Index-Expanded (1900 to January 2014). Manual searches in reference...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...

  9. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  10. Camouflaging Agents for Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Claudia; Porto, Dennis A; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired condition resulting in patches of depigmented skin that is cosmetically disfiguring and can subsequently be psychologically disturbing. For patients seeking to mask their vitiligo, camouflage options have historically been limited and been designated as a cosmetic, rather than a medical, concern. As research has indicated that proper concealment of vitiligo lesions can vastly improve quality of life, we believe it is essential that dermatologists become aware of all the options available to their patients and that discussions of camouflage options be broached from the first visit. Methods for concealment include cosmetic tattoos, dihydroxyacetone, general cosmetics, and various topical camouflage agents, including the newest product, Microskin™. We conducted a literature review of all of the available options for vitiligo concealment and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, temporary methods of concealment are recommended; but the particular agent used can come from discussion with the patient based on the location of the lesions, degree of concealment desired, cost, and availability. PMID:27050692

  11. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  12. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa. PMID:15517994

  13. Detection of MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hao; Tubbs, Raymond; Yang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials on patients with glioblastoma revealed that O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status significantly predicts patient’s response to alkylating agents. In this study, we sought to develop and validate a quantitative MGMT methylation assay using pyrosequencing on glioblastoma. We quantified promoter methylation of MGMT using pyrosequencing on paraffin-embedded fine needle aspiration biopsy tissues from 43 glioblastoma. Using a 10% cutoff, MGMT methyl...

  14. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  15. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  16. Cooperative planning in multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torreño Lerma, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Automated planning is a centralized process in which a single planning entity, or agent, synthesizes a course of action, or plan, that satisfies a desired set of goals from an initial situation. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a distributed system where a group of autonomous agents pursue their own goals in a reactive, proactive and social way. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) is a novel research field that emerges as the integration of automated planning in MAS. Agents are endowed with plan...

  17. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding cond...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  18. Promotion and Relegation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Szymanski; Stephen Ross

    2001-01-01

    One of the most distinctive differences between team sports in Europe and North America is the institution of promotion and relegation. This paper looks into the history of why this institution developed in Europe but not North America, and considers what effects it may have on the competitive balance of the leagues. While dominance of the leagues by a small number of wealthy teams is a more severe problem in Europe, its effects are mitigated by the opportunity for new teams to enter from bel...

  19. The Promoted Sibling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visholm, Steen

    PRESENTATION No 72 Steen Visholm Associate professor, M.Psych., Ph. D., Roskilde University Private adress: Krystalgade 6 II DK-1172 København K Denmark svisholm@ruc.dk THE PROMOTED SIBLING By their writings about sibling relations Mitchell and Coles has added fruitful complexity to the psychodyn...... and Violence. Cambridge, Polity Press. Winnicott, Donald W. (1986): “Some thoughts on the meaning of the Word ‘Democracy’”. In. Home is where we start from. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd. 1986....

  20. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...... not subscribe to clear language policies. Consequently, the predominant language is here, as elsewhere, the Anglo-American. This article outlines the deep division between the postulate of linguistic diversity and reality, and is a call for soul-searching....

  1. A SURVEY OF THE PROPERTIES OF AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelije Rabuzin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade agent systems were considered to be as one of the major fields of study in Artificial Intelligence (AI field. Many different definitions of agents were presented and several different approaches describing agency can be distinguished. While some authors have tried to define “what” an agent really is, others have tried to identify agents by means of properties which they should possess. Most authors agree on these properties (at least basic set of properties which are intrinsic to agents. Since agent's definitions are not consistent, we are going to give an overview and list the properties intrinsic to an agent. Many different adjectives were attached to the term agent as well and many different kinds of agents and different architectures emerged too. The aim of this paper it go give an overview of what was going on in the field while taking into consideration main streams and projects. We will also present some guidelines important when modelling agent systems and say something about security issues. Also, some existing problems which restrict the wider usage of agents will be mentioned too.

  2. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  3. Mobile agents for distributed decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Rodič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the performance of Java based mobile agents using format translation via an intermediary XML based format. Our goal was to develop and verify the performance of a lightweight, mobile agent based solution that would allow strong security, portability and access to heterogeneous data resources from a mobile platform to facilitate exchange of data between simulation models and data resources. We have developed two types of agents: a mobile agent that functions as a server for queries in SQL and converts the query results into XML documents and a stationary agent acting as a client for query forwarding and conversion of received documents into text files readable by a client application. We have tested the performance of the agents in a distributed simulation scenario and established that the agents can be used to connect heterogeneous simulation models and other applications, improving their connectivity and usability.

