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Sample records for agencia brasil-argentina contabil controle mater nuclear

  1. A integração bilateral Brasil-Argentina: tecnologia nuclear e Mercosul

    OpenAIRE

    Odete Maria de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    O presente trabalho focaliza o complexo processo de integração bilateral Brasil-Argentina, iniciado formalmente na década de 80, desdobrado em sua dupla abrangência: a) cooperação pacífica da tecnologia nuclear; b) constituição de um mercado comum. A evolução desse processo conduziu-se através de ciclos fundamentais: primeira etapa, antecedentes de aproximação; segunda etapa, os decisivos instrumentos da ampla integração; terceira etapa, solidificação de duas bases, uma de nível tecnológico n...

  2. A integração bilateral Brasil-Argentina: tecnologia nuclear e Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Maria de Oliveira

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho focaliza o complexo processo de integração bilateral Brasil-Argentina, iniciado formalmente na década de 80, desdobrado em sua dupla abrangência: a cooperação pacífica da tecnologia nuclear; b constituição de um mercado comum. A evolução desse processo conduziu-se através de ciclos fundamentais: primeira etapa, antecedentes de aproximação; segunda etapa, os decisivos instrumentos da ampla integração; terceira etapa, solidificação de duas bases, uma de nível tecnológico nuclear, pactuando um sistema sui generis de salvaguardas e a vigência do Tratado de Tlatelolco (emendado, e, outra, de nível econômico pelo Tratado de Assunção, instituindo o Mercosul.The present work focuses on the complex bilateral integration process involving Brazil and Argentina that began formally during the 80's, and displayed in its double scope: a pacific cooperation on nuclear technology; b constitution of a common market. This process evolution took place in three fundamental circles: the first one, approximation antecedents; the second one, decisive instruments for a large integration; and the third one, the solidification of two basis, one at the nuclear technological level, joining the two countries in the sui generis back up system and the operation of the Tlatelolco Treaty, the other, at the economic level instituting the Mercosur by the Asunción Treaty.

  3. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  4. Annual Report 2007 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; Relatorio anual 2007 - ABACC - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports activities during the year 2007 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; outlook for 2008 and; institutional, administrative and financial activities; technical glossary; list of brazilian facilities; list of argentine facilities and a list of institution of nuclear area.

  5. Annual Report ABACC 2009 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; Relatorio anual 2009 - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document reports the actives during the year 2009 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; institutional, administrative and financial activities; perspectives for 2010; list of inspectors; list of Brazilian and Argentine facilities subject to the Quadripartite Agreement

  6. ABACC: annual report 2012 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; ABACC: informe annual 2012 - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This document reports the actives during the year 2012 related to: technical activities as safeguards application and advances in application of safeguards; main activities conducted in Brazil and main activities developed at ABACC headquarters; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and of the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; institutional, administrative and financial activities; perspectives for 2013; list of inspectors; list of Brazilian and Argentine facilities subject to the Quadripartite Agreement.

  7. A rivalidade Brasil-Argentina e a Guerra Fria

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Vidigal

    2014-01-01

    Peronismo e anti-peronismo definiram o padrão da rivalidade Brasil-Argentina no contexto do início da guerra fria. Inúmeros documentos diplomáticos brasileiros – ofícios, despachos, memorandos, telegramas – datados dos anos de 1946 a 1948 apresentavam em seus títulos temas como “infiltração argentina no Sul do Brasil”, “expansionismo político da Argentina”, “política expansionista da Argentina”, etc. Pode-se afirmar que o anti-peronismo consolidou-se em setores dirigentes do país, por meio...

  8. Átomos na integração: a aproximação Brasil-Argentina no campo nuclear e a construção do Mercosul

    OpenAIRE

    Everton Vieira Vargas

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho tenciona ser uma reflexão sobre a importância da aproximação entre o Brasil e a Argentina no campo nuclear, na segunda metade da década de 80 e no início dos anos 90, como fundamento para a construção de um relacionamento novo que suplantou uma rivalidade histórica entre ambos. O processo de aproximação encetado com um propósito aparentemente econômico, tinha uma dimensão estratégica. As repercussões desse esforço iam além dos interesses bilaterais imediatos e se refletiram na b...

  9. The accountability of the brazilian regulatory agencies: the experience of the National Petroleum Agency; O controle externo das agencias reguladoras: o caso da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Borges, Heloisa Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia. Grupo de Economia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    During the reform process for which passed the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry, the academic debate was centered mostly in the sectorial restructuring process, in the contract designs and regulatory environment for the industries in change, particularly the desired attributes of its institutions. The debate tends, in the present, to converge towards the existence of different possible combinations between market structures and institutional structures (the regulators among them) that would lead to a desirable result. Thus, the various characteristics and configurations, originally appointed as necessary conditions for the success of any reform, are not dealt with such great deference anymore. The hypothesis that the existence of a independent regulator is a determinant choice for the success of structural and institutional reforms was relaxed as general rule, but there are still strong economic reasons to justify the option, adopted in Brazil. The creation of the Oil National Agency (ANP), the Brazilian regulator for the Oil and Gas Industry is a recent phenomenon. And few studies specifically approach the issue of its accountability, institutional role that in Brazil is delegated mostly, but not exclusively, to the National Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao). Therefore, the objective of this work will be to discuss the different possibilities of accountability over the ANP, evaluating the paper and the functions of the TCU and the forms of external control on the Agency, pointing out the possibilities, the impediments and the challenges, as well as the economic consequences to the Natural Gas Industry of the current configuration. (author)

  10. Discrecionalidad directiva, costes de agencia y mecanismos de control en las ofertas públicas de adquisición de acciones en España

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuna Lindo, José María

    1999-01-01

    La investigación resume las teorías explicativas de los procesos de fusión y adquisición empresariales, centrándose en el análisis del mercado de control empresarial como mecanismo de resolución de los problemas de agencia derivados de la separación entre la propiedad y los gestores. Se estudian las interrelaciones entre los mecanismos internos de incentivo y supervisión, así como éstos con la eficiencia relativa observada. Asimismo, se analizan los factores desencadenantes y las consecuencia...

  11. The Nuclear and Safety Council and the Nuclear Energy Agency; El Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear y la Agencia de Energia Nuclear. Una estrecha colaboracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ten, C.

    2008-07-01

    On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of creation of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the President of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), summarizes the activities of the NEA throughout its life up to now. Since it started up, the CSN has worked closely with this international organization, as a reflection of the strong commitment, shared by both institutions, each one in its field, to reach the highest levels in the regulation which contributes decisively to the nuclear safety of the Spanish nuclear power plants. (Author)

  12. El reactor nuclear colombiano y la agencia de actores no humanos en los estudios sociales de la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Andrés León Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Basándose en su trabajo de grado de historiador sobre los primeros años del programa nuclear colombiano, el autor explora la relevancia del concepto de actor no humano originario de las teorías de actores-red. Se muestra cómo el análisis de la consolidación del Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares debe incluir un objeto inanimado, el reactor nuclear, como actor social fundamental. PALABRAS CLAVES. actores no humanos, comunidad científica, energía nuclear

  13. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  14. Mujeres, esfera pública y populismo en Brasil, Argentina y Ecuador, 1870-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Sosa-Buchholz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se enfoca en las luchas de las mujeres para convertirse en actores políticos en tres países latinoamericanos: Brasil, Argentina y Ecuador. Analiza la educación de las mujer es como un factor decisivo para obtener el derecho al voto e ingresar a la arena pública mediante la publicación de periódicos. Se estudia la manera como las mujeres crearon sus propias organizaciones políticas, muchas de las cuales fueron respaldadas por liberales, conservadores e incluso socialistas. A pesar de que la lucha para conquistar el voto femenino fue una combinación entre las organizaciones de derechos femeninos, el diálogo interamericano y el apoyo de figuras públicas masculinas, fueron los líderes populistas quienes aprobaron el derecho al voto femenino. Ellos usaron este derecho para atraer el voto femenino en sus reelecciones presidenciales.

  15. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  16. Própolis produzida no sul do Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai: evidências fitoquímicas de sua origem vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Yong Kun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A própolis é uma substância resinosa coletada pelas abelhas de diversas partes da planta. Sua composição depende da época, vegetação e área de coleta. Própolis produzida por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizada do sul do Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai foram investigadas por meio de técnicas cromatográficas. De acordo com os resultados obtidos por CCDAE-FR, CLAE-FR e CG-EM, as própolis do sul do Brasil foram classificadas em 5 grupos distintos. Com base nas evidências fitoquímicas, Populus alba foi identificada como a principal fonte da própolis do grupo 3 do sul do Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai.

  17. Problema de la agencia y la cultura corporativa estalinista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurí Gorbaneff

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la agencia es de los obstáculos para la eficiencia de las organizaciones. A partir de Alchian y Demsetz (1972.la teoría sugiere dos soluciones: la propiedad privada y la cultura corporativa. Sin embargo, aislar el efecto de la cultura sobre las organizaciones no es fácil. La "ingeniería social" estalinista ofrece un material interesante para evaluar los efectos de la cultura corporativa sobre el sistema económico. Acá se sostiene la hipótesis de que los dirigentes soviéticos, al enfrentar los crecientes costos de la agencia tuvieron que inventar otra método, que no fuera la propiedad privada ni el control democrático directo sobre el aparato productivo, para controlar la pérdida de la agencia. Ellos recurrieron a la implantación de la cultura corporativa heroica a nivel nacional. Este trabajo muestra que la propaganda política, el arte, la literatura, los movimientos populares y el culto a la personalidad de Stalin fueran las herramientas gerenciales clave para implantar la cultura corporativa heroica, indispensable en la economía planificada. Su aplicación fue exitosa y generó las condiciones necesarias para la industrialización entre 1920 y 1930 y para el alto desempeño de la economía soviética durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La segunda hipótesis consiste en que el fantasma de la agencia, ahuyentado entre 1920 y 1950 por la cultura heroica estalinista, terminó devorando la economía planificada.

  18. From Virgil to Alma Mater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Ellen Handler

    2007-01-01

    For a college to become an alma mater in the hearts of its students, it must show, true to the Latin meaning, the wisdom and comfort of a good foster mother. Since "alma mater" is Latin, and since the study of Latin has waned on all educational levels in both pious and secular milieus, the author wonders whether folks who use that term really know…

  19. Nuclear energy Agency (NEA) of OECD: 50 years of contributions to nuclear safety; La Agencia de Energia Nuclear (NEA) de la OCDE: 50 anos de contribucion a la seguridad nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reig, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article describes the evolution of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) from its inception to today, when they have just commemorated its 50th anniversary. The Agency's contribution in the fields of nuclear safety, regulation, radiation protection and waste management are presented. The article refers to the impact in the Agency's activities of the two accidents occurred in Chernobyl and three Mile Island, as well as the influence of the moratorium at the end of the 80's and the renaissance happening these past years. Special emphasis is given to two key programmes of the Agency, like the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) and the Generation IV Forum (GIF). The conclusion presents the Agency decision to continue contribute contributing to the use of nuclear energy in a safe, economic and environmentally friendly manner. (Author)

  20. A reforma do setor elétrico no Brasil, Argentina e México: contrastes e perspectivas em debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro André Leme

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A década de 1990 foi marcada por um movimento global de Reformas do Estado, principalmente nos países em desenvolvimento. Nesse processo, as orientações das agências multilaterais fizeram-se mais presentes. O conjunto de reformas liberalizantes transferiu para o setor privado setores até então em mãos do Estado. Dentre esses setores destacamos o caso da infra-estrutura energética. O setor elétrico no Brasil, na Argentina e no México consolidou-se após a II Guerra Mundial, sendo majoritariamente ligado ao Estado. Na década de 1990, nesses três países, esse setor passa por mudanças privatizantes. O quadro de fundo (plano político-econômico era muito similar entre os países, embora preservassem particularidades econômicas e político-institucionais. A crise de hiperinflação na década de 1980 e as fortes pressões dos organismos multilaterais para a realização de reformas para o mercado (privatização e flexibilização, dentre outros aspectos levou a mudanças no setor elétrico desses países. Partimos, neste trabalho, de uma abordagem histórico-estrutural e estratégica. Analisamos as reformas no setor elétrico brasileiro em diálogo com as ocorridas na Argentina e no México. Concluímos definindo as principais semelhanças e diferenças entre as políticas liberalizantes do setor elétrico no Brasil, Argentina e México e delimitamos os principais fatores dessas variações, ressaltando a não existência de unicidade histórica na escolhas de estratégias, mas sim composição de estratégias de desenvolvimento decorrentes do embate entre as diversas forças políticas presentes e atuantes num determinado espaço (Estado com suas variantes nacionais e internacionais.

  1. [Nurses and the Mercosul regulations and control of professional practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A L

    1998-01-01

    A study comparing the regulation and control of the professional practice of nurses in Brasil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, delineating their particularities, differences and similarities in the perspective of the implementation of the Cone Sul Common Market, which presupposes the free circulation of workers in the workplaces of the member-countries of the Ascnsion Treaty. PMID:10776275

  2. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  3. Celulares: a emergência de um novo tipo de controle materno Cell phones: the emergence of a new king of materal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma pesquisa exploratória sobre o uso de celulares por jovens das camadas médias cariocas, entre 18 e 25 de idade, foi constatado que eles reclamavam muito que suas mães os controlavam ininterruptamente por meio de seus celulares. Para averiguar mais detalhadamente o que acontece entre mães e filhos dessa faixa etária, foi realizada uma segunda pesquisa. Nesta, foram entrevistadas 20 mães, também pertencentes às camadas médias cariocas, cujos filhos tinham perfil análogo ao dos jovens da primeira pesquisa. Para todas, a principal função dos celulares é abertamente a de controlar os filhos. Elas mostraram, no entanto, saber que há uma diferença entre o controle que vigorava quando eram jovens e aquele ao qual hoje submetem os filhos. Teorias contemporâneas sobre controle e vigilância de fato argumentam que houve uma substituição do controle normativo e coercitivo da modernidade pelo "ter conhecimento" do que se passa, característico da Era da Informação.An exploratory research on the use of cell phones by middle-class youngsters, ages 18 to 25, residing in Rio de Janeiro, revealed that they complained a great deal that their mothers controlled them unrelentingly by means of cell phones. To take a deeper look into what happens between mothers and children in this age group, a second investigation was carried out. Twenty middle-class mothers were interviewed, whose children's profile were analogous to that of the youngsters in the previous research. For all of the mothers, the main benefit of cell phones is to control their children. Nevertheless, they demonstrated to know that there's a difference between the control that they submit their children to from that that prevailed when they themselves were young. Contemporary control and surveillance theories, in fact, argue that the normative and coercive control of modernity has been replaced by "having knowledge" of what goes on, which is characteristic of the Information

  4. Intercomparison of activity measures of 1 31I, 67Ga and 201Tl in nuclear medicine services in Recife/PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we intend to evaluate the performance of radionuclide calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the Recife (Brazil), the measurement procedures used by the professionals of these services and the frequency of the application of quality control testing required by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) and the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), performing an intercomparison of radionuclides measurements

  5. The Nuclear: controlled risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of an exhibition that stood at the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris during the period from the second of november 1999 and the 23. of january 2000, and realised by the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) conjointly with the Authority of Safety (D.S.I.N.): 'the nuclear under high surveillance: controlled risks'. A first part was devoted to the history of radioactivity and an explanation about what radioactivity is exactly. Then are described the different types of reactors and the situation of energy on the planet that explains why we cannot do without nuclear energy. The fuel cycle is detailed. The question of radioactive wastes is tackled. A part concerns the biological effects of ionizing radiations with an explanation of the right functioning of human cells and the integrity of DNA. The radiation protection is seen in its regulatory and technical aspect, some definitions of units are given to better understand the limits imposed by the authorities. This work ends with the question of accidents, Three Miles Island and Chernobyl are evoked, what lessons have been got from these accidents and the two safety principles chosen in France that guarantee an accident is the very little probable. (N.C)

  6. Personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y su capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Lían, Arleth; Andrade, Yesid; Hernández, Orlando; Manrique, Julián; Faria, Karen; Machado, Mayerly

    2012-01-01

    Contexto: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se constituye en un problema de salud pública por las repercusiones bio-psicosociales, la presencia de complicaciones neurovasculares y metabólicas en la persona que la padece. Enfermería cumple un papel importante a través de la educación y la capacitación.Objetivo: Identificar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de las personas con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, inscritos en los programas de control de diabetes en 19 UPAS de Cartagena.Metod...

  7. Nuclear control handbook in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It consists five chapters, which are domestic law about nuclear control including enforcement regulation of nuclear law and accountability and protection law about particular nuclear in the first chapter, agreement of safety action of IAEA including Model Protocol Additional to the agreement between state and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in the second chapter, the physical protection of nuclear material in the third chapter, the control of export of nuclear of Zangger committee in the fourth chapter and arrangement between the ministry of science and technology of the republic of Korea and the department of energy of the U.S.A in the fifth chapter.

  8. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  9. »MATER SEMPER CERTA EST

    OpenAIRE

    Truntič, Tadeja

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu se ukvarjamo z vprašanjem, ali definiciji očetovstva in materinstva, ki izhajata iz rimskega prava, še odražata dejansko stanje v družbi. Obe domnevi sta zakoreninjeni v našem pravnem sistemu z rimskim načelom »mater semper certa est

  10. Technical supports for nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jong Sung; Kwak, Eun Hoh; Noh, Sung Kee; Soh, Dong Sub; Yoon, Wan Kee; Shin, Jang Soo; Paek, Dae Hyun; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Chan Sik; Cha, Hong Yul; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Jin Hoh; Lee, Eui Jin; An, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The project was carried out to support the establishment of the system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials in Korea. The training of inspectors and seminar were held to improve inspection capability of the nuclear inspectors. The information about the north Korean nuclear activities were successfully analyzed. In the drafts of nuclear energy law the national inspection and the regulation of physical protection were newly introduced for the purpose to clarify the openness of nuclear activities in Korea. 1 fig, 20 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  11. Retención de clientes en agencias de eventos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como componente de la mezcla de comunicación efectiva para las marcas se encuentran los "Eventos", que hoy en día exigen una gestión estratégica. Resulta clave, para las organizaciones especializadas en la prestación de este servicio, aplicar herramientas que les permitan ser competitivas a largo plazo gracias a la diferenciación. Para ello, el CESA ha estudiado la relación cliente-agencia de comunicación de marketing, fundamentalmente respecto a la importancia de la retención de clientes en relaciones B2B, como las que se llevan a cabo entre agencias de eventos y sus clientes. En el presente artículo se exponen los principales hallazgos de una investigación de tipo exploratorio acerca del tema de retención de clientes, que incluye perfiles, elementos claves para la satisfacción y factores relevantes de la relación clienteagencia de eventos como elementos fundamentales de la gestión empresarial. Al tener un mayor conocimiento del perfil de los clientes, las agencias podrán ser más productivas y competitivas, pues estarán en capacidad de ofrecer iniciativas de servicios con características particulares.

  12. ¿Las agencias son unidades administrativas especiales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Sarria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Al plantearse como tema del artículo el de si las agencias son unidades administrativas especiales, el trabajo debe abordar dos conceptos aparentemente diferentes en cuanto al contenido y la génesis, pues de un lado se tiene conocimiento de las unidades administrativas especiales creadas con la finalidad de realizar actividades propias de un ministerio o departamento administrativo, y que, en consecuencia, siguiendo lineamientos jurisprudenciales, debían formar parte de la estructura de aquellos o estos. No obstante el reproche doctrinal referido a que a ciertas unidades administrativas se les otorgaba personería jurídica, llama la atención el cambio de criterio jurisprudencial que las avaló, y la manera en que a partir de la Constitución de 1991 se regularon unidades con o sin personería jurídica. Al abordar el tema de las agencias del Estado resulta relevante el origen anglosajón del término y la ausencia de características que las identifiquen, y la ausencia de un régimen común. Se hace especial mención a la reforma de 2011 y a cómo se crearon varias Agencias del Estado, algunas definidas como Unidades Administrativas Especiales, ante lo que cabe interrogarse sobre la correspondencia entre ambas nociones.

  13. Optimal control of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern control theory is applied to the design of control systems for experimental nuclear reactors that do not belong to power reactors, the component forms of optimal control systems for nuclear reactors are demonstrated. The adoption of output quadratic integral criterion and incomplete state feedback technique can make these systems both efficient and economical. Moreover, approximate handling methods are given so as to simplify the calculations in design. In addition, the adoptable reference values of parameters are given in the illustration

  14. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  15. El control en las empresas de trabajo asociado. Revisión crítica, desde una perspectiva de agencia, de los principales mecanismos de control, y análisis de sus repercusiones organizativas

    OpenAIRE

    Waldo E.Orellana Zambrano

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the repercussions of the institutional aspects of co-operatives in the decision making process, in arranging the incentive system for members, and discretionary behaviour among management. From a comparative analysis of capitalistic companies, the paper studies the nature of the hierarchical relationships present in co-operatives and reviews the control mechanisms available to them, with special emphasis on the board of directors. At the same time, lines of action are prop...

  16. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  17. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  18. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  19. Relação entre teoria e prática contabilística: um estudo exploratório

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Ana Cláudia Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    No atual contexto de harmonização contabilística internacional, assistimos a uma adaptação (ou mesmo adoção) generalizada das normas internacionais de contabilidade emitidas pelo International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), substancialmente assentes em princípios e que fazem um maior apelo ao julgamento profissional e ao uso de estimativas. Neste novo paradigma normativo, presumivelmente, os profissionais sentirão uma maior necessidade de recorrerem à teoria da con...

  20. Mater semper incertus est: who's your mummy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'alton-Harrison, Rita

    2014-01-01

    In English law, the legal term for father has been given a broad definition but the definition of mother remains rooted in biology with the Roman law principle mater semper certa est (the mother is always certain) remaining the norm. However, motherhood may be acquired through giving birth to a child, by donation of gametes or by caring and nurturing a child so that the identity of the mother is no longer certain particularly in the case of surrogacy arrangements. While the law in the UK may automatically recognise the parental status of a commissioning father in a traditional surrogacy arrangement, the parental status of the commissioning mother is not automatically recognised in either a traditional or a gestational surrogacy arrangement. Thus the maxim mater est quam gestation demonstrat (meaning the mother is demonstrated by gestation) is also not approached consistently in the legal interpretation of parentage or motherhood in surrogacy as against other assisted reproduction methods. This raises questions about the extent to which motherhood should be affected by the method of reproduction and whether the sociological and philosophical concept of motherhood should, in the case of surrogacy, give rise to a new principle of 'mater semper incertus est' (the mother is uncertain). This article will argue that the time has come to move away from a legal definition of 'mother' that is based on biology to one that recognises the different forms of motherhood. PMID:24457376

  1. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  2. Alteraçoes das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa no século XVIII = Changes in accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Martins De Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explica el cambio de prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa encuadrándolas en la política de difusión de la contabilidad por partida doble en el ámbito público en Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.La necesidad del Estado de ejercer un mayor control sobre sus fuentes de ingresos justificó la transformación ocurrida demostrando la adaptación de las prácticas contables a las características de cada organización. En la Casa da Moeda, lo específico de su misión acuñación de monedas originó una legislación propia fechada en 1773. La periodización de estas prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa se organizó en tres fases: la primera entre 1686 y 1761, la segunda entre 1761 y 1773 y por último desde 1773 a 1797, período final de este estudio.This article explains the changes made to accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint within the context of the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping into the public sphere in Portugal during the second half of the 18th century.The State’s requirement to exercise greater control over its sources of income justified the changes that took place, with accounting practices being adapted to the features of each organisation. The Mint's specific function –the minting of metallic money– gave rise to the creation of its own particular legislation, in 1773. The study of these accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint will be divided into three separate periods: firstly from 1686 to 1761, secondly from 1761 to 1773, and finally from 1773 to 1797. Neste artigo explica-se a alteração das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa enquadrando-as na política de difusão da contabilidade por partidas dobradas na esfera pública, em Portugal, na segunda metade do século XVIII.A necessidade de um maior controlo exercido pelo Estado sobre as suas fontes de receita justificarão as transformações ocorridas, demonstrando estas a

  3. Nuclear reactor with control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to liquid cooled nuclear reactors. In particular, it concerns reactors with mobile control rods in a straight line and guide tubes to guide these control rods through the internal upper components of the reactor vessel and in the aligned fuel assemblies of the core

  4. Escala Para Medir Agencia Personal y Empoderamiento (ESAGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Pick; Jenna Sirkin; Isaac Ortega; Pavel Osorio; Rocío Martínez; Ulises Xocolotzin; Martha Givaudan

    2007-01-01

    Existe en la literatura una discusión muy extensa, aunque no siempre clara, acerca de la importancia del desarrollo humano. Por ello es necesario contar con las capacidades que permitan fomentar su crecimiento y sustentabilidad. Los conceptos de agencia personal y empoderamiento son centrales en esta discusión. La distinción entre ambos no siempre ha sido clara. De hecho, muchas veces se usan indistintamente. Con base en la experiencia empírica de diseñar, implementar y evaluar programas de d...

  5. Technique of nuclear reactors controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author)

  6. Quantum control in nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frontier field beyond atom and molecular control will be concentrated on the controlling of nuclei. Both theoretical design and laboratory experiments extremely need to be developed with the great progress of quantum physics and laser technology. This work is to focus on the computational approach to achieve the quantum control in nuclear reaction with a stable semi-discrete numerical paradigm in high dimensions. A reasonable physical model is established by multi-Klein–Gordon Schroedinger dynamics. Demonstrative experiments would provide the confident guidance to control quantum system at nuclei scale in real laboratory. (author)

  7. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  8. Instrumentation for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture is concerned with engineers and technicians not specialized in nuclear reactor control. The different methods of measurement used are briefly reviewed: current or pulse measurement, and Campbell system; the electronic networks are described and a part is devoted to the cables connecting detectors and electronic assemblies

  9. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures

  10. Climate Control Using Nuclear Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Modgil, Moninder Singh

    2008-01-01

    We examine implications of anthropogenic low pressure regions, - created by injecting heat from nuclear reactors, into atmosphere. We suggest the possibility that such artificially generated low pressure regions, near hurricanes could disrupt their growth, path, and intensity. This method can also create controlled tropical stroms, which lead to substantial rainfall in arid areas, such as - (1)Sahara desert, (2) Australian interior desert, and (3) Indian Thar desert. A simple vortex suction model is developed to study, effect on atmospheric dynamics, by such a nuclear heat injection system.

  11. Development and evaluation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in a Nuclear Medicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempser, Alexandre R., E-mail: krempser@peb.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEB/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Soares, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Corbo, Rossana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FM/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    The quality management in Nuclear Medicine Services is a requirement of national and international standards. The Brazilian regulatory agency in health surveillance, the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), in its Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada (Collegiate Directory Resolution) no. 38, requires the elaboration of documents describing the technical and clinical routine activities. This study aimed to elaborate, implement and evaluate Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in the Nuclear Medicine Service of a university hospital. Eighteen SOPs were developed, involving tasks related to dose calibrator, gamma camera, Geiger-Muller detectors and radiological protection activities. The performance of its application was evaluated for a period of six months. It was observed a reduction in 75% of reported operational errors and 42% of the number of reported incidents with contamination by radioactive material. The SOPs were adequate and successful in its application. New procedures involving clinical activities will also be developed and evaluated. (author)

  12. Development and evaluation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in a Nuclear Medicine Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality management in Nuclear Medicine Services is a requirement of national and international standards. The Brazilian regulatory agency in health surveillance, the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), in its Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada (Collegiate Directory Resolution) no. 38, requires the elaboration of documents describing the technical and clinical routine activities. This study aimed to elaborate, implement and evaluate Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in the Nuclear Medicine Service of a university hospital. Eighteen SOPs were developed, involving tasks related to dose calibrator, gamma camera, Geiger-Muller detectors and radiological protection activities. The performance of its application was evaluated for a period of six months. It was observed a reduction in 75% of reported operational errors and 42% of the number of reported incidents with contamination by radioactive material. The SOPs were adequate and successful in its application. New procedures involving clinical activities will also be developed and evaluated. (author)

  13. Radiosanitary control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine has recently modified radiosanitary control standards for the three sectors involved: patients, personnel and general population. Nuclear Medicine does not constitute an important source of radiation, including patients and population, compared with radiology. The basic problems of radiosanitary controls are: the absorbed dose and the patient. Low risk deferred stochastic effects may appear with correct use of these controls. On the other hand, risk of stochastic consequences and non stochastic complications appear with incorrect applications. The following aspects should be considered for correct uses: A-1- The critical organ, which is not always the one under study. 2-The rest of the organism, specially the more sensitive organs. B- The radiopharmaceutical used, considering the following periods: physical, biological and effective. C-Technical and human resources that include quality control for the equipment. Radiosanitary control aims at a common objetive: dose limitation to the patient, personnel and general population. For this, it is necessary to accomplish the training programme for proffesional and technical personnel about quality control and to stablish basic standards for the equipment. Current law and regulations assign to the National Atomic Energy Comission the responsibility for controlling the use of radioisotopes and radiations in order to safeguard the health and life of the population. (M.E.L.)

  14. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  15. As insuficiências do valor patrimonial contabilístico: do justo valor ao alargamento da base informativa do relato financeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Amélia M.M.; Rodrigues, Fernando J. P. A.

    2007-01-01

    A falta de relevância da informação financeira é um problema com origem recuada e que tem no presente repercussões significativas ao nível do processo da tomada de decisão. A capacidade explicativa da contabilidade acerca dos fenómenos patrimoniais que influenciam o valor da empresa está limitada pelas insuficiências e pelo carácter redutor da valorimetria a custo histórico. O nosso trabalho focaliza-se na necessidade de ajustar o modelo contabilístico a uma base explicativa suficientemente c...

  16. Computer systems for nuclear installation data control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer programs developed by Divisao de Instalacoes Nucleares (DIN) from Brazilian CNEN for data control on nuclear installations in Brazil are presented. The following computer programs are described: control of registered companies, control of industrial sources, irradiators and monitors; control of liable person; control of industry irregularities; for elaborating credence tests; for shielding analysis; control of waste refuge

  17. Control rod drive of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to nuclear reactors and, more particularly, to a drive of a control rod of a nuclear reactor and allows power control, excess reactivity compensation, and emergency shut-down of a reactor. (author)

  18. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Peter [Leicester School of Law (United Kingdom). Environmental Law Unit

    1995-12-31

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs.

  19. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  20. Ránking de anuncios y agencias de publicidad en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Núñez Barriopedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis de la posición actual de las agencias de publicidad venezolanas y de sus anuncios en el UNIR (Uni- versidad Internacional de la Rioja Ranking Iberoamericano de Publicidad. Asimismo, se estudia la tendencia de sus posiciones y se realiza una clasifica- ción de agencias y anuncios en cuartiles según su posición y puntuación en el ranking. Para el caso de Venezuela, se analiza el ranking de anuncios en 2012-2013 y el ranking de agencias en 2014-2015 para una muestra total de 2.130 y 2.175 anuncios, 775 y 538 agencias respectivamente en Iberoamérica.

  1. CAPACIDAD DE AGENCIA DE AUTOCUIDADO EN LAS PERSONAS ADULTAS QUE PADECEN ARTRITIS REUMATOIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación consistió en analizar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado que poseen laspersonas con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide, quienes habitan en los cantones de Palmares y San Ramón. Se desarrolló una metodología de investigación cuantitativa de tipo descriptiva transversal. En cuanto a la población participante del estudio, estuvo conformada por 13 personas diagnosticadas con artritis reumatoide; respecto de los instrumentos utilizados para recolectar información, a los colaboradores se les aplicó el instrumento “Escala de apreciación de la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado”, propuesta por Dorothea Orem. Se determinó que los participantes poseen alta capacidad de agencia de autocuidado en las diferentes categorías, ya que únicamente se detectó baja capacidad de agencia de autocuidado en cuanto a interacción social (2 personas, y respecto del consumo insuficiente de alimentos (5 personas. La escala ASA permite a la Enfermera (o determinar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, de forma oportuna y eficaz. Además, permitió a las investigadoras observar un panorama general de las necesidades de autocuidado de la población participante y constatar que esta presenta alta capacidad de agencia de autocuidado.

  2. Large Scale Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh-Modgil, M

    2002-01-01

    It is pointed out that controlled release of thermal energy from fission type nuclear reactors can be used to alter weather patterns over significantly large geographical regions. (1) Nuclear heat creates a low pressure region, which can be used to draw moist air from oceans, onto deserts. (2) Creation of low pressure zones over oceans using Nuclear heat can lead to Controlled Cyclone Creation (CCC).(3) Nuclear heat can also be used to melt glaciers and control water flow in rivers.

  3. Relación de agencia y monopolio. El caso del tabaco en España (1887-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Chamorro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los análisis históricos contables permiten evidenciar, bajo el marco de la teoría de la agencia, los conflictos de intereses que se producen en una organización. Nuestro objetivo, con un estudio longitudinal, basado en fuentes primarias, es comprobar cómo se regula una relación de agencia a través de contratos formales, y el papel que asume la contabilidad. El caso en el que nos basamos, y que puede ser una importante contribución en ese sentido, es el del arrendamiento del monopolio estatal del tabaco a una empresa privada, desde el inicio de la gestión (1887 hasta que empieza a desaparecer esta actividad monopolística (1986. Nuestros hallazgos ponen de manifiesto que los contratos establecidos permiten un gran control del principal sobre el agente y que no se cumplen todas las condiciones que deben darse para considerarlos «un buen acuerdo contractual». Por otro lado, la contabilidad aparece como un instrumento clave para el control del Estado sobre las empresas arrendatarias. Nuestra principal conclusión es que el agente es quien asume mayor riesgo en el arrendamiento, y el principal mantiene un comportamiento oportunista durante todo el periodo, lo que contradice los planteamientos más generalizados de la teoría y permite relajar sus asunciones iniciales.

  4. "Mater puerorum'. A medieval naming for an enigmatic children's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, S S

    1981-09-01

    The pediatric clinical entity called "Mater Puerorum' appears first in the latin translation of Rhazes' "Practica Puerorum' and in his "Continens'. His descriptions of the disease could give some likeness either to a diagnosis of night terrors, or of hyperpyretic convulsions, or of a slight form of epilepsy. Mater Puerorum is afterwards described by most pediatric authors till the Renaissance period without much originality. Rhazes being one of their main sources anyway. Mater Puerorum has been considered by Still and Radbill as a synonym for hysterical fits in children. Going back to the Arabic original naming: Ummu's Sibyan, we venture another etymology based on Babylonian-Judeo-Arabic demonology. The "Mother of the Children' could be the female demon Karina--or Lilith--which is said to come to plague the children at night. The naming Mater Puerorum could thus be ascribed to a folklore origin, rather than to hysteria. PMID:7023949

  5. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  6. Annual report 2013 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentina agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials; Relatorio anual 2013 - ABACC - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The document reports the activities of the commission and all technical activities. Shows the presence of ABACC at events; the strengthening technical capability; technical cooperation, institutional and administrative and financial activities; an outlook for 2014. Gives a list of the ABACC inspectors and presents the facilities under the Quadripartite Agreement.

  7. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  8. Ensino médio e ensino técnico na América Latina: Brasil, Argentina e Chile Mid level schooling and vocational training in Latin America: Brazil, Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Cunha

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa políticas educacionais em três países latino-americanos (Brasil, Argentina e Chile, nos anos 80 e 90, comparando-as, em cada país, com as das décadas anteriores, assim como entre uns e outros. Como foco de análise, o autor tomou a educação intermediária, definida como a posicionada entre a educação obrigatória e a educação superior. As políticas para esse segmento, em cada país, foram examinadas com referência à persistência e/ou à mudança da dualidade estrutural. A conclusão do autor é a de que Brasil e Argentina elaboraram e implementam políticas tendentes ao reforço da dualidade, ao passo que o Chile anuncia políticas de sua atenuação.This article analyzes educational policy in three Latin American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Chile during the 80s and 90s, making comparisons within each country in relation to earlier decades, as well as among the countries. With an analytical focus the author takes mid level schooling defined as that which occurs between obligatory schooling and higher education. The policies for this segment in each country, were examined with reference to the persistence and/or change of the structural duality. The author's conclusion is that Brazil and Argentina have developed and implemented policies tending to reinforce this duality, and that Chile has articulated policies to attenuate it.

  9. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  10. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  11. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  12. O capital intelectual nas empresas portuguesas cotadas na bolsa : análise do rácio valor de mercado/valor contabilístico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Lúcia Lima; Oliveira, Lídia

    2001-01-01

    São vários os autores (Wallman, 1995; Cañibano, Ayuso e Sánchez, 1999; Lev e Zarowin, 1999; etc.) que se mostram preocupados com o facto da contabilidade e o relatório financeiro não estarem a acompanhar as rápidas mudanças do mundo empresarial. A existência de elementos intangíveis que não são reconhecidos como activos é um problema que tende a agravar-se, o que poderá pôr em causa o valor e importância do relato financeiro. 0 rácio valor de mercado/valor contabilístico tem sido ...

  13. Fotoperiodismo y evolución tecnológica. Estudio de caso: la agencia EFE

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Martín, María Adelaida

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Se presenta un estudio sobre la Agencia EFE, por ser la primera agencia de noticias en español y la cuarta del mundo como productora de información gráfica de prensa dentro del contexto nacional. Se analiza la evolución de las grandes agencias de información. Se desarrolla la aparición de la prensa ilustrada, la historia y evolución de las cámaras fotográficas y de los materiales sensibles en una recapitulación sobre las nociones técnicas en el proceso fotográfico y en su utilización como...

  14. Teoría de la agencia y sus aplicaciones en el mercadeo

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Gorbaneff

    2001-01-01

    La teoría de la Agencia Principal, TAP, permite mejorar nuestra comprensión de la empresa, especialmente en el área de mercadeo. Se utiliza como una plataforma conceptual para modelar situaciones en las aéreas de administración del personal de mercadeo, en el manejo de los canales y en las relaciones entre proveedores y clientes. Por su parte, el dominio de la teoría de juegos no es un requisito sine qua non para poder utilizar la teoría de la agencia y modelar las situaciones concretas.

  15. Teoría de la agencia y sus aplicaciones en el mercadeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gorbaneff

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la Agencia Principal, TAP, permite mejorar nuestra comprensión de la empresa, especialmente en el área de mercadeo. Se utiliza como una plataforma conceptual para modelar situaciones en las aéreas de administración del personal de mercadeo, en el manejo de los canales y en las relaciones entre proveedores y clientes. Por su parte, el dominio de la teoría de juegos no es un requisito sine qua non para poder utilizar la teoría de la agencia y modelar las situaciones concretas.

  16. ¿A qué juega barbie? obligatoria y heterosexualidad agencia cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Garzón M

    2011-01-01

    A través del examen de una experiencia de agencia cultural, este artículo de reflexión aborda el concepto de heterosexualidad obligatoria, o heteronormatividad, y lo concibe como un sistema político que tiene impacto en la vida de las mujeres, al constreñirlas en una forma dicotómica de existir, relacionarse y definirse. Se estima que gracias a la agencia cultural es posible cuestionar ese sistema político —logrando un impacto en el mundo de lo simbólico y lo imaginario que lo convierte en he...

  17. Development of nuclear power control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status on the development of nuclear power control(NPC) technology were reviewed. The advance of the fuzzy control and neural network(NN) control method for nuclear power plant was analyzed emphatically. The new trend of NPC technology advance was explored. The results of analysis reveal that the advancing tendency of NRC technology is developing from classical control to advanced control and intelligent control in the control method; the NPC technology is developing from simulated technology to digital (computer) technology and network technology in the hardware technology; the NPC system is progressing from single loop control to supervisory control, distributed computer control and control network-based in the the hierarchy of control system. In the NPC system, the PID method is still a most important control method, the fuzzy control method have good performance and the neural network method has great potential for the control of nuclear power plant. However, it is necessary to test and demonstrate for the application of neural network control to the nuclear power plant. (authors)

  18. A comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold war nuclear arms control was characterized by American Soviet hostility and the limits of verification; the end of the cold war allowed for a more cooperative approach. From this new situation emerged the idea of a new agenda for arms control and of exploring a more comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control. The author posits eight elements for such a comprehensive approach. Though such an approach seems unrealistic today, recent history teaches us to look beyond today's constraints. (author)

  19. Accountancy, control and protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear distribution of responsibilities between the Agency, the States and the operators is fundamental. The Agency has the responsibility to establish and administer safeguards and to assist Member States, upon their request, to develop the means to solve problems arising from the use of atomic energy, one of them being the control of nuclear material. States have the responsibility, in respect to nuclear activities carried out within their territory, under their jurisdiction or under their control anywhere, to define appropriate measures to control nuclear material, to set up an organizational structure to enable the implementation of the measures and to control compliance with the law. This means that States establish systems for ensuring accountancy and control and physical protection of nuclear material. The paper gives an indication of the advice the Agency may give to States, which may request it, in setting up their systems of accountancy and control and physical protection of nuclear material. It also gives some ideas on the co-ordination of the States' systems, the relationship between the States and the Agency in the accountancy and control of nuclear material and the role of the Agency in the physical protection of nuclear material. The present irreplaceable role of the State as a regulatory power is stressed. (author)

  20. Educação e hegemonia na América Latina de hoje: projetos de sociedade e de educação nos anos 90: Brasil, Argentina, Chile e Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada em março de 1999, esta pesquisa está se desenvolvendo como elemento de meu doutorado em educação. Este trabalho também faz parte do Projeto CORI/MERCOSUL, área temática Educação, desde 1999. Esta investigação tem como tema central a relação entre os diversos projetos de sociedade e de educação dos principais sujeitos políticos coletivos que planejam e atuam na direção atual das políticas educacionais dos países da América Latina. Pretendemos analisar o processo de transição e consolidação democrática do Brasil, Argentina, Chile e Venezuela; bem como o redirecionamento das políticas educacionais nestes ambientes culturais, no sentido de esclarecer as contradições entre as demandas e objetivos dos sujeitos políticos coletivos locais e internacionais em seu movimento de construção de um projeto hegemônico de sociedade e de educação; ora neoliberal, ora democrático de massas. Este tipo de análise pode trazer contribuições reais no sentido da construção e sistematização de elementos de integração entre as diversas identidades históricas e culturais dos nossos países; interferindo sob a forma de novas categorias de investigação, no nosso planejamento e ação educacionais locais. Started in 1999, march, this research is going on as an element of my education doctorate. This work is also part of CORI/MERCOSUL project, at education thematic area, since 1999. This investigation has as central theme the relation between "society and education projects" of the principal politician social subjects that plan and actuate in the actual educational policies directions at Latin America countries. We intend to analyze the democratic transition and consolidation in Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Venezuela; and also the educational policies redirections in these cultural ambiance; in the way to clarify the contradictions between these social subjects demands and objectives in their building process of "society

  1. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  2. Design of a nuclear reactor cooperative controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic controller software package and explores the feasibility of its use in nuclear reactor operation. The controller complements reactor operator actions, and the operators can override the controller decisions. Techniques of providing learning capability to the controller are also being investigated to improve the reasoning and control skill of the controller. The fuzzy logic controller is implemented in C language and its overall structure is shown. The heart of the systems consists of a fuzzifier, a rule interpreter, and a defuzzifier. The controller is designed as a stand-alone package that can be interfaced to a simulated model of a nuclear reactor. Since no model is an accurate representation of the actual process being modeled, some tuning must be performed to use the controller in an actual reactor. This is accomplished using the learning feature of the controller

  3. Automatic control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental concepts in automatic control are surveyed, and the purpose of the automatic control of pressurized water reactors is given. The response characteristics for the main components are then studied and block diagrams are given for the main control loops (turbine, steam generator, and nuclear reactors)

  4. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA) is an independent agency for safeguards and material control for nuclear activities in the Republic of Korea. Formerly subordinate to the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), it is temporarily associated with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In mid-2006 it will become fully independent. The NNCA is responsible for safeguards within the ROK, cooperates with the IAEA, and supports technical needs of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). In addition, it has responsibilities in export controls and physical protection. In the future the NNCA expects to become a national 'think tank' for nuclear control and nonproliferation issues. This presentation enumerated the many responsibilities of the NNCA and explained the structure and staffing of the organization. (author)

  5. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  6. Dura mater is a potential source of Aβ seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Lutz, Mirjam I; Ricken, Gerda; Ströbel, Thomas; Höftberger, Romana; Preusser, Matthias; Regelsberger, Günther; Hönigschnabl, Selma; Reiner, Angelika; Fischer, Peter; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes A

    2016-06-01

    Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma and vessels is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent observations of Aβ deposition in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) after dural grafting or treatment with pituitary extracts raised concerns whether Aβ is capable of transmitting disease as seen in prion diseases by the disease-associated prion protein. To address this issue, we re-sampled and re-evaluated archival material, including the grafted dura mater of two cases with iCJD (28 and 33-years-old) without mutations in the AβPP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes, and carrying ε3/ε3 alleles of the APOE gene. In addition, we evaluated 84 dura mater samples obtained at autopsy (mean age 84.9 ± 0.3) in the community-based VITA study for the presence of Aβ deposition. We show that the dura mater may harbor Aβ deposits (13 %) in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy or amorphous aggregates. In both iCJD cases, the grafted dura mater had accumulated Aβ. The morphology and distribution pattern of cerebral Aβ deposition together with the lack of tau pathology distinguishes the Aβ proteinopathy in iCJD from AD, from that seen in young individuals without cognitive decline carrying one or two APOE4 alleles, and from that related to traumatic brain injury. Our novel findings of Aβ deposits in the dura mater, including the grafted dura, and the distinct cerebral Aβ distribution in iCJD support the seeding properties of Aβ. However, in contrast to prion diseases, our study suggests that such Aβ seeding is unable to reproduce the full clinicopathological phenotype of AD. PMID:27016065

  7. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  8. Multivariable Feedback Control of Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Moen

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariable feedback control has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactor cores. Two design techniques, based on the theory of automatic control, were developed: the State Variable Feedback (SVF is an application of the linear optimal control theory, and the Multivariable Frequency Response (MFR is based on a generalization of the traditional frequency response approach to control system design.

  9. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  10. Technical Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To strengthen cybersecurity for nuclear facilities, many countries take a regulatory approach. For example, US Government issued several regulations . Title 10, of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 73.54, 'Protection of Digital Computer and Communication Systems and Networks (10 CFR 73.54) for cybersecurity requirements and Regulatory Guide 5.71 (RG. 5.71) for cybersecurity guidance and so on. In the case of Korea, Korean Government issued '8.22 Cybersecurity of I and C systems (KINS/RG-NO8.22). In particular, Reg. 5.71 provides a list of security controls to address the potential cyber risks to a nuclear facilities. Implementing and adopting security controls, we can improve the level of cybersecurity for nuclear facilities. RG 5.71 follows the recommendation of NIST SP 800-53. NIST standard provides security controls for IT systems. And NRC staff tailored the controls in NIST standards to unique environments of nuclear facilities. In this paper, we are going to analysis and compare NRC RG 5.71 and NIST SP800-53, in particular, for technical security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities. In this paper, we compared and analyzed of two regulation in technical security controls. RG 5.71 that is based on NIST standard provides well-understood security controls for nuclear facility. But some omitting from NIST standard can threaten security state of nuclear facility

  11. Comportamientos y capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDITH ARREDONDO HOLGUÍN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir comportamientos y capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca de una clínica cardiovascular de Medellín entre noviembre de 2007 y mayo de 2008. Es un estudio descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo. La muestra fue de 206 adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca diagnosticados por sintomatología clínica, fracción de eyección menor o igual a 40%. Se usaron para la recolección de datos la Escala Capacidad de Agencia de Autocuidado desarrollada por Isemberg y Evers et ál. (1993, traducida por Gallego, que mide el nivel de agencia de autocuidado, y la Escala Comportamientos de Autocuidado validada en Colombia en 2007 por Arredondo, que mide la frecuencia de comportamientos de autocuidado de adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca en la solicitud de ayuda, adaptación a vivir con la enfermedad y el régimen terapéutico, modificación del autoconcepto y aceptación de sí mismo, vivir con efectos de la insuficiencia cardiaca y el tratamiento. Concluye que el mayor número de pacientes eran hombres; que factores básicos condicionantes como el apoyo de la familia, desempeño de un trabajo, afiliación al sistema de salud, nivel socioeconómico y acceso a un nivel educativo fueron importantes para los pacientes. La frecuencia de comportamientos de autocuidado fue media en los adultos en la mayoría de las dimensiones y el nivel de agencia fue alto y muy alto. Igualmente se concluyó que no hay una correlación entre agencia y comportamientos de autocuidado. Lo que plantea que los adultos tienen el conocimiento pero no han tomado la decisión de realizar acciones de autocuidado.

  12. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of 'Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems

  13. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of ''Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments'', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems. Figs and tabs

  14. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented

  15. On Nuclear War: Deterrence, Escalation, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Cimbala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, and especially in the 1980s, there were some serious efforts in the academic and policy communities to study how a nuclear war could end. The subject of nuclear war termination should be reopened now because the threat of nuclear danger has changed from one of quantity to one of quality - who has nuclear weapons, and for what purpose are they intended? The political and technological environments relevant to starting and stopping a nuclear war since Nagasaki, neither the United States nor other great powers had though through how to abort a nuclear conflict in its early stages. This study will attempt neither to construct particular scenarios of war termination nor to examine important topics such as bargaining strategies or monitoring and verification of nuclear cease fires. The focus here is broader, namely, the political-military contexts for the management of nuclear crises and post-crisis force operations, including escalation control and war termination. Specifically, correcting the potential inability of states to terminate a nuclear war requires that military planners and policymakers first accept the concept of nuclear war termination as feasible and desirable. There are considerable obstacles standing in the way of that acceptance, not the least being the intellectual resistance by many, based on the assumption that deterrence is undermined by a willingness to plan seriously for its possible failure.

  16. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  17. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  18. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  19. Nuclear power plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively transfer the operation of a nuclear power plant including a bwr type reactor to single load operation in the station with no increase in the neutron flux and water level in the reactor by the combined use of recycle pump trip and feedwater pump trip. Method: Upon rapid load decrease in a turbine generator, at least one of usually operated feedwater pumps and a recycle pump are tripped and the starting for a stand-by feedwater pump is inhibited. This rapidly decreases the recycling flow rate to thereby lower the neutron flux before generation of pressure increase and also decreases the feedwater flow rate to thereby suppress the increase in the water level due to increase in voids, whereby the operation is smoothly transferred to the single load operation in the station. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  1. Device for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device for power height distribution control in channel-type uranium-graphite reactor cores is described. The device is a water filled vertical channel positioned in the reactor core. The device consists of a controlling rod, displacer in a form of a throttle and gas cavity and discharge throttle. The rod is fixed in upper position with an electromagnet. By shifting a displacer and changing flow rate established are the required height and position of a controlling liquid column. In the emergency protection, a drive shifts the displacer under core space or the displacer drops under the action of its own weight at electromagnet clutch doenergyzation whereas the channel is filled by liquid. The application of the suggested device permits to improve economic and operating characteristics of reactors

  2. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  3. The 1976 Illini: Sweet Memories of Alma Mater

    OpenAIRE

    Diya Dutt

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of graduates of the class of 1976 from the University of Illinois toward their alma mater over a period of fifteen years. The central question addressed in this article is: How do former students feel about their educational institution as time passes? Early research suggests that students' attachment to their educational institution becomes weaker with the passage of time. This panel data on alumni attitudes towards the academic environ...

  4. Auditing thrombolysis service for stroke at Mater Dei Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Daniel; Mallia, Maria; Borg, Denise; Aquilina, Josanne

    2015-01-01

    Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke was introduced locally in October 2010. In 2012, the practice was audited to analyse the prevalence of inclusion and exclusion criteria for thrombolysis. Data about the local incidence of stroke, demographics and outcome was also obtained. All patients admitted to Mater Dei Hospital with a diagnosis of stroke over an 8 month period were recruited. Standard data collection sheets were used to obtain data. 251 patients were admitted with a confirm...

  5. Dopaminergic receptors in rat dura mater: pharmacological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallotti, C; Frati, A; Cavallotti, D; Tranquilli Leali, F M

    2004-03-01

    1. The location and distribution of dopaminergic receptors in rat dura mater was studied by examining several dural zones (vascular, perivascular, intervascular) in different cranial and spinal regions. 2. The pharmacological characteristics and anatomical distribution of dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors sites were investigated using combined pharmacological techniques and immunofluorescent microscopy. 3. Samples of rat dura mater were obtained from 10 adult Wistar rats. On frozen slices, dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies. 4. Inhibition studies were performed using fluorescent and non-fluorescent agonists or antagonists to define the pharmacological specificity of the immunostaining. 5. The greater sensitivity to displacement by amisulpride, bromocryptine, domperidone, haloperidol, raclopride and l-sulpiride than to displacement by N-propyl-nor-apomorphine, quinpirole and clozapine suggests that the immunofluorescent sites observed in these experiments are likely to belong to the dopamine D2 receptor subtype. 6. Our observations provide evidence of the presence of D1 and D2 receptors in the wall of meningeal vessels. The dopaminergic receptors are located in the adventitia, media and intima of dural arteries. Furthermore, the density of receptors is higher in close proximity to arteries and decreases passing from the vascular to the perivascular and intervascular zones. 7. In the rat dura mater, dopamine regulates the meningeal blood vessels and, through this action, dopamine and its receptors can play an important role in the pathogenesis of cephalalgia. PMID:15008964

  6. Collagen-inspired self-assembling materals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.

    2011-01-01

      The rapid increase of the quality of life together with the progress of medical science asks for the development of new, tuneable and controllable materials. For the same reason, materials used for biomedical applications have to be increasingly biocompatible, biodegradable and biofunctional

  7. Collagen-inspired self-assembling materals

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.

    2011-01-01

      The rapid increase of the quality of life together with the progress of medical science asks for the development of new, tuneable and controllable materials. For the same reason, materials used for biomedical applications have to be increasingly biocompatible, biodegradable and biofunctional. Most of the available systems, however, lack one property or the other. For example, conventional animal-derived gelatin that is often used in biomedicine, is susceptible to a risk of contaminatio...

  8. ¿A qué juega barbie? obligatoria y heterosexualidad agencia cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Garzón M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A través del examen de una experiencia de agencia cultural, este artículo de reflexión aborda el concepto de heterosexualidad obligatoria, o heteronormatividad, y lo concibe como un sistema político que tiene impacto en la vida de las mujeres, al constreñirlas en una forma dicotómica de existir, relacionarse y definirse. Se estima que gracias a la agencia cultural es posible cuestionar ese sistema político —logrando un impacto en el mundo de lo simbólico y lo imaginario que lo convierte en hegemónico— y contribuir a su desmonte.

  9. Nuclear reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When occurrence of earthquakes is judged in a BWR type reactor, the power is decreased by inserting a portion of control rods, reducing a speed of recycling pumps, stopping recycling pumps, increasing the opening degree of a main steam control valve and opening a main steam relief valve. The reactor scram can be avoided by bypassing neutron flux high signal, settling a filter to neutron flux signals and setting a reactor scram set value by neutron flux signals, for example, to 120%. There is constituted an interlock for performing reactor scram when both of a neutron flux high signal and a signal outputted if a surface heat flux corresponding signal formed by applying calculation to the neutron flux high signal exceeds a set value are valid, to avoid unnecessary reactor scram. As a measuring means, not only an acceleration meter in the power plant, but also acceleration meters at remote places, acceleration meters or displacement meters for various kinds of equipments in the power plant are used, and when signals from them exceed set values, earthquake judgement is conducted. (N.H.)

  10. Agencia de autocuidado en hipertensos usuarios de un hospital universitario en Cúcuta (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Marina Vega Angarita

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de hipertensos usuarios del servicio de consulta externa del Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, en Cúcuta. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de corte cuantitativo, realizado durante el primer semestre de 2012; la muestra por conveniencia estuvo conformada por 65 hipertensos, a quienes, previa verificación del cumplimiento de requisitos, les fue aplicado la escala “Apreciación de la ...

  11. Impacto da adoção do sistema de normalização contabilística - entidades do setor não lucrativo (SNC-ESNL) nas Santas Casas da Misericórdia: estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Alegria, Maykol A.; Ribeiro, Nuno A; Nogueira, Sónia P.

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo entender el impacto que la implementación del “Sistema de Normalização Contabilística - Entidades do Setor Não Lucrativo” en los estados financieros de la “Santa Casa daMisericórdia do Porto”, en 2011. En concreto, se pretende evaluar los impactos de la im plementación del“Sistema de Normalização Contabilística - Entidades do Setor Não Lucrativo”, en las diferentes rubricas de los estados financieros (balance y cuenta de resultados) y ciertos...

  12. Quality control of nuclear medicine equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine functional status and integrity of installations and equipment used in nuclear medicine in everyday medical practice or in research studies, it is important to maintain and implement quality control program. For this type of installation are required high standards, particularly with regard to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the image, and volume measurements in diagnosis and dosimetry. Given the precarious situation of the economy in transition, nuclear medicine departments in the republic, now, can not be always of service contracts with providers of facilities and equipment for routine maintenance and periodic calibration. Therefore, in this article are at some of the quality control procedures should be performed usually by engineers and physicists from the department of nuclear medicine. (authors)

  13. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device is described for controlling a safety control rod within the core of a nuclear reactor, the reactor controlled by a reactor control system, the device comprising: a safety control rod drive shaft and an electromagnetic clutch co-axial with the drive shaft operatively connected to the safety control rod for driving and positioning the safety control rod within or without the reactor core during reactor operation, the safety rod being oriented in a substantially vertical position to allow the rod to fall into the reactor core under the influence of gravity during shutdown of the reactor; the safety control rod drive shaft further operatively connected to a hydraulic pump such that operation of the drive shaft simultaneously drives and positions the safety control rod and operates the hydraulic pump such that a hydraulic fluid is forced into an accumulator, filling the accumulator with oil for the storage and supply of primary potential energy for safety control rod insertion such that the release of potential energy in the accumulator causes hydraulic fluid to flow through the hydraulic pump, converting the hydraulic pump to a hydraulic motor having speed and power capable of full length insertion and high speed driving of the safety control rod into the reactor core; a solenoid valve interposed between the hydraulic pump and the accumulator, said solenoid valve being a normally open valve, actuated to close when the safety control rod is out of the reactor during reactor operation; and further wherein said solenoid opens in response to a signal from the reactor control system calling for shutdown of the reactor and rapid insertion of the safety control rod into the reactor core, such that the opening of the solenoid releases the potential energy in the accumulator to place the safety control rod in a safe shutdown position

  14. Process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimum technical design of a nuclear power plant needs to be parallelled by effective process control in the stage of output operation. The author briefly demonstrates the pertinent criteria like operational organization, functional areas, crews, training of staff, process monitoring, industrial safety, incident prevention, and emergency manual. (DG)

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  16. The control of nuclear sector; Le controle du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn is loaded with the control of the nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France: it provides this control, in the name of the state, to protect the workers, the patients, the public and the environment of the risks in relation with nuclear activities. The control is the core business of Asn. Asn so checks the nuclear basic installations (I.N.B.), since their conception until their dismantling, the pressure equipment specially conceived for these installations, the management of the radioactive waste as well as the transport of radioactive substances. Asn also checks all the industrial and research installations as well as the hospitals where are used ionizing radiations. It is a more recent profession there, because dating the reform of the control of the nuclear power of 2002, which constitutes that of the radiation protection. The first responsibility of the activities at risks falls to the one who begins them. This principle applies to all the sectors checked by Asn: an industrialist is responsible for the safety of the nuclear installations which he exploits, a doctor is responsible for the use of the ionizing radiations which he uses. (N.C.)

  17. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major challenge that is the focus of this symposium was ensuring an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation. This involves effectiveness of the system, participation in the system, and financing of the system. The second major challenge is making progress in nuclear arms control, being the essential part of the mutual commitment made under the NPT. The third major challenge is the protection against nuclear terrorism

  18. Modelling the distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea (MTPII-MATER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the MTPII-MATER project (MAST), the distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea was modelled, as these radionuclides are useful tracers of water circulation. The Mediterranean Sea was divided into 81 boxes, corresponding to 21 regions, taking into account water mass circulation, bathymetry and data availability. Transfer rates were obtained from the MOM model run under MEDMEX conditions. The model was run with realistic inputs, which included weapons global fallout, Chernobyl 137Cs, nuclear industry and river runoff. It was observed that existing data are scarce, especially in the eastern Mediterranean. In general, model predictions agreed well with observations, showing maximum concentrations in surface waters and maxima due to global fallout (137Cs and 90Sr) and to the Chernobyl accident (137Cs only). (author)

  19. Enfermeiros e o Mercosul: regulamentação e controle do exercício profissional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Stiebler Vieira

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo comparado da regulamentação e controle do exercício profissional dos enfermeiros no Brasil, Argentina, Uruguai e Paraguai, delineando suas especificidades, diferenças e semelhanças, na perspectiva de implantação do Mercado Comum do Cone Sul, o qual pressupõe a livre circulação de trabalhadores nos mercados de trabalho dos países-membros do Tratado de Assunção.

  20. Análise de práticas contabilísticas na antiga civilização mesopotâmica = Analysis of accounting practices in the former mesopotamian Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui um facto perfeitamente verificável que nas últimas décadas se tem vindo a dedicar umaatenção crescente a trabalhos em História da Contabilidade. Antes dos estudos consideradoshoje como fazendo parte da Nova História da Contabilidade, os historiadores da nossa disciplinaconsagraram as suas investigações a aspectos relacionados com a origem e os processosevolutivos da Contabilidade, particularmente no que toca ao exame de práticas contabilísticas emcivilizações antigas. Com base na revisão da literatura de autores não-contabilísticos econtabilísticos (principalmente aqueles que se podem classificar como historiadoresconvencionais da Contabilidade, a questão magna que versamos neste trabalho respeita ànarração resumida de algumas técnicas contabilísticas praticadas no seio da mais antigacivilização da humanidade - a Mesopotâmia.It is a perfectly verifiable fact that in recent decades increasing attention has been devoting to works inAccounting History. Before studies considered today as part of the New Accounting History, historiansof our discipline dedicated their research to aspects on the origin and evolutionary processes ofAccounting, particularly with regard to the examination of accounting practices in ancient civilizations.Based on the review of the literature of non-accounting and Accounting authors, mainly those that canbe classified as conventional Accounting historians, the broader issue discussed in this work thusrelates to the narrative summary of some accounting techniques practiced within the most ancientcivilization of mankind - Mesopotamia.

  1. La agencia de medios en el nuevo escenario comunicativo / Media agency in the new communicative scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Castelló Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria comunicativa vive un periodo de cambios profundos a los que la agencia de medios, uno de los actores principales en el mercado publicitario, no ha permanecido ajena. La transmedialidad de los contenidos, los nuevos formatos publicitarios en los diferentes medios, el engagement que demanda el anunciante o el fomento de la experiencia del usuario, entre otros aspectos, han revolucionado la definición de las estrategias de medios. Los objetivos del presente artículo pasan por analizar el papel actual de la agencia de medios en el mercado publicitario y estudiar las características de las estrategias de medios en el presente contexto comunicativo así como su integración en las estrategias de comunicación. La metodología se basa en una revisión bibliográfica de publicaciones dedicadas a la planificación publicitaria y la agencia de medios en base a una serie de palabras clave y en un análisis de los servicios que ofrecen las agencias de medios en sus páginas web. Los resultados destacan el papel estratégico que ha adquirido la agencia de medios en el actual escenario comunicativo, por una parte, y la integración y la transmedialidad que caracterizan hoy en día a las estrategias de medios, por otra. Abstract Communication industry lives a period of profound changes that the media agency, one of the key players in the advertising market, has not remained apart from. Transmediality of contents, new advertising formats in the various media, the engagement that advertisers demand or the encouragement of the users experience, among others, have revolutionized the definition of media strategies.The goals of the present article focus on analyzing the current role of the media agency in the advertising market and studying the characteristics of media strategies in the present communicative context as well as their integration in communication strategies. The methodology is based on a literature review of publications devoted to

  2. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  3. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  4. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this First Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the first year tasks while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. One major addendum report, authored by M.A. Schultz, describes the ultimate goals and projected structure of an automatic distributed control system for EBR-2. The remaining tasks of the project develop specific implementations of various components required to demonstrate the intelligent distributed control concept

  5. Matere z motnjami v duševnem razvoju

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    S pregledom tuje literature in že opravljenih raziskav v tujini smo v teoretičnem delu magistrske naloge zajeli značilnosti mater z motnjami v duševnem razvoju, dejavnike, ki vplivajo na uspešnost opravljanja materinske vloge, ter pravice oseb z motnjami v duševnem razvoju do starševstva, v povezavi z zakonodajo na slovenskem. Navedli smo vzroke za omejevanje reprodukcije pri ženskah z motnjami v duševnem razvoju in problematiko odvzema skrbništva materam z motnjami v duševnem razvoju nad otr...

  6. Instrumentation and control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines major instruments, man-machine systems in particular, that have been developed recently for nuclear power plants. The TMI accident triggered the reinforcement of man-machine interface systems in many nuclear power plants over the world. In Japan, new types of control panels have been successively adopted for practical applications. These central control panels are characterized by their designs based on basic theories of human engineering, the use of CRT's for efficient plant monitoring, and the effective utilization of computers to permit centralization of data and simplification of operations. Based on the lessons learned from the TMI accidents, various operator supporting systems have been developed in many countries to allow operators to obtain reactor data during their operation work. These systems play an important role especially in case of emergency. Such systems include safety parameter display systems and disturbance analysis systems. Digital instruments have been adopted more widely for the control of major systems including the nuclear reactor as high-performance, high-function microprocessors emerged. Other newly developed systems include highly reliable emergency systems, load following control systems, safety systems equipped with a microprocessor, and training simulators. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Principles of nuclear power station control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecture notes are presented which were first distributed as part of a UKAEA introductory course on reactor technology held during November 1975. The material is presented in a manner which hopefully will enable recent graduates in science and technology to obtain a broad overall picture of the problems involved. A nuclear power station is only one element of a dispersed interconnected arrangement of other nuclear and fossil-fired units which together constitute the national 'grid'. Thus the control of any one station must relate to the objectives of the grid network as a whole. Economic and technological factors are shown to lead to a national power supply operating around 50 Hz. A precise control of the supply frequency is also motivated by economic and technological considerations, and it is achieved by regulating the output power of individual stations. In order to make the whole grid network stable in following the load, it is shown that a satisfactory practical criterion is for each station to be stable when operating in isolation with a variable load. As regards individual stations, several special control problems concerned with individual plant items are discussed; these include controlled reactivity insertions, temperature reactivity time constants and flow instability. A simplified analysis establishes a fundamental relationship between the stored thermal energy of a boiler unit (a function of mechanical construction) and the flexibility of the heat source (nuclear or fossil-fired) if the station is to cope satisfactorily with demands arising from unscheduled losses of other generating sets or transmission capacity. Finally, two basic control schemes for power station operation are described, known as coupled and decoupled control. Each of the control modes has its own merits, which depend on the proposed station operating strategy (base-load or load-following) and the nature of the heat source. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  10. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Labs., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today`s NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  11. Digital control systems for nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities, like much of the nuclear industry, are increasingly relying on digital instrumentation and control (DI and C) systems such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to maintain system variables for both production and safety purposes. Fuel cycle manufacturing processes are increasingly automated and relying on active engineered controls. Compliance with the double contingency principle requires that DI and C trains credited for criticality safety are independent. The additional requirements imposed as part of performing an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) in accordance with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 70, Subpart H, mean that such DI and C systems must meet more stringent requirements than would otherwise be required to meet industry standards. This paper discusses the current status of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Digital I and C Working Group, and the requirements that would be imposed on such systems are a result of having to comply with the double contingency principle and the performance requirements of 10 CFR 70.61. Existing applicable NRC Interim Staff Guidance is summarized, and several case studies from ISA technical reviews are presented. (authors)

  12. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  13. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod

  14. Fuzzy controllers in nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzzy controllers are applied to predicting and modeling a time series, with particular emphasis on anomaly detection in nuclear material inventory differences. As compared to neural networks, the fuzzy controllers can operate in real time; their learning process does not require many iterations to converge. For this reason fuzzy controllers are potentially useful in time series forecasting, where the authors want to detect and identify trends in real time. They describe an object-oriented implementation of the algorithm advanced by Wang and Mendel. Numerical results are presented both for inventory data and time series corresponding to chaotic situations, such as encountered in the context of strange attractors. In the latter case, the effects of noise on the predictive power of the fuzzy controller are explored

  15. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  16. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  19. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant

  20. Opciones estratégicas de las agencias de noticias europeas: Reuters, France Presse y EFE

    OpenAIRE

    Artero, J.P. (Juan Pablo); Moraes, R

    2008-01-01

    Las agencias de noticias se enfrentan a una nueva realidad internacional y de mercado en el siglo XXI. Los cambios políticos, económicos, tecnológicos y sociales que ya ha provocado y sigue produciendo la globalización obligan a estas empresas de comunicación a adaptarse a un entorno muy diferente del que han vivido en el último siglo. Cuestiones clave que deben resolver de un modo estratégico son su relación con los gobiernos; su independencia editorial, comercial y financiera; y la apertura...

  1. Departamentos de RP de agencias de seguridad alimentaria y social media : una oportunidad incierta

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Monterrubio, Natàlia; Lores Garcia, Mònica

    2012-01-01

    La aparición de los social media ha revolucionado las relaciones públicas tanto la relación como comunicación entre consumidores finales y organizaciones. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer las implicaciones que estos medios han supuesto para los departamentos de relaciones públicas de las agencias de seguridad alimentaria europeas. Esta investigación, enmarcada dentro de un proyecto europeo del Séptimo Programa Marco, pretende descubrir los modelos de relaciones públicas con los que t...

  2. Redes sociales y modelos de agencias ciudadanas de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, César

    2011-01-01

    El uso voluntario y espontáneo de las redes sociales también resulta en procesos históricos, etnográficos, antropológicos y sociológicos. Esta investigación se basa en un estudio de mercado que demuestra los usos, hábitos y tendencias de las redes sociales en España, Brasil y México. Los datos analizados indican el potencial para que se establezca una agencia ciudadana de comunicación entre los usuarios de sistemas informáticos que posibilitan la convivencia en redes en nivel mundial, desde q...

  3. Capacidad de agencia de autocuidado y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Aguilar, Rosa del Socorro

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la relación entre la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes de una Institución de Educación Superior en el Distrito de Barranquilla. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, de corte transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo, basado en la teoría del déficit de autocuidado de Orem. La muestra fue de 133 adolescentes, seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Se aplicó la escala ASA, el c...

  4. El contrato de agencia comercial. Análisis dentro del contexto del derecho romano

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Camacho López

    2009-01-01

    Sumario: Premisa. Principios derivados del sistema jurídico romano-germánico aplicables al contrato de agencia comercial. i. Algunas figuras de la actividad mercantil en el derecho romano. ii. Cláusulas de no competencia. A. Posibles fuentes de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. 1. Obsequium. 2. Operae iuratae. 3. Operae stipulatae. 4. Stipulatio. 5. Contratos innominados. 6. Lex mancipii. B. Licitud o ilicitud de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. C. Con...

  5. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  6. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Determinantes de la eficiencia en el canal de distribución: análisis en agencias de viajes

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers Rubio, Ricardo; Mas Ruiz, Francisco José

    2009-01-01

    El incremento de la competencia entre agencias de viajes y el impacto del comercio electrónico como una alternativa al canal de distribución turístico tradicional han dado lugar a un entorno en el que la gestión eficiente de los recursos productivos resulta fundamental para las agencias de viajes. Así, el objetivo del trabajo consiste en estimar la eficiencia con la que operan los intermediarios del sector minorista español de distribución turístico, y conocer la influencia de algunos de sus ...

  8. Collective control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, mainly related to the increasing complexity of working environments, working activities become more and collective. The present research on the paradoxical nature of working teams, considered from a reliability point of view. This document is composed of four Sections. The first Section introduces the context of the research, its objectives and the underlying assumptions. In the second Section, we describe a working situation, which is the control of a nuclear reactor. Relations between cooperative work and reliability are discussed in the third Section. Finally, in the fourth Section, a synthesis of the research and some perspectives are proposed. (authors). 7 refs

  9. Collective control of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognin, L.

    1995-06-01

    Nowadays, mainly related to the increasing complexity of working environments, working activities become more and collective. The present research on the paradoxical nature of working teams, considered from a reliability point of view. This document is composed of four Sections. The first Section introduces the context of the research, its objectives and the underlying assumptions. In the second Section, we describe a working situation, which is the control of a nuclear reactor. Relations between cooperative work and reliability are discussed in the third Section. Finally, in the fourth Section, a synthesis of the research and some perspectives are proposed. (authors). 7 refs.

  10. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  11. Turismo de lujo e internet: Oportunidades para las Agencias de Viajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fernandes Galhanone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone verificar cómo se explotan las posibilidades ofrecidas por internet en el área de servicios, específicamente en el ámbito del turismo; analizando de qué manera estructuran sus portales las agencias de viajes volcadas al segmento de lujo. Asimismo, se propone analizar cuál es el uso efectivo que los clientes y potenciales consumidores de ese tipo de viajes hacen de esa herramienta y cuál es la forma de compra del viaje adoptada por ellos. Los resultados indican que existen muchas posibilidades a ser explotadas por las agencias de viajes para atender a ese segmento de clientes, facilitando la comunicación, las ventas y el carácter tangible de los servicios prestados.Luxury Travel and Internet. Opportunities for Travel Agents. This paper aims to verify how internet-enabled possibilities are being exploited in the tourism industry, specifically in luxury travel agency websites, which were investigated in terms of their sales and communication features. At the same time, the actual usage of websites by luxury travel customers and prospects is analyzed, as well as their needs and wants in purchasing travel services on- and offline. Results indicate that there are still many possibilities to be exploited by travel agents in servicing the luxury traveler, which may foster communications and sales and help making services more tangible for customers and prospects.