  4. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  5. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  6. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  7. Model Based Testing for Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Thangarajah, John; Padgham, Lin

    Although agent technology is gaining world wide popularity, a hindrance to its uptake is the lack of proper testing mechanisms for agent based systems. While many traditional software testing methods can be generalized to agent systems, there are many aspects that are different and which require an understanding of the underlying agent paradigm. In this paper we present certain aspects of a testing framework that we have developed for agent based systems. The testing framework is a model based approach using the design models of the Prometheus agent development methodology. In this paper we focus on model based unit testing and identify the appropriate units, present mechanisms for generating suitable test cases and for determining the order in which the units are to be tested, present a brief overview of the unit testing process and an example. Although we use the design artefacts from Prometheus the approach is suitable for any plan and event based agent system.

  8. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  9. Agent-Based Modeling and Mapping of Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z; Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Considering the agent-based modeling and mapping i n manufacturing system, some system models are described in this paper, which are included: Domain Based Hierarchical Structure (DBHS), Cascading Agent Structure (CAS), Proximity Relation Structure (PRS), and Bus-based Network Structure (BNS ). In DBHS, one sort of agents, called static agents, individually acts as Domai n Agents, Resources Agents, UserInterface Agents and Gateway Agents. And the oth ers, named mobile agents, are the brokers of task and ...

  10. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  11. THE PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alyabedeva, I.

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to consider the issues of the innovative products promotion. Peculiarities of innovative market and its future progress, key factors connected with the promotion of innovative products success are analyzed. Here are also suggested the successful marketing strategies variants of the innovative products promotion.

  12. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  13. Interaction Protocols in Multi-Agent Systems based on Agent Petri Nets Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Barkaoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of interaction between agents in Multi Agents System (MAS based on Agent Petri Nets (APN. Our models are created based on communicating agents. Indeed, an agent initiating a conversation with other can specify the interaction protocol wishes to follow. The combination of APN and FIPA Protocols schemes leads to a set of deployment formal rules for points where model interaction can be successfully implemented. We introduce some models FIPA standard protocols.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous inotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Lasse A; Antila, Saila; Pentikäinen, Pertti J

    2004-01-01

    Positive inotropic drugs have various mechanisms of action. Long-term use of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent drugs has adverse effects on the prognosis of heart failure patients, whereas digoxin has neutral effect on mortality. There are, however, little data on the effects of intravenous inotropic drugs on the outcome of patients. Intravenous inotropic agents are used to treat cardiac emergencies and refractory heart failure. beta-Adrenergic agonists are rapid acting and easy to titrate, with short elimination half-life. However, they increase myocardial oxygen consumption and are thus hazardous during myocardial ischaemia. Furthermore they may promote myocyte apoptosis. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibiting drugs (amrinone, milrinone and enoximone) increase contractility by reducing the degradation of cAMP. In addition, they reduce both preload and afterload via vasodilation. Short-term use of intravenous milrinone is not associated with increased mortality, and some symptomatic benefit may be obtained when it is used in refractory heart failure. Furthermore, PDE III inhibitors facilitate weaning from the cardiopulmonary bypass machine after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan belongs to a new group of positive inotropic drugs, the calcium sensitisers. It has complex pharmacokinetics and long-lasting haemodynamic effects as a result of its active metabolites. In comparative trials, it has been better tolerated than the most widely used beta-agonist inotropic drug, dobutamine. The pharmacokinetics of the intravenous inotropic drugs might sometimes greatly modify and prolong the response to the therapy, for example because of long-acting active metabolites. These drugs display considerable differences in their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the selection of the most appropriate inotropic drug for each patient should be based on careful consideration of the clinical status of the patient and on the pharmacology of the drug.