  12. Nuclear safety, control and monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of basic systems supporting safety of technological processes, which were developed and implemented at the Mayak site, is given. The purpose of the self-sustaining chain reaction emergency warning system is to register any anomalously high level of instantaneous γ-radiation, provide sound and light alarm signals, estimate the γ-radiation absorbed dose rate. The purpose of the automated radiation monitoring system is to provide radiation safety of process personnel by continuous remote monitoring of the radiological situation and control of the alarm devices and operating mechanisms. The automated radiation monitoring system provides continuous monitoring γ-radiation exposure dose rate; collection and processing of data from measurement units; prompt notification to regional and federal executive authorities about any accidents and provision of informational support of decision-making. The neutron detection system is used to measure the frequency of impulses that characterise the flux of neutrons emitted by the plutonium solution in the process vessels, prepare and transfer information to the central process control system at its automated workplace locations. The goals of the system for automatic monitoring of nuclear shipments are to provide integrated online monitoring for nuclear, radiation, environmental and fire safety, branch power supply, radiation and meteorological monitoring of the sanitary protection zones and observation zones, as well as transmission of operative data to the Rosatom's Crisis Response Centre

  13. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, which gives detailed guidance on the quality control of the various electronic instruments used for radiation detection and measurement in nuclear medicine, stems from the work of two Advisory Groups convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A preliminary document, including recommended test schedules but lacking actual protocols for the tests, was drawn up by the first of these groups, meeting at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended test protocols, was prepared by the second Group, meeting likewise in Vienna in 1982. This version is the model for the present text. The document should be of value to all nuclear medicine units, and especially to those in developing countries, in the initiation or revision of schemes for the quality control of their instruments. Its recommendations have provided the basis for instruction in two IAEA regional technical co-operation projects in the subject field, one initiated in 1981 for countries of Latin America and one initiated in 1982 for countries of Asia and the Pacific

  14. Online control loop tuning in Pickering Nuclear Generating Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most analog controllers in the Pickering B Nuclear Generating Stations adopted PID control scheme. In replacing the analog controllers with digital controllers, the PID control strategies, including the original tuning parameters were retained. The replacement strategy resulted in minimum effort on control loop tuning. In a few cases, however, it was found during commissioning that control loop tuning was required as a result of poor control loop performance, typically due to slow response and controlled process oscillation. Several factors are accounted for the necessities of control loop re-tuning. Our experience in commissioning the digital controllers showed that online control tuning posted some challenges in nuclear power plant. (author)

  15. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; technical cooperation scheme in nuclear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three pillars of nuclear control regime are nuclear material accountancy control, nuclear export control and physical protection in order to assure nuclear transparency of a nation. It would be prudent to have a proper understanding of the DPRK's nuclear infrastructure before a meaningful collaboration may take place. Chapter 1 introduces the history of nuclear program development in the DPRK, Chapter 2 contains the technical framework of the state system of nuclear materials accountancy control, and Chapters 3 and 4 describe the nuclear export control and physical protection infrastructure needed in preparation for the LWR plant operation. The final Chapter 5 summarizes the salient points raised at the Muju Workshop. Completion of the Monograph series I, II, III is expected to contribute towards the successful completion of the KEDO LWR construction following the satisfactory conclusion of the IAEA verification process

  16. Safeguards and illicit nuclear trafficking: Towards more effective control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article looks at the issue of illicit nuclear trafficking from the perspective of nuclear safeguards. It examines some ways in which essential elements of an effective safeguards system can contribute to the efforts of States against illicit trafficking in nuclear materials that could be of use for weapons production. Particularly addressed are aspects related to the accounting and control of nuclear material and technical assistance that States can receive to establish or strengthen such control systems

  17. The ANEEL and the PL 3.337/2004; analysis of the management, organization and social control of the regulator agencies under the legal optics; A ANEEL e o PL 3.337/2004: uma analise da gestao, organizacao e controle social das agencias reguladoras sob o prisma juridico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Hirdan Katarina de Medeiros; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mails: hirdanmedeiros@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    Since 1990 movement of opening economic sectors and public services long ago explored only the State in Brazil, what it parallel caused the institution of agencies with the target to oversee and to regulate definitive sector affection to the utility public. Ahead of this context, the agency process was attended to it, with looks it to monitor, to regulate and to oversee the activities of steady the incoming actors and already in these markets by means of specific and various laws. Thus, justifying the importance of the existence of a General Law of the Regulating Agencies, the Legislative Bill meets in the National Congress no. 3.337/04. Therefore, the present work, by means of bibliographical research and analysis the Bill in question, it intended to approach the points most controversial raised by studious of the Brazilian right in relation to the impact of the these changes proposals in the structure of the National Agency of Electric Energy. In this direction, the main focus was the contract of management, the interaction between the agencies and the institutions of free market defense, the agencies of control and the public hearings and consultations. (author)

  18. Guide-tube and control rod for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inside of the nuclear reactor guide tubes is of square cross section. A control rod drives a sliding cage and control fingers. Said sliding cage carries a system of interconnected mobile spacers for guiding control fingers

  19. Hafnium control rod for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an improved control device for nuclear fission reactor having a core fissionable fuel is an assembly composed of fuel units grouped into spaced apart bundles which are immersed in liquid coolant in operating service, and wherein the control device is provided with means for reciprocal movement into and out from the core of fuel intermediate the spaced apart bundles of the assembly. The control device having a frame including an upper and lower support member connected by an elongated central spine support with the upper and lower support members each of transverse cruciform configuration having four radially extending arms projecting outward from the central spine support and a sheath of bladelike configuration extending from each of the arms of the upper support to each of the arms of the lower support and each of the sheaths longitudinally adjoining the spine support. Each sheath containing therein a neutron absorbing component consisting essentially of a plurality of parallel flattened hollow tubes of hafnium metal with their axis aligned with the spine support, and each sheath. Each of the plurality of parallel flattened hollow tubes therein in their flattened portions are provided with a multiplicity of openings along their length for entry and the presence of liquid coolant through the length of the flattened hollow tubes of hafnium

  20. The system of nuclear material control of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The State system for nuclear material control consists of three integral components. The efficiency of each is to guarantee the non-proliferation regime in Kazakhstan. The components are the following: accounting, export and import control and physical protection of nuclear materials. First, the implementation of the goals of accounting and control bring into force, by the organization of the system for accounting and measurement of nuclear materials to determine present quantity. Organizing the accounting for nuclear material at facilities will ensure the efficiency of accountancy and reporting information. This defines the effectiveness of the state system for the accounting for the Kazakhstan's nuclear materials. Currently, Kazakhstan's nuclear material is fully safeguarded in designated secure locations. Kazakhstan has a nuclear power plant, 4 research reactors and a fuel fabrication plant. The governmental information system for nuclear materials control consist of two level: Governmental level - KAEA collects reports from facilities and prepares the reports for International Atomic Energy Agency, keeping of supporting documents and other necessary information, a data base of export and import, a data base of nuclear material inventory. Facility level - registration and processing information from key measurement points, formation the facility's nuclear materials accounting database. All facilities have computerized systems. Currently, all facilities are safeguarded under IAEA safeguarding standards, through IAEA inspections. Annually, IAEA verifies all nuclear materials at all Kazakhstan nuclear facilities. The government reporting system discloses the existence of all nuclear material and its transfer intended for interaction through the export control system and the nuclear control accounting system. Nuclear material export is regulated by the regulations of the Nuclear Export Control Law. The standard operating procedure is the primary means for

  1. Controlling a nuclear reactor with dropped control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system is described for a nuclear power plant including a reactor with a core having an upper portion and a lower portion and control rods which are inserted into and withdrawn from the core of the reactor vertically to control reactivity in the core. The system comprises: means to measure neutron flux separately in the upper portion and the lower portion of the reactor and to generate from such measurements a signal representative of axial distribution of power between the upper and lower portions of the reactor core; means to detect a dropped control rod in the reactor and to generate a dropped rod signal in response thereto; means to generate an axial power distribution limit signal representative of a critical axial power distribution for a dropped rod condition; means to compare the axial power distribution signal to the axial power distribution limit signal and to generate an axial power distribution out of limits signal when the axial power distribution signal exceeds the axial power distribution limit signal; and means responsive only to the presence of both the dropped rod signal and the axial power distribution out of limits signal to generate a signal for shutting the reactor down

  2. Safety regulations of fuzzy-logic control to nuclear reactors

    OpenAIRE

    RUAN, Da

    2000-01-01

    We present an R&D project on fuzzy-logic control applications to the Belgian Nuclear Reactor 1 (BR1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN). The project started in 1995 and aimed at investigating the added value of fuzzy logic control for nuclear reactors. We first review some relevant literature on fuzzy logic control in nuclear reactors, then present the state-of-the-art of the BR1 project, with an understanding of the safety requirements for this real fuzzy-logic control ...

  3. Agencias de empleo y desarrollo local: ¿una actividad del Tercer Sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calvo Palomares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el desarrollo económico y social de un territorio necesita de los esfuerzos mancomunados de todos y cada uno de los agentes presentes en el medio. Es por ello que el presente artículo pretende reflexionar sobre la vinculación directa existente entre dos de ellos, por un lado las Agencias de Desarrollo Local (ADL como máximo exponente del modelo de desarrollo local y por otro las organizaciones pertenecientes al Tercer Sector, como entidades clave en el sostenimiento y desarrollo social de la comunidad. Para ello partiendo de las características propias del modelo actual de desarrollo local implantado, propondremos dos decálogos de conclusiones, que analicen tanto las similitudes como las divergencias existentes entre estos dos modelos.

  4. El contrato de agencia comercial. Análisis dentro del contexto del derecho romano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Camacho López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sumario: Premisa. Principios derivados del sistema jurídico romano-germánico aplicables al contrato de agencia comercial. i. Algunas figuras de la actividad mercantil en el derecho romano. ii. Cláusulas de no competencia. A. Posibles fuentes de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. 1. Obsequium. 2. Operae iuratae. 3. Operae stipulatae. 4. Stipulatio. 5. Contratos innominados. 6. Lex mancipii. B. Licitud o ilicitud de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. C. Condena por el incumplimiento de la obligación de no competir. iii. Consecuencias de la terminación del contrato. A. Revocación del mandato por parte del mandante. B. Renuncia del mandato por parte del mandatario. iv. Conclusiones

  5. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2002. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. Nuclear safety regulation focused on the operation of Finnish nuclear facilities as well as on nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. No events occurred at the nuclear power plants that would have endangered the safe use of nuclear energy. No significant events occurred at the research reactor either. The doses of all nuclear power plant workers were below the individual dose limit. The collective occupational dose was low internationally. Radioactive releases were low and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants was well below the limit established by the Government. In addition, occupational radiation doses at the research reactor and radioactive releases from it into the environment were well below set limits. The regulation of nuclear waste management focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. In the field of nuclear material safeguards, the use of nuclear materials in accordance with current regulations and the completeness and correctness of nuclear material accounting were verified. The operation of Finnish nuclear power plants, nuclear waste management and the use of nuclear materials complied with current rules and regulations, as verified by regulation. In addition, STUK verified that nuclear liability in the event of nuclear damage has been taken care of according to legislation. The total costs of nuclear safety regulation in 2002 were 7.6 M euro. The total costs of operations subject to a charge were 6.1 M euro, the full amount of which was charged to the licensees and

  6. Autoimmune Oophoritis with Multiple Molecular Targets Mitigated by Transgenic Expression of Mater

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuka, Noriyuki; Tong, Zhi-Bin; Vanevski, Konstantina; Tu, Wei; Cheng, Mickie H.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic expression of the MATER autoantigen in antigen-presenting cells significantly mitigates autoimmune oophoritis in mice with implications for diagnosis and tolerance induction in human autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency.

  7. Cranial Reconstruction following the Removal of an Infected Synthetic Dura Mater Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Yoshioka, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Staged cranial reconstruction after the removal of an infected synthetic dura mater substitute using an algorithmic approach is feasible and safe, produces satisfactory cosmetic results, and is not associated with any complications.

  8. Application of fuzzy logic controller in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible application of a fuzzy logic controller in a PWR nuclear power plant is investigated in this paper. A simplified model of the complex dynamics of the system is used for simulation purposes. The goal is to keep average coolant temperature as close as possible to a desired (but changing) reference value. The position of the control rods is selected as control variable. Simulation results demonstrate the possibility of using fuzzy logic controllers in load following control of nuclear power plants

  9. Activities of publicity and seminar in Nuclear Material Control Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the issue of nuclear non-proliferation has gained more attention than ever after the discovery of nuclear weapon development in Iraq, possible nuclear development in North Korea, the questionable maintenance of nuclear weapons in ex-Soviet, and the actual testing of nuclear bombs in India and Pakistan. As a result, the scheme to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system has been established and is about to come into effect. In Japan, on the other hand, the need to enhance the international confidence on peaceful use of nuclear materials for the establishment of nuclear fuel recycle, e.g. MOX fuel, is urgent. It is also necessary to strengthen and confirm the 'State's System of Accounting For and Control of Nuclear Material' for the same purpose. In order to promote further understanding of the importance and necessity of the nuclear material control, Nuclear Material Control Center has held seminars for the local governments in nuclear related sites. For the general public, various pamphlets and web site have been used to propagate its information. In this report, we will present the outline of our public relations and seminar presentation activities in Nuclear Material Control Center. (author)

  10. History of the nuclear matter safety and control law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations

  11. Activities of publicity and seminar in Nuclear Material Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Masayori; Iwamatsu, Yoko; Naruo, Kazuteru [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, the issue of nuclear non-proliferation has gained more attention than ever after the discovery of nuclear weapon development in Iraq, possible nuclear development in North Korea, the questionable maintenance of nuclear weapons in ex-Soviet, and the actual testing of nuclear bombs in India and Pakistan. As a result, the scheme to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system has been established and is about to come into effect. In Japan, on the other hand, the need to enhance the international confidence on peaceful use of nuclear materials for the establishment of nuclear fuel recycle, e.g. MOX fuel, is urgent. It is also necessary to strengthen and confirm the 'State's System of Accounting For and Control of Nuclear Material' for the same purpose. In order to promote further understanding of the importance and necessity of the nuclear material control, Nuclear Material Control Center has held seminars for the local governments in nuclear related sites. For the general public, various pamphlets and web site have been used to propagate its information. In this report, we will present the outline of our public relations and seminar presentation activities in Nuclear Material Control Center. (author)

  12. Approaches to strengthen China nuclear material control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Introduction. In order to ensure the security and lawful use of nuclear material, to protect against theft, loss, unlawful taking of nuclear materials and sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China was issued by the state council in 1987. In 1990, the Rules for the Implementation of Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China was promulgated. These documents formed the legal basis of nuclear material control in China. As defined in the Regulation', licensing system has been adopted. Any organization or individuals intending to use, produce or store nuclear materials is required to apply the license and get the approval from the state competent authorities.The licensees should establish the nuclear material accounting and control system and physical protection system. 2. Basic requirements for licensee. To meet the requirements for nuclear material accounting and control, licensee should establish and maintain records and accounts on the quantities of nuclear material in each MBA, conduct physical inventory to determine the quantities of nuclear material present in each MBA periodically, and establish nuclear material measurement system to provide the quantities of nuclear material including inventory, shipment, receipts and loss etc. The physical protection system should be based on the evaluation of the threat. The principles of detection balance and defence in depth are required to be applied in the physical protection system design. IAEA document INFCIRC/225 Rev.4 is recommended as a reference for reviewing and designing physical protection system of nuclear material and facilities. 3. Inspection. Based on the Rules for Inspection of Nuclear Material Control issued by China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) In 1997, the competent authorities organize the expert group to verify the compliance of licensee and to evaluate the

  13. Mechanical and thermal properties of bacterial-cellulose-fibre-reinforced Mater-Bi® bionanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamonangan Nainggolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of fibres of bacterial cellulose (FBC to commercial starch of Mater-Bi® have been investigated. FBC produced by cultivating Acetobacter xylinum for 21 days in glucose-based medium were purified by sodium hydroxide 2.5 wt % and sodium hypochlorite 2.5 wt % overnight, consecutively. To obtain water-free BC nanofibres, the pellicles were freeze dried at a pressure of 130 mbar at a cooling rate of 10 °C min−1. Both Mater-Bi and FBC were blended by using a mini twin-screw extruder at 160 °C for 10 min at a rotor speed of 50 rpm. Tensile tests were performed according to ASTM D638 to measure the Young’s modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used to observe the morphology at an accelerating voltage of 10 kV. The crystallinity (Tc and melting temperature (Tm were measured by DSC. Results showed a significant improvement in mechanical and thermal properties in accordance with the addition of FBC into Mater-Bi. FBC is easily incorporated in Mater-Bi matrix and produces homogeneous Mater-Bi/FBC composite. The crystallinity of the Mater-Bi/FBC composites decrease in relation to the increase in the volume fraction of FBC.

  14. Nuclear risk: the juridical control of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste is nowadays one of the major problems of this century and particularly for future generations. In front of this devious danger, the law appears to be deficient at two levels: first, juridical norms of prevention are contradictory for they are based on multiple interests. Moreover the decision making process is highly governed by the executive power whereas the legislative power is deliberately neglected. The result of all that is an ambiguous juridical situation: the content of the juridical norms has no specificity and so, its effectiveness is doubtful. Faced with these obvious facts, the present juridical system must be, a priori reconsidered in two fields: first, in that of the responsibility of nuclear waste because the present system is based on that of nuclear civil responsibility, and so is not adapted because it does not take into account the specificity of nuclear waste then, a system of dissuasion must be created which should be based on the right of international interference in order to prevent any attempt to transgress le law concerning nuclear waste. (author)

  15. The control and supervision of nuclear energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment and responsibilities of the Nuclear Control Bureau within the Indonesian National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) are discussed. The current Indonesian legislation and the draft decree under discussion which will establish the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials and implement the 1980 IAEA Safeguards Agreement are described. The safeguards implications of the new facilities under construction at the Nuclear Research Center at Serpong are examined. Materials Balance Areas, safeguards techniques and reports are outlined. The health and safety and regulatory roles of the Nuclear Control Bureau are also discussed. 1 fig

  16. Nuclear knowledge portal to support licensing and control nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    importance of keeping the intellectual capital in the organizations that is to work with the knowledge from the collaborators. In Brazil still have many authors that discusses this concept and we adopt for this paper the definition form Cavalcanti where is the concept 'intellectual capital' refers either to the capacity, ability or experience, as well as to the formal education that the collaborators members have and add to the Organization. The 'intellectual capital' is an intangible asset, which belongs to the individual himself, thus it might be utilized by the organizations in order to generate value. The development and preservation of this intellectual capital is made through the implementation of forums of discussion, workshops or knowledge portals where the organization's collaborators share their experiences. Nevertheless, to assimilate and to develop the 'intellectual capital' does not add value to the organization: It is necessary to keep it. And one way to do so is to create desirable and encouraging work environments, to promote a sharing management and to offer programs of profits sharing. The objective of this paper is to describe how Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN has been developing a nuclear knowledge portal, focused in the Radiation and Safety Nuclear area. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is a federal autarchy created in October 10 of 1956, as a superior agency of planning, guiding, supervision and inspection in nuclear area being also the body entitled to establish standards and regulations on radiological protection, to issue licenses (permissions) and to survey and control the nuclear activities in Brazil. CNEN also develops researches related to the use of nuclear techniques in benefit of the society. The Radiation and Safety Nuclear directorate of CNEN acts, mainly, in the licensing of nuclear and radioactive installations. The people who work at this area recognize the importance of management and sharing the accumulated

  17. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Information DG-5028, was published in the Federal Register on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28407), for a 60-day public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  18. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... January 1998 (63 FR 2426; January 15, 1998), because the underlying basis standard, ANSI N15.8-1974... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  19. Integrated control system for nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Control System (ICS) has been developed to facilitate Plowshare nuclear detonations by following a unified system approach. This system consolidates the techniques for firing, safety program, scientific program, and communications. Maximum emphasis is placed upon control and data transmission by radio rather than hardwire or coaxial cable. The ICS consists of a Command Point (CP) Trailer, a radio repeater station, a field station (the ICE Box), and several chassis located in the explosive canister. Commands originate in the CP and are transmitted via microwave radio to the ICE Box; monitors are returned to the CP from the canister, the ICE Box, and sensors near ground zero. The system allows complete checkout and operation before shipment to the field. The explosive canister may be dry-run at the assembly area (at NTS) before shipment to the field. The basic detonation functions for every event are: 1. Arming and firing commands in the explosive canister and at surface ground zero. 2. Environmental monitors and suitable arming monitors in the explosive canister. 3. Safety monitors at the zero site for weather, RAMS (Remote Area Monitoring System), and cavity collapse. Secondary functions that may be required for a specific project are: 4. Scientific program of phenomenology measurements. 5. Explosive performance measurements. 6. Ground zero television. 7. Auxiliary communications such as local telephones, VHF radio. By combining functions that have previously been performed by separate organizations and systems, the ICS attempts a minimum cost detonation service. Economy of operation results because: 1. Operating personnel work on more than one sub-system. 2. Interfaces and interface complexity are minimized. 3. A reduced dependence upon signal cables results from a microwave-based system. 4. Pre-fabrication allows test operation before shipment to the field and minimizes setup time in the field. The ICS is in use on the Sturtevant event and is

  20. GEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used in the Earth Sciences as a means of obtaining information about the molecular-scale environment of fluids in porous geological materials. Laboratory experiments were conducted to advance our fundamental understanding of the link between the NMR response and the geochemical properties of geological materials. In the first part of this research project, we studied the impact of both the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space and the surface relaxivity on the NMR response of fluids in sand-clay mixtures. This study highlighted the way in which these two parameters control our ability to use NMR measurements to detect and quantify fluid saturation in multiphase saturated systems. The second part of the project was designed to explore the way in which the mineralogic form of iron, as opposed to simply the concentration of iron, affects the surface relaxation rate and, more generally, the NMR response of porous materials. We found that the magnitude of the surface relaxation rate was different for the various iron-oxide minerals because of changes in both the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the pore space, and the surface relaxivity. Of particular significance from this study was the finding of an anomalously large surface relaxivity of magnetite compared to that of the other iron minerals. Differences in the NMR response of iron minerals were seen in column experiments during the reaction of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand with aqueous Fe(II) solutions to form goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite; indicating the potential use of NMR as a means of monitoring geochemical reactions. The final part of the research project investigated the impact of heterogeneity, at the pore-scale, on the NMR response. This work highlighted the way in which the geochemistry, by controlling the surface relaxivity, has a significant impact on the link between NMR data and the microgeometry of the pore space.

  1. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  2. Computerized control and management at the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed automation of the nuclear power plant control system includes a division of the control system into three hierarchic levels, supplemented with an additional level. These comprise the automated system of control of technological processes, the all-plant control of the power-generating process, the control of backup activities and of technical and economic activities, and top managerial control. The efficiency of the nuclear power plant operation, i.e. attainment of the maximum electricity output with minimum costs while securing the required safety, is the principal criterion in the design of the data model. Listed are tasks that would lend themselves to automation within the automated system of nuclear power plant control, and the basic scheme of their automation as follows from an analysis performed at the Temelin nuclear power plant. (Z.S). 2 figs., 2 refs

  3. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2008, including the design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. The control of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste management, as well as nuclear non-proliferation, concern two STUK departments: Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Nuclear Waste and Material Regulation. It constitutes the report on regulatory control in the field of nuclear energy, which the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is required to submit to the Ministry of Employment and the Economy pursuant to section 121 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Decree. The first parts of the report explain the basics of the nuclear safety regulation included as part of STUK's responsibilities, as well as the objectives of the operations, and briefly introduce the objects of regulation. The chapter concerning the development and implementation of legislation and regulations describes changes in nuclear legislation, as well as the progress of STUK's YVL Guide revision. The chapter also includes a summary of the application of the updated YVL Guides to nuclear facilities. The section concerning the regulation of nuclear facilities contains a complete safety assessment of the nuclear facilities currently in operation or under construction. For the nuclear facilities in operation, the section describes plant operation, events during operation, annual maintenance, development of the plants and their safety, and observations made during monitoring. Data and observations gained during regulatory activities are reviewed with a focus on ensuring the safety functions of nuclear facilities and the integrity of structures and components. The report also includes a description of the oversight of the operations and quality management of organisations, oversight of operational experience feedback activities, and the results of these oversight activities. The radiation safety of nuclear

  4. Immune response to dehydrated human dura mater : evaluation in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadioglu H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety white hybrid rabbits, each weighing 2.5 to 3.5 kg, were used for this experimental model. Thirty rabbits were used for control, and sixty other rabbits were investigated for the response of host to the dural graft. In all animals, a dural defect, 1 x 1 cm in size, was created on the left parietal area following craniotomy. In the control group the excised free dural piece was then sutured again to the area from which it had been excised before. The dural defect was closed with dehydrated human dura mater (DHD in the half of the rabbits in the group of study, and with autogenous fascia lata (AFL in the other half. After operation, animals in each group were then subjected to one of five different groups comprising of 3,14,30,60 and 90 days follow-up periods. At the end of follow-up periods, histological, parameters such as cellular inflammatory response, development of fibrous tissue, capsulation, and calcification were examined in specimens obtained from the animals. There was no significant difference between AFL and DHD grafts. In conclusion, it seems that DHD is suitable as an ideal dural graft, because the immune response of host to DHD was almost similar to AFL.

  5. Regulatory control of nuclear facility valves and their actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and procedures by which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) regulates valves and their actuators in nuclear power plants and in other nuclear facilities are specified in the guide. The scope of regulation depends on the Safety Class of the valve and the actuator in question. The Safety Classification principles for the systems, structures and components of the nuclear power plants are described in the guide YVL 2.1 and the regulatory control of the nuclear facility safety valves is described in the guide YVL 5.4

  6. The nuclear materials control system: Safeguards - circa 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1950s, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation undertook a nuclear materials control study for the Division of International Affairs of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The objective of the study was to develop a Nuclear Materials Control System (NMCS) that could be used under the US bilateral agreements or by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Phase I was a system study to determine the requirements for an NMCS for an assumed nuclear fuel complex. This paper summarizes aspects of Phase I studies addressing facility types, measurement points, and instrumentation needs and Phase II studies covering chemistry/chemical engineering, nuclear, special devices, and security devices and techniques. 1 fig

  7. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland in 1997. Nuclear regulatory control ascertained that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with the conditions set out in operating licences and current regulations. In addition to NPP normal operation, STUK oversaw projects at the plant units relating to power uprating and safety improvements. STUK prepared statements for the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the applications for renewing the operating licenses of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. The most important items of supervision in nuclear waste management were studies relating to the final disposal of spent fuel from NPPs and the review of the licence application for a repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. Preparation of general safety regulations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, to be published in the form of a Council of State Decision, was started. By safeguards control, the use of nuclear materials was verified to be in compliance with current regulations and that the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were always known. Nuclear material safeguards were stepped up to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. In co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki), preparations were undertaken to implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For enforcement of the Treaty and as part of the international regulatory approach, STUK is currently developing laboratory analyses relating to airborne radioactivity measurements. The focus of co-operation funded by external sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and Leningrad NPPs, improvement of nuclear waste management in North-West Russia, development of the organizations of nuclear safety authorities in Eastern Europe and development

  8. Under control. An archeology of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume includes a variety of photographs from different German research and power reactors, simulators, the infrastructure of power plants, working situations in the power plant, including fuel exchange and inspection procedures, the dismantling of decommissioned power nuclear facilities and radioactive waste storage facilities. The second part includes interviews with scientists concerning radiobiology, nuclear waste storage, fuel reprocessing, reactor physics, reactor operation, training in the simulator and risk research.

  9. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  10. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  11. Nuclear security recommendations on nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States in strengthening their nuclear security regimes, and thereby contributing to an effective global nuclear security framework, by providing: - Recommendations to States and their competent authorities on the establishment or improvement of the capabilities of their nuclear security regimes, for carrying out effective strategies to deter, detect and respond to a criminal act, or an unauthorized act, with nuclear security implications, involving nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control; - Recommendations to States in support of international cooperation aimed at ensuring that any nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control, whether originating from within the State or from outside that State, is placed under regulatory control and the alleged offenders are, as appropriate, prosecuted or extradited

  12. Hermenéutica de la persona. Modos de reconocimiento a través de la agencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guzmán Castillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar cómo y por qué reconocemos a los otros como personas plenas, y cuáles son los mecanismos sociales que justifican y permiten que algunas personas sean tratadas como objetos, de forma opresiva y discriminatoria. En mi análisis partiré de la agencia intencional como elemento necesario en cualquier modelo de construcción de la persona. Aún así, se discutirá si la intencionalidad puede considerarse como un atributo exclusivo de los humanos. Expondré tres modelos explicativos para describir la manera en que las personas se relacionan unos con otros y con el entorno. Estos modelos son: el de los tipos literarios, el del dipolo de agencia y el modelo espacial de agencia. Finalmente reivindicaré la importancia del cuerpo como instancia constitutiva del constructo persona, con una importancia igual a la de la subjetividad y la de las circunstancias ambientales.

  13. Control for N4 nuclear steam supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, J.F.; Tetreau, F.; Colling, J.M.

    1987-11-01

    New designs have been used in the instrumentation and control systems for the Framatome N4 1400 MWe nuclear power plants. The design philosophy of the reactor protection system, nuclear instrumentation and rod control systems are described. Programmable control techniques and distributed intelligence via a communications system based on dedicated local networks are used in the design for other instrumentation and control functions. The 1400 MWe, Chooz B1 unit will be the first PWR to use the new design. The integrated protection system, reactor protection, nuclear control and instrumentation functions and the control rod drive control systems are illustrated and described. The way in which the reactor control systems interconnect is illustrated and explained. (U.K.).

  14. Control of hot particles challenges GPU Nuclear and the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 4 yr, a number of nuclear generating stations, including GPU Nuclear, have reported occurrences of hot particles that are small and, in most cases, microscopic particles of radioactive contamination with relatively high specific activity. A survey conducted by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) indicated that ∼70% of the nuclear power plants indicated that they have some problem with hot particles. Both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) have found hot-particle contamination in the plant environment and, occasionally, on radiation workers. A hot particle on the skin produces a very steep dose gradient; the dose drops off very rapidly as the distance from the particle increases. The local absorbed dose produced from a hot particle on the skin may exceed the administrative limit established by the utility and on occasion exceeds the regulatory limit, which results in an overexposure reportable to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In an effort to contain these particles nuclear plant operators and management must be committed to the control of hot particles. The nuclear plant operators and the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup team are implementing new procedures, training programs, and more rigid contamination control techniques in order to control hot particles in the work environment. This paper briefly discusses the nuclear industries' experience, GPU Nuclear's experience, hot-particle detection, dosimetry, control measures, and costs associated with GPU Nuclear's hot-particle-control program

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors generate 15% of the world's supply electric power. The substantial growth in world energy demand is inevitably continuing throughout the next century. Nuclear power which has already paid more than enough for itself and its development, will provide increasing share of electricity production both in the developed and developing countries. For Pakistan with limited natural resources such as oil, gas, and fully tapped hydel power, nuclear power is the only viable option. However, things are not simple for developing countries which embark on nuclear power program. A technical infrastructure should be established as it has been shown by the experience of Control and Instrumentation of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. The national report describes the program of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in (NPP) Computers, Control and Instrumentation for design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Safety review, assessment and regulatory inspection on nuclear fuel cycle installations and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA conducted surveillance in 1999 on the Yibin Nuclear Fuel Plant (YNFP) and the laboratory for the Qinghua HTR elements. A CP was granted for the Pilot Plant of Spent Fuel Reprocessing in NNFP and a review and assessment on nuclear safety for the construction application of product line with the fuel elements of HWR in the Baotou No. 202 plant and a review and assessment was performed. The NNSA approved the nuclear material license at QNPP and performed surveillance on the nuclear material control for the 6 licensees of nuclear material such as the INET/Tu, QNPJVC etc

  17. Some technical aspects of the nuclear material accounting and control at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of nuclear material accounting and control are discussed at nuclear facilities of fuel cycle (WWER-type reactor, fuel fabrication plant, reprocessing plant and uranium enrichment facility) and zero energy fast reactor facility. It is shown that for nuclear material control the main method is the accounting with the application isotopic correlations at the reprocessing plant and enrichment facility. Possibilities and limitations of the application of destructive and non-destructive methods are discussed for nuclear material determinations at fuel facilities and their role in the accounting and safeguards systems as well as possibilities of the application of neutron method at a zero energy fast reactor facility

  18. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  19. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968

  20. An accountancy system for nuclear materials control in research centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Accountancy and Control System (NACS) was developed at KFA Juelich in accordance with the requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The main features are (1) recording of nuclear material in inventory items. These are combined to form batches wherever suitable; (2) extrapolation of accounting data as a replacement for detailed measurement of inventory items data. Recording and control of nuclear material are carried out on two levels with access to a common data bank. The lower level deals with nuclear materials handling plus internal management while on the upper level there is a central control point which is responsible for nuclear safeguarding within the entire research centre. By keeping the organizational and technical infrastructure it was possible to develop a system which is both economical and operator-oriented. In this system the emphasis of nuclear safeguarding is placed on the acquisition of the nuclear material inventory. As much consideration has been given to the interests of the various operational levels and organizational units as to internal and national regulations. Since it is part of the safeguarding and control system, access to the NACS must be restricted to a limited number of users only. Furthermore, it must include facilities for manual control in the form of records. Authorization for access must correspond with the various tasks of different user groups. All necessary data are acquired decentrally in the organizational units and entered via a terminal. It is available to the user groups on both levels through a central data bank. To meet all requirements, the NACS has been designed as an integrated, computer-assisted information system for the automated processing of extensive and multi-level nuclear materials data. As part of the preventive measures entailed with nuclear safeguarding, the accountancy system enables the operator of a nuclear plant to furnish proof of non-diversion of nuclear material. (author)

  1. Nuclear cost control focuses on refueling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending operating cycles and shortening refueling outages are the mainstays of utility efforts to improve the economics of nuclear generation. Here are key management approaches that have contributed to recent successes. Improving operating efficiency remains the byword of nuclear power producers, as they intensify their drive to reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and survive--even thrive--in a competitive environment. Because replacement-power and other costs can incur penalties of $0.5-million or more for each that a nuclear unit is inoperative--and almost $3-million/day, for one utility--refueling outages are an obvious focal point for such efforts, By the same token, the impact on the bottom line is greater and more dramatic here than for other cost-saving activities

  2. Radiological control of nuclear gauges in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear gauges are often installed in the mines because they are very useful for monitoring production processes. At the same time due to the use of ionizing radiation it is necessary to implement radiation protection measures based on national law. Nuclear gauges are exposed to the environment and other conditions that could cause deterioration of their operational mechanisms. Taking into account this aspect it is of particular importance a regular maintenance of moving parts. Another consideration is the importance of knowing the levels of dose rates in order to implement radiation protection preventive actions. The present report shows the measurement of dose rate in 40 nuclear gauges with activities varying from 185 MBq (5 mCi) to 185 GBq (5000 mCi) in different production process of the great mining. (orig.)

  3. Los despachos de agencia (teletipos como tipo documental Agency dispatches (teletypes as a documentary type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caldera Serrano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el despacho de agencia como tipo documental que debe ser conservado y analizado por parte de los departamentos de documentación de los medios de comunicación tanto de prensa escrita como audiovisuales y sonoros. Para llevar a cabo dicho análisis se realiza un estudio sobre su estructura semántica discursiva que sirva como base para la identificación de los puntos de acceso con los que debe contar la base de datos que albergue dicho material: información temática; cronológica, geográfica y onomástica.An agency's dispatch is analyzed as a documentary type (print, audiovisual and sound material which must be preserved and analyzed by the documentation departments of the mass media. In order to carry out such analysis, a study of the semantic structure of their discourse is made to serve as a basis for the identification of access points that the data base requires if it is to store such material: subject, chronological, geographic and author information.

  4. Control room, emergency control system and local control panels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements on planning and construction of control boards including ergonomic-technical designing are specified in this rule. The specifications put the requirements on the design of place, process and environment of work, which are mentioned in the sections 90 and 91 of the labor-management relations act, into more concrete terms for the safety-relevant control panels as work places in a nuclear power station. The work places at control panels are not considered as video workstations in the sense of the 'Safety Rules for Video Workstations in the Office Sector' published by the General Association of the Industrial Trade Associations. The requirements are based on the operation and information technology realized at present in control panels of stationary nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  5. Digital electro-hydraulic control system for nuclear turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit capacity of steam turbines for nuclear power generation is very large, accordingly their unexpected stop disturbs power system, and the lowering of their capacity ratio exerts large influence on power generation cost. Therefore, very high reliability is required for turbine EHC controllers which directly control the turbines for nuclear power generation. In order to meet such requirement, Toshiba Corp. has developed high reliability type analog tripled turbine EHC controllers, and delivered them to No. 3 plant in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station and No. 1 plant in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. At present, the trial operation is under way. The development of digital EHC controllers was begun in 1976, and through the digital EHC for a test turbine and that for a small turbine, the digital EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation were developed. In this paper, the function, constitution, features and maintenance of the digital tripled EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation, the application of new technology to them, and the confirmation of the control function by simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2003. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. Nuclear safety regulation focused on the design and operation of Finnish nuclear facilities as well as on nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. No events occurred at the nuclear power plants that would have endangered the safe use of nuclear energy. At the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant, the number of plant conditions in non-compliance with the Technical Specifications was higher than usual. These had note-worthy common features, such as shortcomings in adherence to regulations, administration of periodic inspections, monitoring of plant states and identification of the requirements of the Technical Specifications. The licensee has launched the necessary development measures. The doses of all nuclear power plant workers were below the individual dose limit. The collective occupational dose was low internationally. Radioactive releases were low and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plant was well below the limit established by Government Resolution. The nuclear safety indicators describing the effectiveness of STUK's activities did not indicate changes that would have warranted STUK's immediate reaction, with the exception of the above indicators pertaining to anomalies at Olkiluoto plant. No events endangering safety occurred at the FiR 1 research reactor either. In addition, the radiation doses of those working at the research reactor and radioactive releases into the environment were clearly below set limits. The regulation of nuclear waste management focused on spent fuel storage and preparation of final disposal as well as the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would

  7. Integrated framework for safety control design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.c [Faculty of Energy and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H7K4 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents an integrated framework for safety control analysis and design for nuclear power plants. It shows the use of process object-oriented modeling methodology (POOM) and fault models to integrate safety requirements, identified hazards, and fault propagation scenarios. Safety control design framework is proposed to show the integration between control systems and safety control design. Hierarchical control charts (HCC) are proposed to integrate process, control, and safety models along with the associated fault models in systematic manner. Process and the associated process and control variables that are involved in safety control systems. The proposed safety control design framework will support the control design and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the integration with cogeneration facilities such as hydrogen production.

  8. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications

  9. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  10. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the ? field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  11. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  12. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  13. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.)

  14. Procedural system for increased management control of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department-level administrative procedures or procedural controls have been traditionally used as a means of controlling technical activities in nuclear power generating facilities, usually prompted by operational quality assurance program criteria. More recently, procedural controls at the corporate or senior management level have emerged as utilities have developed multiple-plant facilities, reorganized their nuclear operations, and placed increased emphasis on involvement by the highest levels of management. In response to these developments, and as part of its plan to improve Nuclear Department operations, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, with assistance from Management Analysis Company, embarked on a program to develop a Vice President-Nuclear Level-Procedures manual that would clarify organization responsibilities and strengthen management control of specific activities, which would be followed by the development or revision of lower level procedures necessary to ensure department-wide compliance with the policies and requirements provided in the manual

  15. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  16. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2005 in Finland. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. Nuclear safety regulation focused on the design, construction and operation of Finnish nuclear facilities as well as on nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. No events endangering the safety of the use of nuclear power occurred at the Olkiluoto and Loviisa nuclear power plants. The doses of all nuclear power plant workers were below the individual dose limit. The collective occupational dose at the Olkiluoto plant was above normal due to the modernisation work done at the Olkiluoto 2 turbine plant and exceeded the average dose measured at BWRs in the OECD countries. At Loviisa 1, the collective dose threshold per one gigawatt of net electrical power, calculated according to STUK's guidelines, was exceeded due to the extended 2004 outage. Radioactive releases were low and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants was well below the limit established by Government Resolution. STUK's safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants, which describe the effectiveness of STUK's activities, did not indicate changes requiring STUK's immediate reaction. STUK assessed the safety of the Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant unit when preparing its statement to the Ministry of Trade and Industry on the construction licence application of Teollisuuden Voima Oy. In addition to the assessment of safety, oversight focused on the design of the plant unit's systems, the manufacturing of its main components and construction work onsite. In addition, STUK assessed the activities of the licence applicant, vendor and subcontractors. No events endangering safety occurred at the FiR 1 research reactor. The radiation doses of those working at the research

  17. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2004. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. Nuclear safety regulation focused on the design and operation of Finnish nuclear facilities as well as on nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. No events endangering the safe use of nuclear safety occurred at the nuclear power plants. The doses of all nuclear power plant workers were below the individual dose limit. The collective occupational dose at the Olkiluoto plant units was low internationally. At Loviisa 1, the collective dose threshold per one gigawatt of net electrical power, calculated according to STUK's guidelines, was slightly exceeded. Radioactive releases were low and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants was well below the limit established by Government Resolution. The operating licence of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 1 was extended in accordance with the licensee's application until the 2012 refuelling outage. The Loviisa plant units are undergoing extensive I and C upgrading the conceptual design plan of which STUK has reviewed. STUK's safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants, which describe the effectiveness of STUK's activities, did not indicate changes that would have warranted STUK's immediate reaction. STUK assessed the safety of the Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant unit when preparing its statement to the Ministry of Trade and Industry on the construction licence application of Teollisuuden Voima Oy. In addition to safety assessment, oversight focused on the manufacturing of the plant unit's main components and earth-moving work onsite. In addition, STUK assessed the activities of the licence applicant, vendor and subcontractors. No events endangering safety occurred at the FiR 1 research

  18. Regulatory system for control of nuclear facilities in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All human activities have associated risks. Nuclear programme is no exception. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), constituted in February 1973 through the promulgation of the Presidential order 15 of 1973. Functions of BAEC include research and development in peaceful application of atomic energy, generation of electricity and promotion of international relations congenial to implementation of its programmes and projects. In 1993 the Government of Bangladesh promulgated the law on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control. Considering the human resources, expertise and facilities needed for implementation of the provisions of the NSRC law, BAEC was entrusted with the responsibility to enforce it. The responsibilities of the BAEC cover nuclear and radiological safety within the installations of BAEC and radiological safety in the manifold applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources within the country. An adequate and competent infrastructure has been built to cater to the diverse nuclear and radiation protection requirements of all nuclear facilities in Bangladesh, arising at different stages from site selection to day-to-day operation. In addition, periodic inspections of the nuclear facilities are carried out. The licensing and regulatory inspection systems for controlling of nuclear installations and radiation sources are established. The paper describes the legal provisions, responsibilities and organization of BAEC with special emphasis on nuclear safety and radiation protection of nuclear facilities in Bangladesh. (author)

  19. Control of WWER-440 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The V-1 reactor control systems are described. The data acquisition and processing system fulfils four main functions, ie., reactor start-up and power increase to 10% of the rated power, automatic power control within 3% and 110% of the rated power, reactivity compensation, and reactor protection. The automatic control system ensures constant steam pressure maintained with an accuracy of +-0.05 MPa. Reactivity compensation and spatial power distribution is mainly safeguarded by boric acid control. The V-1 reactor protection system has four levels of accident protection depending on the gravity of the failure. The philosophy of automation of the V-1 reactor control and protection system is based on autonomous automatic controlers and on the direct control of the individual sets and technological equipment. In conclusion, development trends are briefly outlined of control and protection systems of light water reactor power plants. (Z.M.)

  20. Sensitive Magnetic Control of Ensemble Nuclear Spin Hyperpolarisation in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai-Jing; Avalos, Claudia E; Seltzer, Scott J; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander; Bajaj, Vikram S

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarisation, which transfers the spin polarisation of electrons to nuclei, is routinely applied to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance; it is also critical in spintronics, particularly when spin hyperpolarisation can be produced and controlled optically or electrically. Here we show the complete polarisation of nuclei located near the optically-polarised nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond. When approaching the ground-state level anti-crossing condition of the NV electron spins, 13C nuclei in the first-shell are polarised in a pattern that depends sensitively and sharply upon the magnetic field. Based on the anisotropy of the hyperfine coupling and of the optical polarisation mechanism, we predict and observe a complete reversal of the nuclear spin polarisation with a few-mT change in the magnetic field. The demonstrated sensitive magnetic control of nuclear polarisation at room temperature will be useful for sensitivity-enhanced NMR, nuclear-based spintronics, and quant...

  1. Accounting systems for special nuclear material control. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear material accounting systems were examined and compared to financial double-entry accounting systems. Effective nuclear material accounting systems have been designed using the principles of double-entry financial accounting. The modified double-entry systems presently employed are acceptable if they provide adequate control over the recording and summarizing of transactions. Strong internal controls, based on principles of financial accounting, can help protect nuclear materials and produce accurate, reliable accounting data. An electronic data processing system can more accurately maintain large volumes of data and provide management with more current, reliable information

  2. Is it possible to limit or control a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled response after a limited aggression by using strategic nuclear weapons is improbable alone for reasons relating to political institutions and political psychology. As long as it is in the least possible that a threat with selective nuclear strikes may result in a great atomic war and by that in mutual destruction the threat itself is - according to rational standards - unbelievable. Plans to prepare oneself technically and politically to make a nuclear war for several months at an controlled extent are the expression of a wrong way of peaceful policy and military strategy. The money spent for such plannings is at best wasted money. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  4. Instrumentation for nuclear reactor control and protection in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation for nuclear reactor control and protection is completely made by the French industry. The research and development works are often realized by CEA in the frame of cooperation with EdF (Electricite de France), and societies such as FRAMATOME and NOVATOME and the manufacturers of electronic equipments. In this paper, the main components used in the nuclear instrumentation are described: radiation detectors and electronic equipments for signal processing. There, the control and protection systems manufactured by MERLIN-GERIN for the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe nuclear reactors are described

  5. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively new and extremely valuable fuel for electric power production, uranium, requires very careful inventory control from the time the reactor operator assumes financial responsibility for this material until, as partially expended fuel, it is transferred to another facility and the remaining part of its initial value is recovered. Most power reactor operators were operating fossil-fuelled power plants before the advent of nuclear power and have long since established rather complete and adequate controls for these fossil fuels. The reactor operator must have no less adequate controls for the special nuclear material used in his nuclear plant. Power reactor, operation is not an ancient science and during its relatively short history our engineers and scientists have been constantly improving plant designs and methods of operation to reduce costs and make our nuclear plants competitive with fossil-fuelled conventional plants. Nuclear material management must be as modern and efficient as is humanly possible to ensure that technological advances leading to reduced costs are not lost by poor handling of nuclear fuel and the records pertaining to fuel inventory. Nuclear material management requires the maintaining of complete and informative records by the power reactor operator. These records need not be complex to satisfy the criteria of completeness and adequacy. In fact, simplicity is extremely desirable. Despite the fact that nuclear fuel is new and completely different to our conventional fuels no mystery should be attached thereto. Nuclear material control as part of nuclear material management is not limited to simple inventory work but it is the basis for a great deal of other activity that is an inherent part of any power reactor operations such as irradiated fuel shipments, reprocessing of spent fuel, with its associated accounting for reclaimed fuel and material produced during reactor operation, and the establishing and maintaining of an adequate

  6. [The surgical treatment of high myopia with dura mater. The results obtained long term (a clinical study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, D; Vancea, P P; Caraman, C; Burlea, M; Antohi, D; Popa, C; Stoian, R

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the postoperative results obtained by performing scleroplasty with dura-mater in 127 progressive myopic eyes. The authors consider that the homologue dura-mater represents a high quality material to make scleral plasties. The evolution of myopia has ceased in over 60% of the cases. PMID:2100861

  7. State control of low-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting and licensing of nuclear plants has been hampered by regulatory conflicts between individual states and the Federal government, although the states have moved to exercise control over low-level radioactive waste management. Recommendations for a national waste management plan reflect public concerns about health and safety rather than any evidence that state control has been inadequate. Congressional study of waste management identified several needs to be met in order to have uniform standards of protection for public health and the environment. A Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task force, concurring with the desirability of a national plan, concluded that no legislation is presently needed to reassert Federal control. The status involved indicated a need to continue direct involvement and control as a condition for receiving nuclear wastes. The New Mexico moratorium on licensing is viewed as an illustration of a state asserting control when responsibility is not clearly defined

  8. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller

  9. Nuclear reactor remote disconnect control rod coupling indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupling indicator for use with nuclear reactor control rod assemblies which have remotely disengageable couplings between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft is described. The coupling indicator indicates whether the control rod and the control rod drive shaft are engaged or disengaged. A resistive network, utilizing magnetic reed switches, senses the position of the control rod drive mechanism lead screw and the control rod position indicating tube, and the relative position of these two elements with respect to each other is compared to determine whether the coupling is engaged or disengaged

  10. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the regulatory control of nuclear energy in Finland in 1999. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. STUK's regulatory work was focused on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants as well as on nuclear waste management and safeguards of nuclear materials. The operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants was in compliance with the conditions set out in their operating licences and with current regulations, with the exception of some inadvertent deviations from the Technical Specifications. No plant events endangering the safe use of nuclear energy occurred. The individual doses of all nuclear power plant workers remained below the dose threshold. The collective dose of the workers was low, compared internationally, and did not exceed STUK's guidelines at either nuclear power plant. The radioactive releases were minor and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the plant was well below the limit established in a decision of the Council of State at both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. STUK issued statements to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the environmental impact assessment programme reports on the possible nuclear power plant projects at Olkiluoto and Loviisa and about the continued operation of the research reactor in Otaniemi, Espoo. A Y2k-related safety assessment of the Finnish nuclear power plants was completed in December. In nuclear waste management STUK's regulatory work was focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as on the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. A statement was issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment report on a proposed final disposal facility for

  11. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    2000-06-01

    This report concerns the regulatory control of nuclear energy in Finland in 1999. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. STUK's regulatory work was focused on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants as well as on nuclear waste management and safeguards of nuclear materials. The operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants was in compliance with the conditions set out in their operating licences and with current regulations, with the exception of some inadvertent deviations from the Technical Specifications. No plant events endangering the safe use of nuclear energy occurred. The individual doses of all nuclear power plant workers remained below the dose threshold. The collective dose of the workers was low, compared internationally, and did not exceed STUK's guidelines at either nuclear power plant. The radioactive releases were minor and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the plant was well below the limit established in a decision of the Council of State at both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. STUK issued statements to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the environmental impact assessment programme reports on the possible nuclear power plant projects at Olkiluoto and Loviisa and about the continued operation of the research reactor in Otaniemi, Espoo. A Y2k-related safety assessment of the Finnish nuclear power plants was completed in December. In nuclear waste management STUK's regulatory work was focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as on the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. A statement was issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment report on a proposed final

  12. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author)

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel project interface control plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This implementation process philosophy is in keeping with the ongoing reengineering of the WHC Controlled Manuals to achieve interface control within the SNF Project. This plan applies to all SNF Project sub-project to sub-project, and sub-project to exteranl (both on and off the Hanford Site) interfaces

  14. Use of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control for Nuclear Security Purposes at Facilities. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) works in a complementary fashion with the international safeguards programme and physical protection systems to help prevent, deter or detect the unauthorized acquisition and use of nuclear materials. These three methodologies are employed by Member States to defend against external threats, internal threats and both state actors and non-state actors. This publication offers guidance for implementing NMAC measures for nuclear security at the nuclear facility level. It focuses on measures to mitigate the risk posed by insider threats and describes elements of a programme that can be implemented at a nuclear facility in coordination with the physical protection system for the purpose of deterring and detecting unauthorized removal of nuclear material

  15. Technology Center for Nuclear Control 2004 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research describe the activities of TCNC in KAERI, given the authority from the Government. TCNC is carrying out technical assistance to the Government after reviewing the safeguards and physical protection at the nuclear facilities, while developing the divers technologies related to the export control and nuclear material accountancy. Relating to the safeguards implementation, activities for national safeguards inspection and supporting activities for IAEA safeguards inspection are described. For this, Results of national safeguards inspection and facility status are analyzed. Besides, implementation of the Additional Protocol and IAEA's complementary access supporting activities due to the effectuation of the Additional Protocol are introduced. With regards to the nuclear control planning, technical support for the government about the North Korea nuclear issues and export control, international cooperation are delineated. Holding a non-proliferation workshop, web-site operation of TCNC and Yaksan and work for the publication of TCNC newsletter are also described as a part of nuclear control planning related work. For the safeguards technology area, operation of remote monitoring system using VPN, works for tracing nuclear activities through swipe analysis and the development and improvement of verification equipment such as OFS are presented. Businesses related to the physical protection such as supporting for establishing a plan to implement the effectuated law such as approval examination of physical protection regulations and inspection on facilities and transport protection and development of design basis threat and emergency manual for physical protection etc. are mentioned

  16. Experiments of fuzzy logic control ion a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a fuzzy logic control scheme is presented in order to improve the power system stability of BR1 (Belgian Reactor 1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN). The control scheme is developed based on OMRON's fuzzy hardware (C200H-FZ001) and the Fuzzy Support Software (FSS) because of their high performance and flexibility. The various possibilities are discussed to find the best or optimal fuzzy logic control scheme for controlling BR1. On basis of the previous researches 1,2,3, some experiments have been carried out in both the steady-state and dynamic operation conditions. The results reveal that the fuzzy logic control scheme has the potential to replace nuclear reactor operators in the control room. Hence, the entire control process can be automatic, simple and effective

  17. Distributed expert systems for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network of distributed expert systems is the heart of a prototype supervisory control architecture developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an advanced multimodular reactor. Eight expert systems encode knowledge on signal acquisition, diagnostics, safeguards, and control strategies in a hybrid rule-based, multiprocessing and object-oriented distributed computing environment. An interactive simulation of a power block consisting of three reactors and one turbine provides a realistic, testbed for performance analysis of the integrated control system in real-time. Implementation details and representative reactor transients are discussed

  18. St. Lucie nuclear plant's instrument setpoint control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past several years, instrument setpoint control has become an issue of significant utility focus and concern. Various nuclear industry initiatives have contributed to shaping the current environment. Florida Power and Light Company's St. Lucie nuclear plant maintains a proactive approach to implementing an instrument setpoint control program. St. Lucie's timely response to prevailing setpoint issues ensures that an effective setpoint program is the end result. Florida Power and Light (FP and L) initiated a setpoint control program at St. Lucie, a two-unit Combustion Engineering plant, in 1985. The plan's development was the result of obsolete equipment modifications, setpoint changes, and regulatory inquiries

  19. System defense mechanisms in nuclear power generation control computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-redundant computers are used to control and monitor the production of power from Ontario Hydro's nuclear power reactors. Each computer must have the capability of monitoring its own performance and detecting faults. Upon fault detection, each computer must initiate corrective responses to ensure the integrity of critical control functions. This paper reviews those features the authors have termed system defense mechanisms

  20. Medical control of salaried employees in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation indicates some regulatory principles of labour medicine, and the arrangements specific to nuclear base installations. It comments how intervening companies are treated in terms of authorization, control and dosimetry. It presents the organisation of medical control, some of its practical aspects, evokes some critical aspects of working conditions, and outlines some various improvements and the administrative difficulties

  1. Tangible interfaces for virtual nuclear power plant control desk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high safety requirements for nuclear power plant operation, control desks must be designed in such a way operators can take all the procedures safely, with a good overview of all variable indicators and easy access to actuator controls. Also, operators must see alarms indication in a way they can easily identify any abnormal conditions and bring the NPP back to normal operation. The ergonomics and human factors fields have helped evaluations to improve the design of nuclear power plant control systems. Lately, the use of virtual control desks have helped even more such evaluations, by integrating in one platform both nuclear power plant dynamics simulator with a high visual fidelity control desk proto typing. Operators can interact with these virtual control desks in a similar way as with real ones. Such a virtual control desk has been under development at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN/CNEN. This paper reports the latest improvements, with the use of more interaction modes, to turn operation a friendlier task. An automatic speech recognition interface has been implemented as a self-contained system, by accessing directly MS Windows Application Interface, and with online neural network training for spoken commend recognition. Thus, operators can switch among different desk views. Besides this, head tracking interfaces have been integrated with the virtual control desk, to move within desk views according to users head movements. Both marker and markerless-based head tracking interfaces have been implemented. Results are shown and commented. (author)

  2. Instrumentation and control system for Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation and Control System for nuclear recycle facilities have advanced step by step from manual operation from the operating gallery in the 1960s to hardwired panel based operation from the control room in 1980s and to remote operation through PLC/SCADA systems from control room in the last decade. This paper describes the requirements and associated challenges in Instrumentation and control system design for Integrated nuclear recycle facilities being set up by Nuclear Recycle Board. This will be the forerunner for many such plants being executed by the Board. It details the changes in design philosophy over existing plants in reprocessing and waste management. The paper also explains the design provisions made and the implementation of the same for safe operation of the facility for the designed period. (author)

  3. Bayesian Control for Concentrating Mixed Nuclear Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Robert L.; Smith, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    A control algorithm for batch processing of mixed waste is proposed based on conditional Gaussian Bayesian networks. The network is compiled during batch staging for real-time response to sensor input.

  4. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  5. Nuclear export criteria and controls in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the export licensing procedure and the modifications made to it under the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act (NNPA) to achieve greater control over exports of nuclear material and facilities. Export licences from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are now required for certain items connected with nuclear plant construction and the procedure for obtaining the views of the Executive Branch have been formalised. The President is enabled to override the denial of an export licence by the NRC. Amongst the new criteria on the export licensing procedure added to the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, the NNPA provides that the IAEA Safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty are applicable to exported nuclear material or facilities, together with adequate physical protection measures. (NEA)

  6. Importance of the quality control tests in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The acceptance of nuclear energy and its application by some part of the population are associated with the benefits brought by those activities and the guarantee that the incorporation of this technology will be strictly done according to the currently security norms. This project aims at presenting the Nuclear Medicine tests of control of quality models to assist the National Commission of Nuclear Energy Program of Regulatory Inspection (CNEN). The main aspects related with the radiological protection are discussed along the project and it is presented models that assist the Nuclear Medicine Service, in the matter of Radioprotection paying attention to the requirements of the Regulatory Inspection of CNEN. The fulfilment of such models shows, clearly, that they are fundamental for the radioprotection safety in the Nuclear Medicine Services. (author)

  7. 76 FR 36993 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Clarification of Classification for Human Dura Mater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... CFR Part 882 Medical devices, Neurological devices. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and... Devices; Neurological Devices; Clarification of Classification for Human Dura Mater; Technical Amendment...). In the Federal Register of November 24, 2004 (69 FR 68612), FDA published a final rule...

  8. Interaction of ionizing radiation with mater; Oddzialywanie promieniowania jonizujacego z materia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogocki, D. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The early radiation effects (e.g. excitation, ionization) have been described and compared for different kind of radiation interacting with mater. The mechanism of energy deposition in connection with radiation dose and their spatial distribution has been shown.The commonly used definitions and units in radiation dosimetry have been also reviewed. 4 refs, 4 figs.

  9. Use of hafnium in control bars of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the use of hafnium as neutron absorber material in nuclear reactors has been reason of investigation by virtue of that this material has nuclear properties as to the neutrons absorption and structural that can prolong the useful life of the control mechanisms of the nuclear reactors. In this work some of those more significant hafnium properties are presented like nuclear material. Also there are presented calculations carried out with the HELIOS code for fuel cells of uranium oxide and of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides under controlled conditions with conventional bars of boron carbide and also with similar bars to which are substituted the absorbent material by metallic hafnium, the results are presented in this work. (Author)

  10. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  11. Una arquitectura para el uso de las redes sociales por agencias gubernamentales en la gestión de emergencias

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña Ruano, Pablo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Una emergencia es una situación imprevisible que requiere de acciones de respuesta para minimizar posibles daños humanos y materiales. La gestión de emergencias consiste en un conjunto de actividades para la mitigación, preparación, respuesta y recuperación de una situación de emergencia que involucra a agencias gubernamentales, organizaciones no gubernamentales, comunidades de voluntarios, comunidades de práctica, el sector privado y los ciudadanos. Durante las 4 fases de la gestión de emerg...

  12. PLAN DE EMPRESA PARA UNA AGENCIA SITUADA EN VENEZUELA QUE OFRECE CURSOS DE IDIOMAS EN EL EXTRANJERO

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ CASADO, CARLOS

    2014-01-01

    Con la realización del presente Trabajo Final de Carrera, se pretende realizar un Plan de Empresa para la Creación, Plan de desarrollo y Viabilidad para una agencia de cursos de inglés en el extranjero y con oficina en Venezuela bajo la marca: Eurolingua. El objetivo de este plan de negocio es la implantación de una oficina de Eurolingua en Venezuela con el fin de buscar una apertura a nuevos mercados emergentes y contrarrestar los efectos que está provocando la crisis económica española e...

  13. El «estilo de la carne» en Maikrux y Falete: feminidad, humor y agencia

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Uria, Amaia; Platero Méndez, Raquel (Lucas); Rosón Villena, María

    2014-01-01

    Maikruz y Falete son dos personajes televisivos que forman parte de la cultura popular vasca y española y que performan identidades de género no hegemónicas, pues encarnan feminidades fuertes a pesar de haber sido asignados como varones en el nacimiento. Nuestro análisis atiende a cómo el humor y lo vernáculo más que desactivar su posible potencialidad política, los convierte en una parte del imaginario cultural de «posibilidad» y agencia. Esto es posible no sólo por lo que Maikrux y Falete «...

  14. Control rod driving device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a magnetic jack type control rod drives, superconducting wires having current limiting effect are connected to a line for supplying current to coils. Ceramics type superconducting material is used as the superconducting wires. If abnormality should occur in the control rod drives, superconducting wire reaches a critical temperature due to the temperature elevation of the coolants. Then, the superconducting wires are instantaneously changed from the superconducting material to insulating material which is the inherent nature of the ceramic material to rapidly interrupt the current flowing through the coils. Thus, scram can be conducted simply. (S.T.)

  15. Modern control technology for improved nuclear reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main complaints leveled at reactor control systems by utility spokesmen is complexity. One only has to look inside a power reactor control room to appreciate this viewpoint. The high reliability and versatility of modern microprocessors makes possible distributed control systems with only performance data and abnormal conditions being relayed to the control room. In a sense, this emulates the human-body control system where routine repetitive actions are handled in an involuntary manner. The significance of expert systems to the nuclear reactor control and safety systems is their ability to capture human and other expertise and make it available, upon demand, and under almost all circumstances. Thus, human problem-solving skills acquired by the learning process over a long period of time can be captured and employed with the reliability inherent in computers. This is especially important in nuclear plants when human operators are burdened by stress and emotional factors that have a dramatic effect on performance level

  16. A framework for the intelligent control of nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intelligent control system architecture is proposed for nuclear rockets, and its various components are briefly described. The objective of the intelligent controller is the satisfaction of performance, robustness, fault-tolerance and reliability design specifications. The proposed hierarchical architecture consists of three levels: hardware, signal processing, and knowledge processing. The functionality of the intelligent controller is implemented utilizing advanced information processing technologies such as artificial neutral networks and fuzzy expert systems. The feasibility of a number of the controller architecture components have been independently validated using computer simulations. Preliminary results are presented demonstrating some of the signal processing capabilities of the intelligent nuclear rocket controller. Further work, currently in progress, is attempting to implement a number of the knowledge processing capabilities of the controller and their interface with the lower levels of the proposed architecture

  17. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes regulatory control of the safe use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in 1998. STUK is the Finnish nuclear safety authority. The submission of this report to the Ministry of Trade and Industry is stipulated in Section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. It was verified by regulatory control that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with conditions set out in the operating licences of the plants and with regulations currently in force. In addition to supervising the normal operation of the plants, STUK oversaw projects carried out at the plant units, which related to the uprating of their power and the improvement of their safety. STUK issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry a statement about applications for the renewal of the operating licences of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, which had been submitted by Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy. Regulatory activities in the field of nuclear waste management were focused on the storage and final disposal of spent fuel as well as the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. STUK issued a statement to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment programme pertaining to a spent fuel repository project, which had been submitted by Posiva Oy, as well as on Imatran Voima Oy's application concerning the operation of a repository for medium- and low-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. The use of nuclear materials was in compliance with the regulations currently in force and also the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were ensured by safeguards control. In international safeguards, important changes took place, which were reflected also in safeguards activities at national level. International co-operation continued based on financing both from STUK's budget and from additional sources. The focus of co-operation funded from outside sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and

  18. Controlling nuclear power plant costs in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses U.S. nuclear power plant cost trends over the last fifteen years. Rapidly rising non-material related craft, engineering and field supervision labor costs are identified as being the major cost drivers since about 1978. Although U.S. light water reactor power plants are shown to be material cost competitive with other nuclear and coal-fired alternatives, the advantage is more than offset by high labor costs. It is shown that in some U.S. nuclear power plants, effective use of manpower has been made through plant standardization and the use of multi-unit sites. Control of construction costs is shown to be best where continuity of experience in management, engineering and construction forces exist. The effects of large versus small nuclear power plants on control of construction costs are discussed. U.S. constructibility programs sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy are identified. They are discussed relative to their potential for developing the means to control U.S. nuclear power plant costs. Among the preliminary results of these programs are the perceptions that the evolutionary standardized plant concepts being developed appear to be cost effective. Also, some U.S. nuclear utilities have evolved tightly integrated project organizations that might duplicate better U.S. experience should they embark on a new project. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  19. Design of a load following controller for APR+ nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A load-following operation in APR+ nuclear plants is necessary to reduce the need to adjust the boric acid concentration and to efficiently control the control rods for flexible operation. In particular, a disproportion in the axial flux distribution, which is normally caused by a load-following operation in a reactor core, causes xenon oscillation because the absorption cross-section of xenon is extremely large and its effects in a reactor are delayed by the iodine precursor. A model predictive control (MPC) method was used to design an automatic load-following controller for the integrated thermal power level and axial shape index (ASI) control for APR+ nuclear plants. Some tracking controllers employ the current tracking command only. On the other hand, the MPC can achieve better tracking performance because it considers future commands in addition to the current tracking command. The basic concept of the MPC is to solve an optimization problem for generating finite future control inputs at the current time and to implement as the current control input only the first control input among the solutions of the finite time steps. At the next time step, the procedure to solve the optimization problem is then repeated. The support vector regression (SVR) model that is used widely for function approximation problems is used to predict the future outputs based on previous inputs and outputs. In addition, a genetic algorithm is employed to minimize the objective function of a MPC control algorithm with multiple constraints. The power level and ASI are controlled by regulating the control banks and part-strength control banks together with an automatic adjustment of the boric acid concentration. The 3-dimensional MASTER code, which models APR+ nuclear plants, is interfaced to the proposed controller to confirm the performance of the controlling reactor power level and ASI. Numerical simulations showed that the proposed controller exhibits very fast tracking responses.

  20. Distributed digital control in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation using microprocessors offers new possibilities to distributed system designers. Sophisticated algorithms including process simulation enable the system to be adapted to dead time and long time constants. Redundant boards increase reliability and colour CRT screen information displays enable more fully centralised control

  1. Fuzzy model-based control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuzzy model-based control of a nuclear power reactor is an emerging research topic world-wide. SCK-CEN is dealing with this research in a preliminary stage, including two aspects, namely fuzzy control and fuzzy modelling. The aim is to combine both methodologies in contrast to conventional model-based PID control techniques, and to state advantages of including fuzzy parameters as safety and operator feedback. This paper summarizes the general scheme of this new research project

  2. Application of programmable logic controller in nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of programmable logic controller (PLC) in nuclear experiments was studied on an example that simulated the monitoring and control of an ion beam in an accelerator. Using infrared and laser light, a comparison was made between the complexity and suitability of PLC compared to a setup using a personal computer. The experiments are described in detail. The routines for registration of signals from appropriate sensors and for control of the stepper monitor were written in quick BASIC. (author). 5 figs

  3. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2007, including the design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. It constitutes the report on regulatory control in the field of nuclear energy, which the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is required to submit to the Ministry of Trade and Industry pursuant to section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. No events occurred at the Olkiluoto and Loviisa nuclear power plants that would have endangered the safe use of nuclear energy. Three reactor scrams occured due to disturbances at Olkiluoto 2 in 2007. The number is considerably higher than average over the past few years. The safety significance of the events was low. No individual occupational radiation dose exceeded the limit set for nuclear power plant workers. Radioactive releases were low and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants was well below the limit laid down by Government Decision. In 2007, the safety of the Loviisa plant was assessed more intensively and extensively than usual due to the renewal of the plant's operating licence. According to STUK's assessment, the facility is safe and operated well, based on which it supported the extension of its operating licence until each plant unit will have operated for 50 years. The licence conditions state that two periodical safety reviews must be conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power plant during the next licence term by the end of 2015 and 2023. The indicators depicting the effectiveness of STUK's action, i.e. the safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants, did not indicate changes that would have called for an immediate reaction from STUK. In 2007, STUK reviewed the detailed design of Olkiluoto 3, witnessed component manufacturing at manufacturers' premises and oversaw plant construction at Olkiluoto. Based on

  4. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology used in nuclear power plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study included a review of the literature on the subject, followed by a visit to some of the leading organizations in Europe in the field nuclear I and C. Areas covered are: (1) role of the operator and control room design; (2) transition from analog to digital technology; (3) computerized operator support systems for fault management; (4) control strategies and techniques; (5) Nuclear power plant I and C architecture; (6) instrumentation and (7) computer standards and tools. The finding relate to poor reactions

  5. Development of Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To implement obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral agreements more effectively, we proposed a computerized system named the Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System (NCAMITS) as a part of the Nuclear Transparency Enhancement Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The database system is designed not only to undertake the facility-level accounting for and control of nuclear material at KAERI, but also to meet the requirements of the State (National) System of Accounting and Control (SSAC). Since the NCAMITS will provide services for the facility operators as well as the safeguard information managers at KAERI, the development of the system is supposed to accommodate the end-user's convenience and the manager's sophisticated specifications as well

  6. Development of Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. G.; Lee, B. D.; So, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To implement obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral agreements more effectively, we proposed a computerized system named the Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System (NCAMITS) as a part of the Nuclear Transparency Enhancement Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The database system is designed not only to undertake the facility-level accounting for and control of nuclear material at KAERI, but also to meet the requirements of the State (National) System of Accounting and Control (SSAC). Since the NCAMITS will provide services for the facility operators as well as the safeguard information managers at KAERI, the development of the system is supposed to accommodate the end-user's convenience and the manager's sophisticated specifications as well.

  7. Safety management on nuclear fuel cycle installations and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the NNSA conducted some inspections on the YIBIN Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant that was under normal operation and the Pilot plant of NPP spent fuel Reprocessing that was construction at the Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex. The NNSA also issued the OP to Tsinghua University for its Fuel Fabrication Laboratory of HTR-10 after safety review. The NNSA conducted the safety review on the CP application for the Fabrication Facility of Fuel Element for Heavy Water Reactor (CANDU-6) at the Baotou Nuclear Fuel Plant of CNNC in Baotou. The NNSA finished the safety review on the Beilong intermediate-level and low-level Radioactive Waste Repository in Guangdong. The NNSA conducted some inspections on the nuclear material control, and completed the verification of the Nuclear Material License of China Corporation of Atomic Energy Industry and other two organizations

  8. Control unit of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control unit comprising multiple leak-tight vessels, in communication with the inside of the reactor vessel, extending this vessel above its cover, in the vertical direction and each one enclosing a mechanism for moving a cluster of material absorbing the neutrons in the reactor core, actuated by a motor. This control unit is of reduced height above the vessel cover and provides efficient protection of the leak tight containments and the mechanisms in the event of earthquakes, easy removal and refitting of the vessel cover, good ventilation of the power devices of the mechanisms without the use of a complex ventilation system, efficient thermal insulation of the leak-tight containments assembly, as well as easy access to the motors and mechanism located in the leak-tight containment for carrying out any maintenance and repairs that might be required

  9. Mutual control of X-rays and nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this Thesis the mutual control between X-rays and nuclear transitions is investigated theoretically. In the first Part, we study the nuclear photoexcitation with the highly brilliant and coherent X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Apart from amplifying the direct resonant interaction with nuclear transitions, the super-intense XFEL can produce new states of matter like cold, high-density plasmas where secondary nuclear excitation channels may come into play, e.g., nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC). Our results predict that in the case of 57Fe targets secondary NEEC can be safely neglected, whereas it is surprisingly the dominating contribution (in comparison to the direct photoexcitation) for the XFEL-induced 93mMo isomer triggering. Based on these case studies, we elaborate a general set of criteria to identify the prevailing excitation channel for a certain nuclear isotope. These criteria may be most relevant for future nuclear resonance experiments at XFEL facilities. On the opposite frontier, the interplay between single X-ray photons and nuclear transitions offer potential storage and processing applications for information science in their most compact form. In the second Part of this Thesis, we show that nuclear forward scattering off 57Fe targets can be employed to process polarization-encoded single X-rays via timed magnetic field rotations. Apart from the realization of logical gates with X-rays, the polarization encoding is used to design an X-ray quantum eraser scheme where the interference between scattering paths can be switched off and on in a controlled manner. Such setups may advance time-energy complementarity tests to so far unexplored parameter regimes, e.g., to the domain of X-ray quanta.

  10. Mutual control of X-rays and nuclear transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunst, Jonas Friedrich

    2015-12-14

    In the course of this Thesis the mutual control between X-rays and nuclear transitions is investigated theoretically. In the first Part, we study the nuclear photoexcitation with the highly brilliant and coherent X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Apart from amplifying the direct resonant interaction with nuclear transitions, the super-intense XFEL can produce new states of matter like cold, high-density plasmas where secondary nuclear excitation channels may come into play, e.g., nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC). Our results predict that in the case of {sup 57}Fe targets secondary NEEC can be safely neglected, whereas it is surprisingly the dominating contribution (in comparison to the direct photoexcitation) for the XFEL-induced {sup 93m}Mo isomer triggering. Based on these case studies, we elaborate a general set of criteria to identify the prevailing excitation channel for a certain nuclear isotope. These criteria may be most relevant for future nuclear resonance experiments at XFEL facilities. On the opposite frontier, the interplay between single X-ray photons and nuclear transitions offer potential storage and processing applications for information science in their most compact form. In the second Part of this Thesis, we show that nuclear forward scattering off {sup 57}Fe targets can be employed to process polarization-encoded single X-rays via timed magnetic field rotations. Apart from the realization of logical gates with X-rays, the polarization encoding is used to design an X-ray quantum eraser scheme where the interference between scattering paths can be switched off and on in a controlled manner. Such setups may advance time-energy complementarity tests to so far unexplored parameter regimes, e.g., to the domain of X-ray quanta.