  15. Glycosylated Nanoparticles as Efficient Antimicrobial Delivery Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Ahmed M; Abdulkarim, Ali; Sharples, Gary J; Cameron, Neil R

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic polymer nanoparticles that can be tailored through multivalent ligand display on the surface, while at the same time allowing encapsulation of desired bioactive molecules, are especially useful in providing a versatile and robust platform in the design of specific delivery vehicles for various purposes. Glycosylated nanoparticles (glyco-NPs) of a poly(n-butyl acrylate) (pBA) core and poly(N-2-(β-d-glucosyloxy)ethyl acrylamide) (p(NβGlcEAM)) or poly(N-2-(β-D-galactosyloxy)ethyl acrylamide) (p(NβGalEAM)) corona were prepared via nanoprecipitation in aqueous solutions of preformed amphiphilic glycopolymers. Well-defined block copolymers of (poly(pentafluorophenyl acrylate) (pPFPA) and pBA were first prepared by RAFT polymerization followed by postpolymerization functionalization with aminoethyl glycosides to yield p(NβGlcEAM-b-BA) and p(NβGalEAM-b-BA), which were then used to form glyco-NPs (glucosylated and galactosylated NPs, Glc-NPs and Gal-NPs, respectively). The glyco-NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. Encapsulation and release of ampicillin, leading to nanoparticles that we have termed "glyconanobiotics", were studied. The ampicillin-loaded glyco-NPs were found to induce aggregation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and resulted in antibacterial activity approaching that of ampicillin itself. This glyconanobiotics strategy represents a potential new approach for the delivery of antibiotics close to the surface of bacteria by promoting bacterial aggregation. Defined release in the proximity of the bacterial envelope may thus enhance antibacterial efficiency and potentially reduce the quantities of agent required for potency. PMID:27434596

  16. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... several such logical theories which we prove to be consistent. These theories are all based on first-order predicate logic. To prove our consistency results, we develop a general mathematical framework, suitable for proving a large number of consistency results concerning logical theories involving...

  17. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  18. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  19. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  20. Regulation of transcription by synthetic DNA-bending agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, David; Firestine, Steven M

    2006-11-01

    Gene expression is regulated by a complex interplay between binding and the three-dimensional arrangement of transcription factors with RNA polymerase and DNA. Previous studies have supported a direct role for DNA bending and conformation in gene expression, which suggests that agents that induce bends in DNA might be able to control gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of triple-helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) bending agents on the transcription of luciferase in an in vitro transcriptional/translational system. We find that transcription is regulated only by a TFO that induces a bend in the DNA. Related TFOs that do not induce bends in DNA have no effect on transcription. Reporter expression can be increased by as much as 80 % or decreased by as much as 50 % depending on the phasing of the upstream bend relative to the promoter. We interpret the results as follows: when the bend is positioned such that the upstream DNA is curved toward the RNA polymerase on the same DNA face, transcription is enhanced. When the upstream DNA is curved away, transcription is attenuated. These results support the hypothesis that DNA-bending agents might have the capability to regulate gene expression, thereby opening up a previously undervalued avenue in research on the artificial control of gene expression. PMID:17004274

  1. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations.

  2. Transforming Health Professionals into Population Health Change Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Butterworth, Iain; Moore, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recognition that professional education has not kept pace with the challenges facing the health and human service system, there has been a move to transformative education and learning professional development designed to expand the number of enlightened and empowered change agents with the competence to implement changes at an individual, organisation and systems level. Design and Methods Since 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria, Australia, in collaboration with The University of Melbourne’s School of Population and Global Health, has delivered seven population health short courses aimed to catalyse participants’ transformation into population health change agents. This paper presents key learnings from a combination of evaluation data from six population health short courses using a transformative learning framework from a 2010 independent international commission for health professionals that was designed to support the goals of transformative and interdependent health professionals. Participatory realist evaluation approaches and qualitative methods were used. Results Evaluation findings reveal that there were mixed outcomes in facilitating participants’ implementation of population health approaches, and their transformation into population health agents upon their return to their workplaces. Core enablers, barriers and requirements, at individual, organisational and system levels influence the capability of participants to implement population health approaches. The iterative and systemic evolution of the population health short courses, from a one off event to a program of inter-dependent modules, demonstrates sustained commitment by the short course developers and organisers to the promotion of transformative population health learning outcomes. Conclusions To leverage this commitment, recognising that professional development is not an event but part of an ongoing transformative process, suggestions to

  3. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  4. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  5. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  6. Methylation of Gene CHFR Promoter in Acute Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Hui; LIU Wengli; ZHOU Jianfeng; XU Huizhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore whether gene CHFR was inactivated by methylation in leukemia cells, the expression of CHFR was examined before and after treatment with demethylation agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 leukemia cell lines by means of RT-PCR. The methylation of promoter in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 cells as well as 41 acute leukemia patients was analyzed by MS-PCR. The results showed that methylation of CHFR promoter was inactivated and could be reversed by treatment with a demethylating agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937. CHFR promoter methylation was detected in 39 % of acute leukemia patients. There was no difference in incidence of CHFR promoter methylation between acute myelocytic leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, CHFR is frequently inactivated in acute leukemia and is a good candidate for the leukemia supper gene. By affecting mitotic checkpoint function, CHFR inactivation likely plays a key role in tumorigenesis in acute leukemia. Moreover, the methylation of gene CHFR appears to be a good index with which to predict the sensitivity of acute leukemia to microtubule inhibitors.