  11. Transcending sovereignty. In the management and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective control of nuclear material is fundamentally important to the credibility and reliability of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), international safeguards are applied to non-nuclear- weapon State Parties for the purpose of verifying compliance with their undertakings not to seek to acquire nuclear weapons or explosive devices by assuring that safeguarded nuclear activities and material are not diverted from their intended peaceful use. Reflecting the sovereign State basis upon which the international system rests, the control and protection of nuclear materials within the State are the responsibility of the national authority. This division of responsibility between international verification of non-diversion on the one hand and national responsibility for material protection on the other has worked quite well over time. But it has not created a seamless web of fully effective control over nuclear material. 34 In so far as safeguards are concerned, six points are to be made: 1. INFCIRC/153 Agreements: Completion by all NPT Parties of the required safeguards agreements with the IAEA. Fifty States Party to the NPT still have not entered into treaty-obligated safeguards agreements with the IAEA. 2. Adherence by all States having full-scope safeguards INFCIRC/540. As noted, very few States have thus far negotiated and implemented the strengthened safeguards arrangements. 3. United Nations Security Council action to take its 1992 assertions (related to compliance and enforcement) on proliferation and safeguards a step further. 4. Non-NPT Party support for international Safeguards. 5. Safeguards financing. 6. IAEA Access to export license information

  12. Design of a Load Following Controller for APR+ Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear plants is required to restrain the adjustment of boric acid concentration and to efficiently control the control rods for the flexibility of the operation. Especially, axial flux distribution disproportion that is usually caused by load-following operation in a reactor core induces xenon oscillation because the absorption cross-section of xenon is extremely large and its effects in a reactor are delayed by the iodine precursor. Rapid and smooth power maneuvering has its benefits in view of the economical and safe operation of reactors, so it is required that the controller is efficiently designed. Therefore, the load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear plants needs the ultimate automatic control and the advanced control method that satisfies the conditions such as the flexibility, safety and convenience. A model predictive control (MPC) method is applied to design an automatic load-following controller for the integrated thermal power level and axial shape index (ASI) control for an APR+ nuclear plants. Some tracking controllers use only the current tracking command. On the other hand, since MPC considers future commands in addition to the current tracking command, the MPC can achieve better tracking performance. Therefore, the MPC has been applied very much to the control of industrial process systems. The basic concept of the MPC is to solve an optimization problem for generating finite future control inputs at current time and to implement as the current control input only the first control input among the solutions of the finite time steps. At the next time step, the second control input is not implemented and the procedure to solve the optimization problem is then repeated. The power level and the ASI are controlled by the regulating control banks and part-strength control banks together with the automatic adjustment of boric acid concentration. The 3-dimensional MASTER code, which models the APR+ nuclear

  13. Fuzzy logic controller for automatic nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear power reactors, power stabilization is the desired goal for any reactor. During the normal operation of the reactor, different changes in its operating conditions occur such as: fuel bum-up, xenon isotope production, temperature and/or environmental changes. Therefore, an automatic nuclear power reactor control is required to compensate the reactivity changes produced by such variations. proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID), and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) schemes are discussed to achieve the optimal stabilization of power. Both PID and FLC controllers were developed as well as the reactor power plant model in order to analyze their performance. The simulation results show that FLC controller gives faster and better response. 6-16 figs., 12 refs

  14. Method for controlling xenone control rod in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To adequately conduct entire withdrawal or entire insertion of xenone control rods by comparing the control rod worths of the xenone control rods and the xenone amount. Method: A turbine output signal is inputted to a load variation detection circuit and, if the variation coefficient is with a predetermined setting value, it is judged that the load variation has been completed and the load is settled constant, the result of which is inputted to the control rod selection device. The reactor power signal is inputted to a control rod selection device and the number density of iodine and the number density of xenone are determined based on the neutron flux and the maximum or minimum value of the xenone at a constant load is calculated based on both of the data. Then, a function representing the variation amount of the xenone reactivity having the maximum or minimum value as the variant is determined. By comparing the function and the constant load signal, the operation for the xenone control rods is judged or selected. According to this invention, the conventional method of compensating the xenone amount variation with the adjustment of the boron concentration can be substituted with the xenone control rods. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Diferencias en la eficiencia técnica de la gestión online y tradicional de las agencias de viajes en España

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle Muñoz de Cuerva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Tesis inédita presentada en la Universidad Europea de Madrid. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. Programa de Doctorado en Economía y Empresa El sector de las agencias de viajes en España está atravesando un periodo de grandes transformaciones. Por un lado las nuevas herramientas surgidas gracias a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han modificado tanto la gestión interna de las agencias, como el funcionamiento del propio mercado. Por otro, el sector está sufriendo las consecu...

  16. Eficiencia económica en las agencias de viajes tradicionales y online. Una aplicación al mercado español

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Lacalle Muñoz de Cuerva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Las nuevas herramientas surgidas gracias a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han modificado tanto la gestión interna de las agencias de viajes, como el funcionamiento del propio mercado. Por otro lado, el sector está sufriendo las consecuencias de la crisis económica y como resultado, un gran número de agencias ha desaparecido de la industria de la intermediación turística española en los últimos años. Unido a este hecho, se ha observado que las transacciones realizadas a tr...

  17. Expert systems for process control in nuclear research and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of expert systems results in a qualitative change in the possibilities of process control and optimization of technical plants. In the case of plants used for nuclear research and nuclear technology, expert systems for process supervision touch on another aspect of enormous importance, i.e. increasing the safety of the plant. Their design, development and constant improvement are, therefore, among the number one tasks of research. These can be solved only in close cooperation of specialists in the fields of computer technology, scientific information, nuclear research and plant engineering. (author)

  18. Dynamics and control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of the power plant with a pressurized water reactor has been prepared and tested. The model is intended for a schematic simulator based on a digital computer. The results of the simulation run for various normal transients are in good agreement with literature data. Equipment for computer control of the experimental reactor TRIGA has been completed. The equipment includes two microcomputers and associated interface circuits. Presently, only data logging is performed. The analyses of random signals on the TRIGA reactor have been continued. Measurements of neutron flux, fuel temperature and cooling water duct have been performed

  19. Nuclear reactor control bundle guide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each bundle is formed by several absorbent rods, which are vertically movable and are connected together by a spider to a common axial operating rod, and guide means for the control bundles in their displacement, out of the core; the said means comprise guide boxes containing horizontal plates for discontinuous guiding, at the upper part of the boxes, of absorbent rods positioned in pairs on a radius and individual peripheral absorbent rods of the control bundle. At the lower part of the boxes in a continuous guiding zone, guiding of the absorbent rods positioned in pairs on a radius is effected by association of the horizontal plates for mechanical guiding of the rods, with housings which minimise hydraulic effects by smoothing the coolant flow in the radial direction around the absorbent rods. The hydraulic housings are mounted between the horizontal plates as discontinuous spacers. Pressure differences around each rod are minimised or eliminated and continuous guiding is achieved without affecting the design of the guide boxes, the internal equipment or the pressure vessel. The invention can be applied to PWRs

  20. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Cyber Testbed Considerations - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying and understanding digital instrumentation and control (I and C) cyber vulnerabilities within nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is critical if nation states desire to operate nuclear facilities safely, reliably, and securely. To demonstrate objective evidence that cyber vulnerabilities have been adequately identified and mitigated, a test bed representing a facility's critical nuclear equipment must be replicated. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has built and operated similar test beds for common critical infrastructure I and C for over 10 years. This experience developing, operating, and maintaining an I and C test bed in support of research identifying cyber vulnerabilities has led the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute of the Republic of Korea to solicit the experiences of INL to help mitigate problems early in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of a similar test bed. The following information will discuss I and C test bed lessons learned and the impact of these experiences to KAERI

  1. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Cyber Testbed Considerations – Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Gray; Robert Anderson; Julio G. Rodriguez; Cheol-Kwon Lee

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: Identifying and understanding digital instrumentation and control (I&C) cyber vulnerabilities within nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, is critical if nation states desire to operate nuclear facilities safely, reliably, and securely. In order to demonstrate objective evidence that cyber vulnerabilities have been adequately identified and mitigated, a testbed representing a facility’s critical nuclear equipment must be replicated. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has built and operated similar testbeds for common critical infrastructure I&C for over ten years. This experience developing, operating, and maintaining an I&C testbed in support of research identifying cyber vulnerabilities has led the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute of the Republic of Korea to solicit the experiences of INL to help mitigate problems early in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of a similar testbed. The following information will discuss I&C testbed lessons learned and the impact of these experiences to KAERI.

  2. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC and A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC and A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC and A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC and A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area (MBA)) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance

  3. Next generation nuclear arms control staff development initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current demographics for staff with nuclear expertise within the United States National Laboratory complex are dominated by a well experienced, but departing late-career workforce, a cadre of mid-career staff that are relatively few in number, and entry-level staff that are well educated but inexperienced, particularly in nuclear arms control and international nuclear safeguards affairs. Although there are a few significant United States Department of Energy (DOE) Programs that have been established to deal with this issue across the Laboratory complex (Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, as two examples), it remains the responsibility of the individual laboratories to provide internal education, training and development activities to move the next generation of nuclear arms control practitioners to higher levels of competency and responsibility. This presentation describes an internal Next Generation Nuclear Arms Control Staff Development Initiative for early- to mid-career technical and policy experts from a broad range of disciplines at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Elements of this internally funded PNNL initiative include, inter alia, student selection criteria, course focus and objectives, core curriculum topics, the distinguished guest speakers series, practical applications of new knowledge and other student responsibilities for action and engagement, training for technical publication, funding issues, and successes and achievements from the very first class of 2012. (author)

  4. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  5. Efeito direto de cada norma (IAS/IFRS) nas rubricas das DF e nos principais indicadores económico-financeiros em resultado da alteração do referencial contabilístico: evidência empírica

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Cristina Maria Amendoeira

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de analisar o impacto produzido pela alteração do normativo contabilístico, procurando identificar o efeito direto de cada norma International Accounting Standards/ International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS) nos principais indicadores económico-financeiros. Para tal foram formuladas as duas seguintes questões: Q1: A alteração do normativo POC/DC para as IAS/IFRS produziu alterações significativas na informação financ...

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  8. Instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation and control systems in German nuclear power plants have reached a very high standard. Consequently, any further development will be less in terms of more functionality, but rather in terms of structuring so as to meet specific applications, and in more comfort in operation, maintenance and repair. In instrumentation and control systems with safety functions in nuclear power plants, a higher level of overdetermination could be introduced so as to add to the functional diversity and fault resistance of such systems. In any case, digitization will be introduced with standard equipment and with software development and documentation supported by tools. In Germany, digitization of a comprehensive protection system still lags behind in development. However, that delay would be made up quickly as soon as a contract would be awarded for a complete nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  9. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The department of metallurgy, NRC Inchass is embarking on a programme of on a laboratory scale, fuel pins containing uranium dioxide pellets are going to be produced. The department is making use of the expertise and equipment at present available and is going to utilize the new fuel pin fabrication unit which would be shortly in operation. The fabrication and testing of uranium dioxide pellets then gradually adapt them and develop, a national know how in this field. This would also involve building up of indigenous experience through proper training of qualified personnel. That are applied to ensure quality of U o2 pellets, the techniques implemented, the equipment used and the specifications of the equipment presently available. The following parameters are subject to quality control tests: density. O/U ration, hydrogen content, microstructure, each property will be discussed, measurements related to U o2 powders, including flow ability, bulk density, O/U ratio, bet surface area and water content will be critically discussed. Relevant tests to ensure Q C of pellets are reviewed. These include surface integrity, density, dimensions, microstructure.4 fig., 1 tab

  10. Reactivity control of nuclear power reactors: new options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some actual aspects (referring to economy, non-proliferation and environmental impact) of nuclear power reactors has been analyzed from the point of view of the reactivity control physics. Specially studied have been the physical mechanisms related with the spectral shift control method and their general positive effects on those aspects. The analysis carried out suggested the application of the above method of control to reactors with non-hydrogenous fuel cells, which are mainly characterized by their high moderator/fuel ratio. Finally three different types of such fuel cells are presented and some results about one of them (belonging to a PHWR controlled by graphite rods) are given. (author)

  11. On-line control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author demonstrates the development of process control systems to their present-day sophisticated state in German nuclear power plants, complete with the gradual penetration of digital devices into information systems, process control systems and, eventually, into safety control systems, while pointing to the benefits offered by the German framework conditions and the new options and potentials, and difficulties, offered by qualification. Preliminary studies and experience indicate that advanced on-line process control systems can be expected to improve maintenance, operation and health monitoring/failure diagnosis at almost identical equipment spendings and space requirements while maintaining the same level of safety or even producing a higher one. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear safety. ICFTU proposals for the international control of the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    are strong proponents of its use and others have said that they are only prepared to accept its application if safety controls are substantially improved. All affiliates of the ICFTU are convinced that energy policy options must be widened through increased research and development of new and renewable sources and through extensive energy conservation measures. The environmental impact of all methods of energy generation must be assessed on the basis of the public availability of all relevant information. It is in this context, that whatever their views about the desirability or otherwise of nuclear power, all ICFTU affiliates recognise the immediate need to assure the highest possible level of safety for all nuclear plants and activities everywhere - for example to deal with radioactive wastes created over the last 30 years. Even if some countries opt out of nuclear power it is likely that many others will be committed to it for many years. Given the widespread effects of a catastrophic failure anywhere in the world we must therefore all be concerned to strengthen the international safety regime. Because of their historic role in campaigning for health and safety at work, unions are well placed to exercise an independent watchdog role - making use of the knowledge and skills of their members in the nuclear industry - and are also able to speak on behalf of a large membership which is representative representative of the wide public concern about nuclear safety. Immediately following the Chernobyl disaster, the ICFTU Executive Board adopted a resolution (reproduced as Appendix 2 to this document) calling for immediate steps to tighten up nuclear safety. In the light of subsequent developments, the Confederation has now given further detailed consideration to the whole question of nuclear safety and has decided to publish this report which contains detailed proposals for tighter international control of nuclear energy via the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  13. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Nuclear-Reaction Control by Multistage Mathematical-Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leikkonen

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of Multistage Mathematical Programming (MMP has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactors. Changes in power distribution arise from variations in the operational conditions of the reactor, and excite oscillations which in large reactors may approach the stability limit.

  15. Regional Seminars to Address Current Nuclear Export Control Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of nuclear-related exports, a critical component of the nonproliferation regime, is facing several opportunities and challenges. As countries sign and ratify the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards Additional Protocol (AP), they will begin to report far more export information, including exports of a list of items similar to the Nuclear Supplier Group's Trigger List that existed when the AP was developed in the mid-1990s. This positive development contrasts with challenges such as globalization, transshipments, and tracking of end-uses. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is proposing that the US Department of Energy (DOE) develop regional seminars that address these types of issues related to export/import controls. The DOE seminars would be designed to supplement regional seminars sponsored by the IAEA and member states on topics related to the Additional Protocol (referred to as 'IAEA seminars'). The topic of nuclear export/import controls is not thoroughly addressed in the IAEA seminars. The proposed DOE seminars would therefore have two objectives: familiarizing countries with the export/import provisions of the Additional Protocol, and addressing challenges such as those noted above. The seminars would be directed particularly at countries that have not ratified the AP, and at regions where export-related problems are particularly prevalent. The intent is to encourage governments to implement more effective nuclear export control systems that meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  16. Modern acting principles of Nuclear power unit resonance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways of conditions for control the nuclear power unit 'lifetime' and extension of their operation beyond the design service life are considered. The requirements and approaches to the life extension of NPP unit safety which have no definite operation period are formulated

  17. CANDU 6 nuclear power plant tritium control and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issues drawing people's attention, such as ways of CANDU plant tritium generation, measures to control tritium release to environment in the design of nuclear power plants as well as public dose due to tritium released to the environment are presented

  18. Coordination control design and simulation for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination control of nuclear power plant is a complex problem researchers faced. In this paper a scheme that the feed water valve opening as a power reference signal is presented. And it builds the physical models based on the lumped parameters equations, and designs the control system according to the scheme. At last, the simulation results show that this scheme is valid and the outlet pressure has less overshoot. (author)

  19. 3D Printing: A Challenge to Nuclear Export Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of manufacturing critical nuclear-fuel cycle technology using 3D printers in order to circumvent export controls. In particular, it examines the possibility that it may soon be possible to 3D-print maraging steel for use in a centrifuge to enrich uranium. The paper finds that while significant technological challenges remain, an expert with access to an off-the-shelf 3D printer, advanced quality control technology and knowledge of centrifuges should be able...

  20. Tsetse control, diagnosis and chemotherapy using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the seminar was on recent advances in the use of nuclear techniques in the diagnosis and control of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis. The proceedings contain the full text of sixteen selected papers addressing the disease and its diagnosis, chemotherapy, vector biology, ecology and control. Synopses of the other papers presented are also included. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Criteria for Special Nuclear Materials Inventory and Control Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of tile most significant problems that will face investors, managers and operators in nuclear activities and especially in the field of commercial nuclear power, will be the proper control of a nuclear materials inventory that will exceed US $5000 million in value by 1980. Special nuclear materials are expensive when compared to most materials of commerce, e.g. US prices for 90% enriched uranium and 3% enriched uranium as hexafluoride, and for heavy water are $10 808, $254 and $61.60 per kg, respectively. Moreover, in many cases these materials are subjected because of health and safety requirements to special governmental controls not directly related to their monetary value. Despite the high monetary values assigned to these materials, they are destined to be used in large quantity, e.g. some 50- 75 t of 3% enriched material will be used in 500-MW light-water-moderated reactor, and perhaps the equivalent of 200 to 300 reactors of such size will be in operation throughout the world by 1980. Past experience has resulted in the development of special procedures and practice for the commercial control of the large quantity, lower-value materials such as coal or iron ore and for the small quantity, higher value materials such as the precious metals. While they have like prices, special nuclear materials are different in kind and will be handled in quantities much greater than the precious metals. However, while special techniques or special adaptations of old techniques may be necessary, proper use of various established inventory control practices should be sufficient in most cases to protect adequately the investment of nations and individuals in these expensive materials. This paper establishes criteria for materials control. It specifically considers the appropriateness of various techniques of inventory control ranging from annual balancing of book records of receipts and shipments through detailed daily physical inventory in the light of the specific value

  2. Scientists of Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - ARSRITP and arms control and nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of scientists of Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) -ARSRITP in the field of nuclear disarmament control for the period of 1974 -1993 is discussed. RFNC - ARSRITP scientists in collaboration with american specialists have developed and employed in practice the techniques and equipment to control the bilateral Treaty on the limitation of Nuclear -Weapon Test. Experience of control over nuclear tests of threshold power and realization of new RFNC - ARSRITP scientific and technical projects have made a basis for development of measures and means of possible control methods to observe complete nuclear test ban

  3. Fuzzy controller for real time supervision of nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally nuclear energy provides about 60% of the whole electricity production. A modulation of the nuclear power plants must be able to respond to the demand on the network. The pressurized water nuclear reactor has to yield correctly a load set point. Fundamentally, two parameters are concerned in leading this task to a successful conclusion: the power axial-offset and the control rods position. The focus of this study is the automation of the control of the power axial-offset by adding soluble boron and by minimizing the volume flows through the water pump. It is also important to take into consideration the liquid waste volume. Water or boron is injected into the reactor primary circuit. At the present time this task is still performed manually by an operator, for all previous attempts to automate it failed. That device, sketchily described in the paper, gave rise to the development of a real-time fuzzy controller for the power axial-offset and the control rods insertion in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The fuzzy controller, which is the main subject of the paper, expresses more naturally the human expertise, thus avoiding the previous issue of empirical tunings. It was implemented in simulation using Matlab-Simulink on a Sun workstation. Two realistic tests discussed show that the fuzzy controller runs as efficiently as an expert operator does

  4. Challenges for development and provision of metrological quality control tools in nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint advancements in quality control tools and measurement sciences of international reference and safeguards laboratories include: -) successful integration of the Modified Total Evaporation technique (MTE) as a new tool for routine thermal ionization mass spectrometry in nuclear safeguards and security, -) research and feasibility studies for the development of new materials standard, particularly for nuclear forensics (Certified Reference Materials - CRMs for age-dating), -) quality control tools to support the additional protocol and nuclear security (particle CRMs, NUSIMEP (inter-laboratory comparisons for U particle analysis), and -) scientific/technical advice, training and knowledge transfer. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the CETAMA Commission from the French Commission of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA/CETAMA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Meetings are the platforms to exchange views on the needs and challenges for new Quality Control tools for nuclear safeguards and security. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  5. Progress to a nuclear-weapon-free world through tactical nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when, after some years of passivity, nuclear disarmament is becoming more of an urgent item on the international agenda and receiving accordingly more attention on the part of politicians and non-governmental experts. This is partly reflected in the Report of the Canberra Commission, and the statement on nuclear weapons by international generals and admirals. At the same time some developments such as uncertainties with START II ratification and the process of NATO enlargement make the task of nuclear arms control even more demanding. What is needed now is to pursue at last without any further delay negotiations on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to nuclear disarmament. And these effective measures must include both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Only a sustained commitment at the highest political level will legitimate serious discussions of the elimination option and ensure that resources and personnel are devoted to finding solutions to the problems associated with moving to zero, and to crafting appropriate transition strategies. In the absence of such a commitment, the nations of the world may never reach the point at which the desirability and feasibility of a nuclear-free world can be evaluated with greater certainty. This Pugwash Conference is trying to make a modest contribution in helping to make possible such a vitally important commitment

  6. Maintaining quality control in a nontraditional nuclear technology degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regents College, created by the Board of Regents of the University of The State on New York in 1971, has been offering, since January 1985, AS and BS degrees in nuclear technology. The impetus for establishing the nuclear technology degrees came from nuclear utility management and had to do with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed rule regarding degreed operators on shift. There are a variety of ways to earn credits in Regents College degree programs: (1) college courses taken for degree-level credit from regionally accredited colleges; (2) courses sponsored by business, industry, or government that have been evaluated and recommended for credit by the New York National or American Council on Education (ACE's) Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI); (3) military education that has been evaluated by ACE PONSI; (4) approved college-proficiency examinations; and (5) special assessment: an individualized examination of college-level knowledge gained from experience or independent study. Nuclear technology students primarily use college course work, evaluated military education, and proficiency examinations to complete degree programs. However, an increasing number of utilities are having training programs PONSI evaluated, resulting in an increased use of these courses in the nuclear technology degrees. Quality control is a function of several factors described in the paper

  7. Controlled energy generation from nuclear fusion. 60th year atw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Georg [Pintsch Bamag AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Prospects increase, that with a controlled process of nuclear fusion one day an additional nuclear energy source will be commercially exploitable. In what follows, scientific principles according to the most recent research will be presented. Since approximately 30 years we are aware of the fact, that energy in form of light and heat provided by the sun and other fixed stars since over four billions years resulted from reactions of atomic nuclei. A series of such reactions became known which are considered for 'thermonuclear' processes, for example the carbon cycle by Bethe, where hydrogen is converted into helium. Most of the reflections and experiments dealt until 1938 with the reaction between nuclei of light elements. The possibility of splitting heavy nuclei was not anticipated. Its discovery by Hahn and Strassmann was a complete surprise - so to speak a rash reaction to release energy at the end of the element row. This 'way out' captured the interest of nuclear physicist for more than a decade. Only today, by starting to construct big nuclear power plants - only today, being able to assess the possibilities and limitations of this technology, the idea of energy generation through nuclear fusion steps into the foreground of nuclear research.

  8. Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force

  9. Claudia Quinta (Pro Caelio 34 and an altar to Magna Mater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Winsor Leach

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the items of sculpture from the Capitoline collection now housed in the Museum of the Power Station Montemartini is a marble relief altar of the Claudian Period (E. Simon's dating dedicated to the mater deorum and the navis salvia and depicting the arrival of the goddess Cybele at Rome by ship. The dedicator is one Claudia Syntyche and the sculpture alludes to the legends attached to a much honored woman of the Claudian family whom Cicero, in his oration pro Caelio brought on stage in a cameo appearance to bolster his case against the controversial contemporary woman Clodia Metelli as one of the accusers of his client M. Caelius Rufus. This paper will consider questions raised by the iconography of the altar with reference to the development of Claudia's legend in Roman mythology and subsequently ask who was this Claudia the dedicator and why did she choose Magna Mater for her vow?

  10. A nuclear data acquisition system flow control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general Petri Net representation of a nuclear data acquisition system model is presented. This model provides for the unique requirements of a nuclear data acquisition system including the capabilities of concurrently acquiring asynchronous and synchronous data, of providing multiple priority levels of flow control arbitration, and of permitting multiple input sources to reside at the same priority without the problem of channel lockout caused by a high rate data source. Finally, a previously implemented gamma camera/physiological signal data acquisition system is described using the models presented

  11. Multivariable robust control of an integrated nuclear power reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Etchepareborda A.; Flury C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The design of the main control system of the CAREM nuclear power plant is presented. This plant is an inherently safe low-power nuclear reactor with natural convection on the primary coolant circuit and is self-pressurized with a steam dome on the top of the pressure vessel (PV). It is an integrated reactor as the whole primary coolant circuit is within the PV. The primary circuit transports the heat to the secondary circuit through once-through steam generators (SG). There is a feedwater val...

  12. Diffusion-controlled processes in nuclear reactor oxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pertinent classics in high temperature corrosion are discussed. ► Ni to NiO oxidation model applied in growth of corrosion-resistant films in nuclear reactors. ► Transport processes in amorphous SiO2 in the context of its protective properties. ► Oxide deformation by creep using NiO single crystals showing lattice diffusion control of oxygen. ► Creep in polycrystalline NiO controlled by grain boundary diffusion. - Abstract: Oxide films formed as corrosion products at high temperatures on metallic components of advanced nuclear systems constitute a complex environment in which a wide range of phenomena have usually an important role to play. From this wide range of phenomena, three diffusion-controlled processes are discussed in this paper. The oxidation of Ni to NiO is used as a simple model for studying growth of corrosion-resistant films in nuclear reactors. Transport processes in amorphous SiO2 are then examined in the context of the highly protective properties of SiO2 films. Finally, deformation processes in oxides are discussed again using NiO as an example. The observed creep rates indicate that in single crystals creep is controlled by lattice diffusion of oxygen to allow dislocations climb, whereas in polycrystalline material it is controlled by grain boundary diffusion of oxygen to allow grain boundary sliding and changes in grain shape.

  13. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  14. A device for the hydraulic control of nuclear reactor control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for driving and locking the control rods of a nuclear reactor. This device comprises a hydraulic driving piston mounted in a cylinder provided with a construction for absorbing shocks. The piston is provided, at is extremity, with a locking device adapted to engage a stationary lock, it being possible to control the latter for freeing said piston locking device; with such an arrangement, the control rod is normally maintained in position, and it can be freed only by a positive signal. Moreover, the control rod movements are slowed down, so as to prevent the gripping device from being damaged. This device can be used in the nuclear industry

  15. Design and improvement of nuclear reactor power controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The proportion of nuclear power is gradually increasing in China's energy structure. Purpose: On one hand, power grid and power plant coordination in the electricity grid system requires the nuclear power plants to adapt the needs of the peak regulation, frequency modification (FM), and even the grid AGC (Automatic Gain Control) mode. On the other hand, it is necessary to design a control system that can adapt the model G for the operation requirements, and ensure the safe and economic performance. Methods: With an experimental reactor as the research object and MATLAB/SIMULINK as test toolkit, we designed an improved the reactor power control system, and adopted three-loop PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control system to ensure the precision control of a control rod. Results: The simulation results show that the method presented in the paper achieved better tracking performance and robustness. It can work against the unmeasurable disturbances. Conclusion: It is of practical significance for the reactor participating in the peak regulation of power grid, and the three-loop PID control system shows its improvement for reactor power control. (authors)

  16. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  17. Perception of tomorrow's nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major development programs are upgrading today's light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These programs involve displays, control panel architecture, procedures, staffing, and training, and are supported by analytical efforts to refine the definitions of the dynamics and the functional requirements of NPP operation. These programs demonstrate that the NPP control room is the visible command/control/communications center of the complex man/machine system that operates the plant. These development programs are primarily plant specific, although the owners' groups and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) do provide some standardization. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently completed a project to categorize control room changes and estimate the degree of change. That project, plus related studies, provides the basis for this image of the next generation of NPP control rooms. The next generation of NPP control rooms is envisioned as being dominated by three current trends: (1) application of state-of-the-art computer hardware and software; (2) use of NPP dynamic analyses to provide the basis for the control room man/machine system design; and (3) application of empirical principles of human performance

  18. Seismic test of local control panel for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety related equipment installed in Nuclear Power Plant are required to perform a safety function during and after a seismic event. To accomplish this safety function, they must be seismically qualified in accordance with the intent and requirements of the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.100 and IEEE Std. 344. The local control panel is a safety related equipment which provide operators with control, display and monitoring for plant operating conditions. This paper describes test procedure for seismic qualification test of local control panel which is installed in Ulchin units 3 and 4. (author)

  19. Optimal filtering, parameter tracking, and control of nonlinear nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new formulation of a class of nonlinear optimal control problems in which the system's signals are noisy and some system parameters are changing arbitrarily with time. The methodology is validated with an application to a nonlinear nuclear reactor model. A variational technique based on Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to filter the noisy signals, estimate the time-varying parameters, and calculate the optimal controls. The reformulation of the variational technique as an initial value problem allows this microprocessor-based algorithm to perform on-line filtering, parameter tracking, and control

  20. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  1. Robust controller design of nuclear power reactor by parametric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The robust controller for the nuclear reactor power control system is designed. Since the reactor model is not exact, it is necessary to design the robust controller that can work in the real situations of perturbations. The reactor model is described in the form of transfer function and the bound of each coefficient is determined to set up the linear interval system. By the Kharitonov and the edge theorem, a frequency based design template is made and applied to the determination of the controller. The controller designed by this method is simpler than that obtained by the H∞. Although the controller is designed with the basis of high power, it could be used even at low power

  2. Agencia, materialidad y documentación del arte de los medios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Alsina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El arte de los medios goza de una larga y fértil historia que ha generado innumerables prácticas artísticas de gran calidad así como no pocos estudios  teóricos e históricos sobre las diferentes tendencias, creadores, o sobre las diferentes zonas geográficas que han intervenido e intervienen en la construcción de su pasado y su presente (Wilson,2001; Paul, 2003; Daniels, 2004, 2005; Popper, 2007; Grau, 2007; Alsina, 2007; Shanken 2009. No obstante las própias características y el componente experimental inherente a este conjunto de prácticas también ha aportado importantes preguntas relativas a la transformación de la naturaleza de los procesos que el arte de los medios introduce en las formas tradicionales de habérselas con el arte y el mundo del arte. El propósito de este artículo es incidir específicamente en aquellos procesos vinculados a la construcción de archivos y documentación, así como tambien a la propia conservación del arte de los medios, a través de un análisis de la problemática de la materialidad y la agencia en las prácticas artísticas . La perspectiva que adoptaremos no se limitará a la discusión técnica de las diferentes soluciones a las problemáticas planteadas por las mismas prácticas sino más bien a la problematización del problema mismo desde la perspectiva de la arqueología de los medios (Kittler, 1997; Ernst 2005; Zielinski, 2006; Huhtamo, Parikka, 2011; y el conjunto de reflexiones vinculadas al denominado nuevo materialismo (Delanda, 2000; Barad, 2003; Law, 2007; Coole, 2010 . La misma diversidad de taxonomías aparecidas en relación al arte de los medios, en donde a menudo se destaca en la propia terminología su base tecnológica -video arte, net art, software art, a-life art etc..- nos sirve de punto de partida para reivindicar hasta qué punto la agencialidad del substrato  material y tecnológico de la práctica artística está indisolublemente unida a su discurso simb

  3. Control technology for nuclear power system of next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the summary of the results obtained by the investigation activities for two years carried out by the expert committee on investigation of control technology for nuclear power system of next generation. The course of investigation is outlined, and as the results, as advanced control technologies, adaptive control. H sub (infinite) control, fuzzy control and the application of autonomous distributed system and genetic algorithm to control; as operation support technology, the operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants and safety support system; as interface technology which is the basic technology of them, virtual reality, multimedia and so on; further, various problems due to human factors, computer technology, artificial intelligence and others were taken up, and the grasp of the present status and the future subjects was carried out, including the information in international conferences. The items of the investigation are roughly divided into measurement and control technologies, interface technology and operation support, human factors, computer technology and artificial intelligence, and the trend in foreign countries, and the results of investigation for respective items are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Robust nonlinear control of nuclear reactors under model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear model-based control method is developed for the robust control of a nuclear reactor. The nonlinear plant model is used to design a unique control law which covers a wide operating range. The robustness is a crucial factor for the fully automatic control of reactor power due to time-varying, uncertain parameters, and state estimation error, or unmodeled dynamics. A variable structure control (VSC) method is introduced which consists of an adaptive performance specification (fime control) after the tracking error reaches the narrow boundary-layer by a time-optimal control (coarse control). Variable structure control is a powerful method for nonlinear system controller design which has inherent robustness to parameter variations or external disturbances using the known uncertainty bounds, and it requires very low computational efforts. In spite of its desirable properties, conventional VSC presents several important drawbacks that limit its practical applicability. One of the most undesirable phenomena is chattering, which implies extremely high control activity and may excite high-frequency unmodeled dynamics. This problem is due to the neglected actuator time-delay or sampling effects. The problem was partially remedied by replacing chattering control by a smooth control inter-polation in a boundary layer neighnboring a time-varying sliding surface. But, for the nuclear reactor systems which has very fast dynamic response, the sampling effect may destroy the narrow boundary layer when a large uncertainty bound is used. Due to the very short neutron life time, large uncertainty bound leads to the high gain in feedback control. To resolve this problem, a derivative feedback is introduced that gives excellent performance by reducing the uncertainty bound. The stability of tracking error dynamics is guaranteed by the second method of Lyapunov using the two-level uncertainty bounds that are obtained from the knowledge of uncertainty bound and the estimated

  5. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb. PMID:18505023

  6. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

  7. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1982. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever increasing demands for nuclear power plant safety and availability imply a need for the introduction of modern measurement and control methods, together with data processing techniques based on the latest advances in electronic components, transducers and computers. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation is therefore an extremely rapidly developing field. The present symposium, held in Munich, FR Germany, was prepared with the help of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation and organized in close co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit, Federal Republic of Germany. A number of developments were highlighted at the Munich symposium: - The increased use of computers can bring clear advantages and this technique is now proven as a tool for supervising and controlling plant operation. Advanced computerized systems for operator support are being developed on a large scale in many countries. The progress in this field is quite obvious, especially in disturbance analysis, safety parameter display, plant operator guidance and plant diagnostics. The new trend of introducing computers and microprocessors in protection systems makes it easy to implement 'defence-in-depth' strategies which give better assurance of correct system responses and also prevent unnecessary reactor trips, thus improving plant availability. The introduction of computerized systems for control of reactor power, reactor water level and reactor pressure as well as for reactor start-up and shut-down could improve the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. The rapid technical development in the area of control and instrumentation makes it necessary to plan for at least one replacement of obsolete equipment in the course of the 30 years lifetime of a nuclear power plant and retrofitting of currently operating reactors with new control systems. Major design improvements and regulatory requirements also require

  8. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  9. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advanced of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are: (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to capital investments; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production; and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system, and the human task places the human in the correct role in the relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  10. Nuclear knowledge portal for supporting licensing and controlling nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge economy is pivotal for moving the wealth and development of traditional industrial sectors - abundant in manual labour, raw materials and capital - to areas whose products, processes and services are rich in technology and knowledge. Even in research areas such as nuclear energy, where goods are based on high technology, the ability to transform information into knowledge, and knowledge into decisions and actions, is extremely important. Therefore, the value of products from these areas depends more and more on the degree of innovation, technology and intelligence incorporated by them. Thus, it has become increasingly important and relevant to acquire strategic knowledge and make it available to the organisation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the construction of a Nuclear Knowledge Portal for aiding and streamlining the Licensing and Management activities of the CNEN. (author)

  11. Nuclear knowledge portal to support licensing and control nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Knowledge Economy is pivotal for moving the wealth and development of traditional industrial sectors - abundant in manual labor, raw materials and capital - to areas whose products, processes and services are rich in technology and knowledge. Even in research areas such as nuclear energy, where goods are based on high technology, the ability to transform information into knowledge, and knowledge into decisions and actions, is extremely important. Therefore, the value of products from these areas depends more and more on the degree of innovation, technology and intelligence incorporated by them. Thus, it has become increasingly important and relevant to acquire strategic knowledge and make it available to the organization. Therefore, the objective of this article is to present the construction of a Nuclear Knowledge Portal for aiding and streamlining the Licensing and Management activities of the CNEN. (author)

  12. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration. PMID:22317419

  13. A neural network application to control a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a few examples in the literature of the use of neural networks as a controller for systems with highly nonlinear dynamics. Since a nuclear power reactor is a highly nonlinear system, the purpose of the project described in this paper is to create a neural network that can generate the control signals for a nonlinear reactor model. The data for training and recall in the neural network come from a simulation of the advanced neutron source reactor performed with the ACSL software package. The modified Pontryagin's maximum principle was used to generate the control equations, where control of the rector is achieved by the changes of reactivity due to control rod movement and the inlet temperature change. The reactor was required to follow two given demands: the reactor power demand and the coolant temperature demand

  14. Nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy Order (DOE) 5633.3, Control and Accountability for Nuclear Materials, includes several requirements for development and implementation of an internal audit program. Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc., manages five sites in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge and has a Central Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability (NMC and A) Manager with matrixed responsibility for the NMC and A program at the five sites. The Energy Systems Central NMC and A Manager has developed an NMC and A Internal Audit Handbook which defines the functional responsibilities, performance criteria, and reporting and documentation requirements for the Energy Systems NMC and A Internal Audit Program. The initial work to develop and implement these standards was tested at the K-25 Site when the site hired an internal auditor to meet the DOE requirements for an NMC and A Internal Audit program

  15. Non destructive nuclear measurements for control and characterization purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report for accreditation to supervise researches, the author proposes a large and rather precise overview of his research works which dealt with the upstream and downstream parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. After having discussed the different needs associated with non destructive nuclear measurements during the fuel cycle, the author describes his past research activities. In the following parts, he discusses control and characterization methods associated with the upstream and downstream parts of the fuel cycle: fuel density variation measurement, non destructive control of uranium-235 content of enriched uranium ingots, examination of induced photo-fissions in radioactive waste parcels, use of electron accelerator for simultaneous neutron and photon examination, measurement of the spatial distribution of the photonic component from the Mini Linatron, association of non destructive measurement techniques

  16. Teoría de agencia: una revisión del origen biológico del delito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Araya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la causa del conflicto entre principal y agente, buscando respuestas en las disciplinasde la biología, particularmente en las ciencias de la antropología criminal. Se ha realizado un ensambleentre los hallazgos de la teoría de agencia y la teoría de los delitos de cuello blanco, reinterpretando lasactuaciones del agente desde su configuración entre instinto, herencia y personalidad. Los resultadosen las ciencias biológicas podrían aportar nuevas interpretaciones y explicaciones en las ciencias de laadministración, avanzando hacia mejores conceptualizaciones del conflicto, mediante teorías con mayorcontenido empírico. En general, pese al conflicto permanente entre las partes, su dinámica potencia losresultados perseguidos por el principal.