  7. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurling Geoffrey K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements, but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few

  8. Aloe arborescens extract inhibits TPA-induced ear oedema, putrescine increase and tumour promotion in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Kan; Ida, Chikako; Chihara, Takeshi; Beppu, Hidehiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Kuzuya, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the acetone-soluble Aloe arborescens fraction was found to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema, putrescine increase and tumour promotion in mouse skin. Chromatographic analyses of this extract revealed that phenolic compounds such as aloenin, barbaloin and isobarbaloin could be useful as cancer chemopreventive agents against tumour promotion. PMID:12203274

  9. Agent Grid技术研究初探%Initial Research on Agent Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英朝; 张维明; 肖卫东; 沙基昌

    2003-01-01

    The term "Grid" is increasingly appearing in computer literature, generally referring to some form of system framework into which hardware, software, or information resources can be plugged, and which permits easy configuration and creation of new functionality from existing resources. In this article, first, we introduce the concepts of Grid and Agent Grid based on our own understanding. Then we compare Agent Grid with the traditional Multi-Agent System to make the concept and characters of Agent Grid much clearer. Next, the key techniques of Agent Grid, such as Agent Grid System Architecture, System Models, Intelligent Agents and Agent-Based System Resource Management, are thoroughly illustrated. Finally, we briefly discusse the future applications of Agent Grid.

  10. MATRIX-AGENT FRAMEWORK:A VIRTUAL PLATFORM FOR MULTI-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lan ZHANG; Clement H.C. LEUNG; Gitesh K. RAIKUNDALIA

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent technology has been applied extensively to many areas, including Decision Support Systems (DSS). However, the applications of multi-agent technology in DSS are still very preliminary.Most of the current agent frameworks, such as middle-agent-based or agent-facilitator-based frameworks, are basically agent-to-agent model. These agent-based frameworks often neglect the living environment for agents and they suffer from: (i) inability to adapt to the environment, (ii)inability to self-upgrade, and (iii) inefficiency in information acquisition. Here, we introduce a recently proposed multi-agent framework, namely Agent-based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD). In this new framework, the communication and cooperation between agents are through a key component, the Matrix, which provides a virtual platform for agents. We use a unified Matrices framework to solve the bottleneck problem in the AOCD framework. Our experimental results based on different agent network topologies indicate that the hybrid topology presents superior performance compared with the centralised and decentralised topologies.

  11. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  12. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-Ting; Dai, Ming-Xiang; Xue, Fang-Zheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all of the agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all of the agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups and that agents in the same group collaborate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203080 and 61473051) and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing City (Grant No. CSTC 2011BB0081).

  13. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged......In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school......-community approach to influencing determinants of healthy and balanced growing up’. Qualitative case study research was carried out in a school in the Netherlands. Data sources included project documents, interviews and observations. Thematic analysis was carried out combining the different data sources. The case...

  14. Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batras, Dimitri; Duff, Cameron; Smith, Ben J

    2016-03-01

    Sophisticated understandings of organizational dynamics and processes of organizational change are crucial for the development and success of health promotion initiatives. Theory has a valuable contribution to make in understanding organizational change, for identifying influential factors that should be the focus of change efforts and for selecting the strategies that can be applied to promote change. This article reviews select organizational change models to identify the most pertinent insights for health promotion practitioners. Theoretically derived considerations for practitioners who seek to foster organizational change include the extent to which the initiative is modifiable to fit with the internal context; the amount of time that is allocated to truly institutionalize change; the ability of the agents of change to build short-term success deliberately into their implementation plan; whether or not the shared group experience of action for change is positive or negative and the degree to which agencies that are the intended recipients of change are resourced to focus on internal factors. In reviewing theories of organizational change, the article also addresses strategies for facilitating the adoption of key theoretical insights into the design and implementation of health promotion initiatives in diverse organizational settings. If nothing else, aligning health promotion with organizational change theory promises insights into what it is that health promoters do and the time that it can take to do it effectively.