  17. Control policies impact on commercial trade in nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The restructuring of the economic sectors, improvement of the business environment and, implicitly, the development of the appropriate legislative framework correspond to the main objectives of the Work Programme issued by the Government of Romania with view to fulfil the criteria imposed by the European Commission for the accession of Romania to European Union planned for the year 2007. One of the legislative package section, being under revision of the Legislative Chamber of Romania, is referring to power sector, where remarkable efforts are made in connection with energy and gas market liberalization towards 40% opening, correction applied to the thermal and electric power and gas tariffs, with a view to get fully cover of the production costs, start up of the privatisation process for some of the distribution companies and all these represent part of the main priorities of the Romanian government for the restructuring of the power sector. SN Nuclearelectrica SA - SNN SA - has as domain of its main activities the development of the nuclear program in Romania regarding: Cernavoda Unit 1 operation for production and delivery of electric power to the National Grid (since 1996), the nuclear fuel fabrication at Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti, the completion and commissioning of the Cernavoda Unit 2 and start up, in the near future, of the work for Unit 3 completion. The trade activity within the power production sector using nuclear fuel is governed, due to its specific, by the rules and laws of Romania and are also subject of the international rules related to the foreign trade and, particularly to the policy of transaction of the special materials on international market. This category of special materials, named strategic materials with dual use, are under the control of the National Agency for Export Control - ANCEX, as well as other specialised and dedicated Romanian authorities, as: National Commission for the Nuclear Activities Control - CNCAN, specialized

  18. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-05-03

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  19. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Application of digital computers to nuclear reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard specifies requirements to be satisfied when applying digital computers to warning, data storage, and control and protection of nuclear facilities. The uses of computers and their functions in on-line and off-line applications are classified. General recommendations are presented concerning the application of computers, use of protocols and records relating to the power plant status history, and the function of the display units. Examples of problem solving in operational calculations are given. (J.B)

  1. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  2. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  3. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Safety in the nuclear era. Politics - strategy - arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details are given on safety and the factors specifying safety in Europe; the history of the NATO and development of an alliance of sovereign states; nuclear deterrence - the politico-strategic standard of the nuclear era; the East/West struggle for military power; co-operative arms control - theory and practice of stability in the nuclear era; alternative schemes and models; SDI and EURECA - present and future chances and risks. The world is at the beginning of a fascinating development likely to be culminating in the control over and utilization of space, and the mastering of various technical problems be they of a civil or military nature. It remains to be seen whether man will be able to handle the new additional technical capacities in an ethically and politically responsible way. Be that as it may, political scepticism and negative reactions will not succeed in blocking the dynamic forces inherent in the development described. This is especially true for SDI and EURECA. Both schemes are full of both chances and risks. While chances ought to be made the most of risks must be controlled through policies guided by reason. (orig./HSCH)

  5. standards used for quality control of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuels and fuel materials are subject to stringent restrictions as to their quality. The standards and regulations that apply vary according to reactor type and country and the standards are stated in the quality assurance documents. The concept of quality assurance has altered the conventional quality control tests and procedures, defining which control tests are to be applied and how. Although most of the tests and measurements allow the determination of tolerances to be decided according to the agreement between the buyer and the seller, exacting procedures apply to which instruments and equipment are used for these tests and measurements, how these instruments are standardized.Detailed explanations of test methods and their documentation is a requirement in all standards. The purpose of this work is to study which standards, tests and measurements apply to the nuclear fuel production. Only the standards that apply to various stages of the nuclear fuel production (powder preparation, pellet production, fuel element and fuel assembly fabrication) are reviewed. Process and documentation control, design and licensing requirements and the frequency of inspections are quality assurance subjects. Some ASTM standards are given as examples

  6. Advanced control room design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power industry has seen a continuous growth of size and complexity of nuclear power plants. Accompanying these changes have been extensive regulatory requirements resulting in significant construction, operation and maintenance costs. In response to related concerns raised by industry members, Combustion Engineering developed the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room. The goal of NUPLEX 80TM is to: reduce design and construction costs; increase plant safety and availability through improvements in the man-machine interface; and reduce maintenance costs. This paper provides an overview of the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room and explains how the stated goals are achieved. (author)

  7. Control room systems design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides a resource for those who are involved in researching, managing, conceptualizing, designing, manufacturing or backfitting power plant control room systems. It will also be useful to those responsible for performing reviews or evaluations of the design and facilities associated with existing power plant control room systems. The ultimate worth of the publication, however, will depend upon how well it can support its users. Readers are invited to provide comments and observations to the IAEA, Division of Nuclear Power. If appropriate, the report will subsequently be re-issued, taking such feedback into account. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. On chaotic oscillations in nuclear reactor with relay control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady motions in a nuclear reactor with relay automated system are studied. It is supposed that the reactor is oscilatory instable, and relay characteristics has the zones of hysteresis and insensitivity, if the control system is absent. It is shown that stochastic auto-oscillations may occur in the reactor together with periodic ones in this case, while the frequency of the relay system switching-on is much lower in the regime of stochastic oscillations as compared with that in periodic regimes. Utilization of stochastic motions in control system leads to its fuctioning quality improvement

  9. Supervision and automatic control of robotic systems in nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes new developments in controlling remote handling systems for nuclear applications. The main emphasis is to use robotic equipment and methods for reaching a high degree of system autonomy. A remote handling workstation concept is described, supporting various stages of mission planning and supervision by means of suited geometrical, procedural and functional models. The presented control system enables easy switching between semi-autonomous and manual task execution and sensor data integration. Some experimental results of a prototypic implementation are also described

  10. Supervision and atuomatic control of robotics systems in nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes new developments in controlling remote handling systems for nuclear applications. The main emphasis is to use robotic equipment and methods for reaching a high degree of system autonomy. A remote handling workstation concept is described, supporting various stages of mission planning and supervision by means of suited geometrical, procedural and functional models. The presented control system enables easy switching between semi-autonomous and manual task execution and sensor data integration. Some experimental results of a prototypic implementation are also described

  11. Improvements in instrumentation for neutron control of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant effort has been made for some years in instrumentation for controlling nuclear reactors. Indications are given on the change in and development of neutron detectors such as miniature fission ionization chambers and self powered detectors. Information is given on various electronic assemblies: d.c. linear and logarithmic measuring systems, high dynamic measuring systems working by pulse and fluctuation or pulse and current, measurement control and safety reactivity meters, digital processing of the signal, continuous measurement of boron concentration in the water, measuring assemblies of the self powered detectors, general design of the items of equipment and a bibliography

  12. Nuclear material accountancy and control system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Safeguards and Physical Protection Coordination (COSAP) integrates the structure of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) that is a governmental entity in Brazil. COSAP itself is responsible for the control of nuclear materials, the physical protection of facilities handling nuclear or radioactive materials and the control of the illicit traffic of nuclear and radioactive materials. Besides this control of the nuclear material implemented by the state safeguards system, all the nuclear material after the starting point of application of safeguards is subject to a regional safeguards system (implemented by ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials) and an international safeguards system (implemented by IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency). Under this scope, COSAP has to maintain the inventory knowledge of nuclear material of all nuclear facilities in the country updated, and to report inventory changes to ABACC and IAEA based on data collected from the operators of the facilities. Nowadays, this data collection is made by means of collections of MS-Excel spreadsheets for support documents, general ledgers and inventory lists which is not the best situation. The accounting reports are then prepared and submitted by encrypted e-mail to ABACC and IAEA. COSAP has recently been involved in upgrading the Nuclear Material Accountancy and Control System of Brazil. Such upgrading is based on an entirely new software system (E-GAMMA) that is being developed right now in Brazil by CNEN staff. This software will be a Web system installed in a dedicated server under a secure environment maintained at CNEN headquarters, and each facility or institution will be provided with the necessary hardware and software to access the system (Digital Clients Certificates, Smart Cards, VPN, computers, etc). Users will access the system with strong passwords with creation rules and expiration dates controlled by the

  13. Water quality control system in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To optimally control the reactor core water quality by determining the hydrogen injection rate based on the value from water quality monitors disposed in the nuclear reactor core. Method: A hydrogen peroxide sensor is disposed, for example, by way of a neutron instrumentation tube to the reactor core. Signals from the sensor is processed and sent to a control device to control the hydrogen injection rate of a hydrogen injection device. That is, since the oxygen concentration in the reactor water is not monitored directly but the hydrogen peroxide concentration is monitored to control the oxygen concentration, hydrogen is injected so that the hydrogen peroxide concentration is lowered than that during normal operation in which hydrogen is not injected. By determining the hydrogen injection rate in this way, dissolved oxygen concentration of 5 - 10 ppm at which there is no worry for SSC generation can automatically be controlled. Accordingly, a great merit for the improvement in the safety and the available factor of the nuclear reactor can be attained. In addition, dissolved oxygen concentration in the recycling pipeway as well as in the reactor core can be maintained at a low value effective for SCC suppression. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Survey procedure: Control and accountability of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure outlines the method by which the Department of Energy (DOE) San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) will plan and execute periodic field surveys of the Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) program and practices at designated contractors' facilities. The surveys will be conducted in accordance with DOE Order 5630.7, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials Surveys (7/8/81) to ascertain compliance with applicable DOE Orders and SAN Management Directives in the 5630 series, as well as the adequacy of the contractor's program and procedures. Surveys will be conducted by the Safeguards and Security Division of DOE-SAN. The survey team will review and evaluate the adequacy of the contractor's procedures and practices for nuclear material control and accounting by means of physical inventory, internal control, measurement and statistics, material control indicators, records and reports, and personnel training. The survey will include an audit of records and reports, observation of inventory procedures, an independent test of the inventory and a review and evaluation of the inventory differences, accidental losses, and normal operational losses as applicable to the facility to be surveyed

  15. Survey procedure: Control and accountability of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ness, H.

    1987-02-01

    This procedure outlines the method by which the Department of Energy (DOE) San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) will plan and execute periodic field surveys of the Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) program and practices at designated contractors' facilities. The surveys will be conducted in accordance with DOE Order 5630.7, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials Surveys (7/8/81) to ascertain compliance with applicable DOE Orders and SAN Management Directives in the 5630 series, as well as the adequacy of the contractor's program and procedures. Surveys will be conducted by the Safeguards and Security Division of DOE-SAN. The survey team will review and evaluate the adequacy of the contractor's procedures and practices for nuclear material control and accounting by means of physical inventory, internal control, measurement and statistics, material control indicators, records and reports, and personnel training. The survey will include an audit of records and reports, observation of inventory procedures, an independent test of the inventory and a review and evaluation of the inventory differences, accidental losses, and normal operational losses as applicable to the facility to be surveyed.

  16. Nuclear developments: the DMAX advanced reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framatome has recently developed a new system for controlling the rod cluster control assemblies of pressurized water reactors, called the DMAX. The associated reactor control method is called 'mode X'. The DMAX system will be installed in all 'N4' model Framatome nuclear steam supply systems, the first two of which are presently under construction on the Chooz site in France. It will enable fine controlling of the reactor coolant temperature and the axial power offset, entirely automatically, due to double closed-loop regulation. The new DMAX system allows temperature control and continuous maintenance of a stable reactor core power distribution, because of an original method for controlling the movements of the control rods within the reactor. The disturbing xenon oscillations are practically eliminated and the operator is freed from the need of constantly monitoring the axial power offset, which is necessary in the commonly used 'A' or 'G' control modes. The probability of penalizing initial conditions in case an incident or accident occurs is considerably reduced in mode X, with the DMAX system, and the reactor's load-following performances are improved. In addition, the reactivity variations that must necessarily be compensated for in mode G by changing the boric acid concentration of the reactor coolant can be simply compensated for by control rod movements in mode X. This possibility yields a major reduction in the volume of liquid effluents that must subsequently be created. The system is outlined and its operation explained. (author)

  17. System for guiding control clusters in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor with reactivity control clusters, each formed by a number of absorbent pins moving vertically through a core plate constituting the upper limit of the reactor core and connected together by radial arms to a common axial control rod, and systems for guiding the control clusters in their movements, out of the core, these systems comprising guide boxes associated respectively with the different control clusters, and within each box, plates allowing discontinuous guidance at intermediate levels for individual pins and radial arms, characterized by the fact that each box contains continuous guide tubes of individual pins connecting two pin passage tubesheets specific to the box, one terminating the box and the second constituting a positioning flange on the said core plate

  18. Some technical aspects of accounting for and control of nuclear material at nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities are discussed of accounting for and control of nuclear material for the WWER-type reactor at nuclear fuel cycle facilities: nuclear power plant, fuel fabrication plant, fuel reprocessing plant, and uranium enrichment plant. It is shown that, for control of nuclear material, accounting is the principal method. The possibilities and limitations of destructive and non-destructive methods for nuclear material determination at these facilities and at fast reactor facilities, as well as their role in the accounting and safeguards systems, are discussed. (author)

  19. Modern instrumentation and control for nuclear power plants. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has produced many publications which aim to promote safety and provide guidance in the planning, introduction and use of nuclear power. The IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation recommended that a guidebook be written as part of this work, to summarize the field of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control and, particularly, to advise those preparing their first nuclear power project. The previously published Guidebook (Technical Reports Series No. 239) was well received and has been widely used by a variety of organizations and professionals. More recently, however, it became clear that an update was desirable and in 1993 a consultants meeting was convened to advise on a version which would meet the requirements of today's world and still be valid in the beginning of the next century. The consultants concluded that major revision was necessary but that the emphasis ought to be changed from guidance to summarizing operating experience and discussing new technologies. Whereas the previous edition was aimed at readers who were new to instrumentation and control technology, this is no longer considered appropriate and the present version is primarily directed at those who are working as instrumentation and control engineers on operational plant. However, it does not exclude designers and regulators, who should also find the content useful. Although this edition continues to discuss PWRs, BWRs and CANDU reactors, modern convergence of technology is recognized by the inclusion of detailed information on RBMK and WWER reactor types. To avoid generalities and a flavour of blandness, numbers and preferred or recommended methods are often mentioned. It is recognized, however, that most countries have their own unique national infrastructures and have, accordingly, evolved individual solutions to common problems. Thus, numbers and recommendations are not necessarily universal and only represent solutions for a

  20. Cytochrome c oxidase: evolution of control via nuclear subunit addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Denis; Wildman, Derek E; Hüttemann, Maik; Markondapatnaikuni, Gopi Chand; Aras, Siddhesh; Grossman, Lawrence I

    2012-04-01

    According to theory, present eukaryotic cells originated from a beneficial association between two free-living cells. Due to this endosymbiotic event the pre-eukaryotic cell gained access to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which produces more than 15 times as much ATP as glycolysis. Because cellular ATP needs fluctuate and OXPHOS both requires and produces entities that can be toxic for eukaryotic cells such as ROS or NADH, we propose that the success of endosymbiosis has largely depended on the regulation of endosymbiont OXPHOS. Several studies have presented cytochrome c oxidase as a key regulator of OXPHOS; for example, COX is the only complex of mammalian OXPHOS with known tissue-specific isoforms of nuclear encoded subunits. We here discuss current knowledge about the origin of nuclear encoded subunits and the appearance of different isozymes promoted by tissue and cellular environments such as hypoxia. We also review evidence for recent selective pressure acting on COX among vertebrates, particularly in primate lineages, and discuss the unique pattern of co-evolution between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Finally, even though the addition of nuclear encoded subunits was a major event in eukaryotic COX evolution, this does not lead to emergence of a more efficient COX, as might be expected from an anthropocentric point of view, for the "higher" organism possessing large brains and muscles. The main function of these subunits appears to be "only" to control the activity of the mitochondrial subunits. We propose that this control function is an as yet under appreciated key point of evolution. Moreover, the importance of regulating energy supply may have caused the addition of subunits encoded by the nucleus in a process comparable to a "domestication scenario" such that the host tends to control more and more tightly the ancestral activity of COX performed by the mtDNA encoded subunits. PMID:21802404

  1. Role of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control System for Ensuring Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) already arose at the initial stage of industrial production and utilization of nuclear materials (NM) whose cost is very high and which are potentially dangerous for human health and life. The unified methodological approach at the international level to creation of NM accounting and control systems was developed in the IAEA late in seventies of the last century during design and implementation of the IAEA safeguards system, required by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This approach was fixed, first of all, in the model agreement for application of safeguards in accordance with NPT (INFCIRC/153 corrected), and in the “Guidelines for States’ Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material”. In these documents, requirements were established for NMAC structure, including requirements for organization of material balance areas (MBAs) and for the system of records and reports. At that time in the IAEA, quantity (NM significant quantities) and timeliness (time of detecting NM diversion) criteria of achieving the IAEA inspections goals in IAEA safeguards application were accepted. In some sense these criteria were target parameters for effective functioning of NMAC system. Created in many IAEA member states for safeguards purposes, systems of accounting and control of NM solve successfully problems not only in the safeguards area, but also in other areas where information about NM quantity, quality and location is required. Recent IAEA recommendations concerning NMAC systems are presented in the guidebook “Nuclear Material Accounting Handbook” stated from the viewpoint of IAEA safeguards application

  2. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water reactor power plants

  3. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water

  4. Fuzzy control applied to nuclear power plant pressurizer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Almeida, Jose C.S., E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.b, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) the pressure control in the primary loop is very important for keeping the reactor in a safety condition and improve the generation process efficiency. The main component responsible for this task is the pressurizer. The pressurizer pressure control system (PPCS) utilizes heaters and spray valves to maintain the pressure within an operating band during steady state conditions, and limits the pressure changes, during transient conditions. Relief and safety valves provide overpressure protection for the reactor coolant system (RCS) to ensure system integrity. Various protective reactor trips are generated if the system parameters exceed safe bounds. Historically, a proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller is used in PWRs to keep the pressure in the set point, during those operation conditions. The purpose of this study has two main goals: first is to develop a pressurizer model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs); second is to develop a fuzzy controller for the PWR pressurizer pressure, and compare its performance with the P controller. Data from a simulator PWR plant was used to test the ANN and the controllers as well. The reference simulator is a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant with a total thermal output of 2785 MWth. The simulation results show that the pressurizer ANN model response are in reasonable agreement with the simulated power plant, and the fuzzy controller built in this study has better performance compared to the P controller. (author)

  5. Analysis of Operational and Management Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. NRC developed this RG 5.71 by tailoring the baseline security controls described in NIST Special Publication 800-53 'Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations' to provide an acceptable method to comply with the 10 CFR 73.54. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidelines for selecting and specifying security controls for information systems. In this paper, we are going to analyze and compare the NRC RG 5.71 and the NIST SP800-53, in particular, for operational security controls and management security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to consider some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities

  6. Fact sheet on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are facing challenges in several instrumentation and control (I and C) areas with ageing and obsolete components and equipment. With license renewals and power uprates, the long-term operation and maintenance of obsolete I and C systems may not be a cost-effective and reliable option. The effort needed to maintain or increase the reliability and useful life of existing I and C systems may be greater in the long run than modernizing I and C systems or replacing them completely with new digital systems. The increased functionality of the new I and C systems can also open up new possibilities to better support the operation and maintenance activities in the plant. The IAEA recognizes the importance of the profound role the I and C systems play in the reliable, safe, efficient, and cost-effective operations of NPPs by supporting the activities of the Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI). The group was established in March 1970. Its membership currently includes thirty Member States and three international organizations. The most recent meeting of the TWG-NPPCI was held in May 2005 in Vienna. The meeting report is available at http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/twg_nppc.html. The next meeting of the TWGNPPCI will be the 21st meeting of the advisory body, and it will be held in May 2007

  7. Subcritical space nuclear system without most movable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and analysis of advanced space nuclear reactor (ASNR) whose design combines the advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and space nuclear reactor (SNR). As opposed to current SNRs designs, ASNR is a subcritical system driven by 232U–Be neutron source to generate thermal power continuously. Most movable control systems in the SNR design are removed. The detailed neutronic calculations by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), including keff, flux, burn-up, loss-ratio of neutron source and immersion reactivity, show that ASNR has higher criticality safety and more compact structure to bear the risk of immersion accident compared with the past SNRs, and the new system can provide more thermal power than RTG. Furthermore, the neutron source efficiency is optimized to improve the utilization of 232U–Be neutron source with the improvement of criticality safety. Compared with the past designs of space nuclear power, ASNR could provide enough thermal power and avoid the occurrence of serious immersion accident in the case of total control system failure. ASNR has potential for future deep space missions. (author)

  8. Distributed Control Systems in New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing demand for energy many countries have expressed interest in constructing new plants over the next 15 to 20 years. These expectations have presented a challenge to the nuclear industry to provide a high volume of construction. A key strategy to meet this challenge is developing an advanced nuclear power plant design that allows for a modular construction, a high level of standardization, passive safety features, reduced number of components, and a short bid-to-build time. In addition, the implementation of the plant control system has evolved as new technologies emerge to support these goals. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways that the distributed control and information systems in the new generation of nuclear power plants will differ from those currently in service. The new designs provide opportunities to improve overall performance through the use of bus technology, a video display driven Human System Interface, enhanced diagnostics and improved maintenance features. However, the new technologies must fully address requirements for cyber security and high reliability. This paper will give an overview of new technology, improvements, as well as emerging issues in new plant design. (authors)

  9. Systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of safeguards agreements has always involved governmental organizations to a greater or lesser extent, according to the practices of the State concerned. When the Safeguards Committee 1970 defined the structure and content of agreements required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, particular attention was paid to the contacts between States and the Agency during the implementation of such agreements. The basic idea was that in each State a national organization would, as far as possible, lay the foundations for international safeguards. Accordingly, NPT safeguards agreements contain the obligation of the State to establish and maintain a 'State's system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material'. The Agency document describing the structure and content of NPT safeguards agreements, INFCIRC/153, also known as the 'Blue Book', lays down the basic requirements for a State's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material - SSAC for short. The same document stipulates that the Agency in its safeguards work should take due account of the technical effectiveness of the SSAC. In practice, the effectiveness of SSACs may differ widely. To take due account of their effectiveness, the Agency has to analyse them, note the elements included in them and the requirements they meet, and consider the particular situations they are designed to cope with

  10. Changes in control room at Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power plants were commissioned during a period between 1972 and 1985 and the instrumentation and control equipment are basically from that period. For several years there have been plans made for changes in all the nuclear power plants and to a certain extent the changes in control equipment and monitoring rooms have also been implemented. The object of this project was to make a comprehensive review of the changes in control room design implemented in the Swedish nuclear power plants and to describe how the MTO- (Man-Technology-Organisation) and (Man-Machine-Interface) -issues have been integrated in the process. The survey is intended to give an overall picture of the changes in control room design and man-machine-interface made in the Swedish control rooms, in order to get a deeper knowledge of the change management process and its results as well as of the management of MTO-issues in these projects. The units included in this survey are: Oskarhamn reactor 2 and 3; Ringhals reactor 2, 3 and 4; Forsmark reactor 1, 2 and 3. The Oskarshamn 1 unit has not been included in this report as it has recently undergone an extensive modernisation program as well as a detailed inspection by the SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate). At Ringhals 2 the modernisation work is carried out at present and the unit is also subjected to extensive inspection activities carried out by SKI and is therefore not part of this survey. This report also includes a short description of relevant standards and requirements. Then follows a presentation of the results of the plant survey, presented as case studies for three companies OKG, Ringhals and FKA. Control room changes are summarized as well as the results on specific MTO issues which has been surveyed. In all the power companies there is a joint way of working with projects concerning plant modifications. This process is described for each company separately. In the concluding of the report the strengths and

  11. The Remotely Controlled Robot System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactivity has been our major concern. So, it makes the needs of remotely controlled robot system necessary for maintenance and repair services. Up to now, several foreign companies have been contracted for the maintenance of the steam generators of nuclear power plants in Korea, to acquire its own capability of maintaining the steam generators of it impossible for Korea to acquire its own capability of maintaining the steam generators. In case of emergency, it is difficult to take appropriate steps on its own. In order to resolve the above problems, it seems inevitable to develop the robot system for the inspection and repair of steam generator. This project intends to acquire domestic capabilities of maintaining steam generators, so that this advanced skills could be applied to the related areas. As a result, it will save immense money in the future. the purposes of development of the remotely controlled robot system are : to perform the desired tasks at the polluted area without requiring entry of personnel. to closely inspect the steam generator U-tubes at high speed. to inspect the steam generator intelligently and efficiently under the extreme circumstances where radioactivity problem is very severe. to use for the repair of steam generator tube. Considering from the social and technical standpoint, we can say that the development of the remotely controlled robot system for nuclear power plants resulted in great achievements. From the social standpoint, it should be recognized that domestic robot for nuclear power plant was successfully developed and operator was protected against radioactivity. Also, we advanced our skills in the area of mechanical and control system design for an articulated robot. Using the robot controller in hierarchical structure, it was possible to control the robot remotely. In addition, resolver feedback typed A C servo drive was proven to be sturdy in hazardous environment. Now we are confident that our robot will

  12. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1993. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regular meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the Merlin-Gerin Headquarters in Paris and was attended by twenty one national delegates and observers from 17 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Paris, 21-22 October 1993, (2) report by the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1991-1993 in the NPPCI area, and (3) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The papers and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Brasil, Argentina e América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE trabalho discute alguns aspectos da evolução econômica recente do Brasil, da Argentina e de outros países da América do Sul. Tendências econômicas e intelectuais perigosas, tais como a "globalização", o chamado Consenso de Washington, a dolarização e as negociações da Alca (Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, perderam ímpeto e a América do Sul está se movendo gradualmente na direção de um posicionamento mais independente na condução das suas política econômicas e internacionais. As mudanças foram muito mais significativas na Argentina do que no Brasil e isso se tornou fonte de alguma tensão entre os dois principais países sul-americanos. Não obstante, uma aliança estratégica entre Argentina e Brasil continua sendo a pedra angular da integração da América do Sul.THIS PAPER discusses some aspects of the recent economic evolution of Brazil, Argentina and other South American countries. Dangerous economic and intellectual trends, such as "globalization", the so-called Washington Consensus, dollarization, and FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, have lost momentum and South America is moving gradually towards a more independent stance in the conduct of its economic and foreign policies. Changes have been much more significant in Argentina than in Brazil and this has become a source of some tension between the two major South American countries. Nevertheless, a strategic alliance between Argentina and Brazil remains the corner stone of South American integration.

  14. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  15. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  16. Programmable logic controller (PLC) for safety systems of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A programmable logic controller (PLC) has been developed by RCnD, BARC for use in the safety critical systems in nuclear power plants. This PLC uses qualified hardware developed in RCnD for use in NPP. The programming software conforms to IEC-61131 part 3. The application programming is done on function block diagram (FBD) editor and the FBD is automatically converted into code in high level language (C / C++). This feature makes the application easily decipherable and therefore easily subjected to reviews and other validation techniques. The key to make quality software for use in nuclear systems is to enforce various standards in the design and development of the software, something, which is not possible to do with a commercially available PLC. This PLC with its software completely transparent lends itself to rigorous verification and validation easily

  17. Human engineering guide for enhancing nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project was to develop near-term human engineering approaches, that is, those which can be implemented while the plant is operating or during a planned shutdown, for enhancing existing nuclear control rooms. Primary data for the Guide was collected during site visits to four pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants representing a mix of Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) vendors and architects/engineers. Structured interviews, checklists, walkthroughs/talkthroughs, surveys, and task analyses were used. Data on boiling water reactors (BWRs) were collected in a meeting with representatives of the BWR Owners Group. All enhancement approaches were reviewed extensively with cognizant industry representatives for feasibility and acceptability before being including in the Guide

  18. Quality control of radiopharmaceutical dose calibrators in nuclear medicine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the program to ensure quality in nuclear medicine unit, in addition to diagnostic procedures, are evaluated activity meters, which is intended to measure the aliquot of radiation of radionuclides and / or radiopharmaceuticals that are administered to patients undergoing diagnostic investigation and / or therapeutic treatment. The good operating condition of dose calibrators is essential to ensure efficiency, safety and reliability of the measurements, once the lack of accuracy in the responses of these equipments can cause significant errors in the activity administered to the patient and may result in poor quality images resulting in the repetition of examis and interference in the successful treatment of the patient. This study aims to, considering the need for constant evaluation of the functioning of the activity meters and the fact that this issue be part the responsibilities of the professional of radiology, perform quality control testing of these instruments in relation to the most recent norm of National Commission of nuclear Energy (CNEN-NN 3:05) in Brazil, that is also in according to the international standards and reference values established during acceptance testing of these instruments in a nuclear medicine service. For this, was made a review of specific literature and the use of barium, cobalt and cesium to the tests in a nuclear medicine service of the state of Pernambuco in Brazil. The obtained results of the specific tests utilized to verify the correct working of the dose calibrators show coherency with the resolutions of the CNEN-NN 3:05 and are also in agreement with the international standards to that the measurement of activities be made with accurate results and thereby contribute to the proper functioning of nuclear medicine service. (authors)

  19. A minimum attention control center for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Centers for Nuclear Power Plants have characteristically been designed for maximum attention by the operating staffs of these plants. Consequently, the monitoring, control and diagnostics oriented cognitive activities by these staffs, were mostly ''data-driven'' in nature. This paper addresses a control center concept, under development by Combustion Engineering, that promotes a more ''information-driven'' cognitive interaction process between the operator and the plant. The more ''intelligent'' and therefore less attentive nature of such interactive process utilizes computer implemented cognitive engineered algorithms. The underlying structure of these algorithms is based upon the Critical Function/Success Path monitoring principle. The paper highlights a typical implementation of the minimum attention concept for the handling of unfamiliar safety related events. (author)

  20. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project intends to establish the basic technology of intelligent control and automation to be applied to the next generation nuclear plant. For that, the research status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas at first. The characteristics and availability of those techniques such as neural network, fuzzy rule based control and reasoning, multimedia, real-time software and qualitative modelling are studied through a series of simulations and experiments. By integrating each technologies studied above, we developed a hierarchical, intelligent control system for an autonomous mobile robot as a test bed. The system is composed of several modules of software and hardware subsystems, which are implemented by use of the intelligent techniques. Through the analysis of the results and experiences, we investigated the feasibility of application of the basic technology to the next generation plant. (Author)

  1. Study, design and evaluation of nuclear reactor computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor control is a complex process that varies with each reactor and there is no universal agreement as to the best type of control system. After the use of conventional systems for a long time, attention turned towards digital techniques in the reactor control system. This interest emerged because of the difficulties faced in the data manipulation, mainly for post-incident analysis. However, it is not sufficient to insert a computer in a system to solve all the data-handling problems and also the insertion of a computer in a real-time system is not without any effect on the overall system. The scope of this thesis is to show the important parameters that have to be taken into account when choosing and evaluate the performances of the selected system

  2. Accounting and cost control of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) chart or classification of accounts, 2) all plant expenses, 3) cost control, 4) storage of spare parts and supplies, 5) control of applicable dose rate, 6) charges for insurance. The accuracy of accounting and cost control is a primary thing for the efficiency in a nuclear power station. The much more important factor is the availability. It is necessary to save costs by a more effective storage or a more detailed and automatic process of single jobs in the workshop. But a very definite experience made in Obrigheim is the fact that not only commercial people know which financial loss will occur if the plant is out of operation one hour. This knowledge is also important for the technical people and for the workers in the workshops. The technical responsibility and the security in operation of the plant and the commercial understanding for the risk of non-availability do not exclude each other. (HP)

  3. Computer simulation of nuclear reactor control by means of heuristic learning controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial of application of two techniques of Artificial Intelligence: heuristic Programming and Learning Machines Theory for nuclear reactor control is presented. Considering complexity of the mathematical models describing satisfactorily the nuclear reactors, value changes of these models parameters in course of operation, knowledge of some parameters value with too small exactness, there appear diffucluties in the classical approach application for these objects control systems design. The classical approach consists in definition of the permissible control actions set on the base of the set performance index and the object mathematical model. The Artificial Intelligence methods enable construction of the control system, which gets during work an information being a priori inaccessible and uses it for its action change for the control to be the optimum one. Applying these methods we have elaborated the reactor power control system. As the performance index there has been taken the integral of the error square. For the control system there are only accessible: the set power trajectory, the reactor power and the control rod position. The set power trajectory has been divided into time intervals called heuristic intervals. At the beginning of every heuristic interval, on the base of the obtained experience, the control system chooses from the control (heuristic) set the optimum control. The heuristic set it is the set of relations between the control rod rate and the state variables, the set and the obtained power, similar to simplifications applied by nuclear reactors operators. The results obtained for the different control rod rates and different reactor (simulated on the digital computer) show the proper work of the system. (author)

  4. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify and correct the lacks in control rooms of operating power plants and plants under construction an extensive program has been started in the USA. In Finland as in other countries using nuclear power, the development in the USA particularly with regard to the requirements imposed on nuclear power plants is carefully followed. The changes in these requirements are sooner or later also reflected in the guidelines given by the Finnish authorities. It is therefore important to be able to form a notion of how the new requirements apply to Finnish conditions. Especially it is important to review the latest assessment guidelines for control room implementation (NUREG-0700). Thus we can avoid possible over hasty conclusions. The aim of the analysis of the method and experiments presented in NUREG 0700 report was to create a basis for assessment of the suitability of the method for Finnish control room implementation. The task group has made a general methodical analysis of the method, and partly tried it in assessment of the TVO2 control room. It is obvious that direct conclusions from the American situation are misleading. It can be considered unfeasible to follow the American requirements as such, because they can lead to unwanted results. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) can be considered successful. It can also be used during planning to observation of small discrepancies. However, we can question the applicability of some requirements. It is, though, more essential that the control room entity has neither in this nor in several other programs been reached or standardized. In spite of the difficulties we should try to reach this most important goal. (author)

  5. 3D visualization based customer experiences of nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs virtual reality (VR) technology to develop an interactive virtual nuclear plant control room in which the general public could easily walk into the 'red zone' and play with the control buttons. The VR-based approach allows deeper and richer customer experiences that the real nuclear plant control room could not offer. When people know more about the serious process control procedures enforced in the nuclear plant control room, they will appropriate more about the safety efforts imposed by the nuclear plant and become more comfortable about the nuclear plant. The virtual nuclear plant control room is built using a 3D game development tool called Unity3D. The 3D scene is connected to a nuclear plant simulation system through Windows API programs. To evaluate the usability of the virtual control room, an experiment will be conducted to see how much 'immersion' the users could feel when they played with the virtual control room. (author)

  6. Upgrading nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review the Cooperative US-Russia Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A), whose goal is to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of MPC and A; thereby the Program enhances US national security. Based on this goal, the technical objective is to enhance, through US technical cooperation, the effectiveness of MPC and A systems at Russian sites with weapons-usable nuclear material, i.e. plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Program exists because the extensive social, political and economic changes in Russia arising from the dissolution of the Soviet Union have increased the risk that these materials would be subject to theft or other misuse, with potentially grave consequences. On the US side, the MPC and A Program is administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration through the DOE national laboratories and other contractors. On the Russian side, the Program is administered by the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) through its nuclear sites, by the regulatory agency Gosatomnadzor, and by nuclear sites not under Minatom. To carry out the Program objective, the DOE national laboratories consummate contracts with the Russian sites to implement agreed MPC and A upgrades. Deciding on what upgrades to perform depends on a cooperative analysis of site characteristics, materials, and vulnerabilities by joint US and Russian teams. Once the upgrades are agreed, the DOE laboratories supply technical and financial support and equipment to the Russian sites. The staff of the Russian sites do the work, and the US team members monitor the work through some combination - according to contract - of direct observation and reports, photographs and videotape supplied by the staff of the Russian sites. MPC and A task areas include: information in this review covers a selection of topical areas, with a focus on implementation of the upgrades at the

  7. Tumefactive immunoglobulin G4-related disease involving the dura mater: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a well-known disorder characterized by an inflammatory reaction with an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with sclerosis. IgG4-related disease often affects the dura mater with a pattern of diffuse thickening when the central nervous system is involved. However, some nodular dural thickening requires discrimination from tumors because of obviously different treatment options. We report of a case of IgG4-related disease with tumefactive dural involvement

  8. Tumefactive immunoglobulin G4-related disease involving the dura mater: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Hoon; Ko, Yong; Paik, Seoung Sam; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a well-known disorder characterized by an inflammatory reaction with an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with sclerosis. IgG4-related disease often affects the dura mater with a pattern of diffuse thickening when the central nervous system is involved. However, some nodular dural thickening requires discrimination from tumors because of obviously different treatment options. We report of a case of IgG4-related disease with tumefactive dural involvement.