  15. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of the bovine Mx1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kohji; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Onogi, Akio; Takasuga, Akiko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Ueda, Junji; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2009-04-01

    The bovine Mx1 promoter region was found to contain 4 IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs), 7 GC boxes, 2 IL-6 responsive elements, 2 NFκB-binding sites and 2 AP-1-binding sites. Among Holstein, Charolai, and Brahman breeds, 5 nucleotide substitutions were detected in the promoter region. After the Mx1 promoter region from Holstein had been constructed with pGL-basic expression vector, the transfected cells showed promoter activity after IFN induction. Several artificial deletion mutants were prepared to determine the important regulatory elements responsible for the promoter activity, and it was found that ISRE has a key function in IFN response. The proximal ISRE1 showed potential induction by IFN. Furthermore, the proximal GC boxes were found to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 promoter with the deletion mutants. In this case, the 2 GC boxes exhibited a synergistic activation in the IFN response. Mithramycin A, an agent that inhibits gene expression selectively by coating GC boxes, was used, and Mx mRNA expression in MDBK cells was suppressed by this chemical. Therefore, GC boxes were also shown to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 gene. PMID:19203250

  17. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  18. Ultrasound contrast agents: bubbles, drops and particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lajoinie, Guillaume Pierre René

    2015-01-01

    The research on the medical use of microbubbles has coontinuously provided fascinating results for half a century. Investigating new agents or new uses of existing agents requires both innovative physics and ideas and extensive testing in-vitro and in vivo. The translation from the lab to the clinic is long and calls upon many specialties. In this dissertation, we have presented and studied various experimental agents for biomedical imaging and therapy, some in the early development phase and...

  19. Web-Based Computing Resource Agent Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Web-based Computing Resource Publishing is a efficient way to provide additional computing capacity for users who need more computing resources than that they themselves could afford by making use of idle computing resources in the Web.Extensibility and reliability are crucial for agent publishing. The parent-child agent framework and primary-slave agent framework were proposed respectively and discussed in detail.

  20. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  1. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  2. Applying Software Engineering to Agent Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Mark A.; Lock Haven University; RITTER, Frank E.; Haynes, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Developing intelligent agents and cognitive models is a complex software engineering activity. This article shows how all intelligent agent creation tools can be improved by taking advantage of established software engineering principles such as high-level languages, maintenance-oriented development environments, and software reuse. We describe how these principles have been realized in the Herbal integrated development environment, a collection of tools that allows agent developers to exploi...

  3. Agent-based argumentation for ontology alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Laera, Loredana; Tamma, Valentina; Bench-Capon, Trevor; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    laera2006a International audience When agents communicate they do not necessarily use the same vocabulary or ontology. For them to interact successfully they must find correspondences between the terms used in their ontologies. While many proposals for matching two agent ontologies have been presented in the literature, the resulting alignment may not be satisfactory to both agents and can become the object of further negotiation between them. This paper describes our work constructing ...

  4. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; O'Farrel, Ryan l; Boloni, Ladislau

    2006-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division at the NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent-based tool to monitor the space shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent (NESTA), increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined crit...

  5. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  6. Psychiatrists' relationships with industry: the principal-agent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Gold, Azgad

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatrists' relationships with the pharmaceutical and device industries have been a growing focus of attention, with questions raised about the impact of those relationships on prescribing practices, diagnostic criteria, practice guidelines, continuing education, conduct and reporting of research, and patients' and public trust. Indeed, these concerns exist for the medical profession as a whole, with various remedial measures proposed. We suggest that such relationships can be understood as giving rise to a "principal-agent problem," which occurs when an agent (here, a physician) is engaged to advance the interests of another party, the principal (typically a patient), but also faces incentives to promote other interests. Studies suggest that at least some relationships--which include attending industry-sponsored presentations, meeting with marketing representatives, and accepting samples--can alter psychiatrists' and other physicians' behavior in ways that can compromise patients' interests, and that industry-funded research may create bias in the medical literature. These effects are difficult to detect in specific cases, however, because of asymmetries of information and may not be apparent even to physicians themselves. Principal-agent analysis suggests that the possible responses to such problems, including appeals to ethical principles, monitoring behavior, and managing risk-inducing situations, should include consideration of aligning agents' incentives with principals' interests. This type of analysis underscores the similarity of the issues raised by physicians' relationships with industry to problems that arise more generally in society, thus reducing physicians' potential affective responses to these issues and efforts to address them. Finally, such analysis directs attention to the benefits and costs of each alternative, thereby encouraging reliance on evidence as a basis for policy. PMID:20825263

  7. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally. ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  8. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  9. Agent fabrication and its implementation for agent-based electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; Zhu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, agent-based e-commerce has emerged as a potential role for the next generation of e-commerce. How to create agents for e-commerce applications has become a serious consideration in this field. This paper proposes a new scheme named agent fabrication and elaborates its implementation in multi-agent systems based on the SAFER (Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming) architecture. First, a conceptual structure is proposed for software agents carrying out e-commerce act...

  10. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  11. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  12. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  13. Agent architecture for intelligent manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis is made of requirements posed by tasks of agents operating in the intelligent manufacturing systems and their resulting architecture is presented.Design/methodology/approach: Architecture of agent systems for industrial environment is presented, making it possible to generate the particular agents customised for the specific tasks, based on the automatic analysis of its required features.Findings: Extension of cellular automata approach underlying the conventional agent behaviour specification using the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps is presented in conjunction with the neural networks providing learning capability of the agents designed for the various levels of the manufacturing supervisory and execution systems. Adding reaction time specification to FCM makes it possible to analyse and design systems with the required behaviour.Research limitations/implications: Specific features of the designed agent architecture have been tested as separate mechanisms which can be merged into the final comprehensive at a later stage.Originality/value: Agent architecture is proposed for the industrial applications of single agents and their groups that can collaborate to achieve the individual and joint goals specified in reaction to changing environment conditions and into their agendas in XML format. Automatic generation of custom agent reactions models can be carried out based on a set of requirements that may be specified in the if-then rules form.

  14. TEST SUITE GENERATION PROCESS FOR AGENT TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUHAMDI ZINA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software agents are a promising technology for today's complex, distributed systems. Methodologies and techniques that address testing and reliability of multi agent systems are increasingly demanded, in particular to support automated test case generation and execution. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for goal-oriented software agent testing. It specifies a testing process that complements the goal oriented methodology Tropos and reinforces the mutual relationship between goal analysis and testing. Furthermore, it defines a structured and comprehensive agent test suite generation process by providing a systematic way of deriving test cases from goal analysis.

  15. Mobile Agents Principles of Operation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Genco, A

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are one of the most effective software design paradigms, and they are considered to be the most recent evolutionary step of object-oriented programming. Agents have several advantages when compared with objects. The most important among them is to be made of active code, which is capable of acting autonomously. Agents can be a suitable choice to exploit the Internet reality, since users can operate easily in a less compelling way and also reduce Internet connection time. Mobile agents thus make a PC an intelligent entity able to autonomously accomplish boring human tasks, s

  16. DNA methylation directly silences genes with non-CpG island promoters and establishes a nucleosome occupied promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Cortez, Connie C; Yang, Xiaojing; Nichols, Peter W; Jones, Peter A; Liang, Gangning

    2011-11-15

    Despite the fact that 45% of all human gene promoters do not contain CpG islands, the role of DNA methylation in control of non-CpG island promoters is controversial and its relevance in normal and pathological processes is poorly understood. Among the few studies which investigate the correlation between DNA methylation and expression of genes with non-CpG island promoters, the majority do not support the view that DNA methylation directly leads to transcription silencing of these genes. Our reporter assays and gene reactivation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA demethylating agent, show that DNA methylation occurring at CpG poor LAMB3 promoter and RUNX3 promoter 1(RUNX3 P1) can directly lead to transcriptional silencing in cells competent to express these genes in vitro. Using Nucleosome Occupancy Methylome- Sequencing, NOMe-Seq, a single-molecule, high-resolution nucleosome positioning assay, we demonstrate that active, but not inactive, non-CpG island promoters display a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) immediately upstream of the transcription start site (TSS). Furthermore, using NOMe-Seq and clonal analysis, we show that in RUNX3 expressing 623 melanoma cells, RUNX3 P1 has two distinct chromatin configurations: one is unmethylated with an NDR upstream of the TSS; another is methylated and nucleosome occupied, indicating that RUNX3 P1 is monoallelically methylated. Together, these results demonstrate that the epigenetic signatures comprising DNA methylation, histone marks and nucleosome occupancy of non-CpG island promoters are almost identical to CpG island promoters, suggesting that aberrant methylation patterns of non-CpG island promoters may also contribute to tumorigenesis and should therefore be included in analyses of cancer epigenetics.