  9. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for the Detection of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism and the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material threaten the security of all States. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The possibility that nuclear and other radioactive material may be used for terrorist acts cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material, and to establish capabilities for detection and response to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. Through its nuclear security programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This approach recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material; national response plans; and contingency measures. Within its nuclear security programme, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking; and to detect and respond to nuclear security events. This is an Implementing Guide on nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The objective of the publication is to provide guidance to Member States for the

  10. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: D and C. Session D contains papers on magnetic confinement theory and modelling tokamaks, and session C the papers on non-tokamak confinement system. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains, in addition to the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture, the papers on tokamaks, and session E the papers on heating and current drive. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis

  14. Communications involving the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated communications within the operations component of a nuclear power plant, with a primary emphasis on control room communications. A structured interview technique was developed following preliminary interviews at the plant, and pretested at AECB headquarters. Patterns were identified from questions asked on communications links, work relationships, miscommunications, procedures, instrumentation and responses to problems. The study was an exploratory one, conducted under a limited budget, to provide background information and to identify areas for further investigation. The report offers recommendations about areas for further research

  15. Multivariable control systems design: a case study of robust control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer aided robust multivariable control system design procedure is given. The procedure allows the possibility of adding extra controllers which can be used to improve the robustness characteristics of the nominal system. New robustness results in output feedback control system designs are presented which lead to reduction of conservatism in robustness tests. A mathematical model of a real physical system, a nuclear power plant, is used to demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology for stability robustness analysis and robust multivariable control systems design. (author)

  16. Some basic criteria for using of accountancy common system and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic criteria used by the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, using in the Accountancy and Control Common System of Nuclear Materials (SCCC) are presented and the control elements are described. The SCCC is a safeguard system used for all nuclear materials present in all nuclear activities executed by Brazil and Argentina. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 1 tab

  17. German Democratic Republic State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with its legal bases and components is embedded in the overall State system of protection in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As the competent State authority, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the GDR is also responsible for meeting the GDR's national and international tasks in the control of nuclear material. At enterprise level, the observance of all safety regulations for nuclear material, including the regulations for the control, is within the responsibility of managers of establishments, which are in any way concerned with the handling of nuclear material. To support managers and to function as internal control authorities, nuclear material officers have been appointed in these establishments. Design information, operating data, physical inventory of nuclear material and the respective enterprise records and reports are subject to State control by the Nuclear Material Inspectorate of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board. This Inspectorate keeps the central records on nuclear material, forwards reports and information to, and maintains the necessary contacts with, the IAEA. For the nuclear material in the GDR four material balance areas have been established for control purposes. To rationalize central recording and reporting, electronic data processing is increasingly made use of. In a year-long national and international control of nuclear material, the State control system has stood the test and successfully co-operates with the IAEA. (author)

  18. Schedule control in Ling Ao nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LANP) is first one built up by self-reliance in China with power capacity 990x2 MWe. The results of quality control, schedule control and cost control are satisfactory. The commercial operation days of Unit 1 and Unit 2 were 28th May 2002 and 8th Jan. 2003 respectively, which were 48 days and 66 days in advance of the project schedule. This paper presents the practices of self-reliance schedule control system in LANP. The paper includes 10 sections: schedule control system; targets of schedule control; schedule control at early stage of project; construction schedule; scheduling practice; Point curves; schedule control of design and procurement; a good practice of construction schedule control on site; commissioning and startup schedule; schedule control culture. Three figures are attached. The main contents of the self-reliance schedule control system are as follows: to draw up reasonable schedules and targets; to setup management mechanism and procedures; to organize powerful project management team; to establish close monitoring system; to provide timely progress reports and statistics information. Five kinds of schedule control targets are introduced, i.e. bar-chart schedule; milesones; Point curves; interface management; hydraulic test schedule of auxiliary piping loops; EMR/EMC/EESR issuance schedules. Six levels of bar-chart schedules were adopted in LANP, but the bar-chart schedules were not satisfactory for complicated erection condition on site, even using six levels of schedules. So a kind of Point curves was developed and their advantages are explained. Scheduling method of three elements: activity, duration, logic, which was adopted in LANP, is introduced. The duration of each piping activities in LANP level 2 project schedule was calculated based on the relevant working Point quantities. The analysis and adjustment of Point curves are illustrated, i.e. balance of monthly quantities; possible production in the peakload

  19. Application of bilinear control technology in nuclear reactor power adjustment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilinear control technology of modern control theory is applied to nuclear reactor engineering. One group point reactor model is used as a bilinear model of nuclear fission. This bilinear system is assured of being globe stability with Lyapunov's stability theorem. And Riccati equation is adopted to realize the optimal control of the system. The simulation results show that a better control effect can be obtained when using the bilinear control of the nuclear reactor power adjustment system

  20. The formation of nuclear export control in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The controlling process of exporting and importing on Azerbaijan borders is being carried out by two state organizations. 1.Border Guard Department; 2.Azerbaijan State Customs Committee. The officers of these organizations have no enough necessary experience and knowledge dealing with the legal and illegal trafficking. There were not special educational institutions in order to train personals for both of these organizations made newly. So there's difference between the professions of the majority of the employees, that's why some of the employees follow the instructions linking to the normative documents while passing the border. When trafficking nuclear and dual-use items officially the controller and other employees should look through the list of all and know them how to behave and to make official, the characteristic parameters of the materials, and the instruction of monitoring. In order to realize all works pointed, the employees of Border Guard Department and Customs Control Check Points have to attend special courses. The employees of both organizations are frequently changed that's why studying courses are to be organized. The analysis of studying considered that will be realized shows mainly there may be two student groups. Mainly, the Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences) as the expert laboratory takes part in. On the borders of Azerbaijan Republic the dual-use items and equipment having the type of isotope sources being utilized in the technological process are mainly being transported. In the materials presented the results and the solution of the problems dealing with realizing the controlling expert system of nuclear materials in the existing control checkpoints due to the international standards have been given

  1. Safety and position control system for a nuclear reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This device comprises a vertically mobile tube, terminating at its bottom end with an electromagnet maintaining the control rod, and of which the upper end is maintained by a second electromagnet, so that when the current to the two electromagnets is cut simultaneously the tube drops under the effect of gravity, thereby helping with its weight to push the control rod into its sleeve, even if the latter has accidental distortions. Application is for nuclear reactors

  2. Nuclear safety enhancement by structural changes of the control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocanescu, M.; Preda, M.; Iorgulis, C.; Truta, C. (Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania))

    1999-12-15

    This paper presents the modification of structure of the control rods which are intended to be done in order to improve the nuclear safety of the TRIGA-SSR-14 MW Pitesti, Romania. In 1996 and 1997 a number of 2 control rod got inoperable due to high corrosion of the welds, water penetration into the absorbent followed by the swelling generated by internal pressure. Although the safe operation of the reactor is not yet affected, it was decided that a more reliable control rod has to be designed and manufactured. Basically, the new control rod will use, as the old ones, boron carbide as absorbent, but boron carbide will be assembled in a different way. There will be manufactured a set of 16 incoloy tubes for each control rod filled with boron carbide pellets and leak tight sealed. These tubes will be mounted in a square array, on the perimeter of the control rod, 5 tubes on each side of the square. The preliminary design on which neutronic analysis on this structure has been performed using specific computation codes. The result of this analyze shows that new control rod reactivity is slightly lower (with about 10%) compared to the older one, but assures a full compensation capacity. Helium release analysis done here reveals that the Helium pressure in the tube at estimated end-of -life would not exceed 57 atm. The advantages of this new concept: it is avoided the problem of helium or radiolysis gases generated into the control rod, and which causes, as we shown, control rod swelling. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear material control and accounting at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy Sciences of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The account and the control of fissionable nuclear materials provide the reliable and timely information about quantity and distribution of nuclear materials, timely detection of the losses, non-authorized use or theft of fissionable nuclear materials. The account and the control of nuclear materials at the reactor WWR-SM INP AS RU is conducted constantly from the moment of the first reception of nuclear fuel. The quarterly account and the control of nuclear materials till 1991 were spent by a technique of the Ministry of atomic engineering and the industry of the USSR. Since 1994 all documents containing the information under the account of nuclear materials, are passed in Agency 'ASIM' of Republic of Uzbekistan, further on official channels in IAEA. For optimization of the account and the control of nuclear materials in October, 2003 the Los Alamos National laboratory has given to INP AS RU system AIMAS (the Automated System of the Account and Formation of Reports on Inventory Quantity of the Material), developed by Argonne National laboratory under the order of Department of Energy of USA with a view of improvement of the account and the control of nuclear materials (actual quantity of a cash material, fixation of chronology of transfer of a material, preparation of reports, protection of the information and system administrative functions). The system has the evident interface and is simple in operation for the user - expert in the field of the account of nuclear materials. This system accustoms responsible persons under the account and the control of nuclear materials on the reactor of WWR-SM at INP AS RU and since 2005 all documents containing the information under the account of nuclear materials and passed in Agency 'ASIM' and IAEA will be made out on system AIMAS

  4. Digital computer control of a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the use of digital computers in energy producing systems has been limited to data acquisition functions. These computers have greatly reduced human involvement in the moment to moment decision process and the crisis decision process, thereby improving the safety of the dynamic energy producing systems. However, in addition to data acquisition, control of energy producing systems also includes data comparison, decision making, and control actions. The majority of the later functions are accomplished through the use of analog computers in a distributed configuration. The lack of cooperation and hence, inefficiency in distributed control, and the extent of human interaction in critical phases of control have provided the incentive to improve the later three functions of energy systems control. Properly applied, centralized control by digital computers can increase efficiency by making the system react as a single unit and by implementing efficient power changes to match demand. Additionally, safety will be improved by further limiting human involvement to action only in the case of a failure of the centralized control system. This paper presents a hardware and software design for the centralized control of a research nuclear reactor by a digital computer. Current nuclear reactor control philosophies which include redundancy, inherent safety in failure, and conservative yet operational scram initiation were used as the bases of the design. The control philosophies were applied to the power monitoring system, the fuel temperature monitoring system, the area radiation monitoring system, and the overall system interaction. Unlike the single function analog computers that are currently used to control research and commercial reactors, this system will be driven by a multifunction digital computer. Specifically, the system will perform control rod movements to conform with operator requests, automatically log the required physical parameters during reactor

  5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  6. Nuclear plants control: towards an more advanced automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor operation appears to have a lower automation level than other fields of production industry. Compiled data point out that human factors are implied in about 70 % of un acceptable errors happening in a nuclear plant. But no obvious conclusion can result from these data. Human factor are so numerous and unlike that no mathematical model can be achieved. For instance, instead of assuming a whole automated control, a computerized aided control system can lower human faults probability by lowering attention requirements and hence fatigue. Man-machine system engineering and interactive display devices appear to be the best tools to determine the optimal automation level for the highest safety level. CEA and EDF use them in their ''ESCRIME'' coordinated research program. (D.L.)

  7. Computerized reactor monitor and control for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a computerized process control system developed by Transelektro-KFKI-Videoton (Hangary) for a twenty-year-old research reactor in Budapest and or a new one in Tajura (Libya) is given. The paper describes the computer hardware (R-10) and the implemented software (PROCESS-24K) as well as their applications at nuclear reactors. The computer program provides for man-machine communication, data acquisition and processing, trend and alarm analysis, the control of the reactor power, reactor physical calculations and additional operational functions. The reliability and the possible further development of the computerized systems which are suitable for application at reactors of different design are also discussed. (Sz.J.)

  8. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, held in Washington D.C., 1-6 October 1990, and organized in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, was devoted to the exchange and dissemination of reports on the steady progress in the research on both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, aiming ultimately for the production of commercial energy from controlled thermonuclear reactors. More than two hundred technical papers presented work on tokamak experiments, inertial confinement, non-tokamak confinement systems, magnetic confinement theory and modelling, plasma heating and current drive, the ITER project, technology and reactor concepts, and the economic, safety and environmental aspects of thermonuclear fusion. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Direct digital control of furnaces irradiated in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental direct digital control system has been realised in the 'C.E.N.G.', in order to verify that a computer makes easier the control of the experiments done in the nuclear reactors and to solve the theoretical and technical difficulties. The regulation is applied to thermal processes. The sampled data systems theory permits to choose the type of an efficient and simple digital compensator, and to establish a diagram which gives the values of the correcting parameters (obtained by minimizing the difference between the output and the input when perturbations occur). The programme execute, in simultaneity, supervision and regulation. Complex possibilities of printing out measures and alarms existed. The computer works out an incremental correction which makes step motors to turn. These motors act on the heating organs. The theoretical values and answers have been confirmed. The accuracy was limited essentially by the input quantification (1/1000 th). The comfort of such a system has been noticeable. (author)

  10. Reliable, fault tolerant control systems for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two operational features of CANDU Nuclear Power Stations provide for high plant availability. First, the plant re-fuels on-line, thereby eliminating the need for periodic and lengthy refuelling 'outages'. Second, the all plants are controlled by real-time computer systems. Later plants are also protected using real-time computer systems. In the past twenty years, the control systems now operating in 21 plants have achieved an availability of 99.8%, making significant contributions to high CANDU plant capacity factors. This paper describes some of the features that ensure the high degree of system fault tolerance and hence high plant availability. The emphasis will be placed on the fault tolerant features of the computer systems included in the latest reactor design - the CANDU 3 (450MWe). (author)

  11. Suboptional control study of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts of modern control theory and, in particular, of optimal control have been used to develop a general and systematic method of regulator design starting from the non-linear mathematical model of the plant. This method was applied to the study of the control of a nuclear reactor plant of the SGHWR type (steam generating heavy water reactor), of 105 MW electric power, working at the Atomic Energy Authority Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset, England. The optimal linear regulator, computed for the free system, is incorporated into the system with saturation limits on its control inputs. This is one reason for suboptimality. Then only measurable state variables carrying large amounts of feedback control (compared with the rest of the variables) were used on the regulator, hence the second reason for suboptimality. In the course of this work a new method of optimal linear regulator design for external disturbances was applied. It is computationally very simple and also permits a simple calculation of transients by using the same eigenvector matrix regardless of the disturbance. 22 references. (U.S.)

  12. Method of controlling creep velocity for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear fuels containing UO2, the shape of fuel crystal particles is changed, to vary and control the creep behavior. That is, the creep evaluation diameter dc defined as dc = (1/n)2 D is applied as a crystal particle size to compensate the equation of the creeping velocity. In this case, D represents the diameter of an equivalent circle area of a crystal particles, d represents a diameter on the bases of a particle surface area or the diameter on the basis of a standard of peripheral length, and d = nD. In view of the above, the creeping velocity after the change of the particle size can accurately be forecast. Accordingly, the creeping velocity can be controlled not only by changing the particle size but also by changing the shape of the particle. The crystal tissues of nuclear fuels having a satisfactory FP (fission products) gas retainability and a satisfactory PCI (pellet-cladding interaction) characteristics can thus be defined. (I.N.)

  13. Control of information as an element of nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of information as an element of physical protection has a long history in the field of national security. The nuclear industry is familiar with the constraints on proprietary information; and, with an effective date of October 1, 1980 for Parts 25 and 95 in Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations, certain activities had to cope with rules for safeguarding of classified information. In applying the rules it is important to understand the differences between national security information and restricted data, and how guidance is promulgated both by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by the Department of Energy. More recently, with a fully effective date of January 20, 1982, the NRC published rules for the protection of unclassified safeguards information. The scope is much broader than for the classified information. For example, the rules are applicable to power reactors. In this paper the directives which provide the details for compliance with all these rules are identified, and their application is discussed. NRC inspectors will be checking for compliance with the rules. Once problems of compliance are resolved, the more difficult question of evaluating the impact of information control procedures on the effectiveness of a physical protection system can be addressed

  14. A Study on Improvement of Export Control law's understanding for nuclear control items' exporters in Rep. of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to export of UAE commercial reactor and JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) in 2009, Korea's international prestige has enhanced and it has been more important for researcher in charge of export control to understand and carry out duties on export control by obeying Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) Guidelines. Currently, the NSG tries to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons by harmonising export control systems of participating countries in relation to trade with nuclear commodities and nuclear-related dual-use materials, equipment, software and technology. In addition, through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, the NSG aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and that international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field is not hindered unjustly in the process. However, there is still not a little confusion of export businesses owing to lack of understanding of nuclear items in Korea. Therefore, by correctly understanding export control systems, permits and licenses, ITT and persistingly communicating with export businesses, Researchers in charge of export control are able to eliminate confusion of production businesses regarding export and establish a export control culture

  15. Mucopolysaccharidosis: thickening of dura mater at the craniocervical junction and other CT/MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial CT and/or MRI imaging of 8 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) was retrospectively evaluated. Two patients had MPS, IH, 1 had MPS IS, 1 had MPS IVA and 4 had MPS IV. CT and MRI showed thickening of dura mater at the cranio-cervical junction, causing narrowing of the subarachnoid space, in all the patients examined. Spinal cord compression was detected in 4 patients. Other findings were: White matter alterations, mild to severe hydrocephalus, skull dysplasia and odontoid dysplasia. White matter alterations were evident as large areas and as multiple dispersed spots of prolonged T1 and T2 value. Reduced gray/white matter contrast was demonstrated on T2-weighted MRI images. It is important to examine the cranio-cervical junction carefully for thickening of dura mater in all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis examined by CT or MRI, because of the generally progressive clinical course of MPS. In patients with symptomatic cord compression, surgical intervention should be considered. (orig.)

  16. Mucopolysaccharidosis: thickening of dura mater at the craniocervical junction and other CT/MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A. (Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Tortori Donati, P. (Section of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Marzoli, A. (Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Dell' Acqua, A. (Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Gatti, R. (3. Pediatric Dept., G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Leone, D. (Intensive Care Unit, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy))

    1993-09-01

    Cranial CT and/or MRI imaging of 8 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) was retrospectively evaluated. Two patients had MPS, IH, 1 had MPS IS, 1 had MPS IVA and 4 had MPS IV. CT and MRI showed thickening of dura mater at the cranio-cervical junction, causing narrowing of the subarachnoid space, in all the patients examined. Spinal cord compression was detected in 4 patients. Other findings were: White matter alterations, mild to severe hydrocephalus, skull dysplasia and odontoid dysplasia. White matter alterations were evident as large areas and as multiple dispersed spots of prolonged T1 and T2 value. Reduced gray/white matter contrast was demonstrated on T2-weighted MRI images. It is important to examine the cranio-cervical junction carefully for thickening of dura mater in all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis examined by CT or MRI, because of the generally progressive clinical course of MPS. In patients with symptomatic cord compression, surgical intervention should be considered. (orig.)

  17. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44 Section 50.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors....

  18. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  19. Upgrading nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I. Program goal and organization - In this paper we review the Cooperative US-Russia Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A), whose goal is to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of MPC and A; thereby the Program enhances US national security. Based on this goal, the technical objective is to enhance, through US technical cooperation, the effectiveness of MPC and A systems at Russian sites with weapons-usable nuclear material, i.e. plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Program exists because the extensive social, political and economic changes in Russia arising from the dissolution of the Soviet Union have increased the risk that these materials would be subject to theft or other misuse, with potentially grave consequences. On the US side, the MPC and A Program is administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration through the DOE national laboratories and other contractors. On the Russian side, the Program is administered by the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) through its nuclear sites, by the regulatory agency Gosatomnadzor, and by nuclear sites not under Minatom. To carry out the Program objective, the DOE national laboratories consummate contracts with the Russian sites to implement agreed MPC and A upgrades. Deciding on what upgrades to perform depends on a cooperative analysis of site characteristics, materials, and vulnerabilities by joint US and Russian teams. Once the upgrades are agreed, the DOE laboratories supply technical and financial support and equipment to the Russian sites. The staff of the Russian sites do the work, and the US team members monitor the work through some combination - according to contract - of direct observation and reports, photographs and videotape supplied by the staff of the Russian sites. II. MPC and A task areas - Information in this review covers a selection of topical areas, with a

  20. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  1. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are still many problems in the field of measurement and control of neutron flux. The present studies in connexion with high flux reactors contribute to the solution of these problems which concern specialists in reactor control. The present state of this investigation and the results of different studies carried out in France by the C A and the EDF are pointed out: A - In the nuclear instrumentation field, work is at present devoted to the technologies used to develop detectors and cables, which have to work at high temperature and in a high γ background; fast electronic techniques are applied to fission counters to measure low neutron fluxes in a high γ background (10 Rh). B - In the control and safety field, there is a real need for studies on the behaviour of reactors in the subcritical state. This increases the margin of security during restarts when poison effects must be overcome The perturbations due to control rod movements necessitate a new organisation of power level safety and control assemblies, in connexion with thermal or activation measurements. Two methods of fast start-up are described. They are related to the fission rate measurement as a function of time. This is done either continuously by a constant and high reactivity change, or step by step. The application of automatic techniques to detector motion seems to give the answer to control and safety in normal start-up. C - The scope of these studies covers the methods used for the control of E.D.F. 3, which are described. (authors)

  2. Risk Informed Approach for Nuclear Security Measures for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides guidance to States for developing a risk informed approach and for conducting threat and risk assessments as the basis for the design and implementation of sustainable nuclear security systems and measures for prevention of, detection of, and response to criminal and intentional unauthorised acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. It describes concepts and methodologies for a risk informed approach, including identification and assessment of threats, targets, and potential consequences; threat and risk assessment methodologies, and the use of risk informed approaches as the basis for informing the development and implementation of nuclear security systems and measures. The publication is an Implementing Guide within the IAEA Nuclear Security Series and is intended for use by national policy makers, law enforcement agencies and experts from competent authorities and other relevant organizations involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of nuclear security systems and measures related to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control

  3. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  4. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  5. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gil; Park, Gang Min; Lee, Myeong Kyun; Yoo, Kwan Woo; Yun, Dong Hwa [Research Institute, PONUTech, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus.

  6. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus

  7. Report on nuclear installations safety and security control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the parliamentary office for evaluation of scientific and technological choices bearing on the safety and security of nuclear installations is divided into 2 volumes bearing on: - Volume I: nuclear installations safety. - nuclear safety and international organizations. - works separation: Finland, Belgium and Federal Republic of Germany. - French organization. - Volume II: security and information. - French nuclear security. - Public information

  8. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  9. Virtual reality applied in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)

  10. Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent addition of imaging to the Nuclear Materials and Identification System (NMIS) using a small portable DT neutron generator with an embedded alpha detector to time and directionally tag neutrons from the DT reaction is discussed. The generator weighs ∼35 lbs including power supplies (5 x 107 n/sec) and operates on 50 watts power. Thus, the source can be easily moved to a variety of locations within an operational facility with minimum impact on operations or can be used at a fixed location for example to monitor receipts. Imaging NMIS (INMIS) not only characterizes the detailed shape of a containerized object by transmission tomography but determines the presence of fissile material by measuring the emitted radiation from induced fission. Previous work has shown that this type of imaging has a variety of applications other than nuclear material control and accountability (NMC and A). These include nonproliferation applications such as verification of configuration of nuclear weapons/components shipped or received, warhead authentication behind an information barrier, and traceability of weapons components both fissile and non fissile in dismantlement and counter terrorism. This paper concentrates on the use for NMC and A. Some of the NMC and A applications discussed are: verifying inventory and receipts, making more accurate holdup measurements especially where thicknesses of materials affect gamma ray spectrometry , determining the shape of unknown configurations of fissile materials where the material type may be known but not the form, determining the oxidation of fissile metal in storage cans, fingerprinting the content of storage containers going into a storage facility, and determining unknown configurations for criticality safety.

  11. Nuclear fuel pellet quality control using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong

    Inspection of nuclear fuel pellets is a complex and time-consuming process. At present, quality control in the fuel fabrication field mainly relies on human manual inspection, which is essentially a judgement call. Considering the high quality requirement of fuel pellets in the nuclear industry, pellet inspection systems must have a high accuracy rate in addition to a high inspection speed. Furthermore, any inspection process should have a low rejection rate of good pellets from the manufacturer point of view. It is very difficult to use traditional techniques, such as simple image comparison, to adequately perform the inspection process of the nuclear fuel pellet. Knowledge-based inspection and a defect-recognition algorithm, which maps the human inspection knowledge, is more robust and effective. A novel method is introduced here for pellet image processing. Three artificial intelligence techniques are studied and applied for fuel pellet inspection in this research. They are an artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, and the decision tree method. A dynamic reference model is located on each input fuel pellet image. Then, those pixels that belong to the abnormal defect are enhanced with high speed and high accuracy. Next, the content-based features for the defect are extracted from those abno1mal pixels and used in the inspection algorithm. Finally, an automated inspection prototype system---Visual Inspection Studio---which combines machine vision and these three AI techniques, is developed and tested. The experimental results indicate a very successful system with a high potential for on-line automatic inspection process.

  12. Development of Power Controller System based on Model Reference Adaptive Control for a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)-type TRIGA Mark II was installed in the year 1982. The Power Controller System (PCS) or Automated Power Controller System (APCS) is very important for reactor operation and safety reasons. It is a function of controlled reactivity and reactor power. The existing power controller system is under development and due to slow response, low accuracy and low stability on reactor power control affecting the reactor safety. The nuclear reactor is a nonlinear system in nature, and it is power increases continuously with time. The reactor parameters vary as a function of power, fuel burnup and control rod worth. The output power value given by the power control system is not exactly as real value of reactor power. Therefore, controller system design is very important, an adaptive controller seems to be inevitable. The method chooses is a linear controller by using feedback linearization, for example Model Reference Adaptive Control. The developed APCS for RTP will be design by using Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). The structured of RTP model to produce the dynamic behaviour of RTP on entire operating power range from 0 to 1MWatt. The dynamic behavior of RTP model is produced by coupling of neutronic and thermal-hydraulics. It will be developed by using software MATLAB/Simulink and hardware module card to handle analog input signal. A new algorithm for APCS is developed to control the movement of control rods with uniformity and orderly for RTP. Before APCS test to real plant, simulation results shall be obtained from RTP model on reactor power, reactivity, period, control rod positions, fuel and coolant temperatures. Those data are comparable with the real data for validation. After completing the RTP model, APCS will be tested to real plant on power control system performance by using real signal from RTP including fail-safe operation, system reliable, fast response, stability and accuracy. The new algorithm shall be a satisfied

  13. The evolution of legal approaches to controlling nuclear and radiological weapons and combating the threat of nuclear terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herbach

    2015-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of international law related to the weaponization of nuclear and other radioactive materials, focusing in particular on the law pertaining to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism. International efforts to control atomic energy have evolved substantially since the on

  14. Nuclear spectroscopic measurements for materials and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, it is intended to benefit from the potential uses of advanced nuclear spectroscopic measurements in both environmental control and non-destructive material testing . It is subdivided into three main chapters including, the introduction, the experimental and the results and related discussions.Chapter-1, the introduction includes in its first part, a number of definitions about toxicity hazards and related damaging effects to our environment, as well as those related to natural radioactivity in different environmental compartments and the different natural radioactive decay series. The second part of this chapter includes sufficient information about the effect of radiation exposure on human health, and the different exposure pathways of radioactive pollutants to man, through atmospheric dispersion, dispersion of radioactivity in liquid effluents, water resources and nutrition materials causing indirect exposure to man. This part also includes a preliminary approach of the major elements in different environmental surveillance programmes, assessment procedures and the different methods mostly used in monitoring radioactivity in food materials, and other environmental samples including water of various resources, different soil, analysis of milk as well as those used in emergency surveys which are mostly referred to when dealing with different types and levels of nuclear accidents

  15. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication on the inspection basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every plant productive of electric power requires the use of energetics for the transformation to electricity. In the nucleo electric plant the energetic is the uranium, in which it makes ensembles and is used as fuel in the reactor. To assure that the fuel ensembles fulfill the specifications and requirements of design stipulated in the nucleo electric plant is that under a quality control through inspections during the fabrication process. The purpose of this work is to study and verify that the lineaments of the standard 10 CFR 50 appendix B 'Quality assurement for nuclear plants' specially in the criteria 'Inspections' that is used to guarantee the quality of the ensembles. This standard is the one that rules every activity and operation inside the pilot plant and its established in the quality program in the production of nuclear fuel for the Laguna Verde plant. The quality of the assemble is verified through each one of the tests or inspections due to the importance of it in the fabrication of fuel. (Author)

  16. Neural networks for control of nuclear reactors systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new architecture of artificial neural networks was developed with the development of new control systems for nuclear facilities and robotics. The new concepts introduced with this architecture were based in the design of task dedicated networks, in the use of multiple synaptic contacts with new transfer functions, and in the use of synaptic plasticity processes similar to that of biological organisms. These concepts take advantage of the evolutionary aspects of biological systems in their architecture, signal transmission, and memory and learning processes, given rise to a generalization capacity not obtained with classical feed-forward (F-F) neural networks. The new concepts were applied to the control of a planar two-link robotic manipulator and to the control of a natural circulation water loop. Its efficiency and generalization capacity were compared with a classic neural network in F-F, trained with the back propagation algorithm. The excellent performance obtained, mainly in the manipulator's problem, that characterizes a system of dynamic more complex, demonstrated that the use of the new task specialized network, produces much better results than the results obtained with use of generic F-F networks. The training task in the new proposed neural network was 150 times faster than the F-F neural network training with back-propagation. The results showed that the positioning errors with the new model were up to 60 times smaller than the errors found with the F-F network. (author)

  17. Nuclear security projects related to border control in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the last two years, Lebanese customs have been under increasing national and international pressure to tighten control and security at its borders. In this context, attention was brought to the uncontrolled movement of radioactive material across the borders. In order to address this issue, and in close coordination with the Lebanese Customs, the Project Administration Office (PAO) at the Presidency of Council of Ministers initiated an EU-funded project entitled 'Strengthening National Infrastructure related to Lebanese Trade and Border Control'. This initiative led to the establishment of several other projects in 2008 between the Lebanese government and international and foreign organizations/agencies to address the related issue of control of radioactive material movement across the borders. These are more generally described as nuclear security projects that directly beneficiate Lebanese Customs and are listed as the following: the above listed EU-funded project, the IAEA-funded project for Masnaa border, the IAEA Coordinated Research Project and the US-DOE Megaport project. They are under current implementation and come as complementary to the Northern Border Pilot Project that promotes the integrated management of Lebanon's borders, led by Germany and with contributions by the EU Commission and various countries. This paper describes the various projects involved, their programmatic plans, and the coordination needed for reaching the common objectives. (author)

  18. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving a survey of the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants a description of I and C systems of the operating plants is presented together with a brief outlook for future developments to be implemented at plants which are under construction. Special attention is paid to the adopted techniques for power distribution investigation and control in the WWER 1000 reactor core in the case of load changes. Basic futures of the in-core measurement systems are outlined. Measures implemented in the I and C systems of the operating units to improve their performance are described. Information on the country's approach to NPP personnel training and training aids usage as well as information on development work in the area of surveillance and monitoring systems completes the paper. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  20. Reliability Analysis Multiple Redundancy Controller for Nuclear Safety Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Gwangseop; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Choulwoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This controller is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). The architecture of MRC is briefly described, and the Markov model is developed. Based on the model, the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) are analyzed. In this paper, the architecture of MRC for nuclear safety systems is described. The MRC is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). Markov models for MRC architecture was developed, and then the reliability was analyzed by using the model. From the reliability analyses for the MRC, it is obtained that the failure rate of each module in the MRC should be less than 2 Χ 10{sup -4}/hour and the MTTF average increase rate depending on FCF increment, i. e. ΔMTTF/ΔFCF, is 4 months/0.1.

  1. Device for positioning the control rods of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description is given of a device for detecting, without any mechanical contact, the position of a mobile component, particularly the control rod of a nuclear reactor, along a given path determined by means of an electromagnetic transducer comprising: (a) a primary winding fed by a current source or alternating voltage to generate an induction flow, (b) a secondary winding inductively connected to the primary winding and fitted with a number of secondary coils spaced out at regular intervals along the path and connected together two by two, the coils of each couple being in phase opposition to form an elemental differential detector, (c) a mobile rod comprising at least one magnetic part for modifying the inductive coupling between the primary and secondary windings when the rod is being moved and so generate a secondary output voltage representing the position of the rod

  2. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  3. Factors controlling hydrogen cracking during cladding of nuclear vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During cladding of low alloy steels in nuclear pressure vessels for corrosion resistance, a potential problem exists of underclad hydrogen cracking. Research was undertaken to gain a better insight into the factors controlling underclad hydrogen cracking during cladding A508 Cl 3 nuclear vessel steels and to ensure the continued development of safe welding procedures in this critical application. The project was divided into three experimental phases. Phase I studied the potential and deposit hydrogen levels in Type 309 austenitic stainless steel and Ni alloy consumables and weld metals. Phase II incorporated implant testing of the A508 Cl 3 base material. A large test panel was fabricated in Phase III to approach the conditions of restraint and heat sink that are present in the pressure vessel cladding operation, but not necessarily those of the most critical components, such as nozzles where the cylindrical geometry may increase the overall restraint. The A508 Cl 3 test material was electron beam welded into the center of the test block which was then submerged arc-strip clad using very severe welding conditions in an attempt to generate underclad hydrogen cracks. It was found that for the shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW) processes, deposit hydrogen levels were primarily controlled by flux moisture content. With single layer deposition, the implant test did not show evidence of the influence of segregation on cold cracking. All SMAW implant tests, without preheat and regardless of consumable, gave lower critical stress thresholds below about 51 ksi. A preheat of 150 deg.C increased this threshold to 80 ksi with Type 306 consumables. Even under welding conditions favorable for cracking, underclad hydrogen cracks could not be developed in a large-scale simulation of a cladding operation, indicating that very high total system restraint is needed to induce cracking

  4. A organizaçâo contabilística no sector conserveiro entre o final do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX: o caso Júdice Fialho = The accounting model in the Portuguese canned-fish industry between the end of the 19th century and the first...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Faria

    2011-12-01

    evolution of accounting practices in Portugal, namely studies based on the analysis of surviving business records of firms, justifies this study.The study concludes that, in the absence of a set of accounting principles and procedures available to all enterprises, the management of Júdice Fialho sought to adopt, from within the varied material available at the time, those accounting techniques which were most relevant to their business operations and actual needs at that time. During the period under examination, the company’s accounting records did not suffer significant changes. The formation as a partnership in 1938, four years after the death of its founder, could have acted has a stimulus for change, but that didn’t happen.Este estudo tem por objectivo analisar a organização contabilística de uma das maiores empresas da indústria de conservas de peixe portuguesa, a Júdice Fialho, entre o final do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX. Pretende ainda confrontar a organização contabilística existente na empresa com os modelos divulgados na literatura contabilística portuguesa publicada no mesmo período.A justificação para a sua realização residiu na escassez de estudos baseados na análise de registos contabilísticos originais e na disponibilidade, no Arquivo Histórico do Museu Municipal de Portimão (Algarve, de documentação contabilística relativa a esta grande empresa. O estudo conclui que, na ausência de um conjunto de regras e princípios de Contabilidade comuns as todas as empresas, a Júdice Fialho procurou adoptar, considerando a diversidade de soluções contabilísticas divulgadas na literatura da especialidade, a mais adequada às suas características e necessidades reais. A contabilidade da empresa está organizada para fornecer informação sobre os resultados particulares de cada segmento organizacional (fábrica, secção, oficina, depósito, … e não sobre os lucros ou prejuízos obtidos na venda dos diversos produtos

  5. Muusikapassioon mõttepeeglis. Täna kõlab "Stabat Mater" / Anne Peäske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peäske, Anne, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi "Passio" ettekandest 11.sept. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus. Elmo Lööve, Raivo Palmaru, Jaan Rääts, Toivo Tulev, Aarne Talvik, Ingmar Kurg, Olev Oja ja Eleonora Pärt Arvo Pärdi muusikast. A. Pärdi "Stabat Mater" ansambli Theatre of Voices esituses 14. sept. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus

  6. Investigation of control rod worth and nuclear end of life of BWR control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-15

    This work has investigated the Control Rod Worth (CRW) and Nuclear End of Life (NEOL) values for BWR control rods. A study of how different parameters affect NEOL was performed with the transport code PHOENIX4. It was found that NEOL, expressed in terms of {sup 10}B depletion, can be generalized beyond the conditions for which the rod is depleted, such as different power densities and void fractions, the corresponding variation in the NEOL will be about 0.2-0.4% {sup 10}B. It was also found that NEOL results for different fuel types and different fuel enrichments have a variation of about 2-3% in {sup 10}B depletion. A comparative study on NHOL and CRW was made between PHOENIX4 and the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP. It was found that there is a significant difference, both due to differences in the codes and to limitations in the geometrical modeling in PHOENIX4. Since MCNP is considered more physically correct, a methodology was developed to calculate the nuclear end of life of BWR control rods with MCNP. The advantages of the methodology are that it does not require other codes to perform the depletion of the absorber material, it can describe control rods of any design and it can deplete the control rod absorber material without burning the fuel. The disadvantage of the method is that is it time-consuming.