  17. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

  18. Promoting Conceptual Change for Complex Systems Understanding: Outcomes of an Agent-Based Participatory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates, Christopher A.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Feldon, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Components of complex systems apply across multiple subject areas, and teaching these components may help students build unifying conceptual links. Students, however, often have difficulty learning these components, and limited research exists to understand what types of interventions may best help improve understanding. We investigated 32 high…

  19. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Ivanova Petrova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel’s criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies.

  20. An Agent-mediated Approach to Promote Knowledge Sharing Through Enterprise Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Broadening adoption of social network tools within the enterprise suggests a new and valuable source for insight into the social structure through organizations. While online social media tools are being evolved by enterprises in recent years, the social media are used much for knowledge sharing. Th

  1. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones.

  2. Novel Implant Coating Agent Promotes Gene Expression of Osteogenic Markers in Rats during Early Osseointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Bougas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the early bone response around laminin-1-coated titanium implants. Forty-five rats distributed in three equally sized groups were provided with one control (turned and one test (laminin-1-coated implant and were sacrificed after 3, 7, and 21 days. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed for osteoblast markers (alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin, type I collagen, and bone morphogenic protein 2, osteoclast markers (cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 10, and integrin β1. Bone implant contact (BIC and bone area (BA were assessed and compared to the gene expression. After 3 days, the expression of bone markers was higher for the control group. After 7 days, the expression of integrin β1 and osteogenic markers was enhanced for the test group, while cathepsin K and inflammation markers were down-regulated. No significant differences in BIC or BA were detected between test and control at any time point. As a conclusion, implant coating with laminin-1 altered gene expression in the bone-implant interface. However, traditional evaluation methods, as histomorphometry, were not adequately sensitive to detect such changes due to the short follow-up time.

  3. Novel Keratinolytic Activity of Cyberlindnera fabianii Nrc3 Aza as A Plant Growth Promoting Agent (PGPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Azza M. Abdel-fattah; EL-Shahat H. A. Nashy; El-Tahir A. Sabiel; Manal M. Hussien; Attia, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Two field experiments had been conducted in Nubaria sandy soil, Behaira Governate, Egypt to show the effect of keratinase enzyme produced by the novel microbial isolate (Cyberlindnera fabianii NRC3 Aza) on plants.The trials had been conducted in the two successive summer seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) to show the effect of keratinase enzyme from degraded feather–waste on the morphology and chemical composition of peas pods (Pisumsativum L.)–family Fabaceae (Leguminasae). In 2011/2012 seaso...

  4. Dronedarone: a new antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Ola O; Rogers, Carrie E; Hofmann, Prudence O

    2010-09-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The drug is a derivative of amiodarone and has been modified to reduce the organ toxicities frequently encountered with amiodarone. Dronedarone exerts its antiarrhythmic effects through multichannel blockade of the sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and also possesses antiadrenergic activity, thereby exhibiting pharmacologic effects of all four Vaughan Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. The efficacy of dronedarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm, ventricular rate control, and reduction in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Although a high rate of gastrointestinal events (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) has been associated with dronedarone, more serious adverse events such as thyroid, liver, or pulmonary toxicities have not been observed. Because of a possible increase in mortality, dronedarone should be avoided in patients with New York Heart Association class IV or II-III heart failure with a recent decompensation. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, dronedarone represents a reasonable alternative for maintenance of sinus rhythm in appropriately selected patients.

  5. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  6. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  7. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  8. Homogeneous MGMT immunoreactivity correlates with an unmethylated MGMT promoter status in brain metastases of various solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ingold; Peter Schraml; Heppner, Frank L.; Holger Moch

    2009-01-01

    The O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status is a predictive parameter for the response of malignant gliomas to alkylating agents such as temozolomide. First clinical reports on treating brain metastases with temozolomide describe varying effects. This may be due to the fact that MGMT promoter methylation of brain metastases has not yet been explored in depth. Therefore, we assessed MGMT promoter methylation of various brain metastases including those derived fr...