  7. Investigation of control rod worth and nuclear end of life of BWR control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has investigated the Control Rod Worth (CRW) and Nuclear End of Life (NEOL) values for BWR control rods. A study of how different parameters affect NEOL was performed with the transport code PHOENIX4. It was found that NEOL, expressed in terms of 10B depletion, can be generalized beyond the conditions for which the rod is depleted, such as different power densities and void fractions, the corresponding variation in the NEOL will be about 0.2-0.4% 10B. It was also found that NEOL results for different fuel types and different fuel enrichments have a variation of about 2-3% in 10B depletion. A comparative study on NHOL and CRW was made between PHOENIX4 and the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP. It was found that there is a significant difference, both due to differences in the codes and to limitations in the geometrical modeling in PHOENIX4. Since MCNP is considered more physically correct, a methodology was developed to calculate the nuclear end of life of BWR control rods with MCNP. The advantages of the methodology are that it does not require other codes to perform the depletion of the absorber material, it can describe control rods of any design and it can deplete the control rod absorber material without burning the fuel. The disadvantage of the method is that is it time-consuming

  8. Mechanical properties of freeze-dried and irradiated bone chips, fascia lata and dura mater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison strengths of freeze-dried and irradiated bone chips such as three-dimensional cortex (3DC) and two-cortico cancellous (2CC) are investigated. The results show that the (3DC) exhibits a higher compression strength (1.2kN cm-2 in deep frozen states. Rehydration of the freeze-dried bone chips after 15 min with normal saline solution restores the strength of materials by 30%. The tensile strengths of fascia lata and dura mater are also studied. A marked decrease of tensile strength is noted in the irradiated and freeze-dried samples, however, reconstitution with normal saline solution restores the tensile strength of the tissues to about 40-56%. (author). 8 refs., 6figs

  9. Mater Nostra: The Anti-blasphemy Message of the Feminist Punk-Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ivanovna Volkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I develop a blasphemy counter-discourse arguing that it was ecclesial and state authorities who committed blasphemies, which were condemned by Pussy Riot’s punk-prayer. Thus, the performance in this respect may be interpreted as an anti-blasphemy protest. The blasphemy list includes the collaboration of the church with the authoritarian state, known as heresy of Sergianism; Caesar and Temple idolatry, blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, Virgin Mary and Folly for Christ’s sake. The punk-prayer may be interpreted as a feminine version of the Lord’s Prayer – Mater Nostra. Several corporeal narratives in the background – women’s dress code and rape debates, Virgin Mary’s belt, and its alleged miraculous ability to help women to deliver a baby – may be seen as allegories of feminist vs. patriarchal opposition in Russian religious and political culture.

  10. H∞ Control Theory Applied to Xenon Control for Load-Following Operation of a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust controller is designed by applying the H∞ optimal control theory to the xenon control for the load-following operation of a nuclear reactor. The set of reactor model equations for controller design is a stiff system. This singularly perturbed system arises from the interaction of slow dynamics modes (iodine and xenon concentrations) and fast dynamics modes (neutron density, fuel and coolant temperatures). The singular perturbation technique is used to overcome this stiffness problem. The design specifications are incorporated by the frequency weights using the mixed-sensitivity problem approach. The robustness of H∞ control is demonstrated by comparing it with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control in the case of a measurement delay of the power measurement system.Since the gains and phase margins of H∞ control are larger than those of LQG control, the H∞ control is expected to provide excellent stability robustness and performance robustness against external disturbances and noises, model parameter variations, and modeling errors as well as hardware failures. It may also provide a practical design method because the design specifications can be easily implemented by the frequency weights

  11. Control of nuclear material specified equipment and specified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal and application field of NE 2.02 regulatory guide of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), are described. This regulatory guide is about nuclear material management, specified equipment and specified material. (E.G.)

  12. Quality control of Ling'ao nuclear power station civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the quality control model adopted during Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station construction, the author briefly introduces quality control process of some main civil construction activities (reinforced concrete, steel liner, steel works and prestressing force) of nuclear power station, and makes some descriptions on non-conformance control of civil works. These quality control processes described come from the concrete practice during civil construction of Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station, and are based on Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station construction experience

  13. Some problems of nuclear safety and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed safety regulations are inevitable for every nuclear plant. The size of the nuclear power plant and the possible consequences exclude full scale tests. Nuclear safety will always depend on sophisticated computational analyses, on experience extrapolation and on subjective judgements of experts. The future nuclear power plants will have to be safer but also competitive as regards the costs of their construction, operation and decommissioning. (M.D.)

  14. Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used

  15. Implementation of a quality control program in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectilinear scanners and dose calibrators were tested for a variety of operating conditions and performance.The tests for rectilinear scanners were based on image quality obtained with phantoms of the brain, liver and thyroid. The parameters investigated for rectilinear scanners included the direct control of the operator, such as the proper setting of the focal distance, the velocity, the photopeak calibration, contrast, correct collimator, line spacing and back ground count.The accuracy of dose calibrators was checked with sources of Cs-137, Co-57 and Co-60. The linearity of dose calibrators was checked with sources of technetium-99m and geometry was likewise checked with variable volumes of technetium-99m.The evaluation of the proper setting for rectilinear scanners was made by determining the number of hot and cold areas in the phantom before and after corrective adjustments of physical parameters.The results obtained on rectilinear scanners indicated efficiencies in the operating conditions. The results found on dose calibrators shown that geometry effect was minimal; the reproducibility and stability was satisfactory. However,more than a half(60%)of the dose calibrators tested for accuracy and linearity were performed without acceptable limits. We can conclude that is very useful and important the implementation of quality control programme to entire diagnostic process in nuclear medicine. (author)

  16. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  17. Sensor controlled robotic welding for nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the proposed research is to apply real time monitoring, artificial intelligence and on-line correction to dynamically control the depth of weld penetration and weld integrity during the welding process. Welding is a major technique used in the fabrication, construction and maintenance of power generating and energy conversion systems. In the welding process, fluctuations in process variables lead to weld defects such as lack of penetration, cracks, porosity and undesirable metallurgical structures. This research will apply advanced infrared sensing techniques which have been successfully used in seam tracking to the equally complex problem of weld defect and weld puddle penetration control. Thermal temperature distributions of plates being welded will be dynamically measured during welding using infrared techniques. These temperature distributions will be used to interpret changes in the size and shape of the molten metal pool and the presence of conditions that may lead to defects in the solidified weld. The ultimate result of this research will be the development of machines which are capable of sensing and altering process variables to eliminate defective welds and increase the productivity of the welding process. Successful completion of this proposed research will lead to potential major improvements in the fabrication, construction and maintenance of advanced nuclear reactors and promote increased safety and reliability while decreasing construction costs. 47 refs., 50 figs

  18. State system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials and Additional Protocol in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials under jurisdiction of the Slovak Republic are located in five nuclear facilities and in location outside facilities (LOFs) - nuclear materials for non-nuclear purposes. Nuclear Regulatory authority has been authorised to account for and control of nuclear materials. These activities are performed in accordance with legal regulations and international commitments of the Slovak Republic. (author)

  19. Pulsed estrogen therapy prevents post-OVX porcine dura mater microvascular network weakening via a PDGF-BB-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Glinskii

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, estrogen (E2 deficiencies are frequently associated with higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage, increased incidence of stroke, cerebral aneurysm, and decline in cognitive abilities. In younger postpartum women and those using oral contraceptives, perturbations in E2 are associated with higher risk of cerebral venous thrombosis. A number of serious intracranial pathologic conditions linked to E2 deficiencies, such as dural sinus thrombosis, dural fistulae, non-parenchymal intracranial hemorrhages, migraines, and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks, involve the vessels not of the brain itself, but of the outer fibrous membrane of the brain, the dura mater (DM. The pathogenesis of these disorders remains mysterious and how estrogen regulates structural and functional integrity of DM vasculature is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that post ovariectomy (OVX DM vascular remodeling is manifested by microvessel destabilization, capillary rarefaction, increased vascular permeability, and aberrant angio-architecture, and is the result of disrupted E2-regulated PDGF-BB signaling within dura microvasculature. These changes, associated with the reduction in systemic PDGF-BB levels, are not corrected by a flat-dose E2 hormone replacement therapy (HRT, but are largely prevented using HRT schedules mimicking physiological E2 fluctuations. We demonstrate that 1 E2 regulates PDGF-BB production by endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and 2 optimization of PDGF-BB levels and induction of robust PDGF-mediated endothelial cell-vascular pericyte interactions require high (estrous E2 concentrations. We conclude that high (estrous levels of E2 are important in controlling PDGF-mediated crosstalk between endothelial cells and pericytes, a fundamental mechanism governing microvessel stability and essential for preserving intracranial homeostasis.

  20. Complementarities between nuclear security, safeguards and national system of accounting for and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear security deals with prevention against theft and diversion of nuclear materials and sabotage against nuclear materials or installations. It is based on provisions of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities complemented by: Provisions for accounting for and control to prevent and, where appropriate, detect loss, theft or diversion of nuclear materials; The nuclear safety provisions to protect nuclear materials and facilities against sabotage. Safeguards are based on the statements and accounting controls in the facilities. The respective aim of EURATOM and IAEA controls is to verify afterwards the respect for the declared use of materials or political commitments undertaken by States under the nonproliferation purpose. However, EURATOM and IAEA controls are not exercised at all facilities (including those working for defence purposes) or in respect of all nuclear materials subject to the French national control. In addition, these international safeguards do not deal with physical protection of nuclear materials which is the sole responsibility of the State. The national control, implemented in France, is positioned upstream to the international controls. It aims to prevent, deter and detect the loss, theft or diversion of nuclear materials in installations or during transport. It places the responsibility of a possible diversion at the operator level. It is made of different components that complement each other and form a coherent whole. This includes: physical protection; accounting for and control; inspections. The physical protection system has to protect nuclear materials against a malicious act. Malicious act means a theft or diversion of nuclear material or an act of sabotage affecting nuclear materials or facilities which could lead to radiological releases into the environment. The accounting for and control system of nuclear materials has to allow the continuous and accurate knowledge of the quantity, quality and

  1. Nuclear proliferation: motivations, capabilities, and strategies for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two possible patterns of proliferation appear to involve the greatest risks for nuclear use or war. The first is proliferation to particular categories of states and the second dangerous possibility is proliferation at a rapid rate. But rapid proliferation could cause instabilities that might be too great for political systems and institutions to handle, making nuclear use of nuclear war more likely. Thus, any strategy for nonproliferation should especially attempt to prevent a rapid spread of nuclear weapons and to avert acquisition by states in the high-risk categories. Nuclear proliferation will also have important effects on world and regional stability for reasons not directly related to nuclear use. The mere possession of nuclear weapons by certain states could radically alter international perceptions and threaten global arrangements. The main concern in this discussion is to analyze the various incentives and disincentives--involving both security and political considerations--that will affect states' decisions about whether or not to acquire nuclear weapons. The discussion then turns to the means by which individual states and the international community can influence nuclear incentives and disincentives. The particularly important subject of the management of the international nuclear industry is addressed separately, followed by an analysis of nuclear acquisition, use, and threat by non-state entities. Finally, a general strategy for decreasing incentives and increasing disincentives is proposed and applied to four special categories of states

  2. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  3. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokov, N

    2003-07-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  4. Computer-based control of nuclear power information systems at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most highly industrialized countries of the world information plays major role in anti-nuclear campaign. Information and discussions on nuclear power need critical and objective analysis before the structured information presentation to the public to avoid bias anti-nuclear information on one side and neglect of great risk in nuclear power. This research is developing a computer-based information system for the control of nuclear power at international level. The system is to provide easy and fast information highways for the followings: (1) Low Regulatory dose and activity limit as level of high danger for individuals and public. (2) Provision of relevant technical or scientific education among the information carriers in the nuclear power countries. The research is on fact oriented investigation about radioactivity. It also deals with fact oriented education about nuclear accidents and safety. A standard procedure for dissemination of latest findings using technical and scientific experts in nuclear technology is developed. The information highway clearly analyzes the factual information about radiation risk and nuclear energy. Radiation cannot be removed from our environment. The necessity of radiation utilizations defines nuclear energy as two-edge sword. It is therefore, possible to use computer-based information system in projecting and dissemination of expert knowledge about nuclear technology positively and also to use it in directing the public on the safety and control of the nuclear energy. The computer-based information highway for nuclear energy technology is to assist in scientific research and technological development at international level. (author)

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland has achieved some remarkable achievements in nuclear power production. Existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Although public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and no decisions for new nuclear plants can be made before next elections in 1991, the nuclear option is still open. Utility companies are maintaining readiness to start new construction immediately after a positive political decision is made. One important component of the good operation history of the Finnish nuclear power plants is connected to the continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work, which is proceeding in Finland. In the following a short description is given on recent activities related to the I and C-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 2 tabs

  6. An underwater robot controls water tanks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enterprises Newton Research Labs and IHI Southwest Technologies have developed a robot equipped with sensors to inspect the inside walls (partially) and bottom of water tanks without being obliged to empty them. The robot called 'Inspector' is made up of 4 main components: a chassis with 4 independent steering wheels, a camera video system able to provide a 360 degree view, various non-destructive testing devices such as underwater laser scanners, automated ultra-sound or Foucault current probes and an operation system for both driving the robot and controlling the testing. The Inspector robot has been used to inspect the inside bottom of an operating condensate tank at the Palo Verde nuclear station. The robot was able to check all the welds joining the bottom plates and the welds between the walls and the bottom. The robot is also able to come back to the exact place where a defect was detected during a previous inspection. (A.C.)

  7. On-line chemistry control in EDF Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes Electricite De France (EDF) policy concerning chemistry control in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Due to the great importance of some parameters, and high risks of pollution of grab samples, the main parameters are continuously measured by reliable chemical on-line monitors. EDF has consequently developed a large program of tests to select the best instrument, in a specific facility installed in a NPP. In addition, a guideline document describes all the operations necessary for the correct use of all chemical monitors. Periodic evaluations are organized to ensure the good quality of in-plant measurements: they consist of a complete inspection of all the monitors implemented in the unit, and comparative measurements between the unit monitors and those of Groupe des Laboratories (GDL), the central laboratories of EDF. EDF is presently designing chemical expert systems, making it possible to improve reliability and to shorten response time for all operation phases. The main advantage expected is an improvement of chemistry quality in the plants, resulting from quicker operator reaction in case of abnormal situations

  8. Self-operation type power control device for nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1993-07-23

    The device of the present invention operates by sensing the temperature change of a reactor core in all of LMFBR type reactors irrespective of the scale of the reactor core power. That is, a region where liquid poison is filled is disposed at the upper portion and a region where sealed gases are filled is disposed at the lower portion of a pipe having both ends thereof being closed. When the pipe is inserted into the reactor core, the inner diameter of the pipe is determined smaller than a predetermined value so that the boundary between the liquid poison and the sealed gases in the pipe is maintained relative to an assumed maximum acceleration. The sealed gas region is disposed at the reactor core region. If the liquid poison is expanded by the elevation of the reactor core exit temperature, it is moved to the lower gas region, to control the reactor power. Since high reliability can be maintained over a long period of time by this method, it is suitable to FBR reactors disposed in such environments that maintenance can not easily be conducted, such as desserts, isolated islands and undeveloped countries. Further, it is also suitable to ultra small sized nuclear reactors disposed at environments that the direction and the magnitude of gravity are different from those on the ground. (I.S.).

  9. Quality control of techetium 99m radiopharmacentical in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel chromatography column scanning (GCS) is a new method for radiochemical quality control. GCS techniques for Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine have been developed for use in both research and routine clinical work. The dependence on several of the parameters of the GCS method have been investigated, e.g. type of gel, column dimensions, eluent, equilibration, elution volume, flow rate and resolution of the recording system (radiochromatographic scanner or scintillation camera). The GCS method has been compared with conventional gel filtration, thinlayer cromatography (TLC) and paper cromatography (PC). The GCS method is to be preferred due to few artifacts, much information, good reproducibility, rapidity, simplicity and the convenience of the test. The GCS method has been applied to the development of labelling techniques for the new radiopharmaceuticals Tc-99m plasmin and Tc-99m unithiol (2.3 dimercaptopropane sodiumsulphonate), use for investigating deep vein thrombosis and renal cortical morphology respectively. The GCS method has also been applied for studying some labelling parameters, the radiochemical purity and the labelling of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin, Tc-99m pyrophosphate, Tc-99m methylenedisphosphate, in addition to Tc-99m plasmin and Tc-99m unithiol. (Author)

  10. Intelligent control system for nuclear power plant mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to fully optimize the efficiency of the perception and navigation components available on a mobile robot, the upper level of a mobile robot control requires intelligence support to unload the work of the teleoperator. This knowledge-based system has to manage a priori data such as the map of the workspace, the mission, the characteristics of sensors and robot, but also, the current environment state and the running mission. It has to issue a plan to drive the sensors to focus on relevant objects or to scan the environment and to select the best algorithms depending on the current situation. The environment workspace is a nuclear power plant building. The teleoperated robot is a mobile wheeled or legged vehicle that moves inside the different floors of the building. There are three types of mission: radio-activity survey, inspection and intervention. To perform these goals the robot must avoid obstacles, pass through doors, possibly climb stairs and recognize valves and pipes. The perception control system has to provide the operator with a synthetic view of the surroundings. It manages background tasks such as obstacle detection and free space map building, and specific tasks such as beacon recognition for odometry relocalization and valve detection for maintenance. To do this, the system solves perception resources conflicts, taking into account the current states of the sensors and the current conditions such as lightness or darkness, cluttered scenes, sensor failure. A perception plan is issued from the mission goals, planned path, relocalization requirements and available perception resources. Basically, the knowledge-based system is implemented on a blackboard architecture which includes two parts: a top-down planning part and a bottom-up perception part. The results of the perception are continuously sent to the operator who can trigger new perception actions. (author)

  11. Report from the Netherlands [nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A view is given on status and developments of NPP instrumentation and control related subjects in The Netherlands. Induced by a first periodic safety review NPP Borssele finalised an extensive upgrading programme in summer 1997. An additional optimisation in smaller parts of the I and C was completed in the 1998 outage. A second periodic safety review of Borssele was finished in 2004, concluding the plant applies to the current rules and regulations and to the state of the art. Nevertheless an improvement plan describing technical design and operational modifications by which nuclear safety has almost been finished now. The job was done in the long outage of autumn 2006 in combination with a turbine and turbine control upgrade. The latter led to a nett electric power output increase of around 7%. Also the HFR research reactor in Petten was subjected to an extensive first periodic safety review, leading to a new license. A major part of the resulting modification plan has been implemented now. Realisation of some safety enhancements in Petten are not easy and remained longer than expected in a stage of innovation. The electricity market was subjected to a liberalisation process. Production and transmission of electric energy has been separated. Electricity is produced now in a rather free market and many power plants have been sold to foreign investors. Only the Borssele power plants remained self- reliant in a period with a threat of closing. NPP Dodewaard is in decommissioning since 1997. It has been partially dismantled and entered a preservation period of 40 years. The radioactive waste storage organisation COVRA is further expanded for low radiating waste and also for storage of rest products from the Urenco enrichment facilities. This article concludes with mentioning some topics for IAEA's attention. (author)

  12. ‘Una ventanita’: Vida cotidiana de las dueñas de casa y agencia de las máquinas tragamonedas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Olivos Ravé

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta dar respuesta de forma etnográfica a la pregunta de cuál es el sentido que ocupan las máquinas tragamonedas y la agencia que estas tienen sobre la vida cotidiana de las dueñas de casa de un barrio de clase media baja en la comuna de San Bernardo, Santiago. Se descubre que el juego en las máquinas tragamonedas no constituye un momento extraordinario, sino que es parte de la rutina, pero a la vez permite una ruptura de la simultaneidad del tiempo libre con el de las labores del hogar que caracteriza a otras actividades como ver televisión. Sin embargo, gracias al enfoque de la teoría del actor red es posible observar que la agencia de las máquinas tragamonedas canaliza el escape de lo que significa la casa, es decir, de las responsabilidades y de los problemas familiares. Se genera, por otra parte, un encuentro de las dueñas de casa con su self. Asimismo, la agencia de las máquinas tragamonedas desencadena controversias en la familia volviéndola parte de la red que se forma en torno el juego. Finalmente, se plantea que las decisiones que se tomen en torno a la legislación sobre el juego deben tener en cuenta una traducción que permita comprender la lógica del juego en la vida cotidiana de las dueñas de casa y de los jugadores en general.

  13. Startup control of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Astrin, Cal D.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution isunlimited. The Russian designed and manufactured TOPAZ-II Thermionic Nuclear Space Reactor has been supplied to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization for study as part of the TOPAZ International Program. A Preliminary Nuclear Safety Assessment investigated the readiness to use the TOPAZ-II in support of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Mission (NEPSTP). Among the anticipated system modifications required for launching the TOPAZ-II sy...

  14. Accounting, control and physical protection of nuclear material at the Chernobyl Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing assessments of nuclear material amounts present within the post-accident Chernobyl unit 4 are provided. The system for accounting for and control of Shelter nuclear material is considered. The common nature of the tasks for nuclear material accounting, control and physical protection is demonstrated. The configuration and characteristics of the Shelter physical protection system are described and factors that may adversely affect its effectiveness are identified

  15. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition of export

  16. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition

  17. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory control of nuclear materials (nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. In order to uphold the Finnish part of the international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation, mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), this regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). Nuclear safeguards are applied to all materials and activities that can lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or sensitive nuclear technology. These safeguards include nuclear materials accountancy, control, security and reporting of nuclear fuel cycle related activities. The main parties involved in a state nuclear safeguards system are the facilities that use nuclear materials, often referred to as license holders or operators, and the state authority. In the Finnish legislation all these stakeholders are dealt with as users of nuclear energy. STUK maintains a central nuclear materials accountancy system and verifies that nuclear activities in Finland are carried out according to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act and Decree, the European Union's (EU) legislation and international agreements. This task is carried out to guarantee that Finland can assure itself and the international community of the absence of undeclared nuclear activities and materials. In addition to this, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluates the success of the state safeguards system and the European Commission (EC) participates in safeguarding the materials under its jurisdiction

  18. UNIVERSITY TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: REFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE AGENCY THEORY EL PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE UNIVERSITARIO: REFLEXIONES A TRAVÉS DE LA TEORÍA DE AGENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Jacques Parraguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses some reasons that might explain the insufficient academic level which is perceived in universities of developing countries. The discussion element is the teacher-student relationship which is studied under the perspective of the agency theory. It is concluded that in absence of efficient monitoring mechanisms of the teacher and student’s behavior might proliferate gaps of due diligence which attempts against the quality of the teaching-learning process.En este trabajo se analizan algunas razones que pueden explicar el insuficiente nivel académico que se percibe en universidades de países en vías de desarrollo. El elemento de discusión es la relación profesor-alumno que es estudiada bajo el prisma de la teoría de agencia. Se concluye que en ausencia de eficientes mecanismos de control de la conducta tanto del profesor como del estudiante pueden proliferar vicios de responsabilidad que atentan contra la calidad del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje.

  19. State system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the operation of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC NM) in Poland. The structure of the system, legislation, inspection activities, data maintenance and computerized system of data processing and reporting to IAEA are presented in the paper. The nuclear materials control in the field by the NDA methods performed by state inspectors is also described

  20. An integrated approach to process information, nuclear materials control and accounting in BNFL's Thorp facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the integrated computer control system on British Nuclear Fuels' new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield. It explains the hierarchical structure and the role of the major components. The paper provides an outline description of the conventional Nuclear Materials Control and Accountancy and the on-line Near Real Time Materials Accountancy Systems

  1. Monitoring-control of the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short definition of the monitoring-control of the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe nuclear reactors, and a recall of requirements of nuclear energy, this paper presents the following points concerning the whole system of monitoring-control: the organization, the systems (instrumentation, automation), the technologies, the imperfections and the improvements brought to the system

  2. Fighting Obsolescence in the Nuclear Power Industry. Motor Control Centers-solutions and Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo, J.; Torralba Piqueras, A.

    2014-07-01

    Motor Control Centers (MCCs) are vital to the operation and control of nuclear power plants. A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of MCC components. Obsolescence of various components within the MCCs such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, transformers, etc., are impacting the reliability of MCCs to perform their intended safety function. (Author)

  3. Informatization of items quality control for NI in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design ideas, implementation methods and some key techniques for item quality control of NI in nuclear power plant are illustrated in this article according to item quality management mode. The item quality control method can improve the quality of NI, ensure the safety and lower the construction and operation cost of nuclear power plant. (authors)

  4. Quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and analytical laboratories in East and Central European countries need to prove the reliability and credibility of their economic, environmental, medical and legal decisions and their capacity of issuing reliable, verifiable reports. These demands imposed by the European Union aimed at avoiding a possible barrier to trade for the developing countries. In June 1999, in order to help Member States to develop according to EU objectives and the overall situation of the European market, IAEA launched a new co-operation programme designed to help the nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States by training in the use of some Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NAT) that include: alpha, beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The Regional IAEA Project, named 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control of Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (NAT) aims at implementing the QA principles via a system of defined consecutive steps leading to a level on which the QA system is self-sustainable for formal accreditation or certification and satisfies the EU technical performance criteria; the requirements are in accordance with the new ISO/IEC 17025 Standard/Dec.1999 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories' - First edition. The Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, IFIN-HH, was admitted for participation in the IAEA Project in June 1999 account taken of its experience in the QA and metrology fields and its performance in the fields of beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, and radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, employed in both basic research and applications for external clients. Two working groups of specialists with the QA and Standardization and Metrology Departments and six analytical groups with the departments of Nuclear Applied Physics, Life Physics and Ionising Radiation Metrology are

  5. The use of fuzzy logic control in solving problems related to the control of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the fuzzy logic controlling technique was used in nuclear engineering technology, especially application to control the nuclear research reactors. It also shows the main idea of fuzzy logic control techniques and uses one of them for the implementation of the first Egyptian research reactor reactor ETRR-1 as the case of research reactors to control not only the reactor power, but also upgrading its control function; such as automation of the power compensation via moving the manual control rods, and controlling the core water temperature limits taking into account the safety design rules to avoid rules to avoid shutdown or scram the reactor. Finally a package of software program was developed to simulate and implement the fuzzy logic controller technique for the following applications: 1- Reactor power control. 2- Automatic power compensation control. 3- The core water temperature control

  6. ¿Cómo darle visibilidad a la violencia contra las mujeres en Chile? Contribución de las Agencias de las Naciones Unidas

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui Mejía, María Luisa

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el trabajo que está siendo realizado por la Mesa Temática de Género, que es un grupo de Expertas en Género de cinco Agencias de las Naciones Unidas con sede en Chile, que trabajan de forma unida dando apoyo al Servicio Nacional de la Mujer en Chile (SERNAM), para encarar el tema de la violencia contra las mujeres en Chile. El trabajo se concentra prioritariamente en tres áreas: prevención de la violencia, tratamiento de las víctimas y denuncia de...

  7. Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación de la educación superior de España

    OpenAIRE

    Llavori, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    ANECA es el acrónimo de la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación de la Educación Superior de España. Es una organización independiente que desempeña un papel consultivo y técnico, tanto a solicitud de las instituciones de educación superior y administraciones regionales con competencias en la educación superior, como por el mandato legal del Ministerio de Educación español.

  8. El Marco Europeo de la integraci??n y la sociedad civil organizada: pr??cticas participativas, patrones de agencia y producci??n de saberes

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Este art??culo se centra en las pr??cticas participativas desarrolladas por la ???sociedad civil organizada??? en el ??mbito del emergente campo pol??tico comunitario de la integraci??n de inmigrantes. Mediante el an??lisis de tres dispositivos, detectar?? la existencia de ciertos patrones de agencia hegem??nicos, los cuales entienden la participaci??n como un proceso ???limitado???, ???encauzado??? y subordinado a exigencias de eficacia de las pol??ticas p??blicas. A su vez, las ant...

  9. Resolution 62/96 Regulation for the accounting and control of the nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Regulation is a complementary disposition of the ordinance number 208 of May 24 National System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and it has as objective to establish the relative norms to this System. As for the responsibilities it establish that the National Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) it is the responsible for the execution from the relative tasks to the National System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials. It establishes the regulations for the following aspects: licenses and authorizations for the transportation of the nuclear material and important components, Of the ceasing of the Accounting and Control, Of the Accounting and Control of the Nuclear Materials, Control of the Important Components, The Inspections, International Organism of the Atomic Energy Safeguards

  10. PWR control rod ejection analysis with the numerical nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursin, M.; Kochunas, B.; Downar, T. J. [Univ. of California at Berkeley, Berkeley (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    During the past several years, a comprehensive high fidelity reactor LWR core modeling capability has been developed and is referred to as the Numerical Nuclear Reactor (NNR). The NNR achieves high fidelity by integrating whole core neutron transport solution and ultra fine mesh computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer solution. The work described in this paper is a preliminary demonstration of the ability of NNR to provide a detailed intra pin power distribution during a control rod ejection accident. The motivation of the work is to quantify the impact on the fuel performance calculation of a more physically accurate representation of the power distribution within the fuel rod during the transient. The paper addresses first, the validation of the transient capability of the neutronic module of the NNR code system, DeCART. For this purpose, a 'mini core' problem consisting of a 3x3 array of typical PWR fuel assemblies is considered. The initial state of the 'mini core' is hot zero power with a control rod partially inserted into the central assembly which is fresh fuel and is adjacent to once and twice burned fuel representative of a realistic PWR arrangement. The thermal hydraulic feedbacks are provided by a simplified fluids and heat conduction solver consistent for both PARCS and DeCART. The control rod is ejected from the central assembly and the transient calculation is performed with DeCART and compared with the results of the U.S. NRC core simulation code PARCS. Because the pin power reconstruction in PARCS is based on steady state intra assembly pin power distributions which do not account for thermal feedback during the transient and which do not take into account neutron leakage from neighboring assemblies during the transient, there are some small differences in the PARCS and DeCART pin power prediction. Intra pin power density information obtained with DeCART represents new information not available with previous generation of

  11. PWR control rod ejection analysis with the numerical nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past several years, a comprehensive high fidelity reactor LWR core modeling capability has been developed and is referred to as the Numerical Nuclear Reactor (NNR). The NNR achieves high fidelity by integrating whole core neutron transport solution and ultra fine mesh computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer solution. The work described in this paper is a preliminary demonstration of the ability of NNR to provide a detailed intra pin power distribution during a control rod ejection accident. The motivation of the work is to quantify the impact on the fuel performance calculation of a more physically accurate representation of the power distribution within the fuel rod during the transient. The paper addresses first, the validation of the transient capability of the neutronic module of the NNR code system, DeCART. For this purpose, a 'mini core' problem consisting of a 3x3 array of typical PWR fuel assemblies is considered. The initial state of the 'mini core' is hot zero power with a control rod partially inserted into the central assembly which is fresh fuel and is adjacent to once and twice burned fuel representative of a realistic PWR arrangement. The thermal hydraulic feedbacks are provided by a simplified fluids and heat conduction solver consistent for both PARCS and DeCART. The control rod is ejected from the central assembly and the transient calculation is performed with DeCART and compared with the results of the U.S. NRC core simulation code PARCS. Because the pin power reconstruction in PARCS is based on steady state intra assembly pin power distributions which do not account for thermal feedback during the transient and which do not take into account neutron leakage from neighboring assemblies during the transient, there are some small differences in the PARCS and DeCART pin power prediction. Intra pin power density information obtained with DeCART represents new information not available with previous generation of methods. The paper then

  12. Study on Seal Technology for Nuclear Material Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seals have important application in nuclear safeguards, and are designed to record unauthorizedaccess or entry to inspected material and equipment. They can provide assurance for the continuity andintegrity of nuclear material accountancy. It is very useful to improve the inspection efficiency by means

  13. The National Implementation of Nuclear Export Controls: Developing a Best Practices Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear renaissance promises significant benefits to the international community, but also raises security challenges, particularly relating to the trade of nuclear materials and equipment. The objective of this paper is to examine how supply-side non-proliferation efforts can be strengthened by developing a best practices model for national nuclear export control implementation. In order to achieve this goal, nuclear export control measures identified by the 1540 Committee will be used as a framework from which a best practices model can be formed. Such a model concentrates specifically on national legislation and enforcement measures delineated by the Committee in order to bring countries in accordance with international law. Developing a best practices model seeks to deliver an ideal process for national export control law actualization in order to encourage the peaceful development of nuclear energy and develop the infrastructure and framework for precluding nuclear proliferation.

  14. Poderes y Agencia: el resto es literatura / Proxy and Agency: the Rest is Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheen McNerney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: De entre la gran multitud de emigrantes catalano-parlantes que llegó a la Cuba colonial, un cierto número de mujeres llegó a La Habana en busca de sus esposos, aquellos con los que se habían casado “por poderes” (poders justo antes de realizar el largo viaje. La obra de Carmen Riera Cap al cel obert narra la historia de las hermanas Fortesa, enviadas desde Mallorca. A Isabel la eligió su padre para casarla con un primo rico y se envió a María para acompañarla. Solamente María sobrevive el terrible viaje, que tiene lugar durante la última fase del control español sobre Cuba. Una vez en Cuba y recuperada de los avatares del viaje, María considera la vida monástica, pero en vez de ello, en su primera decisión real, acepta la oferta de matrimonio de Josep Fortalesa.El sistema de poderes continuó aun tras la independencia de Cuba del control de España en 1898 y esta forma de matrimonio conforma el tema de L’herència de Cuba de Margarida Aritzeta, en cuya portada se describe como “absolutament verídica”. Eugènia se casa con Basilio, un vecino de su pequeño pueblo aragonés cuando él, por medio de una carta y billete a la isla, manda que la traigan una vez instalado él allí después del viaje de 1925. Las dos novelas forman, de manera conjunta y a grandes rasgos, unos cien años de historia cubana, desde finales del siglo diecinueve hasta finales del siglo veinte, poniendo de relieve la lucha de mujeres que a menudo parecen arrastradas como hojas secas en un huracán, como diría Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda.

  15. Nonlinear Fuzzy Model Predictive Control for a PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable power and temperature control in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant is necessary to guarantee high efficiency and plant safety. Since the nuclear plants are quite nonlinear, the paper presents nonlinear fuzzy model predictive control (MPC, by incorporating the realistic constraints, to realize the plant optimization. T-S fuzzy modeling on nuclear power plant is utilized to approximate the nonlinear plant, based on which the nonlinear MPC controller is devised via parallel distributed compensation (PDC scheme in order to solve the nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Improved performance compared to the traditional PID controller for a TMI-type PWR is obtained in the simulation.

  16. Safety review and assessment on nuclear fuel cycle installations and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA conducted regulation on the manufacture line of fuel element for NPP at the Yibin Nuclear Fuel Plant, (YNFP) and the storage pool for spent fuel at the Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex (LNFC), and accepted the construction application of Pilot Plant of Spent Fuel Reprocessing at LNFC and started the review and assessment. Besides, the surveillance and inspection were conducted also for units that had licenses for nuclear materials

  17. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to measure

  18. Methodology for the control of equipment ageing in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, F. [Hydro-Quebec, Gentilly-2 Nuclear Generating Station, Gentilly, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: Trudel.Francis@hydro.qc.ca; Abdul-Nour, G. [Univ. du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada); Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Gentilly-2 Nuclear Generating Station, Gentilly, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the control of equipment ageing as it applies to CANDU 600 nuclear power plants. The methodology that has been developed is based mainly on the approach proposed in Nuclear Plant Ageing Research (NPAR), a program implemented by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It includes twelve steps covering the selection of the equipment, the understanding and the management of ageing. The methodology complies with the new Canadian nuclear regulations as well as recommendations made by world wide nuclear industry. It has been validated through application to three types of mechanical equipment, with results that are deemed significant. (author)

  19. Modelo para la promoción de la salud en comunidades rurales a través del desarrollo de agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Pick; Georgina García Rodríguez; Iwin Leenen

    2011-01-01

    Con el propósito de modificar conductas alimentarias y sanitarias en los habitantes de comunidades marginadas, a través del desarrollo de conocimientos y habilidades psicosociales encaminadas a promover agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco, se desarrolló e instrumentó en México un modelo piloto basado en el programa Yo quiero, yo puedo... mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos . La evaluación de dicho programa mostró un efecto sobre conocimientos, comunicación asertiva, agencia pers...

  20. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council. The primary aim of this Council, which had its first meeting in conjunction with the Madison Conference, is to promote international co-operation in controlled nuclear fusion