  9. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  10. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2011-01-25

    Human ethnocentrism--the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups--creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chemical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence. PMID:21220339

  11. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  12. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  13. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating. PMID:19519674

  14. Cluster consensus of high-order multi-agent systems with switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Sun, Fuchun; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Yao; Xi, Jianxiang

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the cluster consensus problems of generic linear multi-agent systems with switching topologies. Sufficient criteria for cluster consensus, which generalise the results in existing literatures, are derived for both state feedback and observer-based control schemes. By using an averaging method, it is shown that cluster consensus can be achieved when the union of the acyclic topologies contains a directed spanning tree within each cluster frequently enough. We also provide a principle to construct digraphs with inter-cluster cyclic couplings that promote cluster consensus regardless of the magnitude of inter-agent coupling weights. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  15. Relationship between promoter methylation & tissue expression of MGMT gene in ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    V Shilpa; Rahul Bhagat; C S Premalata; V R Pallavi; Ramesh, G.; Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Epigenetic alterations, in addition to multiple gene abnormalities, are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within promoter regions is associated with transcriptional inactivation of various tumour suppressor genes. O 6 -methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair gene that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from the O 6 -position of guanine induced by alkylating agents. MGMT promoter hyperme...

  16. Astragaloside IV promotes haematopoiesis and enhances cytokines release by mesenchymal stromal cells mediated immune regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Ruixia; 邓瑞霞

    2012-01-01

    Although tremendous efforts have been made to search for other novel growth factors in promoting marrow recovery after irradiation or chemotherapy, there have not been any efficient and safe agents discovered so far. Danggui Buxue Tang (當歸補血湯) as a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, is commonly used for replenishing blood loss in menstruating women, or enhancing erythropoiesis and immune responses in various settings. Our previous study confirmed that Danggui Buxue Tang promotes haematopoi...

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xuemei; Hu, Hongbo; Peng, Huasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2013-01-01

    Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aerugi...

  18. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A ....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  19. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  20. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Core Competencies Of A Call Centre AgentCore Competencies Of A Call Centre Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Vera Roos

    2005-01-01

    Call centre agents are becoming increasingly important in the call centre context. They act as a contact point between the customer and the company. Call centre agents should have certain competencies to perform their duties sufficiently. Identifying competencies, required to be effective agents, will ease the task of training and recruitment. Due to the interrelatedness of the call centre agent, the management of a call centre and customers, all relevant role players’ perceptions were taken ...

  2. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  3. Modeling agents with a theory of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Training systems with intelligent virtual agents provide an effective means to train people for complex, dynamic tasks like crisis management or firefighting. Virtual agents provide more adequate behavior and explanations if they not only take their own goals and beliefs into account, but also the a

  4. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  5. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal agents. (a) The Federal Reserve Banks referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States, are... Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH,...

  6. 31 CFR 342.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.9 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of the United States..., Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ (northern half), NY (City & State), RI, VT,...

  7. Transient Diversity in Multi-Agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lyback, David

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is an important aspect of highly efficient multi-agent teams. We introduce the main factors that drive a multi-agent system in either direction along the diversity scale. A metric for diversity is described, and we speculate on the concept of transient diversity. Finally, an experiment on social entropy using a RoboCup simulated soccer team is presented.

  8. Semantics of Agent Communication: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, R.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Communication has been one of the salient issues in the research on concurrent and distributed systems. This holds no less for the research on multiagent systems. Over the last few years the study of agent communication, and in particular the semantics of agent communication, has attracted increased

  9. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  10. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  11. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  12. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  13. Modelling cooperative agents in infrastructure networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of concepts of cooperation into an agent-based model of an industrial network. It first addresses the concept of cooperation and how this could be captured as heuristical rules within agents. Then it describes tests using these heuristics in an abstract model of

  14. Freeze conditioning agents ease winter railcar unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    A US midwest utility's freeze control programme is described. All coal is treated with a glycol-based freeze control agent. Some rail wagons were treated with a side release agent which stops coal sticking to the metal wagon. The use of calcium chloride or heat to thaw frozen coal is also discussed.

  15. Explanation in human-agent teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bradshaw, J.M.; Johnson, M.; Feltovich, P.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    There are several applications in which humans and agents jointly perform a task. If the task involves interdependence among the team members, coordination is required to achieve good team performance. This paper discusses the role of explanation in coordination in human-agent teams. Explanations ab

  16. Agent programming languages: programming with mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Agents are personal assistants which can provide proactive support to users by executing routine activities like searching on the Internet, the scheduling of meetings, etc. The concept of an Intelligent Agent has its roots in Artificial Intelligence and provides a basis for the con

  17. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption...... of antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine to limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved....

  18. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  19. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  20. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.